IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO E?OA?AOO?E ?i. O.A.OAA*AIEA

OANAIEI AAEAIOEIA ?AAI?AIA

OAeE 8.82

OAI?*?NOUe AEI?AEA AA?IAIINA:

IIAOEEA IIAe?? OA I?I?IOeOAA

10.01.04 – e?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a –1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio e?iaa?noe/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
ia eaoaae?? oai??? oa ?noi??? na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai- ei?aniiiaeaio Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie Iaeeaaeei
Aeieo?i Na?a?eiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?eieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y”.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Ea Ooca O?e?ii, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?aioeocueei?
e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. AEthey Aa?ia
i. Ai’?i, O?aioe?y;

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Iaoa??oei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi???
ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.Noaoaieea;

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Oaoiaa E??a Ieaenaiae??aia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ca?oa?aeii?
e?oa?aoo?e Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 9 ” “ /a?aiy ” 1999 ?. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.178.02 i?e ?inoeooo? e?oa?aoo?e ?i.
O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i.Ee?a-1, aoe.I.A?ooaanueeiai,4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e
?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 26” “ ea?oiy ” 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aaei?/a?o I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

AEi?ae Aa?iaiin (1888-1948) – iaeia c iaecia/i?oeo iinoaoae
o?aioeocueei? “aoe/ii? aaia?aoe??”, i?aaenoaaeaii? neaaaoieie ?iaiaie
A.Iaeue?i, I.Eeiaeaey, A.Eaith, AE.-I.Na?o?a, A. aea Naio-Aecthia??, O.
Ii??aea, AE. A??ia. Aiie caa?oaeenue aei ii?aeueieo i?iaeai no/anii?
oeea?e?caoe?? oa iaiaaaeeny ciaeoe ?o ae??oaiiy a
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe?. Aeiiii?/ia e?eca, nioe?aeueia e
iie?oe/ia iai?oaa a ?a?ii? 30-o ?ie?a ciooothoue oeeo ienueiaiiee?a
ia?aianoe aeoeaio c ineoieia?/ieo aeeaei ?iaeea?aea ia ne?oioeueicia
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aa?/iiai na?oo ? aeie? ethaenueei? a iueiio. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae ieo AE. Aa?iaiin ?acii ?c I.Eeiaeaeai, O.Ii??aeii oa
AE.A??iii o?aeoo? aeooiai? i?iaeaie ?a?iie c iiceoe?e ethaeeie
a??oth/i?. Aeey iueiai e?oa?aoo?a ia a?a neiaii, a aiaaaeiaai?noue a
?noi??th naiai /ano. ?iiaiia iiia?aeue ?icai?oa?oueny a ?eoi? ai?ioueae
nee aeia?a ? cea, ?o iino?eiiai i?ioenoiyiiy ye o aeooao ethaenueeeo,
oae ? o ciai?oiueiio i?inoi??.

Aa?iaiin – nai???aeia iinoaoue ? a eii? eaoieeoeueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.
Ooaeiaeiy oai?/?noue ? iniaenoa aeeooy ia ooai?ththoue ?ic?eao: ?iiai –
inai?iee oa o?ainoi?iiaaiee aeina?ae i?e/anoy ethaeeie aei nioai??iiy
na?oo, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny uiieo?, a ?eceeiaai?e ae?? aac aeiaeieo
aa?aio?e ia ?noeii?noue ia?aiiai oeyoo. Eiai ia?niiaae? aeeaooue o na?o?
noo?ie?a, aea iaio? cei eiioi?i?cio, aea ieoe?noue ? a?ae/ae
caeathoueny caaaeueiiaeciaiith ii?iith. I?ioa ia a?aei?io a?ae ?iiaiiiai
einiino O.Ii??aea /e AE.A??ia ?ieiee iaaooeiiy iaaaoaioe/ii?
ae?eniino? ?ic?eaa?oueny, a a ooai?aiee ?ic?ea i?ieeaa?oueny na?oei
ieeino? oa iaae??.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Neeaaeiee i?ioean ci?ie
iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae a?o/eciyiiai e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa, iiaeeea?noue
caa?iaiiy aei iaeno/ani?oeo caeiaooe?a e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa na?oiaiai
i?aeeacothoue iiaeeea?noue iiaeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e ye oai?/iai aei?iaeo
AE.Aa?iaiina a oe?eiio, oae ? ie?aieo oai??a. Iio??aii ?oeioaaoe ooo/ii
aeoai?ai? oyaeaiiy uiaei ?aeaieia?/ii? iaeiiaieino?, i?ia?aiii?
aeiaiaoe/iino? e iaeiiiai?oiino? ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo, ui i?aeoi iinoa?
c? noi??iie ?iiai?a ienueiaiieea-eaoieeea. I?eeoia /an aeeaieiai
aiae?co oai??a ieooey a eiai aaciaeo no?oeoo?ao oa o?enoeyinueeeo
eiaeao, a aeeaieeo ca’yceao c eoeueoo?ieie, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie,
iaoao?ce/ieie i?iaeaiaie aiioe.

Cayaeaia i?iaeaia aeooaeueia ? c iaeyaeo ia i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an
oe?a?inueeiai /eoa/a aei e?oa?aoo?e aeooiaiiai ci?noo, aei oi?ioaaiiy
iiai? nenoaie oe?iiinoae, aei ?icaeyaeo ?ioeo iiaeeeaeo na?oiaeyaeieo
canaae. Aaciina?aaei?i i?aaeiaoii aiae?co ? iiaoeea ?iiai?a “Uiaeaiiee
n?euenueeiai nayuaieea”, “Iiaa ?noi??y Iooaooe”, “Iai O?i” oa ana
“Aaeee? oeaeioa?? o i?ny/iiio na?oe?”, “Ciaaaaeai? ae?oe”. Aa?iaiin
?ioa?i?aoo? na?o a anoaoe/ii ioi?ieaiiio iineaii? ca aeiiiiiaith oeo /e
?ioeo iiaoe/ieo cania?a, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey ia?aiiai aeai?o. Oaenooaeueia
iiae?y ia i?inoi?? ?iiaio /e ana — oea ianaiia?aae iiae?y
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ia, aea ia?ainieneaia, ia?aoai?aia, ia?aina?oeaia a
?? aeeaeii?e i?aaae?, iia`ycaia c i???aaie ethaenueeiai ?noaa ?
ia?aeeaaeaia ia ?ioo, c?icoi?e?oo ethaeei? iiao. Ia?aianaiiy ?noi?e/ii?
iiae?? a na?oei ?aeeii cia/oui?, ?aeeii nooo?ai?, ?aeeii oai?/i?, oiaoi
anoaoieia?/ii?, iiae??, iia`ycaii? c e?ioeai na?oo e inoaoi/iei
noaiiaeaiiyi Oea?noaa Aiaeiai, ia?aoai?aiiy ciai?oiueiai oaeoo a
oaenooaeueio, anoaoe/ii ia?ainieneaio iiae?th a oai?ao, ui iaeaaeaoue
aei ??cieo aeai??a, a?aeaoaa?oueny ii-??ciiio.

?iiaie AE.Aa?iaiina ia?oiai oa ae?oaiai ia??iae?a ii-??ciiio
aena?oeththoue i?iaeaio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a??oiaiino?, aoioa?noaa oa
aeie? ethaenueei?, iathoue a?aei?iiino? o aioo??oi?e oi?i? e
iiia?aei?e no?oeoo??. ?o aeeaeiiee ca’ycie c A?ae??th aeicaiey? e?aua
oyaeoe caeiiii??iino? oeyoo, i?ieaeaiiai e?oa?aoo?ith eaoieeoeueeiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a ia??iae i?ae aeaiia a?eiaie.

?ieue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny niaoeeo?/iei
aeooiaiei einiinii oa iniaeeaei i?noeai i?ice AE.Aa?iaiina a
?a?iiaenuee?e e?oa?aoo?? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy. Eiai
i?eaaaeththoue iaoao?ce/i? i?iaaeey ? aenioe, iaae?iiy ? ceaoe
ethaenueeiai aeooo. sse i?ooi c no/aniee?a, Aa?iaiin caai?iaeaiee
neooaoe??th iaae? aeeooy e nia?o?, o??th ??aee?niith ieooth, eiee
ethaeeia ?ice?eaa?oueny iacono??/ iaa?aeiiiio, o a?eueiiio aeai??
?eceeo? aeooath ? a?aeiiaey?oueny caaaeaoe ia ciai?oi? ianoaaeie.

?iaioa aoiaeeoue o i?ia?aio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e oai??? oa
?noi??? na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ? aeeiioaaeanue a ?one? eiiieaeniiai ieaio “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie oai??? oa ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? oa ca?oa?aeieo e?oa?aoo?”.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Oai?/?noue ienueiaiieea aeaaii i?eaaaeth?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeo iaoeo. A e?ioe? OO noie?ooy aiia ciiao iieieeany o
oieon? e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo nooae?e. Aaia?ao?y aeena?oaoe?eieo oa
iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioe?th?oueny ia o?eueee ia O?aioe?th, a
e Aaeuea?th, ?niai?th, ?oae?th, I?ia//eio, Ii?aaa?th, Eaiaaeo,
Niieo/ai? Ooaoe Aia?eee, Oo?a//eio, Iieueuo, ?in?th. I?ae aa?aeith
I?aeia?iaeiiai oiaa?enoaa oaioaaeueiee?a oai?/ino? AE.Aa?iaiina, ia /ie?
yeiai noi?oue nei ienueiaiieea AEai-Eo? Aa?iaiin, ooieoe?iio? A?oia
oi?aa?neoaonueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue oai?/ino? ieooey. I?ae iao?iiaaeai
i?aceaeaioa A?oie, i?ioani?a Ni?aiie I.I?eueia?a o aeaeaaieoeoa?
Aaee?ia? aioo?oueny aei ae?oeo iiaa e?eoe/ia c?a?aiiy ?iiaiieo oai??a
AE.Aa?iaiina, yea aa?eaea a ciaiaieoo eieaeoe?th Ieayaee. Ui??/ii
i?iaiaeyoueny i?aeia?iaei? iaoeia? eiioa?aioe?? c aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo ? a?aoiaioaoeaiiai aeeneo?no. I?ae ea??aieoeoaii
i?io. I.I?eueia?a oa I.Ainneai nooaeaioe ? aeena?oaioe Ni?aiie(Iaioa?)
i?aoeththoue iaae eaeneei-noee?noe/ieie oa ia?aoea?noe/ieie
iniaeeainoyie aa?iaiin?anueeiai ienueia. A Eaiaae? iniaeeaiai iioe?aiiy
iaaoea aaiaoe/ia e?eoeea. Ioae?oeenoeea oa ana aea/athoueny ye ac??oe?
a?aoiaioaoeaiiai aeeneo?no OO noie?ooy a I?ia//ei?, a oaeiae a i. Iain?,
A?aiiae? oa Aen-ai-I?iaain? (O?aioe?y). Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeiaaeo?, ?icaeaath/e, o?aaeeoe?th aa?iaiaaoe/ieo nooae?e i?ioey
A.TH?oa ? aeei?enoiao? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aoieia?/ieo nenoai,
i?iaaaeaiiai o?aioeocueeei a/aiei O.Ea Ooca.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? 70-o ?ie?a iniiai? ?iiaii? oa ana?noe/i? oai?e
AE.Aa?iaiina aoee ia?aeeaaeai? ?in?enueeith iiaith. O 1993 ?.
iinieuenoai O?aioe?? a Iinea? iaaea? o?iainiao aeiiiiiao aeey ia?aeeaaeo
oai??a eeanee?a OO noie?ooy. ?iiaie AE.Aa?iaiina — na?aae ia?oeo i’yoe
cae?eniaieo a ?in?? ia?aeeaae?a o 1993 oa 1997 ?ieao. 1981 ?ieo
A.I?e?o?i caoeua? ia?oo eaiaeeaeaonueeo aeena?oaoe?th “Oai?/ee oeyo
AE.Aa?iaiina”, a ye?e aeoiaeeoue c oe?iei a?aeiii? oace i?i ?aae?ci ye
aa?oeio ?icaeoeo ienoaoeoaa, a a 1989 Ieo?iiieuenueea A.A. a
aeena?oaoe?? “?iiaie AE.Aa?iaiina” i?iaeiaaeo? ?icaeaaoe o?aaeeoe??
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? oeiee. Iaienai? iaia?aaeiaei? e?aoo ?aaeyinueei?
?iia???, oe? iaoeia? ?iaioe iioa?iathoue a?ae a?aenooiino? aecia/aiiy
niaoeeo?ee aeooiaiiai einiino ienueiaiieea oa caaaeueii? iaaei??ii?
?aeaieia?caoe??, oa?aeoa?ii? aeey aiioe. Oi/ e?oa?aoo?iciaa/a i?ana
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e caa?oaeany aei ie?aieo ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo aniaeo?a
oai?/ino? AE.Aa?iaiina, a a Ithioai? I.Oa?iaanueeee aeaeaa iaaaeeeei
oe?aaeai ia?aeeaae i’?ne “Ae?eiae ea?iae?oie”, a Oe?a?i? ia ?nioaaei ai?
anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy i?iaeai iiaoeee, ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaee
ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo e ana. ? oea oiae?, ye AE.Aa?iaiin iinoa? ia?aae
no/aniei e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaii iaeiei c iaeaeaeaoi?oeo ienueiaiiee?a OO
noie?ooy, ianooaae e cia/aiiy oai?/ino? eio?eo i?iyniththoueny ?
c?inoathoue c ieeiii /ano. Eiai naiiaooi?noue aeeaeiia ? ia caiaeeoueny
aei ciai?oiuei? i?ea?iaeueiino?. A?i c oeo ieooe?a, ye? ii?ooothoue
ea?aeeiaeuei? i?iaeaie e eie?c?? ethaenueeiai aoooy ? aeathoue ?o
caaino?aia ooaeiaei? ae?aaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae eiai
ooaeiaeiuei? iaia?e ? niaoeeo?ee aeoai?aiiai iei ?iiaiiiai einiino
iaaeeaea? aei aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy oai?/ino? ienueiaiiee?a o?enoeyinueei?
i???ioaoe?? OO noie?ooy.

?aoa?iaaia aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei a?oioiaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oai?/ino?
ienueiaiieea ia o?eueee a Oe?a?i? ( aea i?i iueiai acaaae? ia ienaee), a
e a onueiio iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi??. Aiia cae?enith?oueny ia canaaeao
e?oa?aoo?ii? aa?iaiaaoeee ? oaiiiaiieia??. Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith noaee i?aoe? aa?iaiaaoee?a I.??ea?a, A. Aaaeaia?a, I.O?ay,
oaiiiaiieiaa A.Aaoey?a, niaoe?ae?no?a ii ?iiaii?e iiaoeoe? I.Iioaai?,
I.Aaoo?ia, TH.Eioiaia, ?iaioe i?iaoeueeeo aa?iaiaaoee?a A.?.ssonna,
A.?ca?a ii nioe?ieia?/i?e ?aoeaioe?? oa I.Oa?ey ? O.Aei ii iiaoeoe?
/eoaiiy. Eiie?aoiee aiae?c ooaeiaei?o oaeno?a cae?enithaaany a
ia?aiao?ao ooieoe?iiaeueii? iiaoeee c iii?ith ia niaoeeo?eo oai?/i?
oyae ieooey. Aia?oa ia ??ai? ?iiaio ? ana aea/a?oueny i?ioean
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noa?e ethaenueei? ae?? ( ?? naiaioeee, neiaie?ee oa
oaiii?aeueiino?) a ia?aoeaii ioi?ieaio ?noi??th ye oaenooaeueio iiae?th.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? iaaecaaaeaiiy aeei?enoaoe iaoiae e?oa?aoo?ii?
aa?iaiaaoeee ye iaoee oe?e?nii? e eiiieaenii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo, ia?aa??eoe eiai ia aeeoo?caeaoi?noue, aio/e?noue.
Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — aea/eoe niaoeeo?eo iiaoeee ?iiai?a oa ana
aiaaaeiaaiiai ieooey, i?aeoe/io ?aae?caoe?th a eiai oai?ao aca?iiae??
aeooiaiiai na?oiaeyaeo e aea?aii? aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? oi?ie
iiia?ae?; c?icoi?oe, iiynieoe e ?ioa?i?aooaaoe iiyao eiaeiiai oai?o,
eiai niaoeeo?/iee iiaoe/iee ono??e ye nai???aeio a?aeiia?aeue ia
caieoaiiy, ui eoiathoue a aoiinoa?? aiioe; ciaeoe ? iiynieoe
o?enoeyinuee? a?oaoeie oa a?oaoei?/i? neooaoe??, ye? noaiiaeyoue
aioo??oi?e eiae eiaeiiai oai?o e i?ia?aiothoue eiai ?aoeaioe?th.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe noaaeyoueny oae? eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy:

-a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo? ?ice?eoe aeaea?aea aieeao ia noaiiaeaiiy
na?oiaeyaeieo canaae AE.Aa?iaiina;

-ia iniia? aiae?co oaiaoe/iiai iiey ooaeiaeiueiai anana?oo i?ica?ea ?
ana?noa AE.Aa?iaiina aecia/eoe niaoeeo?eo ?o aeeaeiieo no?oeoo?;

-?ice?eoe i?aaiaoe/iee oa?aeoa? aa?iaiin?anueeiai oaenoo ? niaoeeo?eo
?aae?caoe?? eiiaoeaii? (ieee/ii?, ca oa?i?iieia??th ?.sseianiia)
ooieoe?? iiaeaiiy ye a ana, oae ? a ?iiai?;

-i?inoaaeeoe ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iiae?? ? oaeoo a no?oeoo?? ana ?
?iiai?a, aecia/eoe niaoeeo?eo iiia?aeii? oaoi?ee;

-aena?oeeoe i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?noi?e/iiai /ano a /an iaoao?ce/iee;

-ciaeoe niaoeeo?eo ?aae?caoe?? anoaoieia?/iiai oa i?noe/iiai /an?a ia
?iiaiiiio i?inoi??;

-ia iniia? ii?aeiaiiy aa?iaiaaoe/ieo aeo?a ?icoi?iiy oa iiyniaiiy
aeyaeoe ? ?icoeo?oaaoe iniiai? a?oaoeie ye aioo??oi?e eiae oai??a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? any oai?/a niaaeueia AE. Aa?iaiina. A?aea??
eeth/iaeo aeey aiae?co oai??a i?iaiaeeany c iaeyaeo ia iaea?eueo iiaio
?ic?iaeo a ieo o?enoeyinueei? aoeee, anoaoeee aaoi?a ? aeai?iai?
iiaoeee. Caeo/athoueny na?ae/aiiy no/aniee?a i?i iniaeno?noue ieooey,
eiai aeani? niiaaaee i?i oai?/ee i?ioean ? ooieoe?thaaiiy oyae.
Aeine?aeaeothoueny ia o?eueee aoaeoe oaenoo, aeeeeeai? niaoeeo?eith
aeai?iai? iiaoeee, aea ? ?aoeaioe?y oai??a no/anieeaie oa ca?oa?aeiith
oi?aa?neoaonueeith e?eoeeith 50-90-o ?ie?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeaeaiiio aea/aii? aecia/ii? iinoao?
o?enoeyinueeiai ienueiaiieea a iniaeeainoyo eiai aeooiaiiai na?oiaeyaeo
? niaoeeo?oe? oai?eiiai ?iiaiiiai einiino. ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?ia
oe?ii?noue ie?aneth?oueny a?oioiai?noth cae?eniaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?oa?aoo?e o?aioeocueeiai eaoieeoeueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?oi? iieiaeie
OO noie?ooy. Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy coiiaeaia aeei?enoaiiyi aa?iaiaaoe/iiai
iaoiaeo ? ia?aeiieeaith aeaiiino?aoe??th eiai aeeoo?ai? neee ?
caeaoiino? aeaoe aaeaeaaoia i?i/eoaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o. Cae?eniaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea noaoe iniiaith aeey iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy ?noi???
o?aioeocueei? e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy ? cie?aia oai?/ino? ?a?iiaenueeeo
ienueiaiiee?a o?enoeyinueei? i???ioaoe??. Oea noaiiaeoeia
iaa/aeueii-i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoeee oai??a ienueiaiieea-eaoieeea
AE.Aa?iaiina aoee ai?iaiaai? a oi?aa?neoaonueeiio eo?n? ?noi???
ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy, niaoeeo?n? “O?aioeocueeee iiaoe/iee
?iiai OO noie?ooy”. Caaaeuei? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aae?coaaeeny ? iiaeeaethaaeeny a i?ioean? ea??aieoeoaa eo?niaeie oa
aeeieiiieie ?iaioaie. Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae oa oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e neeaaeaii? aoc?anueeiai
eo?no ?noi??? e?oa?aoo?e O?aioe?? OO noie?ooy c iiaeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo
iiceoe?e.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

