OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Aaeaea ?aaai ?aaiiae/

OAeE 621.318.3 : 621.316.53

OAeINEIIAEAI? AEAEO?IIAAI?OE NENOAI AACIAEE AOIIIEO AEAEO?E*IEO NOAIOe?E

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.09.01 — Aeaeo?e/i? iaoeie ? aia?aoe

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao?, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eeeiaiei Ai?en Aieiaeeie?iae/

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aeaeo?e/ieo aia?ao?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nineia Aiaoie?e Aai?a?eiae/,

Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y

i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i. Oa?e?a,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeaeo?ioaoi?ee;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aaiiiaiei Aaiaae?e Ieeieaeiae/,

AO «Aeaeo?e/i? iecueeiaieueoi? aia?aoe oa

nenoaie» , i. Oa?e?a, aieiaa i?aae?iiy.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoeiai aeine?aeiee oa i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeee
?inoeooo aaaeeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAe? «Aeaeo?iaaaeiao» I?i?noa?noaa
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «18» eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 64.050.08 o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
ca aae?anith:

310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 8 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aietho A.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. C?inoaiiy i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? iia?
oaoiieia?? aeiaaathoue ona a?eueo cia/ieo aia?aiaeo?ao. O oeueiio
ca’yceo i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy a?aenioea
aeaeo?iaia?a??, ae?iaeaii? aoiiieie aeaeo?e/ieie noaioe?yie (AAN), ui ia
nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie aeaea?aeaie aeaeo?e/ii?
aia?a??, aoaeo/e i?e oeueiio iioaioe?eiei aeaea?aeii i?aeaeuaii?
iaaaciaee. Oaeei /eiii, ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue ieoaiiy,
ca’ycai? c aaciaeith aenieoaoaoe?? AAN, ui iieyaathoue o eiiieaen? i??,
ni?yiiaaieo ia oaeineiiaethaaiiy nenoai ea?oaaiiy c iaoith caiia?aaiiy
aaa??eieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe.

Iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith a?eueoino? no/anieo nenoai oi?aae?iiy (o oiio
/ene? e AAN), ca’ycaieo ?c iioieaie ??aeeie aai aaco, ? aeaeo?iiaai?oi?
i?eaiaee eeaiai?a aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo a?ae?io?oaii?iaiae?a aenieiai
oeneo.

O iiaeai?e ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy oaeineiiaeaiiy
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a nenoai aaciaee aoiiieo aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e,
cie?aia aeaeo?iiaai?oieo a?aen?/ieo eeaiai?a (AIAE). ?icaeyioo?
aeaeo?iiaai?oe ? oi?niaaieie aeaeo?iiaai?oaie iino?eiiai no?oio
niaoe?aeueii? eiino?oeoe?? ? i?aaenoaaeythoue eean i?eno?i?a, ui
a?aeiinyoueny aei aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a ?c aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie.

sse iieaco? aeina?ae aenieoaoaoe??, aeei?enoiaoaai? a aeaiee /an o
nenoaiao aaciaee aeaeo?iiaai?oi? i?eaiaee aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo
a?ae?io?oaii?iaiae?a aenieiai oeneo ia iiaiith i??ith a?aeiia?aeathoue
aeiiaai, yeei iio??ai? a?aeiia?aeaoe i?eno?i? oaeiai eeano ?
i?ecia/aiiy. I?iaeaia iieyaa? a oiio, ui aei aeaieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo
eeaiai?a i?aae’yaeythoue aeineoue aei?noe? aeiiae ii ia?aaeuaiith
oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy iaiioie o o?eaaeiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe a ca’yceo c
oei, ui oaiia?aoo?a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a cii? aenieoaoaoe??
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a iiaea aeinyaaoe cia/aiue 150iN. Oae?
oaiia?aoo?e iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ?acii ?c oaieii, ui aeae?ey?oueny
a iaiioeao i?e i?io?eaii? ?iai/iai no?oio aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a,
aeeeeeathoue cia/iee iaa??a, ui ?acii ?c oaeoi?ii ?aae?aoe?eiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ye?noue ?cieyoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ?,
ye aeieeaa? c ?aeeaiaoe?e, aeeeeea? ia?aae/aniee aeo?ae aeaeo?iiaai?oieo
iaoai?ci?a c eaaeo. Oae oa?i?i neoaeae aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a, ui
aeioneathoueny a ?in??, ca aeaieie aenieoaoaoe?eieo i?aai?caoe?e, o 10 —
15 ?ac?a iaioa iaiao?aeiiai ca oaoi?/ieie oiiaaie.

Ia Oa?e?anueeiio i?aei?e?inoa? NIEOAA IAI «Aeaeo?iaia?ao» i?iaiaeeeeny
?iaioe c ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie, a naia, ciaioaiith ia?aaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy iaiioie aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?eaiaeo a o?eaaeiio
?aaeei? ?iaioe, ia iia??ooth/e ?io? ia?aiao?e (oyaia? aeaeo?iiaai?oi?
neee, aeeiai?eo i?eno?ith, aaaa?eoi? ?ici??e), oeyoii ci?ie
iaiiooaaeueieo aeaieo ioneiai? ? oo?eioth/i? iaiioie ? oi?ie iii?ieo
iiaa?oiiue ?iai/iai caci?o. Iaeiae, aeine?aeaeai? aa??aioe eiino?oeoe??
ia i?eaaee aei ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaiioie. Oaeei /eiii,
aeey ?ica’ycaiiy aeacaii? i?iaeaie iio??aii i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeno
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei?iaoaaiue o ca’yceo c
?? neeaaei?noth.

Iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeoo?oueny
aeooaeuei?noth i?iaeaie aacia/ii? ?iaioe aoiiieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e ye aeey
aoiiii? aia?aaoeee, oae ? aeey an??? Oe?a?ie.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy, io?eiai? a
i?aaenoaaeai?e ?iaio?, aeicaieythoue ?noioii i?aeaeueoe iaae?ei?noue
?ic?iaethaaieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy
ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy iaiioie, iie?ioeoe
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieacieee (ca?eueoaiiy oyaiai? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? neee
a ioneiaiio ? oo?eioth/iio ?aaeeiao ?iaioe, ciaioeoe /an
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy i?e ciaioaii? ia’?io aeoeaieo iaiiooaaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a), caa??aath/e aaaa?eoi? ?ici??e i?eno?i?a.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iiaeaia ia
?icaeyae ?iaioa aoea aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii c ainiaeiaiai?ii i?ae OAeIO ?
NIEOAA IAI «Aeaeo?iaia?ao» ca iiia?ii 33528 «?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aei
i?iaeooaaiiy ?iioeuenieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo eeaiai?a AAN» a?ae 01.02.1997
?, ca’ycaiei c aaeocaaeie ieaiaie aeaiiai i?aei?e?inoaa.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe, iiaeaii? a aeena?oaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia
oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a, ui i?aoeththoue
o aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo a?ae?io?oaii?iaiaeao AAN, cie?aia, aeaeo?iiaai?oa
a?aen?/iiai eeaiaia, yeee ?ic?iaethaaany a NIEOAA IAI «Aeaeo?iaia?ao» ?
ca’ycai? c iniiaieie iai?yieaie iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e aeaeo?e/ieo
aia?ao?a.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii i?aeaeuaiith iaae?eiino? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a,
ui i?aoeththoue o aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo o?oaii?iaiaeao AAN, cie?aia
aeaeo?iiaai?o?a a?aen?/iuo eeaiai?a (AIAE), oeyoii cieaeaiiy ia?aaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy a o?eaaeiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe i?e ia iia??oaii?
oyaiaeo (noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo) oa?aeoa?enoee, /ano ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy ?
caa??aaii? aaaa?eoieo ?ici???a i?eno?i?a.

sse aeieeaa? c caaaeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeey aeaeo?iiaai?o?a
iino?eiiai no?oio, ciaioeoe iiooaei?noue, ui aeae?ey?oueny, a, ioaea, ?
oaiia?aoo?o iaa??aaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio i?e caaeai?e iai?oc?
ia?aae? iiaeia ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co iaiiooaaeueiiai
i?iaiaeo, aai ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy na?aaeiuei? aeiaaeeie aeoea, aai ca
?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /enea aeoe?a. Iaeiae, ciaioaiiy iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co
iaiiooaaeueiiai i?iaiaeo i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy iaai?oi?oo?eii? neee
(I?N) eioooee ?, ye iane?aeie, aei ciaioaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oii? neee.
Ca?eueoaiiy na?aaeiuei? aeiaaeeie aeoea i?eaiaeeoue oaeiae aei ciaioaiiy
I?N eioooee, ca?eueoaiith aaaa?eoieo ?ici???a ? iia??oaiith oiia
ioieiaeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oa. Ca?eueoaiiy /enea aeoe?a i?eaiaeeoue aei
i?aeaeuaii? aeo?aoe iaiiooaaeueiiai i?iaiaeo, ca?eueoaiith aaaa?eoieo
?ici???a i?eno?ith ? cieaeaiith oaeaeeiae??. Ioaea, aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe iiaeeeai o?eueee ia i?aenoaa? anaa?/iiai eiiieaeniiai
aiae?co i?ioean?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?iaioo aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai
iaoai?cio.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue o iinoaiiaoe? ? ae??oaii? ianooiieo caaea/:

aiae?c iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e ? i?iaaaeaiiy iaeyaeo ?nioth/eo
iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo noaoe/ieo, oaieiaeo ? aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
oi?niaaieo aeaeo?iiaai?o?a iino?eiiai no?oio;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoi?a ? i?ia?ai, a oaeiae i?iaaaeaiiy
?ic?aooie?a ii aecia/aiith noaoe/ieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?eaiaeo c aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a, oi?ie ?iai/iai iia?o?yiiai caci?o, aaee/eie I?N ?
oiaeo yei?y;

??oaiiy caaea/? ?ic?aooieo iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?
iaiioie aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio a o?eaaeiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe ?
aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii-i?eionoeieo aiia?aeoe?a ? cia/aiue
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo nee iaoai?cio a ioneiaiio ? oo?eioth/iio ?aaeeiao
?iaioe a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a, /enea aeoe?a ?
ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoi?a, i?ia?ai ? i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a
aeeiai?/ieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a c
aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie oa o?aooaaiiyi aeanieo ?iaeoeoeaiinoae
?icn?thaaiiy ioneiai? ? oo?eioth/i? iaiioie;

aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? ?ic?iaea e?eoa??th ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
cai?iiiiiaaieo aa??aio?a eiino?oeoe?? noiniaii aei ?icaeyiooiai eeano
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a ? aea?? ??oaiue, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
iinoaaeai?e iao?;

cae?eniaiiy i?aeoe/ii? ia?aa??ee ?acoeueoao?a ? ?aae?caoe?y io?eiaieo
iiaeo oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iia’ycaia c oei, ui:

cai?iiiiiaaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ? aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a ?c aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie ia i?aenoaa?
?ic?aooieo ?icaaeoaeaiiai iae?i?eiiai aaaaoieiioo?iiai iaai?oiiai eiea;

cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaeeea e aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?eaiaeo c aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie oa o?aooaaiiyi
aeanieo ?iaeoeoeaiinoae ?icn?thaaiiy eioooie;

noi?ioeueiaaii e?eoa??e ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aeey
?icaeyiooiai eeano aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a o i?eoyaiooiio iieiaeaii?
yei?y, ui aeicaiey? ni?anoaaeyoe ??ci? aa??aioe eiino?oeoe?? ? aeae?aoe
iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a o?i, ui:

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ?aae?ciaai? o aeaeyae? eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai
?ic?aooieo noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, oaieiaiai ?ic?aooieo
oi?niaaieo aeaeo?iiaai?o?a iino?eiiai no?oio c aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie;

?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ci?i? eiino?oeoe?? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai
iaoai?cio, ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe a?aeiia?aeii aei
ia?a?aoiaaieo caaea/.

?acoeueoaoe ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, io?eiai? a i?aaenoaaeai?e ?iaio?, aoee
a?aoiaai? ? i?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaai? a NIEOAA IAI «Aeaeo?iaia?ao», i.
Oa?e?a. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?iaioe aoee aeaioiaeai? aeine?aei? c?acee
aeaeo?iiaai?oa a?aen?/iiai eeaiaia c o?aooaaiiyi io?eiaieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. Aei?iaoaaiiy aeaioiaeaiiai aeine?aeiiai c?acea aeaee
iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ?aaeueiei o?ce/iei yaeuai ?, ioaea, aeinoia??iino?
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, a oaeiae ai?iaaaeeoe o
ae?iaieoeoai oaeineiiaeaiee aeaeo?iiaai?oiee iaoai?ci, ui a?aeiia?aea?
iaiao?aeiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai. Oaeineiiaeai? aeaeo?iiaai?oe a?aen?/iiai
eeaiaiia aoaeooue anoaiiaethaaoeny a nenoai? aaciaee Caii??cueei?
aoiiii? aeaeo?e/ii? noaioe?? ? noaioe?yo aiaeia?/iiai eeano. O
ia?niaeoea? iai?/a?oueny iinoa/aiiy cacia/aii? i?iaeoeoe?? a e?a?ie
aeeaeiueiai ca?oa?aeaey ia aiaeia?/i? noaioe??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, i?eaaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, iioae?eiaai? a ni?aaaoi?noa?. Iniaenoee aianie
aaoi?a i?noeoueny a ?ic?iaoe? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?ioean?a a
aeaeo?iiaai?oao c aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie, ?ic?iaoe? aeai?eoi?a ?
eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai, i?iaaaeaii? ?ic?aooie?a ii ?ic?iaeaieo i?ia?aiao,
oi?ioethaaii? e?eoa??th ioe?iee ii??aiyeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio a i?eoyaiooiio iieiaeaii? yei?y, o/anoue o
?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii oaeineiiaeaiith eiino?oeoe?? aeaeo?iiaai?oa
a?aen?/iiai eeaiaia. O [1 — 6] aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoie ?
eiii’thoa?i? i?ia?aie c ?ic?aooieo iaai?oieo, oaieiaeo ? aeeiai?/ieo
i?ioean?a a aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ciao c aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie,
noi?ioeueiaaii e?eoa??e ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ? io?eiai
?yae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe??. Oae o noaoo? [1],
aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ?ic?aooieo iae?i?eiiai
?icaaeoaeaiiai iaai?oiiai eaioethaa aeaeo?iiaai?oa c aeaiia aioo??oi?ie
eii??oeyie. O ?iaio? [2] ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oa aeaia
ioe?iea aieeao ?iaeoeoeaiino? ?icn?thaaiiy ia aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio. A i?aoeyo [3,6] aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue
oaieiaeo ?ic?aooie?a aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio oa cai?iiiiiaaii
oaieiao noaio cai?uaiiy ?ic?aooieo aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio ia
i?aenoaa? ii?aeiaiiy aiae?oe/iiai iaoiaeo ? iaoiaeo oaieiaiai iii?o. O
[4] aaoi?ia? iaeaaeaoue ?ic?aooiee oa oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iiaeeeaeo
oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue ii oaeineiiaeaiith aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a nenoai
aaciaee aoiiieo aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e. O [5] aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii
e?eoa??e ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?eaiaeo
eeaiai?a aenieiai oeneo oa i?iaaaeai ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c cai?iiiiiaaieo
eiino?oeoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? a oiae?
aeeiiaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe, iaaiai?thaaeeny ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
MicroCAD-98, «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey,
ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea» (Oa?e?a, Oe?a?ia — I?oeieueoe, Oai?ueia —
Iaaaeaao?a, I?ia//eia), ui a?aeaoeany a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, i. Oa?e?a, 1998 ?., a oaeiae ia ??cieo
iaoeiai — oaoi?/ieo can?aeaiiyo, ui i?iaiaeeeeny ye ia eaoaae??
aeaeo?e/ieo aia?ao?a Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, oae ? ia i?aei?e?inoa? — ae?iaieeia? ?acii c
i?aaenoaaieeaie ?iaeaia?ii — oaoi?/ieo neoaea caiiaieea o 1997-1998?.?.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeiaaaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie ? aei?iaoaaiiyie, ui aoee cae?eniai? a NIEOAA IAI
«Aeaeo?iaia?ao» ia iaeaoieo ? aeine?aeieo c?aceao, a oaeiae aeoii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 noaoae o oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 232 noi?., c
ieo aeiaeaoee, e?euee?noth 6, caeiathoue 66 noi?., nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae, e?euee?noth 164 iaeiaioaaiiy, — 15 noi?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie ca?aeii c ca’yceii c iaoeiaeie
i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe, iieacaia ??
iaoeiaa iiaecia ? iicia/aii i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e ii oai?, aea?? iai?yieo
? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiaii aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooie?a
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo nenoai iino?eiiai no?oio. A?aecia/aii, ui ?ic?aooiie
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai eeaiaia yaey? niaith eiiieaenio caaea/o, yea aeeth/a?
i?iaaaeaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oieo, oaieiaeo ? aeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a c
o?aooaaiiyi iaiaaeaiue, ui iaeeaaeathoueny ia nenoaio ??aiyiue.
I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c oaoi?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeinoaoith
e?euee?noue aeaieo c ?ic?aooieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a c
aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie ? iiaiith a?aenooi?noth aeaieo c ?ic?aooieo
aeaioeii??oeaaeo aeaeo?iiaai?o?a c o?aooaaiiyi iioie?a ?icn?thaaiiy
iaiaai?/oth/eo eioooie ? iaae?iiy iaai?oieo iioaioe?ae?a acaeiaae
eii??oey. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a, ui iathoue aioo??oi? eii??oe? c o?aooaaiiyi
?iciiae?eo iaai?oiiai iioaioe?aeo acaeiaae eii??oey ? ?ic?aooie?a
aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a c o?aooaaiiyi aeanii? ?iaeoeoeaiino? ?icn?thaaiiy
eioooie aeaeo?iiaai?oa, aecia/a?oueny iniaeeaeie aeiiaaie, ui
aeieeaathoue c oiia aenieoaoaoe?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a cacia/aiiai
aeua oeio, c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?oiuei? ?iaioe ? aaciaeith
aenieoaoaoe??.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?ic?aooieo noaoe/ieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a ?c aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie oa ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaeeee e aeai?eoi?a ?ic?aooieo noaoe/ieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeaioeii??oeaaiai aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aeaeo?iiaai?oa; aeai?o iaiao?aeieo
aiia?aeoe?a o ii/aoeiaiio ? e?ioeaaiio iieiaeaii? yei?y; iaoiaeeoe?
?ic?aooieo oaieiaeo i?ioean?a o oi?niaaiiio a?iiueiaiio aeaeo?iiaai?o? c
o?aooaaiiyi noai i?aeeeth/aiiy iaiioie ? aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo
iaiiooaaeueieo aeaieo a?aeiia?aeii aei eiie?aoieo aeiia, cai?iiiiiaaieo
aei eiino?oeoe?? ia iniia? io?eiaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?.