— A?ae?eiee a?oaoei ? a?ae?eia a?oaoei?/ia neooaoe?y aecia/athoue
?aeaeio iai?oao iiia?ae?, i?aai?caoe?th oa ?icai?oaiiy eiioe?eoo a
?iiaiao AE.Aa?iaiina. Oa?inoai ? ia?aaeien ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy a
?noi??? iinoathoue ye iiae??, ui i?aeeyaathoue anoaoieia?/i?e
?ioa?i?aoaoe??;

— ?ic?iaea iniiaieo a oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea aecenoaioe?eieo oai
a?ae/oaeaiiy ? o?aa?/iino? ethaenueei? aeie? caciaea aieeao iaaaoeaieo
i?noee?a Ooaia aea ey E?ona ? Na.Oa?ace ?c E?cue?;

— AE.Aa?iaiin ?ioa?i?aoo? ?noi?e/iee ai?eciio OO noie?ooy
i?ae eooii ci?o anoaoieia?/ii? iiae?? e?ioey na?oo ? noaiiaeaiiy
Oea?noaa Aiaeiai;

— a iniia? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iiaa?oiaiai ?noi?e/iiai oaeoo a
inieneaio aeeaeiio iiae?th ethaenueei? aeooiaiino? eaaeeoue
o?enoeyinueea ?icoi?iiy ia?aaeieno no?aaeaeaiiy;

-oeaio?aeueia i?iaeaiaoeea oai??a AE.Aa?iaiina ?icai?oa?oueny o noa??
ae?aie nian?iiy ethaenueei? aeoo?;

-iiae?y o oai?ao ienueiaiieea caeeoa?oueny oa?iith, i?noa???th: iiaeeea?
o?eueee ?? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??, iaaeeaeaiiy aei aeeaeiiiai naino;

-i?ioaoe/ia ieoo?a?noue ?aae?co?oueny a aeie? ia?niiaae?a ye
ona?aeiieaiiy ?o i?enooiino? a na?o?, i?i?ea o?ainoeaiaeaioiino? a
/aniaee iio?e. Oea ieoue, eiee ia?niiaae io?eio? caeaoi?noue /eoaoe a
na?oe? aeeaeiueiai ? aieeaa? ia eiai aeieth;

-o na?oe? ianoaiia Nayoiai Ienueia ye oeaio?aeueii? aeooiaii?
iiae??-a?oaoeio iineaiiy, ui i?noeoueny a oai?ao Aa?iaiina,
ni?eeia?oueny ye iiae?y i?i?i/iai iaiiaiaiiy, oiaoi Neiai, ui eoia? o
a?aeiia?aeue ia caieoaiiy, iinoaaeai? aiioith.

Ai?iaaoe?y. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue o aeaeyae? aeiiia?aeae
ii?eethaeiaii ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? a i. Ethae?i? (Iieueua,
1995), I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? a i. Ai’?i (O?aioe?y1996,1997),
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? a i. Ee?a? (1997,1998), I?aeia?iaeiiio
eieiea?oi? o i. O?aeao?c? (I?ia//eia, 1998). C oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaai? iiiia?ao?y “Oai?/?noue AEi?aea Aa?iaiina: iiaoeea iiae??
oa i?i?ioeoaa” oa 11 noaoae o a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e i?an?
caaaeueiei ianyaii aeecueei 16 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia ?? iniiaiith iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a c aeae?eueeiia
i?ae?icae?eaie, aeniiae?a oa a?ae?ia?ao??. Iiaiee ianya aac o?aooaaiiy
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui iae?/o? 266 iiceoe?e, noaiiaeoue
359noi?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O “Anooi?” iiaea?oueny iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o oaie, ?? aeooaeueiino? ?
iaoeiai? iiaecie, aecia/athoueny caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiaeeea?noue
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, aeeeaaeathoueny i?eioeeie aeiai?o
e?oa?aoo?iiai iaoa??aeo, c’yniao?oueny ??aaiue aea/aiiy ieoaiiy o
no/aniiio na?oiaiio ? a?o/eciyiiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa?, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa oa caaaeueia no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. A eiioaeno?
o?aioeocueei? e?oa?aoo?e i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo aeine?aeaeo?oueny ca’ycie
Aa?iaiina c e?oa?aoo?ith eaoieeoeueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Oai?/?noue
ienueiaiieea ?icaeyaea?oueny ia oii? iaioii?cio oa o?enoeyinueei?
i?noeee, ?icea?o yeeo nooo?ai iicia/ea o?aioeocueeo e?oa?aoo?o ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO noie?ooy. Iiceoe?? AE.Aa?iaiina aeineoue nai???aei?: eiai
a??a iaio aieiaie/a, i?ae a??a I.Eeiaeaey, ? a?eueo noeeueia aei ?aea?
ieeino? Ainiiaeiuei?. Eeiaeaeue aeeae/ee aei aeooo ? aoeae Noa?iai
Caa?oo, eiai ia?niiaae? o?ce/ii ia?aaeeaathoue noia?a/iino? a??e e
iieeee o?eaniiai aaaeaiiy. O ?iiaiao AE.Aa?iaiina iee?noue Ainiiaeiy
i?ieeaa?oueny ia ethaeeio ?aioiai, ?? iaiiaeeeai ai? cao?enoaaoe a /an?,
ai? aecia/eoe i?ioyaei?noue. sse ? a ?iiaiao E.Aeoa, o oai?ao
AE.Aa?iaiina aeinooi o iaae?aaeuei?noue iiaeeeaee /a?ac ae?aeaeoeeo
a?ae/ath ? niiae?aaiue. ?icoi?iiy oaie no?aaeaeaiue, aaii?? oa
niieoooaaiiy a??o?a ethaenueeeo ye iaeaaee/i?oi? oa?ie, iaaeeaea? eiai
aei O.Iaa?. Naia o iueiai Aa?iaiin ciaoiaeeoue aeeaieee ?icaeoie ?aea?
niai?iiai a?aoa?noaa nayoeo ? “i?noe/io” eiioeaioe?th ?noi??? ye
i?ioenoiyiiy iieiaeiai oai?/iai aeooo noa?a/iio eiioi?i?ciia?.

Ie?aii aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?aoeaioe?y oai??a ienueiaiieea ca eiai aeeooy
? no?oeoo?ii-oaiaoe/ia ?icaaeoaeaiiy oi?aa?neoaonueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
50-90-? ?iee OO noie?ooy.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny i?aaiaoe/i?e ooieoe?? ooaeiaeiueiai ?
ioae?oeenoe/iiai oaenoo. E?oa?aoo?i? caniae iiaoeee iia?e?cothoueny
aaoi?ii aeey i?ioenoiyiiy ceo, ui ?iciiaca?oueny, ?iciiiaeoth/enue, a
?noi?e/iiio ieei? OO noie?ooy. Iiaoeea oai??a iieeeeaia ?aae?coaaoe
eiiaoeaio ooieoe?th. Aiia ? a?aeiia?aeaeth ia caieoaiiy aeeooy ? nia?o?,
iinoaaeaia aiioith, a?aeiia?aeaeth ia iieeeeaiiy “Nayoi? Aaii??”. Oea
iiaoeea ai?ioueae, iiaoeea i?ioenoiyiiy, yea ?icai?oa?oueny i?ae
aiieae?ine/iei ai?eciioii Inoaii?o Aei?a. Aa?iaiin ?ioa?i?aoo? na?o a
anoaoe/ii ioi?ieaiiio iineaii? ca aeiiiiiaith oeo /e ?ioeo iiaoe/ieo
cania?a, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey aeai?o.

?aoa?iaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aoiao? aeinyaiaiiy anoaoeee ?aoeaioe??
O.-A.ssonna oa e?oa?aoo?ii? aa?iaiaaoeee o?aioeocueeiai o?einioa
I.??ea?a. Aiii a?aeiia?aea? aa?iaiaaoe/iiio i?eioeeiia? “eia?ee
caieoaiiy ? a?aeiia?ae?”, a naia aecia/aiith AE.Noa?ia?inueeei
niaoeeo?ee aaaeaia??anueeiai ai?eciioo i/?eoaaiiy: “Eiaeai oa?? ?
a?aeiia?aeaeth ia caieoaiiy. Caieoaiiy, yea noaaeoue ?ioa?i?aoaoi?,
iieyaa? o aeciaii? /a?ac oaeno ? a oaeno? oa?aeoa?o ii/aoeiaiai
caieoaiiy, iinoaaeaiiai aiioith, ? oiai, ye aaoi? noi?ioethaaa
a?aeiia?aeue ia iueiai”. Iineaiiy Aa?iaiina aae?aniaaia aeeaeiueiio –
oiio no/anieeia?, yeee ? iaeiiaeoioeai ? iaiaeii?aciai nai nia? noaaea
o? ae iaoao?ce/i? caieoaiiy iainyaeiino? ? iaaecia/aiino? oa?aeoa?o Cea
oa ethaenueeiai iauanoy.

AE.Aa?iaiin ye ?noi?ee, ?iiai?no, aeo?iae?no, ana?no ? i?inoi ye
ethaeeia o?aeoo? iiae?th ii-??ciiio. Aeoaea /anoi a?i i?ioenoaaey?
iiae?th ? oaeo. Ua a 1917 ?ioe?, ia?aaoaath/e ia o?iio?, iaeaooi?e
ienueiaiee ienaa nai?io aeoo?aieeo: ”A?eia, ye ?iiaioe/ia ae?aia,
aeiaaa? aeeaii? i?cainoeaie, aea cian?i iaei aeaaaeee. Aanue oeae ooi —
oi o?eueee /ooo?a? a?aeaieinee oiai aaeeeiai, ui Ainiiaeue oai?eoue iei?
a ethaenueeeo aeooao, oi iaaeaeeia ao?y ca iaaeaie iaoa??aeueiiai na?oo,
yea niia?ua? i?i naaa”. A /a?ac aeae?eueea ?ie?a, iiaa?oath/enue aei
i?iaeaie iaoa?noi???, a?i iiynithaaa: ”Iniiaia aeoaa ?icai?oa?oueny iei?
ia a iaee?, a a na?oeaaei? Ethaeeii-Aiaeanoaa, ca?aeee Ethaenoai aa?a
na?e ii/aoie ”.

Oaeo — oea oa, ui nieeaa? ia iiaa?oi? ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. A?i
iia`ycaiee c ae??th cania?a ianiai? i?iiaaaiaee ? ?aae?yie
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae. Iiae?y ae o ?icoi?ii? AE.Aa?iaiina
oi?ea?oueny aeeaeiii? ethaenueei? i?aaaee ? a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeoo?, oai,
aea eaea iino?eia ai?ioueaa i?ae neeaie aeia?a ? cea. A nenoai?
aa?iaiin?anueeiai na?oiaeyaeo ni?aaaeiy iiae?y caa??aa? naith
oa?iie/?noue. Aiia a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?noe/iiio /an?: oea aeeneaae/ia
i?iieeiaiiy Aiaei? eanee ? ethaenueei? naiaiaee a /an ?noi?e/iee,
o?ce/iee. Oea ?ic?ea i?e/eiiino?, e?i?eiiai aeaoa?i?i?cio. Aiia ia?
anoaoieia?/iee oa?aeoa? ? ? iaeii/anii ii/aoeii ? e?ioeai, aeueoith ?
iiaaith, a?aeiaeaeaiei aeeoeinoaii (aaniethoiith aeia??ith) ? Oea?noaii
Aiaeei. Aeeiai?ea iiae?? iiaeaeth? o?iiioii iiia?ae?. Iiiceoe?y
iaia?eiaaiiai oaeoo, ui iaeaaeeoue aei oiiino, ? ia?eiaaii? iiae??
/anoeiai ni?aiaaea? c i?ioenoaaeaiiyi ia`?eoeaiiai ? noa`?eoeaiiai
/an?a.

Aa?iaiin?anueea i?ioenoiyiiy na?oo “oaeo?a” oa na?oo “iiae?e”
a?aeiia?aea? aeae?eai?e I.??ea?ii iiiceoe?? ?aoa?aioe?e ia?oiai ?
ae?oaiai ??ai?a. ??ea? aeaoaeueii aiae?co? yeei naia /eiii e?oa?aoo?iee
oaeno a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino? ye ni?eueii? c
cae/aeiei oniei aeeneo?nii ?aoa?aioe?? ? iaaieioo? ia a?aei?iiino?
aeaii? eiioeaioe?? a?ae no?oeoo?ae?nonueeeo ia?aeiiaiue a
naiiaeinoaoiino? e?oa?aoo?e. “Cieuaiiy ?aoa?aioe?? ia?oiai ??aiy, yea
cae?enith?oueny ooaeiaei?i i?ica?/iei oai?ii ? iiac??th, ? iaiao?aeiith
oiiaith ca?eueiaiiy ?aoa?aioe?? ianooiiiai ae?oaiai ??aiy, yea a naith
/a?ao noino?oueny na?oo ia no?eueee ia ??ai? iai?ioeueiaaieo ia’?eo?a,
ne?eueee nyaa? oiai, ui Aonna?eue ?iaio? Lebenswelt, a Aaeaeaaaa?
aoooyi-a-na?o? ”.

?icoi?iiy oaenoo ia?aaeaa/a? “i?iaeoe?th iaeoa?aeoa?i?oeo
a??ooaeueiinoae a na?oeaaeio ethaenueeeo neooaoe?e”.  Oaeno i?iiiio?
o?eoeaio neooaoe?th ye i?i?iaeueiee ae?ac iaeiiai c iiaeeeaeo iiaeo
na?o?a, “oaeiai, a yeiio y i?a ae ?nioaaoe, uia i?iaeooaaoe a iueiai ii?
iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? aeanoeaino?”. Aa?iaiin a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae iiaeeeaino?
a?aeaeaaoe ?aoa?aioe?th ia?oiai ??aiy, oiaoi cae/iee na?o ? oai?eoue
iiao ?aoa?aioe?th — iiaeeeaee na?o. sse ienueiaiiee a?ae?eii?
o?aaeeoe??, a?i c iniaeeaith i?ici?eea?noth, oa?aeoa?iith aeey i?i?iea,
aaeeaey?oueny o oaeoe nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy nai?? aiioe ?
?ai?iaeoeo? ii?oo e?oa?aoo?e, yea a?aeeeaea? ia?oo ?aoa?aioe?th, uia
caaeeaeoenue a ?ioo, a?eueo nooo?ao. Iiaa?oia? oaeoe, ui neeaaeathoue
?io?eao ooaeiaei?o oai??a oa ana, ii?iaeaeai? ?noi?e/iith ae?eni?noth,
aea ?oi?e eaioetha ?ic?eaa?oueny, a?aee?eaath/e ?nioaaiiy ?ioiai,
aeeaeii?oiai ca’yceo iiae?e.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoa? a aa?iaiaaoe/i?e ia?niaeoea? ye
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ae?oaiai ??aiy, oiaoi ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aa?iaiin?anueei?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? na?oo. Aeoiea ienueiaiieea, eiai na?oiaeyae, eiioeaioe?y
ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino? aeeeaaeathoueny ia aaciina?aaeiuei, a /a?ac
oaeno ? a oaeno?. Aaoi?nuee? ?ioaioe?? iinooiiai ae?inoathoue ia?aae
/eoa/ai, yeee ia? ?o ?aeiino?othaaoe, aacoth/enue ia cia/aii? neiaie?a ?
ciae?a, ?iceeaeaieo o oaeno?. Aea no/ania aa?iaiaaoeea, i?aaenoaaeaia
o?aioeocueeei o/aiei I.??ea?ii, i?iaoeueeei A.Aaaeaia?ii, canoa??aa?
a?ae iaaei??ii? noa’?eoeaaoe?? aiae?co, oiaoi a?ae iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae /e
oi iniaenoino? aaoi?a /e aoaeoeaiiio aeina?aeo /eoa/a. Nai oaeno
aieiae?? aioo??oiueith aeeiai?eith, yea aecia/a? eiai ianooiia
?icai?oaiiy a /an? ? i?inoi??, oiaoi eiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy. E??i oiai,
oa?? ia? aioo??oith aia?a?th ae??, yea i?iaeoo?oueny a iiiaio /eoaiiy
iica oaeno ? oai?eoue aeaniee na?o, yeee ? aoaea ?aae?caoe??th oaenoo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Iiaoeea iiae?? oa i?i?ioeoaa a aeai?? ana” —
iieai?ei-ana?noe/i? oi?ie ienueia i?aaenoaaeai? aiae?cii aeaio
iaeyne?aa?oeo ana Aa?iaiina “Aaeee? oeaeioa?? o i?ny/iiio na?oe?” (1938)
oa “Ciaaaaeai? ae?oe”(1949). An? iie?oe/i? ana iaeaaeaoue aei e?oa?aoo?e
?aeae ? ? aieiaeie iieai?/ieie oaenoaie. Aiie ii?iaeaeai? iianyeaeaiieie
?icaeoiaie iaae aeieath no/anii? oeea?e?caoe?? ? ethaeeie a
oaoiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa?, ia?iaiaioiei noaiii yeiai ? a?eia: a?eia
i?ioe a?aeiino?, iacaeaaeiino?, /ano?, naiaiaee ethaeeie. Ia?oee aoai
oai?/ino? a aeai?? ana iaiaaeo?oueny aaeaa?nueeei ia??iaeii (o?aaaiue
1936 – o?aaaiue 1937) ? caaa?oo?oueny ioae?eaoe??th a o?aai? 1938
“Aaeeeeo oeaeioa??a o i?ny/iiio na?oe?”. Ae?oaee aoai iia’ycaiee c
iiae?yie Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie ? ?icaeaa? oaiaoeeo ia?oiai aoaio. A
oeae /an AE.Aa?iaiin aeeaa a A?acee?? (1938-1945), aea ? ieoa “Neaiaeae
i?aaaee”(1939), “Ie,o?aioeoce”(1939), “Ciaaaaeai? ae?oe”, “Eeno aei
aiae?eoe?a”, ”O?aioe?y i?ioe ?iaio?a”. O?e inoaii?o oaenoe ca aeeooy
ienueiaiieea ioae?eoaaeeny o aeaeyae? noaoae ? o?eueee i?ney eiai
nia?o? caaaeyee coneeeyi a?aeiiiai o?aioeocueeiai e?eoeea ?
e?oa?aoo?iciaaoey A.Aaaaia aoee ia’?aeiai? a ca??ee. I?ae aeacaieie
aoaiaie a?aenooiy /?oea aeaia?eaoe?y oai oa aaoi?nueeeo iiceoe?e.
Aa?iaiin caeeoa?oueny a??iei nia?, aea ci?ia iie?oe/iiai ia??th, /?oea
aecia/aiiy oaoecio ye i?ioeaieea, a?aee?eo? ai?ii? ae?? Ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie iicia/athoueny a eaeneei-noee?noe/ieo iniaeeainoyo, caaaeueiiio
aeai?? i???ioaoe?? oaenoo, ia?acao i?iiiaoey ? eiai i?ioeaieea.
Aa?iaiin-ana?no caa??aa? i?ioaoe/io ianiaao, ?iiaiiee ?eoi a ?icaeoeo ?
aeeeaae? iniiaieo oai. Eiai oo?ao? ianaiia?aae ci?no iineaiiy, yea a?i
oi/a ia?aaeaoe nai?io no/anieeo-iaeiiaeoioeth, oi?ia ae oai?o
a?aeoiaeeoue ia ae?oaee ieai. I?iaeiaaeoth/e o?aaeeoe?? aaeeeeo
o?aioeocueeeo ienueiaiiee?a oa ieneeoae?a O.?aaea, A.Ianeaey, I.
Ei?iaey, A.Athai oa O.Iaa?, Aa?iaiin aaeeaey?oueny aaeea ?noi?e/ii?
iiae??, a ?? iaoa?noi?e/ia ei??iiy: a?i ia?aae/oaa? o?aaaae?th, aa/eoue
o oaeoao iiia?aaeaeaiiy. C /an?a a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a ?niai??
Aa?iaiin cia?, ui ia o?eueee O?aioe?y ? o?enoeyinoai, a e oaanue
no/aniee na?o ia?aaoaathoue ia aoai? ae??oaeueii? e?ece. ?aaeueiino?
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae iaeaaeaoue aei o?aa?/iiai, iaethaenueeiai einiino.
Aea ?nio? ?ioee ii?yaeie ?aaeueiino?. O iaaei?e?iaeiiio na?o?
ae??oaeueio ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ia ae?? oiai /e ?ioiai iie?oe/iiai
e?aea?a: oai ?aea iino?eia ai?ioueaa nee Aeia?a ? Cea. Oaeoe iie?oe/ii?
ai?ioueae ia?aiinyoueny a iaoao?ce/iee ieai. Ii??anenoe, ye aieiaia
?aeaeia neea e?a?ie, aeene?aaeeooaaee /anoue ? a?aei?noue iaoe?? aaea
oei, ui iiaiaeeeeny ia i?aaeea a?e, iaa`ycai? na?oiaei
iaoe?iiae-nioe?ae?ciii. Ii??an, Ionnie?i?, O?aiei, Naeaca? — i?iaeoe?y
a ?noi??th ethaenoaa oeo naoaieinueeeo nee, ye? iathoue ?aaeueio neeo
cea a iaaei?e?iaeiiio na?o?. O?aa?/iee nain no/anii? ?noi??? iaiiaeeeai
inyaiooe, ei?enooth/enue o?eueee iiceoea?nonueeei ?aoe?iiae?noe/iei
?ino?oiaioii. Ii??an ni?eeia?oueny ienueiaieeii ia o?eueee ye
eiie?aoiee ?noi?e/iee ae?y/, a e ye neiaie?/ia o?ao?a ine?ieaiiy
no/anii? ethaeeie ia?aae eeoeai o?aa?/iiai ? iaaei?e?iaeiiai, yea ia
aea?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueiiio inieneaiith.