Aeai?eoie, ?aae?ciaai? o aeae? eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai, aeicaieythoue
i?iaiaeeoe ??ciiiai?oi? ?ic?aooiee ? ii??aiyeuei? ioe?iee ??cieo
aa??aio?a eiino?oeoe??. O aeaiiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ocaaaeueiaiee
aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo aeaioeii??oeaaeo aeaeo?iiaai?o?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
aea?aaeaioieo noai cai?uaiiy aaaaoieiioo?iiai iae?i?eiiai iaai?oiiai
eiea ? iaoiaeeeo ?ica’ycaiiy nenoai iae?i?eieo ??aiyiue ia iniia?
iaoiaeo aeeeth/aiiy c ianooiiei cieaeaiiyi ii?yaeeo nenoaie ??aiyiue.

Ia ?en.1 cia?aaeaiee (iieiaeia, /a?ac inueiao neiao??th) caaaeueiee
aeaeyae aeaeo?iiaai?oii? nenoaie ?icaeyiooiai aeaeo?iiaai?oa. C ?en.1
aeieeaa?, ui ?icaeyiooee aeaeo?iiaai?o iiaeia oiiaii iiae?eeoe ia i’youe
oa?aeoa?ieo cii, a naia, ciie aioo??oi?o eii??oe?a(aea? ciie),
iia?o?yiiai ?iai/iai caci?o oa ciie yei?y ? na?aea/ieea, ui aenooiathoue
ca iaae? eii??oe?a.

Ca?aeii c iaoiaeii aeaeo?e/ii? aiaeia??, eiaeia c oa?aeoa?ieo cii
iiae?eaia ia aeaiaioa?i? ae?eyiee, ia yeeo cia/aiiy iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe??
? iaai?oiiai iioieo i?eeiathoueny iino?eieie aaee/eiaie. Ci?ia oeeo
aaee/ei a?ae ae?eyiee aei ae?eyiee a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie iioie?a
?icn?thaaiiy. C ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? aeaiaioa?ieo ae?eyiie, oi/i?noue
?ic?aooie?a ca?eueoo?oueny ? ia iinooia?oueny iaoiaeai e?ioeaaeo
??cieoeue. O oie aea /an, aeaiee iaoiae ia? aeaye? ia?aaaae, o
ii??aiyii? c iaoiaeii e?ioeaaeo ??cieoeue.

?ic?aooieiaa noaia cai?uaiiy (?en.2) yaey? niaith aeey eiaeii? ?c
oa?aeoa?ieo cii aaaaoiieiioo?ia iae?i?eia ?icaaeoaeaia iaai?oia eiei,
?ic?aooiee yeiai caiaeyoueny aei nenoaie c aeae?eueeio aeanyoe?a
iae?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue. ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo nenoai i?aaenoaaey?
cia/i? ia/enethaaeuei? neeaaeiino? ca ?aooiie iaaecae/aeii iiaaii?
ca?aeiino? o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a ?ica’ycaiiy /a?ac ?noioio
iae?i?ei?noue e?eai? iaiaai?/oaaiiy nenoaie. Aeey ?ic?aooieo oaei?
nenoaie aeei?enoiao?oueny aeai?eoi, ui aeicaiey? caanoe ?ica’ycaiiy
nenoaie c aaaaoueio iae?i?eieo ??aiyiue iine?aeiaii aei ?ica’ycaiiy
nenoaie c /ioe?ueio iae?i?eieo ??aiyiue (1-4).

Ia?aaaaa aeaiiai iaoiaeo ?ic?aooie?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?e ca?eueoaii?
/enea ?eaiaioa?iuo ae?eyiie, ia i?aeaeuo?oueny ii?yaeie ?ica’ycoaaii?
nenoaie ??aiyiue.

(2)

— noia?ia iaae?iiy iaai?oiiai iioaioe?aeo ii caieiooiio eieo.

Aeai?eoi ia/eneaiiy iioie?a (aeea. ?en.2):

.

?ic?aoiao?ii ia?aiao?e nenoaie a ia?o?e cii?.

.

?ic?aoiao?ii ia?aiao?e noaie a 2-e — 4-e ciiao.

.

.

? iiaa?oaoeny aei i. 2.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy nenoaie ??aiyiue (2 — 3) aoea ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea, ui
iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

.

.

.

?iaeoueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaea aeeoioii??, yeee a?aeiineoueny aei
aacoiiaii ca?aeieo iaoiae?a ? aa?aioo? ?ica’ycaiiy cacia/aii? nenoaie
??aiyiue. Aeaiee aeai?eoi iiaea aooe ocaaaeueiaii aeey nenoai iae?i?eieo
??aiyiue a?eueo aenieiai ii?yaeeo.