Aa?iaiin — o?aioeoc ? ethaeoue naith aaouee?aueio ye a??iee nei. A?i
aiaaiaiee, ui O?aioe?? noaeeeany o?aa?/ia aeiey. Eiai iiceoe?y noa?
i?ioaoe/iith. *anoue ? ai?ae?noue caeeoathoueny a no/aniiio na?o?
ia?aaeienii ? a i?aeoe/iiio aeeoo? i?iaeeaathoueny c ii/oooyi noii?ao.
A OO noie?oo? ethaenueea /anoue ia noaea i?aaeiaoii iniaeeai? ai?aeino?:
aiia ?nio? o?eueee oiae?, eiee aeieea? noii?a a ?? iaiao?aeiino?.
Ethaenueea /anoue ? ?acoeueoaoii aacoiiaii ?eceeiaaii? ae?? a ?i`y aeueo
i?eioeei?a /ano?, ?acoeueoaoii aiaaaeiaaiino? aeoo? a??ith oa iaae??th.

Aeaiii no/aniino? — a?ae/ae. Ia iiaeyae Aa?iaiina a?i ? na?ae/aiiyi
noii?a?a o aeioe?eueiino? i?eioeei?a /ano?. I?ioyaii anueiai aeeooy
ienueiaiiee caeeoa?oueny i?noeeii iaae?? ? iaaaaeo? no/anieeai i?i
iaiao?aei?noue aioo??oiueiai naiicaa?oaiiy aei aeooiaieo aeiia.
O?aa?/i?noue aeie? no/aniiai na?oo aac Aiaa iieyaa? a iaaei??i?e aeia???
?icoio, a ne?i?e iiei?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiio i?eioeeio aeioe?eueiino?.
Aa?iaiin a ieai? iaoao?ce/iiio iiae?ey? iiceoe?? A.Iaeue?i: iaia? ?ioiai
aei??o ethaenueeiai aeeooy, i?ae aaciaaeia i?enayoa eiai oaeei
oe?iiinoyi, ye? ia iiaeooue aooe iiai?noth ?ice?eoeie a ?aieao iaeiiai
ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy. Aea Aa?iaiin ia noa? ?aaiethoe?iia?ii-aoioa?ai,
ye A.Iaeue?i. Eiai aeaniee aoio i?ioe cea iineoue oaeiae iaoao?ce/iee
oa?aeoa?, aea ia ?ioee eaae. ?niothoue ?aaeueiino?, ye? iaiiaeeeai
inyaiooe ?icoiii. Iniiaiee ai?ia — a?aoiy, ?aeaieia?/ia i?iiaaaiaea.
Aiie caai?iaeothoue ethaeeio, iicaaaeythoue ?? aeoeaiino?, ooiaoathoue a
ii?ie iiei?e, noai?ththoue ooo/ieo ?aeie?a, iiae?aieo ?aea? aaciaaeiiai
oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano.

O aa?ani? 1938 ?., ia?aaoaath/e i?ae aieeaii ithioainueeeo iiae?e,
Aa?iaiin iiae?ey? c o?aioeocueeei ia?iaeii ni?ii ii?acee ? a?eue ao?ao.
O oie /an, ye e?a? caeioaa/othoue a onueiio i?aaeo ? iaaiaee, Aa?iaiin
ieoa o?ii?eaeueia na?ae/aiiy noaio na?aeiiino? “iaeiiai c ian”,
ii?aeioth/e a oeueiio caeiaiieeo an? iie?oe/i? i???ioaoe??.

O ?icae?e? aeaoaeueii aiae?co?oueny o?ao?e oii aioeithioainueeiai oeeeeo
“Ciaaaaeai? ae?oe”, iaienaiee ainaie-aceieo 1939-1940 ?ieo o oi?i?
uiaeaiieea ? iioae?eiaaiee aaea i?ney nia?o? ienueiaiieea a 1949 ?.
Aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?icaeoie iniiaieo oai aa?iaiin?anueei? ana?noeee:
a?aei?noue, aeeoeinoai, /anoue, ciaaaaa, iieeeeaiiy. Aa?iaiin ia
no?eueee ?aaao? ia aeooaeueio iiae?th, ne?eueee iineoaiao?oueny iath ye
oi/eith a?aee?eo a nai?o ?icaeoiao i?i iaeaooi?. A?i aea? o?aaeeoe?eii
o?enoeyinueeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th ia?aaiee i?i eoe?eue, ui ?? ciaoiaeeii a
?aaiaae?? a?ae na. Iaoa?y (13:24-30): iio??aii ai?ioeny c? ceii, aea
aiaeii/an ia i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia iiaeeea?noue eiai iiaiiai aeei??iaiiy
aeaieie ethaeei? caniaaie ai?ioueae. A /an Inoaiiueiai Noaeo — aeiea ii
a?ae?ei?e ia?aaie? — ainiiaea? nai iaa?aaeii a?aeae?eeoue eoe?eue a?ae
ioaieoe?. Aa?iaiin aenooia? i?ioe ?aaeeio iie?oe/iiai /e ii?aeueiiai
ii?yaeeo, yeee aaaaea? naaa oiiaiiaaaeaiei na?onueeeie caniaaie
i?iaaaeeoe /enoee, cieuoaaoe ?iaeiieney/eo. Aaea o “Aaeeeeo oeaeioa?yo“
a?i caeioaa/oaaa o?aie?ci oa ?niainueeo oea?eao a ciaaac? aei a?aea?y.

Noaoo? i?neyai?iiiai ia??iaeo aoaeooue ni?yiiaai? i?ioe oioae?oa?ecio
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, yeee ia aeiioneaa ?nioaaiiy ?iaeiieney/eo ia
oa?eoi??yo naiai aieeao. Ana “Eeno aei aiae?eoe?a” aeia?aaeaea?
“Aoiooth/o ethaeeio“ A.Eaith. C iaioith aeieath o?einionueeeo ?icaeoi?a,
aea c oei aea iieoi`yiei aea?ii aaoi? caeeeea? aei iii?o ceo. Inoaii?e
aaeeeee oaeno, caaeoiaiee ? cae?eniaiee AE.Aa?iaiinii ye oe?ea aaoiiiiia
eieaa, aoa iaienaiee a 1944 ?. a A?acee??. “O?aioe?y i?ioe ?iaio?a” —
oea ?icaeoie iaae no/aniith oaoiie?aoe/iith oeea?e?caoe??th, yea
iiaee?a? aeooiai? neee ethaenoaa ? ia?aoai?th? ?o ia ianeai? ?aoeei??ioe
iiaiai ?aeiea — oaoi?ee. Aa?iaiin aaea a 1944 ?ioe? a?aeeeaea?
nioe?ae?ci ? eai?oae?ci ye iaeiaeiai eiioi?i?nonuee? a ieai? ?aeaieia??
nenoaie. ?o ni?eueia aaaea — iaiaaaiiy i?aeei?eoe iniaeno?noue aeaae?
aea?aeaae, ia?o?? /e i?eaooe?a: nioe?ae?ci ? eai?oae?ci iathoue a nai?e
iniia? ni?eueio eiioeaioe?th ethaeeie ye aeiiii?/ii? iniae — iaeii/anii
?aaa ? ia`?eoa aeiiii?/iiai aeaoa?i?i?cio. A??a a ?icaeoie iaoee ?
oaoi?ee a OYIII no. ia?oeyea ethaeei? uanoy, a OO noie?oo? ?aeaieia?y
i?ia?ano ia?aoai?eea ethaeeio ia ca?o/ieea oaoi?/ii? aaiethoe??, ne?iiai
? neooiyiiai a ?oeao ananeeueii? ?aeeaie. Oa?aeoa? no/anii?
oeea?e?caoe?? iacaeaaeii a?ae iie?oe/ieo canaae a ie?aiiio noni?euenoa?
noa? oioae?oa?iei. Noai?th?oueny iiaee oei ethaeeie — iie??iiai
eiiaiaeai ?iaioa, ui aa?a o/anoue o uiaeaii?e eiieo?aioi?e ai?iouea? ca
aeaeeaaiiy. Oeae aea no?ao ia?aae iiaeeea?noth ciaaeooiaeaiiy ethaeeie a
?acoeueoao? iaaaee iaoei, iaioaaiiy ?aeeaie a i?neyai?ii?e o?aioeocuee?e
e?oa?aoo?? cono??/a?ii o I.Na??io, A.?iaa-A??e? oa AE.-I.A.Eaeeac?i
ia?oi? ii?e. Aa?iaiin?anuee? oaie a?aeiiae a?ae noni?euenoaa
niiaeeaaiiy, a eii? yeiai ethaeeia caaoaa? i?i nai? iieeeeaiiy oai?oey ?
noa? ?a?aoeith a iaco?ao nenoaie, eiai a?aeiiaa aeciaoe Aea?aeaao, ui
aeiaaa? aaniethoiiai e?aaeeoo aeia??e a on?o aniaeoao — an? oe? oaie ia
ao?aoeee nai?? aeooaeueiino? ? ia ii?ic? OO? noie?ooy.

AEai? ana iaeaaeeoue aei ?ic?yaeo aeeaiai aenia?eiaioo, a?aee?eoiai
i?ioeano iaaeeoaoe??: ia ciai?oiueiai oaeoo, ?acoeueoaoo, a aeeai?
iiae??. “Aaeee? oeaeioa?? o i?ny/iiio na?oe?”, “Ciaaaaeai? ae?oe”
ni?aaeythoue a?aaeaiiy aeoiee, ui ia?iaeaeo?oueny, ?icaeaa?oueny
a?aeiia?aeii aei nai?o aioo??oi?o i?aai?/ieo caeii?a ? ia caeaaeeoue
a?ae iiia?aaei?o i?aaee ooieoe?thaaiiy, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey iaaiiai aeai?o.
Aeaiaioe o?eoeaii? iiia?ae? ianeaii i?iieeathoue o iieai?/io no?oeoo?o,
aacith yei? ? iaioeao, ? o?ainoi?iothoue ?? cna?aaeeie. Aaoi?
ei?enoo?oueny iiaith eiioeaio?a, aea caaaa/o? ?? aeaiaioaie ?iiaiii?
noee?noeee: aaiaeeoue aeaaaeaieo ia?niiaae?a, ?noioii ca?eueoo? ?ieue
iiia?aea/a, ia?nii?o?eo? aano?aeoe??, noai?th? neiaiee, iiaeaeth?
o?iiioiie. Eiioeaiooaeueia aeoiea ?icaeaa?oueny c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?ac?a
? ?iiaiii? iiia?ae?. Aa?iaiin ia?aeiiaiee, ui iiac?y ? iiia?aeue
caa?oathoueny aei eiie?aoieo ?aae?e, ye? iathoue aaeeeee niaeo?
aecenoaioe?eieo cia/aiue ? neiaie?/ieo aa?oinoae. ?iiaiiee ia?ac
ia?aaaaea? ca nai?i aioo??oi?i aaaaonoaii eiioeaiooaeueio aeoieo.
Aa?iaiin ei?enoo?oueny ia no?eueee eiioeaiooaeueii-aano?aeoiith iiaith,
ne?eueee iineoaiao?oueny iaoai?ciii ?iiaiii? iiia?ae?.
Eiioeaiooaeueiee aeaia?e I?aaaee ? A?aoi? ae?aiaoeco?oueny. A?io?, Oee,
A?eia iaeeaathoue i?ae eiai ia?ii, io?eiothoue i?aai ia aeneiaeaiiy
nai?o iiceoe?e ? ?aae?caoe?th a ae?yo. Aieiaia a?aei?ii?noue ooieoe??
iiia?ae? a aa?iaiin?anueeiio ana — a ?? c?ei?e i?aaiaoe/i?e i???ioaoe??
ia iiaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeaieo ?noi?e/ieo na?ae/aiue. Aa?iaiin
caeeoa?oueny ?iiai?noii. Iiae?aii aei I.I?onoa a?i ?icaeyaea?
ooaeiaei?e oa?? ye oi?io eiioeaio?iaaiiai aeeooy. Aea yeui I.I?ono
aaaaeaa, ui ?iiai noanoeooth? aeeooy, oi Aa?iaiin noaaeoueny aei nai?o
ia?niiaae?a ye aei aeeaeo ethaeae. Aiie aeeaooue a oiio ae ?aeeiiio
eini?/iiio i?inoi??, a oiio ae O?e? Ainiiaeiueiio, ui ? a?i, ? /eoa/.
*eoa/ ? ia?niiaae iiaee a iii?iyoeny nai?ie ?ieyie ? i?iaeiaaeoaaoe
aeeoe a eiie?aoiiio ?noi?e/iiio eiioeiooi?, ye o ?iiaiiiio i?inoi??.
Caaaeee i?i aa?i?a ?iiai?a a ana “Aaeee? oeaeioa??” oa “Ciaaaaeai?
ae?oe” cao/aoue oe?eeii i?e?iaeii naia oiio, ui aeey ienueiaiieea
Aeii?nnai ? Oaioaeue oae? ae ?aaeuei? o?ao?e, ye AEaiia ae`A?e /e
A?oea?. Aea aiaeii/an i?ae ana ? ?iiaiaie ?nio? ?noioia a?aei?ii?noue.
?ica?aei?noue i?ae iiceoe??th i?iiiaoey a ana ? aaoi?a a ?iiai?
i?iyaey?oueny ia a ia?aeiiaiiyo, a a ?o ooieoe?iiaeuei?e ?ie?: a ana
iiceoe?y i?iiiaoey – oea aeaiaio aeeneo?no, iieeeeaiee eiai
ae?aiaoecoaaoe, a ?iiai? aeeneo?n iiia?aea/a aoiaeeoue a iiia?aeue.
Iiiieia i?iiiaoey a ana oi/ ? a?ae??ciy?oueny oiiaeuei?noth, aea
caeeoa?oueny iniiaiith oaiii?aeueiith aaee/eiith: a?i iineoaiao? oi/eith
a?aee?eo a i?aai?caoe?? iiia?ae?. Iiaeaii?aa neooaoe?y ana /?oei
ae?aaeaia, iaoaaeeneo?n ia? cao?eniaaio a oaeno? /ani-i?inoi?iao
oa?aeoa?enoeeo. Cia/aiiy iieno a ana oaae a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
?iiaiiiai. Eiai ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaea ia oae /?oei ie?aneaia, ia?aoeaia
nenoaia ana ia io?eiaea caaa?oaiiai aeaeo. Iiceoe?y aaoi?a
i?e??aith?oueny ii nai?io cia/aiith aei i?aaeiaoa aeeneo?no — naii?
?noi?e/ii? iiae??. O ?iiaii?e iiia?ae? neooaoe?y iiaeaiiy a?aeoiaeeoue
ia ae?oaee ieai, aoaeoueny ia?aae aaee/i?noth iiae?e, ui
?icai?oathoueny a oeueiio i?inoi??. Iaa?oue o “Uiaeaiieeo n?euenueeiai
nayuaieea”, aea iiaeaiiy cana?ae/o? ?eoi naieo uiaeaiieo iiae?e,
?icaeoie aa?iy-ae?a?enoa caeeoathoueny aeaiaioii caaaeueii? ea?oeie i ia
aeoiaeyoue ia ia?oee ieai.

Ana AE.Aa?iaiina iathoue ae?aeia?/io oi?io. Oea, a naith /a?ao, aeeeeea?
a?aei?iiino? a noaoon? i?iiiaoey ? ia?niiaaea a ni?anoaaeaii? c ?o
?ieeth a ?iiaii?e iiia?ae?. Ia?niiaaeai ana ia aeanoeaa iacaeaaei?noue
?iiaiiiai aa?iy: aiie aoiaeyoue o aeeneo?n i?iiiaoey ? caeaaeaoue a?ae
iio?aa a?aoiaioaoe??. Aa?iaiin aa/eoue a ieo, ianaiia?aae, ?noi?e/io
ooieoe?th, a ia ethaenueeo iniaeno?noue, eiai oe?eaaeoue oa?aeoa?ia, aea
ia ie?aia. Ia?niiaae? ?iiai?a, o ii??aiyii? c ae?enieie ?noi?e/ieie
aa?iyie O.Ii??anii /e O.Iaa?, ye? cono??/athoueny ia noi??ieao ana,
iathoue a?eueo iniaeno?niee ? a?eueo eiie?aoeciaaiee oa?aeoa?. ?oiy
iniiaia ?ena — a?oaoei?/ia iioiaeaeaiiy. Naia oiio ?o ia?ace ianooue
anaioe?aeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aa?iaiin?anueeee a?oaoei iia`ycaiee a ana c
A?ae??th ye ia?oiaeaea?aeii ciaiue. Iaoa ana — aena?oeeoe anoaoieia?/io
neooaoe?th na?oo ? ethaenueeo aeieth a oe?e neooaoe?? e?ioey. Aeiey
ethaenueea iinoa? a iae/eno?oiio iaoao?ce/iiio ?ic??c?, ?? /ooo?aee
noano?ao a?aaea? aaaaonoaii naiai aeyao ye a iieai?/iiio ana, oae ? a
ana-iaaeeoaoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Iiaoeea iiae?? oa i?i?ioeoaa a ?iiai?” —
aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aai?caoe?y ? ooieoe?thaaiiy i i i a ? ae ? ye
aecia/aeueiiai aeai?iaiai aeaiaioo aa?iaiin?anueeiai ?iiaio.
O?aioeocueeee a/aiee-no?oeoo?ae?no A?aiii a 70-? ?iee caa?ioa oaaao ia
oa?aeoa? iiia?ae?. Oea neeaaeia, iae?i?eia no?oeoo?a, a ye?e
niinoa??aa?oueny “niieo/aiiy iaaii? e?eueeino? eaae??a, ui
iaeeaaeathoueny iaeia ia iaeia, caa’ycothoueny, ia?ao?auothoueny ”.
Ooaeiaei?e oaeno ia ? o?eniaaiith, inoaoi/ii noi?iiaaiith nenoaiith, a
ye?e coieieeiny aeeooy. O eiaeiiio iaeiaioiio o?aaiaio? iiia?ae?
i?enooiy iiaeeea?noue aeai?o iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ?io?eae.
Aeooae?co?oueny eeoa iaeia oaenooaeueia iiae?y c iaaii? e?eueeino?
cana?ae/aieo oaeo?a, ui oaeiae iiaee a aooe ?aae?ciaaieie a iiae??, aea
ia noaee.

?iiaiia iiia?aeue noai?th?oueny ia aac? aaaaoueio ai?ciae?a, ii?aeiaieo
aaiethoe??th oa?aeoa??a, aca?iei ia?niiaae?a — aeania ae??th. ?io?eaa
aeeiio? neioacoth/o ?ieue a iiia?ae?: caaaeyee ?e a iaei?e
oaiii?aeueiino?, a iaei?e oioaeuei?e ae?? ii?aeiothoueny aace?/ oaeo?a ?
?ic??ciaieo aeiaaee?a, i?e/eia ? iaoa. Naia ?io?eaa noaiaoeco?,
aeicaiey? yaeoe, ona?aeiieoe i?eoiaaia ? ianoi?ioeueiaaia nieneiaa
iaaaioaaeaiiy iiia?ae? ye ?aeeiiai oe?eiai. sseui nai?ioe/ia iapaoieia?y
A?aeiana caa?oa?oueny aei eiia?iaoi?ii? ?aoe?iiaeueiino? noaie ? ia
??ai? iaoa-iiae ciaoiaeeoue oa i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ?? aeioe?euei?noue, oi
aiae?c ?io?eae c iii?ith ia aa?iaiaaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy I.??ea?a
aeicaiey? iai c?icoi?oe iiia?aeue ye oe?e?ni?noue. A iaeio oe?e?nio ?
aeieiiaio ae?th ia`?aeiothoueny aace?/ iiaa?oiaeo oaeo?a, ui iaeaaeaoue
aei noa?e ianoaaei, iaoe oa cania?a ?? aeinyaiaiiy, ethaenueei?
?i?oe?aoeae ? i?aeiniaeno?nieo aca?iiae?e, ye? aeieeaathoue c
ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Iiia?aeue aeeiio? i?iaoe/io ooieoe?th caaaeyee ?io?ec?. Aeina?ae
ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy a /anii?inoi?? ciaoiaeeoue a i?e iaee?auee niin?a
naiai a?aeoai?aiiy (?aeiio?ao?aoe??). Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith iiaoeee
ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o i?ioyaii a?e?a caeeoa?oueny ii?aeiaiiy ?
i?aai?caoe?y iiae?e a iaeio ?noi??th. Naiai /ano ua A??noioaeue o
“Iiaoeoe?” iaaieiooaaa, ui ?io?eaa ia? ?icaeyaeaoeny ia ye cao?eniaaia a
inoaoi/i?e oi?i? nenoaia, a ye ienoaoeoai: aca?iica`ycie ? ii?aeiaiiy
oaeo?a iinyoue iia?aoeaiee, a ia caeinoai?eee oa?aeoa?. Aca?iiii?aeiaiiy
oaeo?a a ?io?eao caaa?oo? iiaiioo ?? i?aai?caoe??, iaaea? ?e eia?/ii?
caaa?oaiino? ? i?ioyaeiino? o /an?. Eaeaoueny ia i?i no?oeoo?o, a i?i
no?oeoo?oaaiiy, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac aeae?eueea aoai?a noaiiaeaiiy.
Aeena?oaio iiae?ey? ?aea? I.??ea?a i?i ii?aeiaiiy a e?oa?aoo?i?e
aa?iaiaaoeoe? iiiyoue aa?iaiaaoe/ii? a?ee oa i?iaoe/iiai eiea aai ae
“iio??eiiai i?ianena”. Aeania, oai?/ee i?ioean ii/eia?oueny c
iiia?aaeiueiai caaeeaeaiiy ienueiaiieea a noa?o ethaenueei?
ae?yeueiino?, a naia a ?? neiaie?eo, naiaioeeo, oaiii?aeuei?noue. Ia?aae
oei, ye ioi?ieoe a ia?aoeaiiio ieai? ae?eni?noue a iiia?aeue,
iiaoaeoaaoe ?io?eao, yea iaeaaiaeeoue ca’ycee i?ae a?aeie?aieaieie
oaeoaie ? ioi?ieoue ?o a iaeia oe?ea, ienueiaiiee inyaa? ?aae?? oiai
?noi?e/iiai aoooy, yea ? ?aoa?aioe??th eiai iaeaooiueiai oai?o.

Ia?aae iiaeyaeii Aa?iaiina ?noi??y iinoa? ye ethaenueea iaae?iiy a
i???ao a??oa, a nei?aioo ? a?ae/ae. Ia??iae c??ei? ?iiaiii? oai?/ino?
i?eiaaea? ia 30-? ?iee, eiee a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
oioae?oa?ieo nenoai, aaeeeiaea?aeaaieo ?aeaieia?e eiioi?cio ? oaoecio,
na?oiaa ?iciiacaiiy ioaeueae, a?ae/ath, ooae. Ooaa Aa?iaiina ? ooaith
eiai aiioe, yea ao?aoeea iioieia?/i? iii?e ? ia cia?, ia /iio canioaaoe
naith aecenoaioe?th, ye? oe?iiino? ua iiaee a iineoaoaaoe i???ioe?ii.
Aea a?aeiia?aeue ia oeae noai caaaeueiiethaenueei? ooae a?ae??ciy?oueny
a ?iiaiao, ye? iiaeia aoei a ia’?aeiaoe o aea? aaeee? a?oie: ?iiaie 20-o
?ie?a ? ?iiaie 30 — 40-o ?ie?a. O ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny ni?eeiyooy
?noi?e/ii? neooaoe?? ienueiaiieeii a ia??iae iaienaiiy eiaeiiai
ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o ? i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? noa?e ethaenueei? ae?? a
ia?aoeaii ioi?ieaio ?iiaiio ?noi??th.

Niiaeyaeaiiy noaio noni?euenoaa ? eiai ii?ae? i?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie aeeeeea? o Aa?iaiina na??th caieoaiue, ia ye? a?i ooea?
a?aeiia?aeue a ?iiai? “I?ae niioeai Naoaie”. Ethaee a?aeiiaeeeny a?ae
aaeeei? aea?oae ethaia?, i?eianaii? ?nonii, aeac?iea?ioaaee eiai aeoo.
Ui ? aoio ethaeeie i?ioe Aiaa? Iane?eueee iiceoeaia /e iaaaoeaia eiai
?ieue o noni?euenoa? ? aeeoo? eiaeii? ie?aii? ethaeeie? sse iia`ycai?
i?ae niaith aoio ? a?ae/ae? *e iiaeeeaa a?aeeoieaiiy iaeaaae/eo
ethaenueeeo a??o?a? Ui iiaeiii i?ioenoiyoe ieu?ai?e nee? cea —
ianeeuenoai /e yeanue ?ioa neea? A ethaenueeiio na?o?, a ethaenuee?e
?noi??? iaio? cei. Iane?eueee aiii ananeeueia? *e iana o?ce/ia
?aaeuei?noue, aeaia ethaeei? o a?ae/oooyo, cia/aiiy i?enooiino?
o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai, /e aiia caeeoeeanue ionoei ciaeii? Ieoaiiy aeie?
ethaenueei? iia`ycaia a eiai ?icoi?ii? c o?enoeyinueeei oa?inoaii
no?aaeaeaiue.

Ienueiaiiee aa?a oaeoe, ?iceeaeai? ia iiaa?oi? ?noi?e/iiai aoooy,
?ai?aai?ciao?, ia`?aeio? ?o a iiia?aeue, iaiecoth/e eiioe?eoe ?
i?ioenoiyiiy ia iaeio /anii?inoi?iao ieoeo ?iiaiii? eaiae. ?io?eaa
ii?aeio? ?ic??ciai? oaeoe a iaeio ?noi??th, iniiaiee aei?? yei?
iaaei?e?iaeiee. Eiioe?eoe ia caaaeaee iathoue i?ae niaith
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy, yea aeicaiey? eia?/ii inieneeoe
i?ioenoiyiiy iaaieo nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ieo nee. Ae?aia ?icai?oa?oueny o
na?o? aeooiaiiio, ioiae ?ai?acaiooaaoe ?? o?aaeeoe?eieie ?iiaiieie
caniaaie iaiiaeeeai.

I?eioeei aiaeia?? noa? iaeiei c iniiaieo a i?aai?caoe?? ?io?eae, a
ii?aeiaii? i?e/ei ? iane?aee?a, iai???a ? aeania ae??. Ae?y
?icai?oa?oueny iaeii/anii a aeae?eueeio /aniaeo aei??ao — a ?noi???, o
uiaeaiiino?, o a?/iino? — ? o?eueee oaaaeiee iiaeyae iiia?aea/a iiaea
iii?oeoe ?? a?aena?o o aeie? ethaenuee?e, a aeeaiiio, aeia?/iiio
aeiaaeeo c aeeooy. O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny o?ainiiceoe?y
?noi?e/iiai oaeoo a oaenooaeueio iiae?th, eiai ni???ooae?caoe?y ?
neiaie?caoe?y ye oi?ie ?ai?acaioaoe?? anoaoieia?/iiai aei??o iiae?e.

Iaae na?oii iaaenea caa?ica nia?o? aeeoeie. Aa?iaiin, oae naii ye ?
A.Oai?iaoae, A.Aa?athn /e A.-I.?aia?e, aoa nieaeaoii a ieiiao Ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie. sse na?aeie ao?aoe iaae?? ? niiae?aaiue iieiaeeo
iieie?iue ?a?iie , a?i ia iiaea caiia/oaaoe oeae no?aoiee a??o
noni?euenoaa i?ioe aeanieo ae?oae. Ia a?aei?io a?ae A.Aa?athna, yeee
iane/o? iiia?aeue iaoo?ae?noe/ieie iiae?iaeoeyie ? iaaeeaea? /eoa/a aei
iiae??, /e A.-I.?aia?ea, yeee aeoeaioo? neeaaei?noue ineoieia?/ieo o?aai
iieiaeeo ethaeae, Aa?iaiin oe?eeii iaoaii?oico? iiae?th. O na?oe?
Nayoiai Ienueia Aa?iaiin aa/eoue ?? ye ?aae?caoe?th a?ae?eiiai Iiaeooy
iaiiaeyo o no/ani?e ?noi???. Oey a?oaiiae?y ii-??ciiio aeooae?co?oueny a
?iiai?. Aaoueee Iooaooe, Eaae?iueyi ? e?ea? Aaea a ?iiai? “I?ae niioeai
Naoaie” — aei?ine? ethaee, ye? aaeee a nia? ii-aeeoy/iio aeia??eeaa
noaaeaiiy aei na?oo, uia e?aua i?enoinoaaoeny aei eiai aei?noieino? ?
iani?aaaeiino?. ?iiaie ia?oiai ia??iaeo iathoue a nai?io yae?? oaio
aoioo i?ioe cea, iaoao?ce/ii? ooae ia?aae ionoeith nia?o?. Aa?iaiin
ia?aeiiaiee, ui no/aniee na?o ?icaoaea a??o a aaouee?anueeo ianoaiiao, a
ia iath/e oe?ii?nieo i???ioe??a, ioi/o? nai? ii?iaei? ?nioaaiiy
iiaieeaeie ?aeaieia?/ieie eicoiaaie. Noni?euenoai c?aeeiny
o?enoeyinueeiai oa?inoaa iac?eii? i?enooiino? o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai aeooo.
Caeii Aiaeee aoa ae ?aae?caoe??th iiaiioe aoooy. ?aeaieia?/ia
i?iiaaaiaea oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a noa? caoea?oaeith iaeaiith, ui
i?eoiao? a?ae ethaeeie aaniethoio iiceoeaio oe?ii?noue Aaouee?anueeiai
neiaa — a?/iiai neiaa ?noeie, aeooo i?aaaee, a?aenooiueiai a
ethaenueeiio na?o? .

Ienueiaiiee ia aea? eiie?aoii? a?aeiia?ae? ia iinoaaeai? caieoaiiy, a,
aeania, ? ia iaiaaa?oueny oeueiai c?iaeoe. Aieiaia aeey iueiai —
cana?ae/eoe ianiie?e aiioe, ia aeaoe caniooe ethaenuee?e na?aeiiino?.

O 20-? ?iee ooaeiaeiy oai?/?noue noa? aeey Aa?iaiina aeeoo?aiiaiao?aeiei
aeina?aeii, yeiai a?i ia iiaea iaaooe i?e iaienaii? iieai?/ieo oai??a. O
i?ioean? ae oai?aiiy ?iiaio a?i aeeaiei inieneth? ae?eni?noue a ??
i?ia?aeieo oaiaeaioe?yo, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeey naaa oaeo ?nioaaiiy
?aeeii? ooiaeaiaioaeueii? ?noeie ? oei naiei aeooae?co? ??
o?ainoeaiaeaioi?noue. Aa?i? oeueiai aoaio caeiathoue aeoeaio iiceoe?th a
aeai?? Aeia?a /e Cea. ?o aoio ? oi?iith i?ioanoo i?ioe iaaaoaioe/iiai
aeeooy no/aniee?a, oaeueoeaiai caeiio noni?euenoaa. A?aeiia?aeia
i?aai?caoe?y iiia?ae?, ?? oeeaaeaiiy a ia?aoeai? oi?ie noa?
aea?aaeaioii niia?ae?.

Oi?ie ?iiaiiiai ienueia Aa?iaiina a 30-? ?iee oei a?eueoa ni?eythoue
ino/aniaiith oai??a, ui a?i ia iaiaaa?oueny i?i?ethno?oaaoe ?noeio,
a?aeiio eiio iaia?aae, a noaaeoue caieoaiiy, ia ye? ooea? a?aeiia?aeue.
Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ? i?aai?caoe?y oai?/iai i?ioeano a 30-? ?iee. A 1933
— 1935 ?? a?i iaeii/anii i?aoeth? iaae aeae?eueeiia oai?aie ? ia iiaea
caaa?oeoe aeiaeiiai.

Oaiith ?iiai?a ia?oiai oeeeeo aoei i?ioenoiyiiy a??oa ? ieeino?
ainiiaeiuei?. A “Iia?e ?noi??? Iooaooe”,”Oiaeaiieeo n?euenueeiai
nayuaieea” a ai?oeaio?? aeyaey?oueny ai?ioueaa ethaenueei? a?aeiino? ?
/ano? c iauanoyie ? a?aeaie, ye? ooai?ththoue ae i e th e th ae n ue e
o. ?noi??y Iooaooe ae?enii iiaa — aiia ia iiaoi?th? aeina?ae ia?oi?
Iooaooe, ia “ii/eia? nii/aoeo, iiaoi?thth/e, ?noi??th noa?iai na?oo”,
?? ai?ioueaa i?ioe cea ia? iiceoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Aiia a?ae/aeaeooia ?
iaceaiia, aei oiai ae aaaeaoueny ca iiaii? a?aenooiino?
iaoa?iae?nonueei? i?aeo?eiee, a na?o?, aea a?aenooi? Io/a neiai, a caeii
ethaenueeee noaa i?ioeeaaei?noth caeiio Aiaeiio.

Aoio i?ioe ethaenueeiai caeiio eaaae?ciaaiee, ine?eueee oie iinoa?
no?iaaoii caeiio ni?aaaeiueiai. Ci?ieeany iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a
noni?euenoa?. Cei ?iciiaca?oueny ii ieaiao? ? oi?aeanoao? a ethaenuee?e
aeoo?. Inoaoi/ia ia?aiiaa iaae eiai neeaie iaiiaeeeaa, a ana ae eiio
iio??aii iie?aoeny. Naia ?aeay eai?ooeyoe?? aaaaea?oueny Aa?iaiinii
iai?eionoeiith. Naiaiaea ethaeeie caeeoa?oueny iniiaiei eeth/ai aei
?icoi?iiy aaoi?nueei? eiioeaioe?? aeie? ethaenueei?. Aeania eaaeo/e,
eaeaoueny iaa?oue ? ia i?i aoio, a i?i iino?eia i?ioenoiyiiy aie? aei
aeeooy oa niieone eiioi?i?ciii. ?noi??y ia? aeanio aioo??oith aeeiai?eo,
aea aia?a?y ethaenueei? aie?, ni?yiiaaia ia ?aae?caoe?th aioo??oiuei
i?enooiueiai aaoaioe/iiai aaaeaiiy iiaiioe aoooy, iiaea ? iiaeiia
aieeaaoe ia ?? iio?e. ?aae?caoe?y anaioe?aeueieo aaaeaiue ethaenoaa
aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e. Oea ? ? i?ioaoe/iith (i?i?i/ith)
ianiaaith Aa?iaiina 30-40-o ?ie?a.

?iiaiia iiia?aeue noa? iiaeeeaith caaaeyee aaaaoueii oaeoi?ai. I?ney
aiae?co ieaeiuei? /anoeie aa?iaiaaoe/ii? a?ee, caio?aii? a naiaioeeo oa
neiaie?eo ethaenueei? ae?? a ?noi?e/iiio i?inoi??, eia?/ii aeieea?
caieoaiiy uiaei ?ie? oai?/i? oyae ieooey. Naia aiia ciaoiaeeoue ca`ycee
i?ae ?ic??ciaieie oaeoaie, iaiaaa?oueny ?ai?aai?coaaoe ne?ee iaoa??ae
?noi???, iaaea? iiao eiio?ao?aoe?th iiae?yi, a oain? ethaenueei?
aeoeaiino? ciaoiaeeoue nain ? yaey? eiai nooue /eoa/aa?.

O a i ? / a o y a a Aa?iaiina a?oioo?oueny ia o?aaeeoe?eieo noaiao,
aea ia aeei?enoiao? ?o iiai?noth, aiineoue ci?ie. Iiaaoe?y ? o?aaeeoe?y
— aea? noi?iie iaeiiai oai?/iai i?ioeano. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth
oai?/i? oyae Aa?iaiina ? ?? ii???ci, oiaoi iii?a ia niiaeae?iiy ?
oaoi?eo iiia?ae? “iaiia oa? ni?”.