?ica’ycaiiy cacia/aieo ??aiyiue aeicaiey? iaeiicia/ii aecia/eoe
iaai?oi? iioiee iaai?oii? nenoaie c o?aooaaiiyi iae?i?eiino?, iioie?a
?icn?thaaiiy Ou ? iioie?a o ia?iai/eo caci?ao On (?en.2). O ?acoeueoao?
?ic?aooieo aecia/athoueny cia/aiiy iaai?oieo iioie?a oa ?iaeoeoe?? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a iaai?oii?iaiaeo, n?iaenoai
noaoe/ieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee o caeaaeiino? a?ae I?N ? aecia/athoueny
i?i?iaeueii — iaiao?aei? cia/aiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oyaiaeo nee o
caeaaeiino? a?ae i?ioeae?th/eo coneeue ? oiaeo yei?y aeaeo?iiaai?oa.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? ao?aeieie cia/aiiyie aeey ?ic?aooieo
iaiiooaaeueieo aeaieo ? aecia/aiiy I?N eioooie o ioneiaiio e
oo?eioth/iio ?aaeeiao ?iaioe aeaeo?iiaai?oa ia iniia? iaoiaeeee
eiia?iiaaiiai oaieiaiai ?ic?aooieo a?iiueiaiai aeaeo?iiaai?oa, ui
iieyaa? a niieo/aii? aiae?oe/iiai iaoiaeo ? iaoiaeo oaieiaeo iii??a.
Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe aeinoaoith aeey ?iaeaia?ieo
?ic?aooie?a oi/i?noue o niieo/aii? c a?aeiinii i?inoei aeai?eoiii
?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaii? caaea/?, ui a?aoiao? aieea iia?o?yiiai i?ioa?eo
i?ae eioooeith ? ei?ionii, a oaeiae aieea ?aa?enoi? iiaa?oi? ei?iona ia
oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo ? cia/aiiy ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo? iaa??aaiiy
iaiioie. *a?ac oa, ui oaieia? ia?aiao?e noaie (oae? ye ieoiiee
aeaeo?e/iee ii?? iaiioie, eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? c iiaa?oi?) ?
ooieoe??th ?icooeoaaieo oaiia?aoo?, aeai?eoi ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaii?
caaea/? yaey? niaith ?oa?aoe?eiee i?ioean, o ?acoeueoao? yeiai
aecia/athoueny iaiiooaaeuei? aeai?, iaeneiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy
ioneiai? e oo?eioth/i? iaiioie i?e ??cieo noaiao ?o i?aeeeth/aiiy, a
oaeiae i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aei? ? iaeneiaeueii i?eionoei? cia/aiiy I?N.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? ?ic?aooieo aeeiai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?iaeoeoeaiino?
?icn?thaaiiy oa iienaia iaoiaeeea ? aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo aeeiai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeaioeii??oeaaiai oi?niaaiiai a?iiueiaiai aeaeo?iiaai?oa c
o?aooaaiiyi aeanii? ?iaeoeoeaiino? ?icn?thaaiiy iaiioie. Iaoiaeeea
a?aoiao? aieea eiioo??a aeo?iaeo no?oi?a ? ei?ioeicaieiaieo iaiioie o
i?ioean? ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oa. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
iaoe cae?enith?oueny ni?eueia ?ica’ycaiiy nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
??aiyiue aeey iaai?oiiai eiea (5), caienaieo o aaeoi?i?e oi?i? oa
aeaeo?e/iiai (6,7) eiea:

(6)

— aaeoi? iaai?oieo iioie?a; U — iai?oaa ia eioooeao, yea caeaaeeoue
a?ae noaie ?o c’?aeiaiiy oa ia?aeeth/aiiy; I — no?oie ioneiai? ?
oo?eioth/i? iaiioie, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae noaie ?o c’?aeiaiiy oa
ia?aeeth/aiiy; R — aeoeaiee ii?? ioneiai? ? oo?eioth/i? iaiioie; L —
?iaeoeoeai?noue ?icn?thaaiiy ioneiai? ? oo?eioth/i? iaiioie; W — /enei
aeoe?a ioneiai? ? oo?eioth/i? eioooie; (( — iio?e nenoaie, i?eaaaeaiee
ii iioieic/aieaiith.

(8)

(9)

aea m -i?eaaaeaia aei yei?y iana ?ooiieo /anoei aeaeo?iiaai?oa; V —
oaeaee?noue; Q — aeaeo?iiaai?oia neea; Qc — i?ioeae?th/a neea.

E?ioeaai — ??cieoeaaee aiaeia nenoaie (5) ? aeai?eoi cieaeaiiy ii?yaeeo
nenoaie, aeicaiey? i?eaanoe nenoaio (5) aei nenoaie aiaeia?/ii? (1 — 4)
aeey eiaeiiai e+1 iiiaioo /ano, ui ?acii ?c nenoaiith ??aiyiue
aeaeo?e/iiai eiea (6 — 7) ? ??aiyiiyie ?ooo yei?y aeaeo?iiaai?oa (8 — 9)
aea? ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaii? caaea/?. *anoeia ?ic?aooieiai? noaie
cai?uaiiy iaai?oiiai eiea c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao i?ioeai — I?N ((Fki,
(Fbi, (Fci), aeeeeeaieo aieeaii aeo?iaeo no?oi?a o iaai?oii?iaiae?,
iieacaia ia ?en.3.

?acoeueoaoii ?ica’ycaiiy io?eiaieo nenoai ??aiyiue (5 — 9) (cae?eniaiiai
/enaeueieie iaoiaeaie) ? caeaaeiino? a ooieoe?? /ano oyaiaeo
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo nee, oaeaeeino?, oeyoo ? no?oi?a iaiioie a?ae
aaiiao?e/ieo, oaieiaeo ? iaiiooaaeueieo ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iiaai?oa. An?
aeai?eoie, iaaaaeai? a ?icae?e?, ?aae?ciaai? o aeaeyae? eiii’thoa?ieo
i?ia?ai.

sse i?eeeaae, ia ?en.4 iaaaaeai? caeaaeiino? no?oi?a ioneiai? e
oo?eioth/eo eioooie aeaeo?iiaai?oa a i?ioean? eiai aieeaiiy aeey iaeiiai
c aa??aio?a eiino?oeoe??.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? ? ai?iaaaeaeaiith ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
ii oaeineiiaeaiith aeaeo?iiaai?o?a a?aen?/ieo eeaiai?a aeaeo?iiaai?oieo
i?eaiae?a aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo a?ae?io?oaii?iaiae?a nenoai aaciaee
aoiiieo aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e. O ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ? i?iaiae?ciaaii
oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia noaoe/i?, oaieia? ? aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai eeaiaia.

?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith eiino?oeoe?? ? ci?i?
iaiiooaaeueieo aeaieo aeaeo?iiaai?oa c iaoith cieaeaiiy ia?aaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oa, ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiiy oyaiaeo
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo nee ? ciaioaiiy /ano ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy i?e caa??aaii?
iayaieo aaaa?eoieo ?ici???a ? cieaeaii? caaaeueieo aeo?ao
iaiiooaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo aei 25% o caeaaeiino? a?ae aa??aioa
cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??? ioe?iee
ii??aiyeueii? aoaeoeaiino? aa??aio?a eiino?oeoe??, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo
aecia/aii iaee?au? aa??aioe c iiaeyaeo aeiia aei aeaeo?iiaai?oa. Ia
?en.5 iieacaia caeaaei?noue e?eoa??th aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiaai?oa a?ae
ae?aiao?o ina?aey aeey iaeiiai c cai?iiiiiaaieo aa??aio?a eiino?oeoe?? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aoaea i?e aa?oei? ( aicaeooiiai caci?a.

Iieacaii aieea aeanii? ?iaeoeoeaiino? ?icn?thaaiiy iaiioie ia
oaeaeeiae?th aeaeo?iiaai?oa.

Cai?iiiiiaai? aa??aioe eiino?oeoe?? aeicaieythoue ciaioeoe ia?aaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oa ia (30 — 60)% i?e ca?eueoaii?
ioneiai? (o 1,3 — 1,6 ?ace) ? oo?eioth/i? (o 1,1 — 1,65 ?ace)
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo nee a ii??aiyii? c iayaiei aaciaei aa??aioii, ui
aeicaiey? ?noioii i?aeaeueoe iaae?ei?noue aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio.

Aeacai? oaeineiiaeaiiy aeinyaathoueny:

ca?eueoaiiyi ae?aiao?a na?aea/ieea aeaeo?iiaai?oa ? ci?iith oi?ie
?iai/iai iia?o?yiiai caci?o, ui aeicaiey? ia?a?iciiae?eeoe iaae?iiy
iaai?oiiai iioaioe?aeo ? i?aeaeueoe cia/aiiy ioneiai? e oo?eioth/i? nee;

ci?iith iaiiooaaeueieo aeaieo ? oaeineiiaeaiiyi eiino?oeoe?? eioooee, ui
aeicaieythoue cieceoe ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy ca ?aooiie
iie?ioaiiy oiia ioieiaeaeaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1.O ?acoeueoao? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e ? noaio i?iaeaie ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaeeee, ni?yiiaai? ia
?ica’ycaiiy eiie?aoii? iaoeiai — oaoi?/ii? caaea/? — ?ic?iaeo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii oaeineiiaeaiith aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?eaiaeo oi?niaaiiai
aeaeo?iiaai?oa a?aen?/iiai eeaiaia nenoai aaciaee aoiiieo aeaeo?e/ieo
noaioe?e c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ? iie?ioaiiy oaoi?ei —
aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a o ii??aiyii? c iayaiei, oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo nee o ii/aoeiaiio ? e?ioeaaiio iieiaeaiiyo yei?y,
cieaeaiiy ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy eioooie, ciaioaiiy /ano
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy ? cieaeaiiy aeo?ao aeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a i?e caa??aaii?
aaaa?eoieo ?ici???a i?eno?ith, ui ia? ?noioia cia/aiiy aeey oai??? ?
i?aeoeee ye aeey aeaeo?iaia?aoiaoaeoaaiiy, oae ? aeey Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio.

2.Cai?iiiiiaaii ? ?aae?ciaaii o aeaeyae? eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai iaoiaeeee
?ic?aooieo ? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeaioeii??oeaaeo a?iiueiaeo oi?niaaieo
aeaeo?iiaai?o?a iino?eiiai no?oio, a naia:

noi?ioeueiaaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo
noaoe/ieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a ?c
aioo??oi?ie eii??oeyie c o?aooaaiiyi iaae?iiy iaai?oieo iioaioe?ae?a ii
?oi?e aeiaaeei? ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?aooieo ?icaaeoaeaiiai iae?i?eiiai
aaaaoieiioo?iiai iaai?oiiai eiea;

?ic?iaeaii ? ?aae?ciaaii o aeaeyae? eiii’thoa?ii? i?ia?aie iaoiaeeeo
?ica’ycaiiy nenoaie c aeaio iae?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue, yea
aaco?oueny ia iaoiae? aeeoioii?? ? yea iiaea aooe canoiniaaia aei
?ica’ycaiiy nenoai ??aiyiue aeuiai ii?yaeeo;

noi?ioeueiaaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo
aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio c aioo??oi?ie
eii??oeyie c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ei?ioeicaieiaieo iaiioie ? aeo?iaeo
no?oi?a ia eiaei?e ae?eyioe? iaai?oii?iaiaea, a oaeiae aeanieo
?iaeoeoeaiinoae ?icn?thaaiiy eioooie ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?aooieo
?icaaeoaeaiiai iae?i?eiiai aaaaoieiioo?iiai iaai?oiiai eiea i?e ??cieo
noaiao i?aeeeth/aiiy iaiioie;

noi?ioeueiaaii e?eoa??e ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai i?eaiaeo a i?eoyaiooiio iieiaeaii? yei?? aeey
?icaeyiooiai eeano aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iaoai?ci?a, ui aeicaiey? c?noaaeyoe
??ci? aa??aioe eiino?oeoe?? ? aeae?aoe iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea?.

3.Cai?iiiiiaai? a ?iaio? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy aeicaieythoue ?noioii
iie?ioeoe oaoi?ei — aeiiii?/i? iieacieee aeaeo?iiaai?oa, a naia:

iaea?aeaoe cia/iee caian (o 1,1 — 1,65 ?ace) ii ioneia?e ? oo?eioth/?e
neeai ca ?aooiie aeai?o a?aeiia?aeiiai ae?aiao?a na?aea/ieea ? oi?ie
?iai/iai iia?o?yiiai caci?o aiane?aeie ia?a?iciiae?eo iaae?iiy
iaai?oiiai iioaioe?aeo i?ae iaai?oii?iaiaeii ? iia?o?yiei caci?ii;

?noioii (ia 30% — 60%) cieceoe ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy
iaiioie o o?eaaeiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe ca ?aooiie ci?ie iaiiooaaeueieo
aeaieo ? ci?i a eiino?oeoe?? eioooee ca ?aooiie iie?ioaiiy oiia ??
ioieiaeaeaiiy;

i?aeaeueoe ia (12-15)% oaeaeeiae?th aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio ca
?aooiie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o ae?aiao?a na?aea/ieea ? oi?ie ?iai/iai
iia?o?yiiai caci?o aiane?aeie ia?a?iciiae?eo iaae?iiy iaai?oiiai
iioaioe?aeo i?ae iaai?oii?iaiaeii ? iia?o?yiei caci?ii o ioneiaiio
?aaeei? ? a?aeiia?aeiiio ca?eueoaii? oyaiai? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? neee, a
oaeiae ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aieeao ae?? ei?ioei caieiaii? iaiioee, ui
aeaiio??o? iaai?oiee iio?e, aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy ?? iii?o oeyoii ci?ie
iaiiooaaeueieo aeaieo, a oaeiae ciaioaiiyi ?iaeoeoeaiino? ioneiai?
iaiioee;

ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaiiai e?eoa??th ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aea?aoe
iaea?eueoa ni?eyoeeaee aa??aio eiino?oeoe?? aeaeo?iiaai?oa c oi/ee ci?o
i?aae’yaeaieo aei iueiai aeiia, aoaeoeai?noue yeiai a (1,3-1,58) ?ace
aeua i?ioioeio;

cieceoe noia?io aeo?aoo aeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a aei 25% o caeaaeiino? a?ae
ia?aiiai aa??aioa.