Ethaenueea aeeooy ia caie? ? aaaeeei niii o ii??aiyii? c ao?a/aiith
iiaiioith aoooy. Aooe ethaeeiith aeey ienueiaiieea icia/a? ua oaia?, ua
ca /an?a caiiiai aeeooy ia?aaoaaoe a a?/iino?, ia aoaeoe ?? i???ioe??a,
ia ao?a/aoe a?aeiino? ? ai?aeino?. Ethaeeia eieenue iiaeiia ia?anooieoe
ca iaae? coiiaeaiiai ?noi?e/iei aeaoa?i?i?ciii ?nioaaiiy ye
i?ioaiiaaiiai aoaio aoooy ? i?ieoe naiai /ano /a?ac o?ce/io nia?oue, uia
a?ae?iaeeoeny ? ia?a?iaeeoeny a ieai? aeooiaiiio, inyaiooe naaa, na?e
/an, naith neooaoe?th c iiaeyaeo a?/iino?. ?iiaie Aa?iaiina aoaeothoueny
ye ?oo aei iiiaio?a ?aaaeyoe?? ?noeie a iia?aie/i?e neooaoe??, ia iaae?
aeeooy ? nia?o?.

O ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny iaoao?ce/i? aniaeoe oai?/iai i?ioeano.
Aa?iaiin aiaaiaiee, ui a?oeno, ooaeiaeiee, aeania, i?inoi ethaeeia –
iani?iiiaei? ae?enii noai?thaaoe uinue iiaa, yeui aiie a?aeiiaeythoueny
a?aoe o/anoue a Aiae?e oai?/ino?, ni?ai?aoethaaoe c iei. A eeno? aei
Aeii Aanna ienueiaiiee ienaa: ”?ioee aieiae?? nae?aoii neiaa, yea
oai?eoue…”. Oaeei /eiii, ethaenueea i?aoey ? naia aeeooy ethaeeie
aeeth/athoueny o aaee/ia nioai??iiy na?oo, yea iineoue anoaoieia?/iee
oa?aeoa?.

?eoi oai?/i? oyae caeeoa?oueny i?ioeanii oa?iie/ei. Ni?aaaeiy oai?/?noue
iia`ycaia c inyyiiyie, aeeneaae/ieie i?i?eaaie na?aeiiino?,
iacaaaiaiieie ciao?aeeaie. Oaeoe, io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? oaaaeiiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae ia`?eoeaiith ae?eni?noth, iio?aieythoue o
i?aena?aeii?noue aa?iy. Aiia ae a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae eia?/ieo,
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca`yce?a i?ae ieie, ?ic`?aeio? ?o ?,
ei?enooth/enue i?eioeeiii aiaeia??, ooai?th? iia? eiia?iaoe??. Oe? iia?
aeeiai?/i? no?oeoo?e iiae?ai? a?oaoeiai. I?ioean ienueia
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aaaeeith aioo??oiueith ai?ioueaith ienueiaiieea c
neiaii, a ua c aeaniei iaooiaiiyi — “aaeeeei oa?iie/ei ca??ii”.

O eeno? c Iaeueie a n?/i? 1936 ?ieo Aa?iaiin ienaa i?i aecia/io ?ieue
aeeoeinoaa o aeaniiio oai?/iio i?ioean?: ”sse o?eueee y aa?o a ?oee
?o/eo, a iai? iae?aco anoa? ii? aeeoeinoai — oaea i?inoa, oaea cae/aeia,
oaea noiaea ia an? ?io? ? c yeiai, ye c iaae/a?iiiai aeaea?aea i??e, y
aa?o ana, ui ieoo”. O?ainoi?iaoe?eio ?ieue aeeiio? i?aena?aeii?noue, yea
“ci?oo?, ia?aieooo?, iaiaeth?” ia?ace aeeoeinoaa.

Oai?/a oyaa ienueiaiieea i?iaeoeo? ooaeiaei? ia?ace ia o aaeooi?, ia ia
ii?iaeiueiio i?noe?. ?? i?aea?oioyi ? ?noi??y noni?euenoaa, ?noi??y
eoeueoo?e ? iniaenoee aeina?ae ienueiaiieea. Na?aae ooieoe?e oyae
iae?aoaeuei?oa aiae?co?oueny neioaoe/ia. Aiia ii?aeio?, nieaaeyth/e a
iaeia oe?ea, ?ioaeaeooaeueio iao?eoeth oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueio ?ioo?oe?th
aaoi?a. I?ae ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iao?eoeath, ye ? I.O?ae, aeena?oaio
?icoi?? caaaeuei? caeiie iiaoeee, aeai?ia? i?aaeea i?aae`yaeaiiy oaie oa
?aea?, iniaeeaino? ?iiaiii? oi?ie, oei ca`yceo ie?aieo aeaiaio?a, ui
oi?io?oueny a i?ioean? eiio?ao?aoe?? oai?o. Aaoi? ?ai?acaioo? ianoaaeie,
oa?aeoa?e, ethaenueeo ae?th ca?aeii c aeaniei oai?/ei e?aaei, aeaniith
?ioo?oe??th, ? ciaoiaeeoue i?eoiaaio ca oaeoaie iiae?th. Oaeei /eiii
oai?/a oyaa Aa?iaiina ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeeaeeueia na?aaeiaeua iino?eii
iiiaethaaieo ia?aaeeai, ui ia ia?aoai?ththoueny ia oeaeioa? ia?oaeo
aeiai, a iaaiaee, a?ae?iaeaeothoueny a iiaiio aeaeyae? ? io?eiothoue
iiaa aeeooy, ia aeniaaeoth/e i?e oeueiio ia?aoeaio aeeiai?/i?noue
?iiaio.

AE.Aa?iaiin aaaaeaa Nayoa Ienueii oaenoii a?oaoei?/iei. A?i iino?eii
i?aee?anethaaa ?ae?a?eiee oa?aeoa? aeaniiai aeoiaaiiy. sse a ?noi???
oeea?e?caoe??, oae ? a ethaenuee?e aeie? a?i aa/ea ?aae?caoe?th a /an?
a?ae?eieo aaniethoieo ?noei. Eaeaoueny ia i?i eii?thaaiiy, ia i?i
iiaoi?aiiy, ye oea noaa?aeaeoaaa a ia?aaeiia? aei ?iiaiieo oai??a
ienueiaiieea A.I?eii, a i?i aeooae?caoe?th a?ae?eiiai a?oaoeio. Aeey
Aa?iaiina ?noi??y ?nona aeeaa ? a?/ia. Uiaeaiia oea?eiaia ianna
aeooae?co? a nai?o ?eooaeueieo ae?yo aeeooy, no?aaeaeaiiy, aaii?th ?
aine?an?iiy Aiaeiai neia. A ?noi?e/iiio ieei? aeeooy aeooiaii aaaaoa
ethaeeia a iaeio ieoo?a?noue iiaea ?ice?eoe oa?inoai naiai i?ecia/aiiy.
Eth?a Aia??eo?a ?aioiai ciaoiaeeoue i?noe/ia iieeeeaiiy iiaoi?eoe ia
na?e eaae, ca iiaeo ?noi?e/ieo oiia oa?inoai no?aaeaeaiue ?nona a
Aaoneiainuee?i naaeo. Eaeaoueny ia i?i ne?ia iiaoi?aiiy, a i?i iaeio c
iiaeeeaeo aa??aoe?e oe??? a?oaoei?/ii? neooaoe??.

Eiee AE.Aa?iaiin caa?oa? iiaeyae ia ?noi??th OO noie?ooy, oi aa/eoue o
i?e, ianaiia?aae, a?aenooi?noue a??e, iaioaaiiy iiaieeaeo ?aeaieia?e.
Ethaenoai ia cia? ae?enii? naiaiaee, aea, a?aeiiaeaoenue aeciaoe aea?oao
?nona, aiii ia iieeoa? iaae?e ca?eueieoeny a?ae naiai aeooiaiiai
?aanoaa. Aa?iaiin ia?aeiiaiee, ui a aeoo? ethaeeie caa?aaeeny aaaeae?,
ye? i?aeiinyoue ?? /an a?ae /ano, i?iaoaeaeoth/e iioa?ii? aaaeaiiy
aaniethoo. A ?iiaiao ia ia?oee ieai aeoiaeyoue ia iniaeeaee ?noi?e/ii
coiiaeaiee iiaoo ? oa?aeoa?, a ieei i?ioyaeii? ?noi???, ia?iaiaioia
ethaenueea neooaoe?y a ?noi?e/iiio iioioe?.

I.O?ae aaeeaa? oa?i?i Heilsgeschichte aeey iicia/aiiy ?noi??? ye
?aae?caoe?? Aiaeeo ae?yiue o na?o? ? ethaenueei? a?aeiia?ae? ia oe?
ae?yiiy. Oa?i?i Weltgeschichte iicia/a? ?aaeueio ?noi??th
oeea?e?caoe?e, cao?eniaaio a aeieoiaioao, oaeoao aiioe. Oey cae/ia
?noi??y ia cia? aaniethoieo iiaoi?aiue: aiia cana?ae/o? niaoeeo?eo
eiaeii? eiie?aoii? neooaoe??. A?ae?eiee i?o iia`ycaiee c
Heilsgeschichte, oiaoi niaoeeo?/ieie ?eooaeueieie aeoaie, neooaoe?yie,
/e iaaieie oaiaie ? oeiaie oa?aeoa??a, ye? iiaoi?ththoueny a /an?,
caa??aath/e naith ?eooaeueio i?o?/io iniiao. Oae, i?oe Nioai??iiy na?oo
? Aeoiaeo c ?aeioo aai ae ca?eueiaiiy a?ae ?aanoaa — oeaio?aeuei? a
I`yoeeieaeae? Iienay.

A?oaoei?/ia neooaoe?y ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a??oa — a?ae?eiee i?o Aeoiaeo —
i?enooiy iaeaea a eiaeiiio aa?iaiin?anueeiio ?iiai?. Iooaooa Iaei?o?,
Aeii?nnai, aei/ea a?aoa, a?aoeiy, ae?oaa Iooaooa a ?acoeueoao?
i?ieaeaiiai oeyoo no?aaeaeaiue ca?eueiythoueny a?ae aioo??oiueiai
oyaa?y. A ieai? Heilsgeschichte i?o Aeoiaeo c ?aeioo o Aa?iaiina
?ai?acaioo? aeieth ethaenueeo ? noaa?euei?noth nai?o no?oeoo?aeueieo
iaeeieoeue (a?oaoei oa?aeoa?o aiiaeoaey /e io/aieea, a?oaoei?/ia
neooaoe?y iaaie?) iaaaaeo? i?i iino?eio iayai?noue o i?e o?aa?/iiai.

Aa?iaiin?anueeee ?iiai caa?iaiee aei a?/iino? e iiia?aea? ?noi??th
Nian?iiy ethaenoaa /a?ac no?aaeaeaiiy oeo eiai i?aaenoaaiee?a, ye?
caa?aaee aenieo aeooiai?noue. A?ae?eia ?noi??y noino?oueny ie?aiiai
ia?iaeo, Aa?iaiin aea caoaeo? ?aiee aei aeie? ie?aii? ethaeeie. A?i
a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae ai?/iiai noeeth, ia?aiineoue ae?aio o noa?o
iniaenoiai aeeooy, caaeeaeth?oueny a ?noi??th ie?aieo a?ae?eieo
ia?niiaae?a (?nona, ?oaee) ? ?icaeyaea? ?? i?ae i?e?ineiiii. Ae?y a
?iiaiao ia? nai?i inoaoi/iei aei??ii /an a?/iino?. Oea /an ?aae?caoe??
iiae?e, yeee i?ioenoi?oue ai?eciioaeuei?e e?i?? oaeo?a — /ania?
Weltgeschichte.

A n o a o i e i a ? / i e e o a ? a e o a ? ?iiai?a ienueiaiieea
AE.Aa?iaiina iia`ycaiee c ?o i???ioaoe??th ia Heilsgeschichte ye /an
e?ioey, /an aaii??. Aa?iaiin ia?aeiiaiee, ui oae naii, ye i?ae
eieaeoeaiei e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei i?aena?aeiiei ciaoiaeeoueny aeeaeii?oee
i?ioa?ie, oae ? i?ae cae/aeiei /anii, ia a?eueo?e aeeaei?, eeia “/an
aaii??” ye anoaoieia?/iee /an. Oeaio?aeueia ae?aia ?noi??? iieyaa? a
iino?eiiio eiioe?eo? ? i?ioenoiyii? aeaio ye?nii a?aei?iieo
oaiii?aeueiinoae: Weltgeschichte i Heilsgeschichte. ?iiaie
ienueiaiieea-eaoieeea AE.Aa?iaiina a oe?e ia?niaeoea? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe
ye oae?, ui iiaoaeiaai? ia a?ae?eieo ?noi?eei-anoaoieia?/ieo canaaeao.

Eiioe?eo nee Aeia?a ? Cea iinoa? a noeaiao ae?aeia?/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy
nayuaieea ? aa?eoieea, eth?a Oaioy ? iaia O?ia. A aeeeia?? “E?eaaea” ?
“?aae?noue” Oaaain caee?a? ianee c Naiaa?a, ye ?non aee?eaaa oa?ena?a.
Iiae?aii ?nono, yeee aeaaiya aeaiii?a c oai?eo, eth?a c Aia??eo?a
aee?eiao? Oaioaeue a?ae ai?aeei? ? aine?aoa? aeeoeio a na?oe? a?aoei?.
Aa?iaiin?anueeee nayoee ae?ooa? ia iieeee a?nioaaoi?, uia o?yooaaoe
“caaoaeaio a?aoeth”. Ieoue c?oeiaiiy nee Aeia?a ? Cea, Aiaa ? Aeeyaiea ?
iiiaioii ?aae?caoe?? Heilsgeschichte a Weltgeschichte. Ca oa?aeoa?ii
naiai i?iyao oeae iiiaio ? anoaoieia?/iei.

O?enoeyiei Aa?iaiin ia?aeiiaiee, ui ethaeei? ia i?ae neeo oe?eeiaeoi
caaaiooe ? ?ica`ycaoe i?iaeaio cea. Cei iiaea aooe ? ea?ith, ?
aei?iaoaaiiyi, ? i/euaiiyi, ? /eiieeii caneoae, ? ia?anoi?iaith. Oa i?e
anueiio oiio aiii caeeoa?oueny oa?iieoeath, iacaaaiaiiei yaeuai o aeie?
ethaeeie ia caie?. Naia oiio Aa?iaiin iniaeeai oaaaeii noaaeoueny aei
oaie nia?o? ? aaii?? naiai oeaio?aeueiiai aa?iy-nayuaieea: a?i
ia?aeiiaiee a eiai ia?aiino?. Aeina?ae ooae a iiiaio aaii?? aiii?iiiai
n?euenueeiai eth?a /e a?aeiiiai aeci?nenoa Aeii?nnaia, aai ae
iaoa??-?aoiai? c i?aeaio ea?iae?oie ia? ?ioee oa?aeoa?, i?ae o aoa?noa
/e aaiinoeea. Niinoa??aath/e a?ae?eioo?noue na?oo a?ae aeaea?ae iiaiioe
? nai???aeio iieeioo?noue ethaeae, aa?iaiin?anuee? nayo?
ona?aeiieththoue naith i?e/aoi?noue aei oe?eiai. ?oi? ii/oooy
o?enoeyinueei? ethaia? a oeae iiiaio ?icaeyaeathoueny Aa?iaiinii ye
?aae?caoe?y caeii?a a?ae?eiiai ia?aaeieno: nia?oue ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
aeeooy, o?ani? ioee a?yoiaothoue ? a?ae?iaeaeothoue. Ine?eueee nayoee
i?iaeeaa? aaii?th a “ii?ieo a??e”, a?i ia? i?ieoe ? /a?ac aeania
i?eieaeaiiy. Eiai nei?aioa ia aano?aeia ? ia aea?aiia — aiia aaniethoii
iaiao?aeiee iiiaio ia?aioe?iee i?iaeeoiai, iaeaaaeeea?oa oiiaa aeinooio
aei ?ioiai ??aiy Aoooy. Iiiaio nia?o? iiaeiai aooe ona?aeiieaiei
iiie?ath/ei. Naia oae a?i aeieo/a?oueny aei aeniei? aeooiaiino?. Nia?oue
— ?eooae, iiiaio ?i?oe?aoe??, i?ney yeiai ianooia? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, iiaa
ii/aoeoaaiiy. Ia iioieia?/iiio ??ai? nia?oue ooai?th? ?ic?ea ieeiiino?,
aea iaeii/anii eiinoeoo? ?eooaeueiee ia?ao?ae aei /iainue iiaiai, ui
ia?iaeaeo?oueny. A iiiaio nia?o? iiie?athoue ?ethc??, a?aeoiaeeoue o
iaaoooy ooaeeeaa iaa?aeaiiy. Aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aai ae aine?an?iiy
noa? ona?aeiieaiiyi nai?? nooiino?, nai?? “naiino?”. Ethaeeia
ca?eueith?oueny a?ae oiiaiinoae ? iaaoaa? oe?eeiaeoi? naiaiaee.

Nayoee — i?i?ie iaa?aeai?ioiiai e?ioey, eiai neiai iaaa?oa? a ?noeiio
a??o ? aee?eiao? oai?o aeooo aeeaeiueiai. Aea aiaeii/an aa?iaiin?anueeee
nayoee — aea?oaa noanoeoooe??: aaeaea a?i niieooo? a??oe ?ioeo aeanieie
no?aaeaeaiiyie ? a?aeoyao? a /an? iaieio/o eaoano?ioo e?ioey na?oo.
Ioiae O?enoin iiaea?eiee a ? o a o e i aa?iaiin?anueeiai n a y o
i a i, aea?oaa ? na?aeie Aiaei? ethaia?. A ine?eueee iiia?aeue a
aa?iaiin?anueeiio ?iiai? iieeeeaia a?aee?eoe oa?inoai ?aaeueiiai na?oo,
oi ?? iioieia?/iith iniiaith noa? o?enoeyinueea a/aiiy ?iea?iaoe?? —
oiaoi ao?eaiiy Aiaa a ethaeeio, ?aae?caoe?? aeooiaiiai a iaoa??aeueiiio.
No?oeoo?oth/o ?ieue a i?aai?caoe?? ? ?ai?acaioaoe?? iino?eiiai
aioo??oiueiai ?ooo a?ae ?iaiaioiiai aei o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai ? iaaiaee
aeeiiothoue a i?aai?caoe?? iiia?ae? aeeiai?/i? aaeoi?e ai?eciioaeueiiai
? aa?oeeaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy, ui ii?aeiothoue aeeaeio ? iiaa?oith,
oeaio? ? ia?eoa??th, ii/aoie o?aaeoi??? ?ooo ? eiai iaiaaeaiiy.

?iiaie Aa?iaiina iathoue a nai?e na?oeaaei? o a i o a i n e ? a n ? i
i y ae o o i a i i n o ? a aeoo? ethaeeie. Ienueiaiiee ia?aeiiaiee,
ui a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ii/eia?oueny c? noaae?? iaoaiie?, oiaoi ona?aeiieaiiai
iieayiiy ethaeeie a nai?o iiieeeao.

Iieayiiy o a??oao aeey aa?iaiin?anueeiai aa?iy ? ?aae?caoe??th iiaiai
?icoi?iiy /anii?inoi?iaeo a?aeiinei. Ethaeeia, ui ona?aeiieth? naaa ye
oe?eueio iniaeno?noue, oiaoi ea?oueny o a??oao, ii-iniaeeaiio ?ioaineaii
ia?aaeeaa? nai? “oaia?” ? “ooo”. Ae?y ?iiai?a eiioeaio?o?oueny a
e?eoe/iiio iiiaio? aeeooy, aei yeiai ethaeeia eoea aeiaai, ieooath/e a
oai?ya?, caeaath/enue ia iai?aoe?. Iiiaio aeai?o ? iiiaio ??oo/i? ae??
i?eaaaeththoue ienueiaiieea ae?aiaoe/iith iane/ai?noth a /an?. Aiie
aeicaieythoue noaoe ia e?ath i???ae ? caaeyiooe a iaca?aeai? aeeaeie
ethaenueei? aeoo?, ooaee, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny iino?eia ai?ioueaa i?ae
neeaie Aeia?a ? neeaie Cea. A iiiaio aeai?o ?aae?co?oueny ethaenueea
naiaiaea.