4.Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye? aoei
aeeiiaii ia iaeaoieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?aceao a NIEOAA IAI
«Aeaeo?iaia?ao».

5.Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai cacia/aiiai aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iaoai?cio
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?aeiia?aeiei aeoii.

6.Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe, io?eiai? o aeaeyae? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?
iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo oi?niaaieo aeaioeii??oeaaeo aeaeo?iiaai?o?a
iino?eiiai no?oio aeaeo?iiaai?oieo i?eaiae?a, ?aae?ciaai? o aeaeyae?
eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iiaeo aia?ao?a, oae ? oaeineiiaeaii? iayaieo eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae o
aeine?aeieo c?aceao.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH

AeENA?OAOe??

A.E.Aaeaea, O.I. *aeue. Aeai?eoi ?an/aoa ?acaaoaeaiiie iaaieoiie oeaie
aoyaeiuo yeaeo?iiaaieoia n aioo?aiieie ai?ioie/eaie //. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea. Nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia OAIO. Aui. 6. A /aou?ao /anoyo. *. 2. — Oa?ueeia:OAIO.
-1998. — N. 206-210.

A.E.Aaeaea, O.I.*aeue. Aeeyiea eiaeoeoeaiinoe ?annayiey ia aeeiaie/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee oi?ne?iaaiiuo yeaeo?iiaaieoia // Eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea. Nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia OAIO. Aui. 6. A /aou?ao /anoyo. *. 2. — Oa?ueeia: OAIO.
-1998. — N. 211-214.

A.E.Aaeaea, A.I. ?uaeeia. Enneaaeiaaiea iaa?aaa yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai
iaoaiecia a i?iaeieaeeoaeueiii e iiaoi?ii-e?aoeia?aiaiiii ?aaeeiao
?aaiou // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai iieeoaoie/aneiai einoeoooa. Aui. 17. -?
5. -1992. — N. 61-64.

A.A Eeeiaiei, ae-? oaoi. iaoe, A.E.Aaeaea. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiiua
yeaeo?iiaaieou iona/iiai eeaiaia nenoai aaciianiinoe aoiiiuo
yeaeo?e/aneeo noaioeee // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Aui. 25. -1998. — N. 3 — 5.

A.E. Aaeaea. E?eoa?ee ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai i?eaiaea
aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo eeaiaiia aeae?io?oaii?iaiaeia aunieiai aeaaeaiey //
Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.
Aui. 37. -1998. — N. 91 — 93.

A.E.Aaeaea. Oaieiaay noaia caiauaiey a?iiaaiai yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai
iaoaiecia // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa.Iiaua ?aoaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaeyo. Aui. 47. — 1999. —
N. 75 — 76.

Aaeaea ?.?. «Oaeineiiaeai? aeaeo?iiaai?oe nenoai aaciaee aoiiieo
aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e». — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.09.01 — aeaeo?e/i? iaoeie ? aia?aoe. Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oaeineiiaeaiith oi?niaaieo aeaioeii??oeaaeo
aeaeo?iiaai?o?a nenoai aaciaee aoiiieo aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
iaa??aaiiy iaiioie, ca?eueoaiiy oyaiai? neee, ciaioaiiy /ano
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy ? ciaioaii? ia’?io aeoeaieo iaiiooaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a.
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee ?ica’ycaiiy nenoaie iae?i?eieo ??aiyiue aeey
?icaaeoaeaiiai iaai?oiiai eiea ? ?ic?aooieo noaoe/ieo, oaieiaeo oa
aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaioeii??oeaaiai oi?niaaiiai aeaeo?iiaai?oa.
Cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??e ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiaai?o?a, ye?
i?aoeththoue i?e i?eoyaiooiio yei??. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa
i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo c oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe ciaeoee i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? i?iaeooaaii?
iiaeo aia?ao?a, a oaeiae oaeineiiaeaii? iayaieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?iiaai?o, aeaioeii??oeaaee, noaoe/i?, oaieia?,
aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, e?eoa??e ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?.

Baida E.I. «Improved Electromagnets for Atomic Power Station (APS)
Safety Systems». — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Technical Seances,
specialty 05.09.01 — «Electric Machines and Apparatus». Kharkov State
Polytechnic University, Kharkov, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the problems of developing forced
electromagnets of cutoff valves (EMCV) with two internal magnetic shunts
for APS safety systems. The purposed of the work has been to enhance the
reliability of electromagnetic drives by decreasing excess temperature
of winding, increasing electromagnetic pull, reducing loath activation
time and the volume of active materials. A technique for solving a set
of non — linear equations for the ramified magnetic circuit is
developed. A method for calculating static, thermal and dynamic
characteristics of EMCV with two internal magnetic shunt is offered. A
criterion for the evaluation of effectiveness of electromagnets
operating in the attracted position of the anchor is developed.
Recommendations on the development of EVCV design as well as related
calculation program are provided. The main results of the work have
found industrial application in developing and designing new apparatus
as well as improving existing design.

Key words: electromagnetic drive, forced electromagnet, cutoff valve,
magnetic shunt, static, thermal, dynamic characteristics, criterion for
evaluation.