A iniia? ?iiaiieo oai??a AE.Aa?iaiina eaaeaoue aaeee? o ? e no e y i
n ue e ? o a ? i n o a a: ai?ioueaa c? niieonith, c?aaea ?nona,
iiaeooy iaiiaeyo, aaii?y ? no?aaeaeaiiy ?nona. Oeaio?aeuei? ?iiaii?
ia?niiaae? iinooiiai ae?inoathoue ia i?inoi?? iaeiiai ?iiaio ye
o?ainoi?iiaai? ? eiia?iiaai? a?oaoeie. Aiie i?aai?/ii iia’ycai? c
o?ao?ith ?nona, ?oaee, a??oieea a ?ioeo ?iiaiao ienueiaiieea,
anooiathoue o aca?iiae?th c ?ioeie ?iiaiieie na?oaie, /anoeiai
aa??ththoue nai? ooieoe??, ci?iththoue ?ene.

sse iieaco? i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c, a?oaoei a ?iiai? AE.Aa?iaiina ia ?
iiae?aiei aei oeiiaiai aa?iy ?aae?noe/iiai ?iiaio. Ienueiaiiee ni?eeia?
a?oaoei ye ae e i a i ? / i o neeo, ineo?/io a i a ? a ? th ae??, ui
aeiaaa? ?aae?caoe?? a oyaiiio na?o? ?iiaio, aeooae?co? a iaeiiio c
iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a o?enoeyinueea oa?inoai a??oa ? ieeino? ainiiaeiuei?.

A?oaoeie Aa?iaiina a iniiaiiio a?ae?eiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Aiie ?
?acoeueoaoii eiai iniaenoiai ?icoi?iiy noo? aeooiaiiai, ii?iaeaeaiiyi
eiai aeaniiai aeina?aeo ? oai?/i? oyae. A?ae/ae Eiae, aaii?y ?
no?aaeaeaiiy ?nona aeooae?cothoueny a ia?acao Aeii?nnaia, Iooaooe, eth?a
Aia??eo?a.

E??i a?ae?eieo a?oaoei?a a ?iiaiao Aa?iaiina iaeeaa? n a ? o i a ? o i
a e a i a i o ? a aoooy. Oea einiin noeo?e aiaee, aiaith, caie? ?
iia?o?y. sse ? a i?noe/i?e o?einio??, aiie iicia/athoue ia ye?nue
eiie?aoi? ?aae??, ui e?ethoueny ca oa?i?iaie, a /ioe?e iniiai? noaie,
/ioe?e iiaeaeueiino? iaoa???. Caiey ? aiaea — aeaeei? iao?e/i?
ia?oiaeaiaioe, a ye? aoiaeyoue iaaeaeei? aiaiiue ? iia?o?y.

?iiaiiee anana?o AE.Aa?iaiina ia? an? iciaee ?aaeueiiai o?ce/iiai na?oo,
aea aiaeii/an a iueiio i?enooi?e iiooaeiee neiaie?ci: i?ino?? ? /an
iathoue iaoao?ce/iee aei??; aiie ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c aeieath
ethaenueeith oa ?? ooaith ye iianye/aniei noaiii aeoo?. Niiaeyaeaiiy
iaecaaeo iiia?aea/ai ia ? ?ai?acaioaoe??th noa`?eoeaiiai na?oo aa?iy /e
iiia?aea/a, ye oea iino?eii o?aieyeiny a o?aaeeoe?eiiio ?aae?noe/iiio
?iiai?. Ciai?oi?e na?o aaaea oe?eeii aaoiiiiia ?nioaaiiy. Eiai ca`ycie c
ia?niiaaeai aeaeaeee a?ae eia?/ieo iiyniaiue. ?o ii?aeio? i?eioeei
aiaeia??, ai iaeaeaa aoiaeyoue a cia/ii a?eueoa oe?ea, yea ia?
iaaei?e?iaeiee aei??. Iaecaae ia? i?aeaeuaio ?ooii?noue ? iino?eii
iaoaii?oico?oueny i?ae ae??th a?o?o, na?oea, noo?iie. O iueiio caaaeaee
niinoa??aa?oueny aa?oeeaeueia i???ioaoe?y, cana?ae/aia i?enooi?noth
aeaiaioa aeeai? /e iaaeeai? i?e?iaee.

?iiaiiee na?o an?o iiia?aaei?o oai??a AE.Aa?iaiina ia? ii/aoie, aaiaco
ethaenueei? ?noi??? ? nia?oue, yea caaa?oo? oa??. Aaii?y ? nia?oue aa?iy
ii?aeiothoue ii/aoie ? e?iaoeue: aeeoeinoai iiaa?oa?oueny a inoaii?e
iiiaio, nia?oue noa? ?i?oe?aoe??th aeooiaiiai i?iaoaeaeaiiy, “?aeeiei
?aieii”. Eiee iiaiaeeoeny c O.Ea?iiaeii, ui i?o Aiieae?ineno — Aiaeiai
Iaee?iaaiiy — iaa iaea?eueoee aieea ia no?oeoo?oaaiiy /eoaoeueeiai
i/?eoaaiiy a cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee?e o?aaeeoe?? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e,
oi Aiieae?inen iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe, c iaeiiai aieo, ye iiaeaeue na?oo,
ui ae?eoia e?ioey (eini?/ia oaca), a c ?ioiai — ye Iaee?iaaiiy,
inoaiith eieao Nayoiai Ienueia, yea caieea? a?ae?eiee eaiii ? o ye?e
caaa?oo?oueny a?ae?eia iaooiaiiy.

O ?iiai? OO noie?ooy aiieae?ine/ia ia?aaeeaia ia?aoa?i?ea cia/i? ci?ie.
I?o iaeiiiiiaioiiai e?ioey noanoeoothaaany aace?ia/iei e?ioeai,
i?ioyaeiith e?ecith, a ye?e inoaoi/ia ?ica`ycea ?anoaa?o? ii/aoeiaee
ii?yaeie ?a/ae ? i?iaeiaaeo? noai ?iciaaeo, aeaeaaeaino, caaaeueii?
iaiaaiino?. Nia?oue i?enooiy ia ai?eciio? aa?iaiin?anueeiai ?iiaio. Aiia
? eia?/iei ?acoeueoaoii ethaenueeiai aeeooy, oiiaith ethaenueeiai
?nioaaiiy iica iaaeaie o?ainoeaiaeaioiino?. sseui i?ney nia?o? Oaaain /e
Oaioaeue — aa?i?a ?iiai?a ia?oi? ii?e – ?iiaiia iiia?aeue i?eieiyeany,
oi a ?iiai? “Iai O?i” aeooiaia nia?oue ? ye?niith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
eieaeoeaiiai ??aiy ?nioaaiiy. ? ana-oaee aaoi? a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae
iiia?aaeiueiai caaeoio iacaaoe oa?? “Ia?oaa ia?ao?y”. Ia?ao?y ia
iiia?ea, iiee a i?e aeaa??thoue ?ne?e aeeooy. Aea aiia ? ia aeeaa
iiaiioe?iiei aoooyi, a aeeaio??, iicaaaeaia c aeanii? aie? aeuiai naino
?nioaaiiy.

A i i e a e ? i n e / i e e i ? o aeey Aa?iaiina ia ? ?iaiaioiith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith e?eciaiai noaio ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa. A?i iiae?ey?
ia?aeiiai?noue ?in?enueeiai o?einioa I.Aa?aey?aa a oiio, ui ?noi??y
iiaeiia iaoe na?e e?iaoeue, ai “i?iaeaia iniaenoino? ia iiaea aooe
ae??oaiith a ?? iaaeao”. sse ? Aa?aey?a, Aa?iaiin ?icaeaa? iaaecae/aeii
aeoeaio, oai?/o eiioeaioe?th Aiieae?ineno. Ooaeiaei?e oa?? ia? yaeyoe
aenieo ?noeio, aea ia iienoaaoe ??, ia ?ai?acaiooaaoe a /?oei ie?aneaieo
oi?iao, a iiaeaaaoe o na?e aeaniee niin?a, o nai?o aeanieo oi?iao, oiaoi
aooe aiieae?ine/iei ii-nai?io. A?i aaaaea?, ui oai?/ee aeo ethaeeie ia?
anoaoieia?/iee oa?aeoa?, ai ?ic?eaa? ?aiee i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiai?
caeaaeiino? ? cieuo? ?aanueeo ?ia?oi?noue ethaenueei? aecenoaioe??.

Aeeneaae/i? ?ic?eae cae/ii? oaiii?aeueiino? ia ai?eciio?
aa?iaiin?anueeeo ?iiai?a ?icaeyaeathoueny ye oai?ei? iiae??, a yeeo
a??ooaeueii ?aae?co?oueny e?iaoeue na?oo iaoa??aeueii? caeaaeiino? ?
eia?/ii? aecia/aiino?. Aa?iaiin — iiao iiaeeeai? ? iaiiaeeeai?
ethaenueei? naiaiaee.

O aeena?oaoe?? noaiaoe/ii i?inoaaeo?oueny ?icaeoie ?iiaiii? ?io?eae c
iii?ith ia ii?oieia?/iee iaoiae A.I?iiia oa E.A?aiiia. Aeena?oaioa
oe?eaaeei ieoaiiy ?oo?y ci?i. Ui naia aeeeeea? ?oo ? ii/aoeiao
o?ainoi?iaoe?th neooaoe?? ??aiiaaae, aea naia ? ye a?aeaoaathoueny
ci?ie?

Aiae?c neioaaiaoe/iiai aaeoi?a iiaoaeiae iiia?ae? a ?iiai? “I?ae niioeai
Naoaie” oa iia?no? “Iiaa ?noi??y Iooaooe” cana?ae/o? iayai?noue
c`?aeiaiiy eaae??a o ieai? iaeiie?i?eiiai ?icaeoeo ?io?eae ia ??ai?
eiaeiiai aa?iy. Aaoi? ia iieno? o?ainoi?iaoe?th aaaeaiue Aeii?nnaia oa
Iooaooe a ineoieia?/iiio ieai?. Aea naia oey iaiienaia, iaaeacaia iiae?y
?icaeaa? iiaa?oiao eia?eo, ooai?th? eaeoie a i?aai?caoe?? iiia?ae?,
iino?eii i?eaa?oa? oaaao nai?th caaaaeeia?noth.

Iniiaia ooieoe?y aa?iaiin?anueei? iiia?ae? iieyaa? ia a ?ai?acaioaoe??
ia?aoeaii? iiae?? a ?? eia?/iiio ca`yceo c iiia?aaei?ie ? ianooiieie
ia?aoeaieie eaae?aie. Iiia?aeue eiinoeooth? aeaeeio noeaio, yea
caeeoa?oueny caaaaeeiaith. ?? caaaaeeia?noue ia a i?ianen?, oiaoi
?ai?acaioaoe?? iiae?e, ui iathoue i?noea a ia`?eoeaiiio /an?
ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, a a ?ic?ea? ieeiiino?, a ?aioia?e iiya?
aa?oeeaeueiiai aei??o. A on?o ?iiaiao ienueiaiieea iiia?aeue
?icai?oa?oueny a /an? ? i?inoi??, iinooiiai i?aei?iath/enue aei aa?oeie
— ae??oaeueiiai iiiaioo, aeeneaae/ii? ieoo?aino?, i?ae /an yei? ?
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ic?ea ieeiiino?. Oea ? ? i?i?i/a ieoue a?aee?eooy
?noeie, eiee i?aei?ia?oueny oa?iie/a caa?na ? ia?niiaae ?icoi?? nai?
i?ecia/aiiy, a?aee?eaa? naaa a nia?. Oea ieoue i?i?iea — ethaia?, ye
eth?a Aia??eo?a, /e iaaoooy, ye Naiaa?.

I?i?ie /eoa? a na?oe? aeeaeiueiai ? a?aee?eaa? eiio (ia aeia?i /e cei)
eiai aeanio ae nooue. Aa?iaiin?anueeee ?iiai iiaoaeiaaiee c iaeyaeo ia
i?ioaoe/io iane/ai?noue iiiaio?a i?ioenoiyiiy aai ae ni?eueiiai iiooeo
iaeiiaeoioeyie na?oea ?noeie. Oea ieoue, eiee ienueiaiiee Nai Ia?ai
ciaoiaeeoue o niia?aeaeuei? aa?oeeaeueiee o?oi nayoiai c Eaia?o, oea
ieoue, eiee eth?a Aia??eo?a a?aee?eaa? nai? iieeeeaiiy i?iaeeoe Aaii?th
? no?aaeaeaiiy iieeiooiai neia, oea ieoue, eiee Mooaooa i?ic??aa? naith
iaeaaei?noue aei a?aea??a, ? a?aoeiy eeaea? o aiaiiue aeiooie aieinny
iie?eiiai neia.

Iiia?aea/ ia caaaeaee caa??aa? ca niaith i?aai a?aee?eaaoe ?noeio,
i?eoiaaio a ethaenueeiio na?oe?. Oea i?aai ia?aaea?oueny ia?niiaaeo,
yeee iana a?aeaeoie ?aaiaaeuenueei? i?inoioe ? ioae?ino?. Noaaeeoe ca
?icai?oaiiyi ?noi??? a ?iiai? icia/a? aeey /eoa/a iaia`yceiai
?ici??eiaoaaoe, ioe?ithaaoe ? ia`?aeioaaoe iiae?? a iaeei aeo
nooe?eueii? ae??.”Eiee an? oaeoe onoaiiaeai?, caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia ?o
?icoi?iiy ? ii?aeiaiiy a iaeiiio aeo? ioe?iee, eiee aaea?oueny
ao?eiaoe ?o ?acii ? ia ?iceeaeaoe a na??th”.

Ia?ae?e on?o aeoaio?a (a ieai? ia?aaeeaie) ia?aoeaieo eaae??a oa ?o
ooieoe?e (a ieai? neioaaie) ua ia aea? ?icoi?iiy aa?iaiin?anueeiai
?iiaio nayoino? ? a??oa. Iiiaieeaoo?a, yeith a aeineiiaeith aiia ia
aoea, ia noaiiaeoeia ?iceacaio ?noi??th. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy noeeueiino?
Aa?iaiina aei aena?oeaiiy ?ioi? eia?ee ethaenueeeo a/eie?a — eia?ee
iaaeinooiii? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaiio aiae?co, — ciaoiaeeoueny o eenoao
aei a?aceeuenueeiai ienueiaiieea O. aea E?ia ca aeiaoaiue 1943 ?.
Aa?iaiin noaa?aeaeo?, ui a eiai ?iiaiao a?aenooi? aaniethoii eia?/i?
?a/?, iia`ycai? i?ae niaith ocaie i?e/eiiino?. A iaeei iiiaio aiie
iiaeooue aeyaeoeny ii???/ieie, oiaoi ii?iaeaeaieie oyaith.

Ethaeeia caeeoa?oueny iacaaaiaiiith ?noioith, yea ia i?aeei?y?oueny
aeao?i?oe?yi aei oiai /ano, iiee caa??aa? naith aeooiaio naiaiaeo ye
iaaeioi?eaiee aiaeee aea?: ”Oae aeoiae aeeao?oueny ?aioiaiio nieaneo
aeiaai no?eioaaii? aie? — naiaiaea iicia/eea ethaeeio, i?enooiy a i?e,
aea caeeoa?oueny i?eoiaaiith aei iaaiiai /ano”. Ienueiaiiee ia?aeiiaiee,
ui a iaeaeeaoeo ieanoao i?aena?aeiiino? ethaeeie ciaoiaeeoueny ??
ca`ycie c o?ainoeaiaeaioi?noth. Aia Aa?iaiina — ia inoeaee Aia Noa?iai
Caa?oo, yeee eeioa iai?ecaieyua na?e ia?iae aei ?oe ai?iaa, ea?ath/e ca
a?aeiiao a?ae a?/ieo ?noei. Aia Aa?iaiina — aia ethaia?, aia Iiaiai
Caa?oo. A?i caeeoa? ?noioo a?eueiith, ciaia`yco? ?? ?iaeoe aea?? ? ianoe
ca iueiai ia?niiaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. Aeeaiea a??a ? ethaia
i?aeo?eiothoue ethaeeio a /an aei?iaoaaiue. O oeueiio aa?iaiin?anueea
eiioeaioe?y i?aena?aeiiino? a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oai??e o?ieae?anueei?
ineoiaiae?oe/ii? oeiee, yea aaaaeaea, ui ethaeeiith ea?othoue ?inoeieoe,
aia?aaoe/i? ?iioeuene. Aiia a?eueoa iaaeeaea?oueny aei thia?anueei?
no?oeoo?e iniaenoino?, o naiiio oeaio?? yei? ?a?no?o?oueny ii?iaeia/a.
Aa?iaiin caiiaith? ?? ethaia`th.

?iiaie Aa?iaiina ia i?aeeyaathoue i?aioae?inoyi nooiai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aiae?co. Iaiaaaiiy eia?/ii iiynieoe yniiaeae?iiy Aeii?nnaia, ooai?eoe
eaioetha oaeo?a, ye? a aena?oethaaee i?e/eio ? iane?aeie, i?e?a/ai? ia
ii?aceo. Aeeaiea ii/oooy o?enoeyinueei? ethaia? ? oi?iith o/ano? o
anainyaei?e ethaia? Aiae?e. “Aiaea iee?noue aaeeeeo aeoo, ?o
iaaei?e?iaeia caeaoi?noue ieoo?ai ni?aia?aaeeaaoe aeeaeiueiio aeathoue
?i ?icoi?iiy na?oeaaeie ethaenueei? ?noioe. Iee?noue aiaea, ye ? ?icoi,
oi iaeei c aeaiaio?a iaoiai ciaiiy”. Iaaei?e?iaeia yni?noue ci?o –
oa?ecia, ui aeicaiey? aa?iaiin?anueeiio nayoiio /eoaoe a ethaenuee?e
aeoo? ? ia?aaeaa/aoe ii?eaaiiy aei Aeia?a ? Cea.

O oe?e ia?niaeoea? Aa?iaiin – naiioiy iinoaoue ia oa?ai? o?aioeocueei?
e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy. I?ici?eea?noue eiai aa?i?a iiaeia c?noaaeoe o?aa
ui c ia?acii eiycy Ieoe?ia a ?iiai? “?ae?io” O.Aeinoi?anueeiai. Aaoi?,
ye ? eiai oethaeai? aa?i?, iaiaaa?oueny i?aeooiaoiooe /eoa/a aei iiooe?a
aeeaieiai naino aeeooy, i?noa??y yeiai i?eoiaaia iica ia?aoeaieie
no?oeoo?aie. Iiaa neiaie?a i a?oaoei?a ia? ?icaoaeeoe ?ioo?oe?th. Aiia
ia iiynith?, aea ia?aiia?aea? ?noi??th ethaenueeiai aeeooy, caeeoath/e a
?? aeaeei?e i?ca?iino? ?iaeceiee oa?inoaa.