Aaeaea A.E. «Oniaa?oainoaiaaiiua yeaeo?iiaaieou nenoai aaciianiinoe
aoiiiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo noaioeee». — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.09.01 — yeaeo?e/aneea iaoeiu e aiia?aou.
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inii oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?ne?iaaiiuo
aeaooai?ioie/eiauo yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iaoaieciia nenoai aaciianiinoe
aoiiiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo noaioeee, a /anoiinoe yeaeo?iiaaieoia iona/iuo
eeaiaiia, n oeaeueth iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo i?eaiaeia ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey i?aauoaiey oaiia?aoo?u
iaa?aaa iaiioie, oaaee/aiey oyaiaie yeaeo?iiaaieoiie neeu a ioneiaii e
oaea?aeeaathuei ?aaeeiao ?aaiou, oiaiueoaiey a?aiaie n?aaaouaaiea i?e
oiaiueoaiee iauaia aeoeaiuo iaiioi/iuo iaoa?eaeia i?e nio?aiaiee
aaaa?eoiua ?acia?ia ono?ienoa. Eae neaaeoao ec iaueo niioiioaiee aeey
yeaeo?iiaaieoia iinoiyiiiai oiea, oiaiueoeoue auaeaeyaioth iiuiinoue, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oaiia?aoo?o iaa?aaa yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iaoaiecia i?e
caaeaiiii iai?yaeaiee naoe iiaeii ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey na/aiey
iaiioi/iiai i?iaiaea, eeai ca n/ao oaaee/aiey n?aaeiae aeeeiu aeoea,
eeai ca n/ao oaaee/aiey /enea aeoeia. Iaeiaei, oiaiueoaiea na/aiey
iaiioi/iiai i?iaiaea i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth iaaieoiaeaeaeouae neeu
(IAeN) eaoooee e, eae neaaenoaea, e oiaiueoaieth yeaeo?iiaaieoiie neeu.
Oaaee/aiea n?aaeiae aeeeiu aeoea i?eaiaeeo oaeaea e oiaiueoaieth IAeN
eaoooee, oaaee/aieth aaaa?eoiuo ?acia?ia e oooaeoaieth oneiaee
ioeaaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiaaieoa. Oaaee/aiea /enea aeoeia i?eaiaeeo e
iiauoaiiiio ?anoiaeo iaiioi/iiai i?iaiaea, oaaee/aieth aaaa?eoiuo
?acia?ia ono?ienoaa e nieaeaieth auno?iaeaenoaey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aeinoeaeaiea iinoaaeaiiie oeaee aiciiaeii oieueei ia iniiaaiee
ananoi?iiiaai eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca i?ioeannia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ?aaioo
yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iaoaiecia.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa ia YAI iaeeiaeiie
?acaaoaeaiiie iaaieoiie oeaie ia iniiaaiee iaoiaea yeaeo?e/aneie
aiaeiaee, nooue eioi?ie caeeth/aaony a naaaeaiee ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia
iaeeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee e ?aoaieth /aou?ao iaeeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee.
Aeinoieinoai iaoiaea caeeth/aaony a aeinoaoi/iie i?inoioa aai
?aaeecaoeee. E?iia oiai, i?e oaaee/aiee /enea yeaiaioa?iuo o/anoeia,
aeaiiue iaoiae ii oi/iinoe i?eaeeaeaaony e iaoiaeo eiia/iuo ?aciinoae.
Iaeiaei i?e yoii, oaaee/aiea /enea yeaiaioa?iuo o/anoeia ia i?eaiaeeo e
iiauoaieth ii?yaeea ?aoaaiie nenoaiu o?aaiaiee, /oi oae aea yaeyaony
ianiiiaiiui i?aeiouanoaii i?aaeeiaeaiiiai iaoiaea. ?aoaiea
niioaaonoaothuae nenoaiu iaeeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee aace?oaony ia iaoiaea
aeeoioiiee. Aeinoieinoai i?aaeeaaaaiie iaoiaeeee caeeth/aaony a
aaniethoiie noiaeeiinoe iaoiaea.

Inouanoaeaiu noaoe/aneea, oaieiaua e aeeiaie/aneea ?an/aou
aeaooai?ioie/eiauo oi?ne?iaaiiuo yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo i?eaiaeia iona/iuo
eeaiaiia nenoai aaciianiinoe AYN.

?acoeueoaoii ?an/aoa yaeythony noaoe/aneea oyaiaua oa?aeoa?enoeee
yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iaoaiecia a caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu, oi?iu ?aai/aai
aicaeooiiai caci?a e aaiiao?ee iaaieoii?iaiaea, iicaieythuea
ii?aaeaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua yeaeo?iiaaieoiua neeu i?e caaeaiiie
oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeaiaeaenoaothueo nee.

Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa aoiaeiuo aeey oaieiaiai
?an/aoa. Ia iniiaaiee oaieiaiai ?an/aoa ii?aaeaeythony iaeneiaeueiua
oaiia?aoo?u iaa?aaa ioneiaie e oaea?aeeaathuae iaiioie, ?ann/eouaathony
eo ia?aiao?u e ii?aaeaeythony ieieiaeueii-iaiaoiaeeiua cia/aiey
aiia?aeoeia nenoaiu.

Aeeiaie/aneea ?an/aou yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iaoaiecia i?iaiaeeeenue n o/aoii
aeeyiey nianoaaiiie eiaeoeoeaiinoe ?annayiey iaiioie e o/aoii aeeyiey
aeaiioe?othuaai aeaenoaey ei?ioeicaieioouo iaiioie e aeo?aauo oieia aeey
?acee/iuo noai iiaeeeth/aiey. Iieacaii aeeyiea nianoaaiiie
eiaeoeoeaiinoe ?annayiey iaiioie ia a?aiy n?aaaouaaiey.

Noi?ioee?iaai e?eoa?ee n?aaieoaeueiie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
yeaeo?iiaaieoia, ?aaioathueo i?e i?eoyiooii yei?a. Aeaia ioeaiea e
niiinoaaeaiea ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia eiino?oeoeee yeaeo?iiaaieoia nenoai
aaciianiinoe AYN.

?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth eiino?oeoeee
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iaoaieciia, iicaieythuea nouanoaaiii iiauneoue
iaaeaaeiinoue e oeo/oeoue oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee, a /anoiinoe
yeaeo?iiaaieoia iona/iuo eeaiaiia.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?iiuoeaiiia i?eiaiaiea i?e
?ac?aaioea e i?iaeoe?iaaiee iiauo aiia?aoia, a oaeaea oniaa?oainoaiaaiee
eiathueony eiino?oeoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?iiaaieoiue i?eaiae, oi?ne?iaaiiue yeaeo?iiaaieo,
iona/iie eeaiai, aeaooai?ioie/eiaue, noaoe/aneea, oaieiaua,
aeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, e?eoa?ee ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe.

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