I a o a o ? c e / i e e a n i a e o aa?iaiin?anueeiai ?iiaio iieyaa? a
eiinoaoaoe?? oa?iieoe? ethaenueei? aecenoaioe??. Cei, ui e?e?oueny a
ethaeei?, — oea ?? i?e?iaeia oaiaeaioe?y i?eoiaoaaoe a?ae naaa nai?
iieeeeaiiy, iaiaithaaoe naaa a?aeiinii naaa. A ineoieia?? iioeaaoe??
oeae oaiiiai io?eiaa iacao i a ? i i n e a a n o a a, /e ionoee
?aaeueiiai caaeiaieaiiy. Ia?iineaanoai ? ai?aeeiy — oea ia o?eueee
i?aoaic?y aooe an?i, i?ciaoe ana, io?eiaoe ana, a e caeaaei?noue a?ae
aecaeueoiaaieo aaaeaiue, aecaeueoiaaii? oyae. Oea i?e/eia ?ic/a?oaaiue,
ooae, ioaeueae ? i?eoiaaiiai no?aoo ia?aae aeeooyi, iaiaaaiiy caaooe i?i
naia ?nioaaiiy oa?inoaa aecenoaioe?? ? aeieoaaiiy aeanii? caeaoiino?
i?ic??oe ae?eni? aei??e aeeooy. Aa?iaiin aa/eoue o i?aeianai?e ethaia?
aei aeeooy, a aeeoy/?e caeeaiaaiino? ia?aae i?noa???th na?oo ? ethaeeie
?aeeii iiaeeeao aaeoeeio i?ioe no?oiino?. Aeey iueiai ?non —
?iea?iiaaiee Aia, aiaeanoaaiia ethaeeia. A?i iiai?ia ethaenueeo
no?oi?noue o nia? ? iieacaa ethaeyi aei?iao aei nian?iiy. ?iiaie
ienueiaiieea caa?iai? aei aioo??oiuei? ai?ioueae ethaeeie c? nai?i
eeoii, c ?oeioth/ith aia?a??th aecaeueoiaaii? oyae, yea iineoaeeeai
iaaeneea? na?aeiiino? ?ethci?iee i?o naiaiaee. A ?noi??? ?nona Aa?iaiin
aa/eoue ?noi??th ai?ioueae c? niieonaie, iaeno?aoi?oa c yeeo — ooaa ia
o?ano? — i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy inoaoi/ii? ia?aiiae iaae niieonaie, a?aeiiaa
a?ae caeioaa/aiue, nea?a ?, iaeaieiai?oa, iiaia oi?aeanoai
anaioe?aeueiiai aaaeaiiy iaae aecaeueoaoe?yie ethaenueeiai Ego .

A ieai? iiaoe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? ?ai?acaioaoe?y /ooo?aiai na?oo ni?a?nio?
a ?iiaiao AE.Aa?iaiina c /aniaeie i?iaaeeyie, a?aenooi?noth /?oei?
eia?/ii? no?oeoo?e, ciiaie caiia/oaaiiy. ?ieiee nai aaoi? ia?aaoaa? a
o?aa?/iiio iaa?aeaii?, ioiae, caaaeaiiy oeeaaeaiiy ?ic??ciaieo oaeo?a a
i?aai?ciaaio ?io?eao eyaa? ia iea/? /eoa/a, yeee ia? i?ieoe /a?ac
ia?aoeai? noia?a/iino? ? aeaoe ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oiai, ui aaea ?nio? a
oaeno? o oi?i? neiaie?a ? iaoye?a.

O iiiaio aoaeoeaiiai i?aeaioiaeaiiai /eoaiiy, yea ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
ni?ai?aoeth, a ?ieiee ? ai?ioueao c aeoieith aaoi?a, caaaeyee aioo??oi?
i?enooi?e aeeiai?oe? ii?aeiaiiy neioaaiaoe/iiai ? ia?aaeeaiaoe/iiai
??ai?a, a?aeaoaa?oueny inoaoi/ia eiio?ao?aoe?y oaenoo, yea c /anii
o?ainoi?io?oueny a eiai ?ao?ao?aoe?th, oiaoi iiaa aa/aiiy. No/ania
anoaoeea ?aoeaioe?? nie?a?oueny, c iaeiiai aieo, ia nioe?ieia?th, yea
aeicaiey? aea/aoe eieaeoeaia ni?eeiaiiy oai?o a eiie?aoiiio
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu? (Eiinoaioeueea oeiea), ? , c ae?oaiai
aieo, ia iiaoeeo oai?o, eiai no?aoaa?/io iiaoaeiao ? aioo??oi?e eiae,
ye? noeeythoue ian naia aei oaei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. “Anoaoeea aoaeoo”
A.?ca?a ?icaeyaea? oaeno ye ae?aeaeoe/iee i?ioean, a yeiio iaaaeyeo
?ieue a?ae?a?a? eiinoeoothaaiiy oe?eiai a na?aeiiino? /eoa/a. Inoaii?e
ni?ai?iaeoeo? ?ioaioe?? ?acii c aaoi?nueeei oaenoii o iiiaio /eoaiiy.
Naia /eoa/ eiino?oth? ??ciiiai?oi? ia?niaeoeae, ui i?noyoueny a oaeno?,
ii?aeio? ?o, ei?eao? nai? ii/aoeia? oyaeaiiy a i?ioean? /eoaiiy e
inoaoi/ii ae?iaey? iia? ?aae??.

?iiaie AE.Aa?iaiina caio?ththoue /eoa/a a noo?ieiaee na?o, yeee ao?aoea
iiaeeea?noue inoaoi/iiai aeeaeiiiai aena?oeaiiy nai?o aioo??oi?o
i?iaeai. O i?ioean? /eoaiiy iaiao?aeii ?ioa?i?aooaaoe oa, ui oaeno i?yii
ia noaa?aeaeo?, aea i?noeoue o nia?, yaey?; iio??aii caiiaieoe eaeoie,
caeieaoe noia?a/iino? ? a?aeiiaeoe ao?a/ai? ca ‘ycee. Nie?ath/enue ia
i?aoe? Oiaa?oi Aei “Lector in fabula”(1979) ? I. Oa?ey “?eoi?eea
/eoaiiy” (1977) c nai?ioeee /eoaiiy, aeena?oaio aecia/a? o? no?aoaa?/i?
aocee oaenoo, ui “i?ia?aiothoue /e oai?aoecothoue” naia oaeo
?ioa?i?aoaoe?th. I?i/eoaiiy oaeno?a Aa?iaiina aeena?oaioii nie?a?oueny
ia aaea ?nioth/? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iiaiiiai aei?iaeo ienueiaiieea, ia
iia?oi? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoeee ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o ? ia aeania
na?oia?ae/oooy. O.Iaa? ienaa: “ *eoaiiy — oea ni?eueiee aeo, ni?eueia
ae?y oiai, ooi /eoa? ? oiai, ui /eoa?oueny, oai?o ? /eoa/a, eieae ?
eaeoi?a, aaoi?a ? /eoa/a […]*eoaiiy a aoeaaeueiiio nain? ?
eiiia?aoe??th, aioo??oi?i, aeeaeiii ?ioeiiei, iniaenoei, aiaeanoaaiiei
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaii, aiaaaeiaaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth”.

?iiaiia iiaoeea ?ioa?i?aoo?oueny a ?icae?e? ia ye aioiaee ?acoeueoao, ia
ye i?iaeoeoe?y, a ye i?ioean noai?aiiy iiae??, ye ia?aeeaaeaiiy iiae
?noi??? OO noie?ooy c on?i aaciaaeaeyi neeaaeath/eo eiai oaeo?a ia
ia?aoeaio iiao ?iiaio. ?noi?e/i? oaeoe iinoathoue o oai?ao Aa?iaiina o
na?oe? a?ae?eieo a?oaoei?a ye ?aeeii oai?/eo, ?aeeii i?aaaeeaeo iiae?e.
Anoaoieia?/ia na?oei caeeaa? “aeene ? ieoe?noue” OO noie?ooy,
aee?eaath/e a?aoith oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a a ?? ooieoe?iioaaii? ia ??ai?
ethaenueeiai na?oey. A ?iaio? i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c o?ueio iniiaieo
?iiai?a ienueiaiieea, ye? aeathoue oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie eiai
ooaeiaeiueiai iaoiaeo a ae?ao?ii?/iiio aniaeo? ? iaee?aua a?aeaeaathoue
ca`ycie c nioe?aeueiith ?noi???th naiai /ano.

“Uiaeaiiee n?euenueeiai nayuaieea” aeei?enoiao? iiaoeeo ?iiaio a
uiaeaiieeia?e oi?i? ye iiaeeea?noue o/ano? a aeooiaiiio anana?o? aa?iy.
Eth?a Aia??eo?a ao?oo? iaaeiei naaa a iaeio niai?io ni?eueiioo ethaeae,
iiae?aieo eiio. A?i iaiaaa?oueny ciaeoe niie?e o aeani?e aeoo?,
i?eie?eoeny c niaith, c aeaniith iaaeineiiae?noth ? ia i?eieiy? uiaeaiio
eii?oeo i?aoeth, ?ooa?oueny aia?aae. Oaia aei?iae noi?iaiaeaeo?
?icai?oaiiy ?iiaiiiai i?inoi?o, eiinoeooth? iaeia oe?ea c ?iceeaeaieo
aeaiaio?a. Niiaeyaeaiiy ia?ao?? i?eaiaeeoue nayuaieea aei noiieo
iaaeeoaoe?e i?i noai o?enoeyinueeiai na?oo ? ?ieue oea?eae. Ia?ao?y ia
i?eeeaae ? ia aeiyoie — aiia ?ai?acaioo? na?o c on?ia eiai i?iaeaiaie.

Cei, ui caaieiae?ei ethaenueeeie aeooaie, ia? o Aa?iaiina aeaeaei ia
iica/aniaee oa?aeoa?. Oea ia ia?ai?iaeiee a??o, a e?eciaee noai
oeea?e?caoe??, aaci?aoeaiaeaioiee a ?noi???. Aia??eo? ae?inoa? ye
aeooiaiee i?e?ieini ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa a OO noie?oo?. Eaeaoueny
i?i e?eco iioieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, oiaoi i?iaeaie aeooiai?, ye?
aeoiaeyoue ca iaae? ineoieia?? ? ii?ae?. “Aeia?i ? cei ia?aaoaathoue a
noai? ??aiiaaae, inue o?eueee oi/ea ??aiiaaae ?icoaoiaaia aae caiaaeoi
iecueei. Ieanoe aeia?a ? cea i?eeyaathoue, aea ia ci?oothoueny, ye aea?
??aeeie ??cii? aonoioe”. Ioaeueaa noa? eeth/ai aei aaoi?nueeiai
?icoi?iiy neooaoe?? no/aniiai noni?euenoaa. Iaae?y ia?iaeaeo?oueny
na?aae aeeaiei? ii/?, c a?ae/ath ? iiaiiai ii?ieo.

I?ino??, ui a?aee?eaa?oueny iiaeyaeo eth?a Aia??eo?a, — oea einiin, ui
?iciaany ia oeny/? ae??aieo oiaoi/e?a, ao?aoea oi/eo iii?e. Aea iiaeyae
eth?a aiineoue a iueiai ni?a/oooy ? ethaia. O?ainoi?iaoe?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny o?eueee caiaeii, oe?iith aaee/acieo no?aaeaeaiue naiiai
eth?a. Ni?eeoaaiiy aeey iueiai iiaeeeaa o?eueee i?e iiai?e ?ice?eoino?
aeoo? aeey ?icoi?iiy iiceoe?? ?ioiai, iaa?oue yeui aiia a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae eiai aeanii?. Eth?a i?eiai ia inoaeaeo? — a?i canoa??aa?. Aa?iaiin
ia?aeiiaiee, ui Ainiiaeue a?aeiiaeany a?ae iiaiioe nai?? naiaiaee, uia
aeaoe iiaeeea?noue aeai?o nai?io noai??iith. Ooaa, no?aaeaeaiiy ?
iaa?oue aoio ?icaeyaeathoueny ye oi?ie i?iyao aioo??oiuei? naiaiaee
ethaeeie, yea aeae?a? na?e oeyo ? ae?ooa? a aeooiaiee iiooe. Eth?a aea
Oi?n?, Aeaeueaaiaea, Ie?a`?, iiae?oaa Aetho?ao?, nai eth?a Aia??eo?a —
aeaaiaeaoiee a?oio, ia yeiio i?iyaey?oueny Aiaea aeaaiaeaoue.
No?aaeaeaiiy ?ioeo, aeani? no?aaeaeaiiy oa iaoao?ce/ia ooaa c?iaeee
i?ieii a ?o iniaenoino? ? c?iaeee ?? aeinooiiith aeey ni?eeiaiiy
?ioo?oeaieo oi?i ciaiiy. Aa?iaiin aaaaea?, ui aeaaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo
ciaiue, yea ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?noe/iei ii/oooyi ii?icoi?iiy, ia
i?eaaaea aei aaaeaieo aeeaei. “I?yeee ?ioee aiaiiue, e??i
Aiaeanoaaiiiai, ia iiaea iaiaeeoe eiioeaioe ? noai?eoe ia oe?e
?icieaaeai?e iniia? iiao oi?io ?aoeaioe?? ciaiue”. Oa?eciaoe/iee noai
oi?cia?oueny ii aioo??oi?o a?ae/oooyo ? aiae?co?oueny a neeaaei?e
ae?aeaeoeoe? aeaeeiino? ? noo?. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ae?aeiaai
, ye? ia ae?eaathoueny ?c caaaeueiiai eiioaenoo uiaeaiieea, a
ooai?ththoue e o e ue i ? i a oe ? e i ? i i i a i oe. Ae?aeia noa?
iiiaioii ?ice?eooy nae?aoo ? a?aee?eooy ?noeie. Ia eiai o/aniee?a
i?ieeaa?oueny i?i?i/a na?oei i?aaaee i?i naaa ? i?i ?ioeo. Ae?aeia
?icii/eia?oueny ye aeeaiei neiaie?/iee aeeneo?n, a yeiio iaeiaeiai
aaaeeea? neiai, iiaeyae, i?ino?? ? /an. ?icai?iooa ii??aiyiiy ? iaoaoi?a
ia?aiinyoue ae?th a ieai aiaeia??. I?ioeaieee noiaeyoueny o aeooiaiiio
aeaiai? a eiie?aoi?e ianoaiiaoe?, aea noeaia aiaeii/an iinoa? a nai?io
iaaei?e?iaeiiio aei???. Neiaa “a`thoue o a?oaee e iaiaeththoue aiaiai”,
a??o ai?cia?oueny ca caiaoii, i/? na?ae/aoue i?i “iaaeiiaio ooao”.
Iaaei?e?iaeia i?enooi? a cae/aeiiio, iaoa??ae?co?oueny a uiaeaiiiio, uia
a iaeio ieoue aeaoe naaa ia aeioee, ia iiaeyae. Iayai?noue cea a
ethaenueeiio na?o? ia iicia/a?oueny, ye oea aoei a ?iiai? “I?ae niioeai
Naoaie”, i?enooi?noth oaioanoe/ii? ?noioe, ia aeiaaa? iniaeeaiai
iaaei?e?iaeiiai aa/aiiy. Iaoaoi?a ceiye?nii? iooeeie neiaie?co?
aeooiaiee noai naeeua ua aei aeyaeaiiy ?aeiaiai caoai?thaaiiy o eth?a;
aaaii aei??a cia/ii i?ci?oa inyaea a aeoo? Oaioaeue ? noaia neiaieii ??
ciaaaa. Cei aeieea? ye iaoaoi?e/iee ia?ac, aea /a?ac iaaiee /an noaia
o?ce/ii a?ae/ooiei. Cei ? a??o noiae? ia caooeo eaethaeo, a ye?e
a?aenooi?e ?oo, iaiiaeeea? ci?ie.

Ia?aaeeaia nae?aoo ? oa?inoa iia`yco?oueny /a?ac iniao eth?a c
o?ainoeaiaeaioiei, yea ciaoiaeeoue naith ?aae?caoe?th a iiiaio
ae?aeia?/iiai c?oeiaiiy i?ioeaiee?a. Ia?aaeien eaaeeoue a iniia?
?iiaiii? ae??: eth?a a?aeeeaea? ia?ac Aiaa ea?ath/iai ? cai?iy? eiai
ia ia?ac Aiaa-iooey, yeee aea?oao? aeaniei neiii. Aaii?y ae?iee ?
nia?oue aeeoeie io?eiothoue cia/aiiy aeoo ethaia?, a?uothoue aaii?th ?
nia?oue eth?a. ?iiai “I?ae niioeai Naoaie” aoa ao?eaiyi aaoi?nueeiai
aoioo i?ioe nia?o? nieaeao ia o?iioao Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie. “Uiaeaiiee
n?euenueeiai nayuaieea” ie?eoueny c? nia?oth ye na?ae/aiiyi ethaia?.
Oey aeoiea ciaeaea naith iiaio ?aaiaaeuenueeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th o
iaaaeeeiio oai?? “Iao? ae?oc? nayo?”. A “Uiaeaiieeo” ethaia ? nia?oue
ii?aeiai? ocaie niieoooaaiiy: aeeoeia aine?ana? a na?oe? iaoa??, aaeeea
o?enoeyinueea i?noa??y Oai??iiy na?oo ?aae?co?oueny a iaei?e inia?.

I?noe/iee nae?ao ethaia? — aaniethoii i?ici?ee ? i?iyaey?oueny o
a?aenooiino? ciai?oi?o iciae. Aiae?c i?ioaoe/ieo iiiaio?a ?aaaeyoe??
oa?inoaa ae?oaeae, ethaia?, aeooiaiiai iieeeeaiiy iieacaa, ui aiie
ia?e??iaai? a ieai? /aniaiai ae?aco noo? iiae??. I?noe/iee /an
aa?oeeaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy ?ic?eaa? ai?eciioaeueio e?i?th uiaeaiiino?,
aiineoue iiaee aei?? o cae/iee iaecaae, iiaa aa/aiiy aeia?a ciaeiiiai
ia?niiaaea. Aecenoaioe?eiee /an eth?a — oea ia o?eueee /an ooae, yeee
iiaa?oa? eiai aei aeoie?a, oea ? /an ?aaeino?, /an i?aeianaiiy,
aeooiaiiai ceaoo. I?noe/iee /an ia ?aeaioe/iee eiio, aea iaeeaaea?oueny
ia iueiai. Iaieaiiy aeoo?, a?aeiiaa a?ae ieaioaaiiy iaeaooiueiai, aeeooy
iaeiei aeiai — oea aoaie aioo??oiuei? i?aeaioiaee aei iiaii? ?aae?caoe??
nai?? iniaenoino?.

I?iieeiaiiy a aeeaeie ethaenueei? iniaenoino? Aeii?nnaia, Oaioaeue,
eth?a Aia??eo?a /e iaa?oue ? Iooaooe ia?ic?eaii iia`ycaia c oa?iie/ei
aeina?aeii. Iiia?aea/ e?aua ca ieo i???ioo?oueny a neooaoe??, a oiio
noaanoo? /eoa/aa? aeeaeiia ?icoi?iiy oaiiiai?a. I?ney ?iiaio “I?ae
niioeai Naoaie” Aa?iaiin ia ia?aae?a? ia naaa ooieoe?? anaciath/iai
aaoi?a. Eiai iiia?aea/ caeiaaaeo?oueny, ?ioa?i?aoo? ciaee, iicia/a?
ciio oa?iie/iai, i?ioa i? a yeiio ?ac? ia iieno? ? ia iiynith?.

O “Uiaeaiieeo” iiceoe?y iiia?aea/a aoea oi/eith ci?o ae?a?enoa ia
aeaniee aeina?ae a?aee?eooy iaaeaeeii? i?enooiino? iaaei?e?iaeiiai, a
ioaea, e??eei-iiaoe/ia iiia?aeue iane/oaaeany i?noe/ieie neiaieaie,
ienaeany iiaith iaoaoi?. Iiia?aea/ai “Iiai? ?noi???” ea?o? ue?a aaaeaiiy
aeine?aeeoe i?noe/io aaaioth?o ? a oie aea /an caa?aaoe oa?iie/ee oea?.
Ia?aae?ath/e ia naaa ooieoe?? i?i?iea ethaia?, a?i aeyaey? neeia? iiey
ae??, yea caeeoa?oueny iac?icoi?eith aeey naii? aa?i?i?. ?noi??y aeeooy
i?aai?co?oueny a iiia?aeue, oeeaaea?oueny ye iniaeeaa ? oi?eaeueia
iiae?y c? noa?e aeie? ethaenueei?.

Aiae?c iiaoeee “Iiai? ?noi??? Iooaooe” ia?aeiio?, ui oa?? i?noeoue o
nia? a?eueoa, i?ae aaiaeueio ?noi??th caaaeooaaiiy ? naiiaoanoaa
i?aee?oea. Iiaoe/ia iiia?aeue ?aaeooae?co? ?i?oe?aoe?eiee i?o ?
cana?ae/o? iniaeeao aaoi?nueeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th a?ae?eiiai a?oaoeio
“caaoaeaii? a?aoe?”, eiai oai?/a aa/aiiy aaciai? a?oaoei?/ii? ?noi???
niieoooaaiiy a??o?a. Aeina?ae Iooaooe aeeth/a?oueny a aeeooy
ciai?oiueiai na?oo. I?e?iaea noa? ae?th/ei aeaiaioii aaeaoainueei?
eini?/ii? i?noa???. Ae?y ?icai?oa?oueny i?ioyaii 24 aiaeei ? a
iaaecae/aeii eiiaeainiaaiiio aeaeyae? yaey? ooiaeaiaioaeueiee aeina?ae
aeie? ethaenueei?. Cono??/ c ?ioei aeyaey?oueny na?ae/aiiyi
iaiiaeeeaino? ni?eeoaaiiy ye iiaiiai aeieo/aiiy aei eiai aeooiaiiai
einiino. Iaae?y ? ?ic/a?oaaiiy, ethaia ? eioaiiy, ciaaaaa ? iaiaaenoue,
ii?iaei?e ?ioa?an ? oioaeueia naiioi?noue ceeaathoueny a iaeia oe?ea,
ia?inoathoue c eaeaeaeineii?/iith oaeaee?noth, aeaooathoue
oaioaniaai???th no?ao?oeeaiai nio, yeiai iaiiaeeeai iicaooeny. Iiia?aeue
o iia?no? iaaeeaea?oueny aei iiac?? aeeaei ? ?aae?co?oueny ye i?i?ioeoai
oa?ie ethaenueeiai aeeooy, iacaaaiaiii? caaaaeeiaino? oe??? iiae??.

O iia?no? a?aenooi? nayuaieee, ianoaaieee, ae?oc?, noa?o? oiaa?eo? —
oiaoi an? o?, ooi i?a ae ia?aa?aoe ia naaa aaouee?anuee? ooieoe?? ?
iiynieoe Iooaoo?, ui naia c iath a?aeaoaa?oueny. Aea a iia?no? ?iceeoee
“noeeue i?aeiino?”: aioo??oi?e iiiieia Iooaooe noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
eiiaioa?yie iiia?aea/a. Ia?aoeaia oaoi?ea iaiaaeo? ?ai?acaioaoe?th
aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo Iooaooe iieai ?? aeaniiai a?ae/oooy ?
?inoeieoeaiiai ona?aeiieaiiy ia?aaeeoiai. Ia iath/e caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
eoeueoo?e, ae?a/eia ni?eeia? na?o ci?ii, neooii, aeioeeii oa
?ioo?oe??th. Eiee aeina?ae aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? ?icoi?iiy, aeania
iacaeaoi?noue ona?aeiieoe eiai i?iaieo? noai ooae ? ii?aeueieo
no?aaeaeaiue o aeoo? aa?i?i?. Aaoi? no?aaeaea? ?acii c aa?i?iath,
iiae?ey? ?? ooao iano?eueee, ui ia iaaaaeo?oueny ia?aeoe ia iiceoe??
a?aenoi?iiaiiai ia’?eoeaiiai iiia?aea/a.

Iia?noue “Iiaa ?noi??y Iooaooe” i?eaiaeeoue o na?o, a yeiio iiai?noth
a?aenooiy caaaeea i?i Aiaa, aea oea?eaa iaaaaeo? i?i naith i?enooi?noue
o?eueee iioi?iiiei ia?aaecaiiii o aeaiue nia?o? iaoa?? Iooaooe, a
na?o, a yeiio a?aenooiy o?ao?a ? ooieoe?? nayuaieea. Aiaeii/an ?iiaiiee
i?ino?? ia?aiiaiaiee a?aeaiiiiii, caeeoee oueiyiei na?oeii /iainue
oaeiai, ui ia ia? ne?a aeey naiai iiaiiai ae?aaeaiiy. Iaaei?e?iaeia
a/oaa?oueny o aiein?, i?inooia? a iiaeyae?, a?ae/oaa?oueny ia aeioee.
Aiae?c ooieoe?e eini?/ieo ia?oiaeaiaio?a a i?aai?caoe?? iiia?ae?
i?iaiaeeoueny a oeueiio ?icae?e? c iii?ith ia oaiiiaiieia?/iee iaoiae
A.Aaoey?a. Ia?ace aa?oeeaeueii? i???ioaoe??, ?icoaoiaai? a aa?oi?e
/anoei? ieiueie, iinooiiai ia?aiinyoue na?e oeaio? oyae?iiy aiec, ooaee,
aea ciaoiaeyoueny aiaea ? caiey ye aeaeei? iiaeaeueiino? ia?oiiaoa???.
Aa?oeeaeueia a?nue aei??th? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nee aeia?a ? cea. Iaeaeaa
iiethne ia`?aeio? ?oo?eia neea ethaenueei? oyae. A. Aaoey? ienaa, ui
naia aiia ciooo? ethaeeio c?icoi?oe i?aeianaiiy aeoo?, eiee yeanue
ciai?oiy ae?y i?eaiaeeoue aei naiicaaeeaeaiiy ? iaaiaee, uinue
iiaeeaeth?oueny a oie /an, eiee uinue ?ioa a ian i?aeiineoueny. “Ie —
ca`ycea i?ae i?e?iaeith ? aiaaie, aai, ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, i?ae caieath ?
iia?o?yi; ie aea? iaoa???, ?aae?ciaai? a iaeiiio ae?yii? ”. Ia?ac
iaae?iiy aoaeo?oueny ia ia a?coaeueieo ea?oeieao, a ia caeaoiino?
ethaenueei? ineoieia?? aei aeeiai?coth/i? oyae. Aaoey? ienaa:” Neiai,
yea ooai?th? a?coaeuei? ia?ace, ?icaoaeth? cia/io /anoeio nai?o
iioaioe?e. Aea neiai — iaoye ? nieaa ia?ac?a (…). Aiii — oeth?ae, ui
cai?ooo? iaoa oeth?aeia ?noai, iiaeeo, ui iaaeeoa? aei aeooiaiino?, eiee
o?ei oyaia aei iaoa??aeueiiai ”. Oaea ?icoi?iiy iiae aeiionea?
anioe?aoe?th iiaeeeaeo ?oo?a oae naii, ye ? anioe?aoe?th ?aeae. “Oyaia
iaae?iiy, i?aae`yaeaia a nai?e aeeiai?oe?, oae naii aeeiai?/ii i?aoeth?
iaae iaoith oyaith: aiii ciooo? iaoo oi?iaeueio oyao ni?eeiyoe
oaioanoe/i? a?coaeuei? ia?ace, ye? ia i?a ae i?iaoaeeoe aeiaeai
aeina?ae. Ia?ace ia?iaeaeothoueny aaciina?aaeiuei c aieino, ui oaii/a ?
iaoyea? ”.

Ethaeeia ? i?e?iaea — aeaiaioe iaeiiai eini?/iiai oe?eiai. Caeiie
aiaeia?? ? a?aeiia?aeiinoae ii?aeiothoue /anoeie iaeiiai aiaeanoaaiiiai
oai??iiy. Oeae i?eioeei aa?iaoe/ii? o?einio?? a?aeiiee a Cao?aei?e
?a?ii? c e?ioey O?? no. caaaeyee “Nia?aaaeia?e oaaeeoe?” Aa?iana
O??niaa?noa. ”Ana, ui cieco, ? iiae?aiei oiio, ui caa?oo, a oa, ui
caa?oo, ? iiae?aiei oiio, ui cieco, ? caaa?oo? /oaei iaeiiai oe?eiai”.
I?eioeei aiaeia?? caeeaaeaiee o ia?aeiiaii?, ui ?icoi?iiy na?oo
ii/eia?oueny c ona?aeiieaiiy naaa. A ?iiai? “I?ae niioeai Naoaie”
AE.Aa?iaiin ienaa: ”Iaei?ino?o? ethaenuee? ii/oooy ia?iaeaeothoueny ?
c?inoathoue a ii?ieo ii/?”. O?enoeyinueeee i?noee Ooai aea ey E?oc
iaiaeii?aciai iaaieiooaaa ia iaiao?aeiino? i/euaiiy iaoiai aeaniiai “y”
ye iaiao?aeii? oiiae iinayoe a oa?inoai aoooy. *i?ia noaae?y iiooeo
o?einionueeiai eaiaith anioe?th?oueny o iueiai c aeooiaiei noaiii
“oaiii? ii/? a aeoo?”. Oea iaaaoeaia oaca aoooy, i?ioyaii yei? ethaeeia
aei??th? aeanio oe?ii?noue; oea iiiaio nioneo aaeea, eiee caea?oueny, ui
oi?ea?ony aeia i???ae, aea ui, ye aeyaey?oueny caiaeii, aoei iaiao?aeiei
aeey ianooiiiai ?ooo aia?aae. O ?iiai? “I?ae niioeai Naoaie” Aa?iaiin
iiaiaeaeoaaany, ui “eiaeai ia? nionoeoeny aaeea naaa. Ii i??? oiai, ye
nionea?ony, noo?iee aono?oathoue aae aei iai?iaeyaeii? oai?i?, aei
caoueia?aiiai oooo, aeeaeiiiai “y”, aea ae?eaeaoue o?i? i?aaee?a ? ?aaa
?inoeieo”.

O ia?iaeieo eaceao iaa?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy aa?iy ia?aae eiai iinayoith
i?ioiaeyoue o o?e aoaie: aiaiiue, aiaea ? i?aei? o?oae neaae /e
naiicaniiei?iiy. ?oo Iooaooe iacono??/ nia?o? a inoaiith i?/ ?? aeeooy —
oea iaona?aeiieaia iath oaiia noaae?y iinayoe, eiee a?aeaoaa?oueny
aei?iaoaaiiy ?? aeooiaii? noo? aiaiai ethaia?, oieiaeii ciaaaae,
iiaieeaei niiei?i nia?o?.

Iaeia c iniiaieo oai iia?no? — iiaeeea?noue ii?icoi?iiy c ?ioith
ethaeeiith a aei?noieiio aacaeooiaiiio noni?euenoa?. Iiaeeea?noue ue?iai
a?aee?eoiai eioaiiy — oeaio?aeueiee aniaeo oe??? oaie, yeee aeieea? a
noeaiao c?oeiaiiy Iooaooe c e?anaiai A?naiii. Eiioe?eo aeaio
ia?a?iaeueieo ?noio, aeaio ??cieo nenoai oe?iiinoae ?icai?oa?oueny ia
oii? iio??neoaaiiy a i a i th — oeueiai aeoeaiiai ia?oiaeaiaioa —
o?ainoi?iaoi?a aeaeeiiai na?oo. Aea, ui iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeai,
a?aenooi?e ia?ac aiaieua, ui ?icai?a?oueny, a?aenooi? ? iieoi`y:
aioo??oi?i ci?ii aa?i?iy o?eno? eeoa iia?eueia aie?aiiy aiaith. C
?aaaia?aoe??th aeoo? iia`ycaia ? noeo?y a i ae e, caio?aiiy a yeo
icia/a? aeey a??oth/i? ethaeeie cieaaiiy ieioeeo a??o?a, iiiaeaiiy ?
aine?an?iiy aeey iiaiai aeeooy. A Eiec? Ioae?ino? Nayoiai Ienueia aaeee?
aiaee ii?y ? ??e icia/athoue ua ? aei?iaoaaiiy: aiie ianooue nia?oue
aeey a??oiee?a, aea o?ainoi?iothoueny a “aeeao aiaeo” aeey iaaeiieo
[Na.Ienueii ei. Ioae?ino? 5, 21-23]. Aiaea ia inoaeaeo?: oea neiaie
ianeaii? /enoioe, can?a ? i?ino?? aaeeeiai iaee?iaaiiy. Aea ?ioo
neiaie?/io ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aiaea aieioa. Aiia ao?aoeea nai? i/euoaaeuei?
aeanoeaino?, eiee ci?oaeanue c aaaitheith (i?ecaieaieie aaaeaiiyie).
E?eaeaia aiaea icia/a? iaeaeuee ??aaiue ineo?/ii? ? aeooiaii?
noaaiaoe??, cia?oa?eo aeooo. Aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny o ?icae?e? ae
e a i i o i i a e y ae o Iooaooe. Aa?iaiin ia?aeiiaiee, ui a
ia?aeiii? iiiaioe a?i iaeiie/o? a nia? aaeaoainueeo aeeoo?ao aia?a?th.
Iiaeyae iiaea inyaiooe ia o?eueee nae?aoe ineoieia?/ii? na?aeiiino?, a e
iaaei?e?iaeio i?aaaeo aoooy. A?i noa? i?i?i/ei.

A?oa?, caiey, aiaiiue, aiaea ooai?ththoue a iia?no? ia?aaeo ia?ac?a ye
neiaie?/iee ae?ac ethaenueei? aeie?. *ioe?e ia?oiaeaiaioe i?e?iaee — oea
a n- i a e o e i i o o e o a a ? i ? i a th i ? e / a n o y ,
neiaiee ?? ia?aaoaaiiy i?ae iiethnii iaae?iiy ? a?yooaaiiy aeoo?. Ceeooy
an?o aeaiaio?a a noeai? nia?o? aoaea oaeaeoa ca ana ia iaoaii?oicith, a
ia?aoai?aiiyi oaino ia aa?oeeaeueii ni?yiiaaiee ?oo. C aacoieiiiai
e?oaeeyiiy nooiai eenoy ? aeoiie, c oee?eoey?iiai ?ooo a oai?ya? ii/?,
/a?ac i?ie?nee ? aieioi, iinooiiai ae?inoa? neiaie?/iee ae?ac
aaiethoe??, iaaeaeeii? a iiaa?oiaeo oaeoao, ui noaiiaeyoue ?io?eao.
Aoaeue-yeee oaieia?/iee aeeneo?n ni?eeia?oueny ye iaaei?a/iee –
iaoii?noue iiia?aeue caio?th? a uaieeaa a?ae/oooy i?noa??? na?oo.

O i?ioean? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?iiaio “Iai O?i” aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
?aoeaioe?? oai?o ca aeeooy ienueiaiieea. A ia?aoeaiiio ieai? a?i
iiaoaeiaaiee ia iniia? iaei?ino?oi? ?io?eae, oa?aeoa?ii? aeey
iie?oeaenueeiai ?iiaio. Aa?iaiin ei?enoo?oueny oaoi?eith iaiiaii?
iiia?ae?, oiaoi caeeoa? aaee/aci? ?ioi?iaoeai? i?iaaeeie c iaeiiai aieo,
a c ?ioiai ?ic?eaa? eia?/i? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca`ycee. Ao?aoa iinoao?
iiia?aea/a ni?e/eiy? aeaci???ioaoe?th a /an? oa i?inoi??. Ae?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioyaii aeae?eueeio aei?a a?ae caaaaeeiaiai aaeanoaa aei
iioi?ii, a neiiioe/ia ea?oeia aeyaey?oueny oeiiaith oi aeey inoaii?o
aei?a e?oa, oi aeey ii/aoeo ceie. Eiaeia i?noeaa?noue (ae?i I?oaeue,
caiie Oaiaaneo?, oa?ia Aeaaaiaeiia, ia??y, oea?eaa, oeaeioa?, aei?iaa,
oeaea) ooai?th? naith aeanio oe?e?ni?noue ? naiiaeinoaoi?noue. Aiia ia ?
i? eia?/ii, i? ea?oia?ao?/ii iia`ycaiith c ?ioeie. Oea ie?ai? na?oe,
a?ae??cai? a?ae ?ioeo, ?icae??aeai? ana?aaeei? ia ua ae??ai?o? iica?ee
iaiia`ycaieo i?ae niaith aeaiaio?a. Oea?eaa ia?anoaea aooe oeaio?ii,
yeee cae?a? naeyinueeo ni?eueiioo ia e?oo?a?/i? /eoaiiy. Caaaeea i?i
iano ia aoiaeeoue o nayuaiiee ?ae?a?eiee /an, iia`ycaiee c oa?inoaii
o?enoeyinoaa.

Ceii ? oa, ui ia ia? noo? (?aaiaae?? a?ae Eiaia), a ioaea, eiai
iaioaaiiy a nae? i?iyaey?oueny o a?aenooiino? anueiai aeeoo?aiai,
aeeaiai, oiai, ui ia? nai? oi?ie, iaiiaiai?noue no?oeoo?e, ciai?oi?e
ae?ac. ?ic/eaiiaaiee, niioai?aiee, caoaiiaiee iaecaae iinoa? oea?noaii
aacoi?iiiai, aeaicia/ii i?aeic??eiai ? ii?iaeaeo? iaaiaaiai?noue. Oey
aeooiaia i?aai?caoe?y ? na?ae/aiiyi canioaaiiy iaaoooy a i?inoi?? oa
/an? e ia? iaoao?ce/iee oa?aeoa?. Ia?ao?y – ethaenueeee einiin, yeee
ao?aoea naith aioo??oith aa?iii?th, ?icaoaea ca`ycee i?ae ie?aieie
aeaiaioaie ? ia iiaea iiiiaeoe oe?e?ni?noue. Ethaee, a??i?oa ethaenuee?
?noioe, ao?aoeee i???ioe?e ?, aieiaia, aaaeaiiy ?o ciaeoe. Aeeaia
aoiinoa?a oioaeueii? oai?iaeeaino? iiaea aooe ii??aiyia o?aa ui c?
na?oii Eaoee /e i?ciueiai Aaeeaoa. Oea na?o i?ney iaae?iiy, a yeiio
c?oeiiaai? ca`cee ia o?eueee ai?eciioaeuei?, a e o?, ui ii?aeioaaee
ieioea, oaia??oi? oa iaeaooi?. Aea yeui aa?i? Aaeeaoa aaea ia ooeathoue
?noeie, a i/?eothoue iaa?aeiii ia ui, yeui Eaoea ua oi/a aooe
?ioaa?iaaiei nenoaiith, oi Aa?iaiin caeeoa?oueny o?enoeyieiii ? iaeth?
na?o, ui ia ia? i?aaa ia aoooy. Oea na?o aiieae?ine/iee. A?i iana a nia?
na?e e?iaoeue, ye o?ano, ? ia iiaea ne?i/eoeny, ai ia cia? e?ioey.

I?ino?? iia`ycaiee c ia?niiaaeai ocaie aiaeia??: eaeaoueny ia i?i
ii??aiyiiy ? ia i?i ia?aeaeuei?noue ?nioaaiiy. Ia?oueny ia oaac?
ia`?eoea?caoe?y aeooiaii? ae??, ia ao?eaiiy, a naia aeooae?caoe?y —
i?ino?? ae?? ia?aoai?th?oueny ia o?ao?o aeooiaii? ianiaae. I?noeaa?noue
i?eiee ia ciaeueiao?oueny a noaoeoe?. Aiia aeieea? ia?aae iiaeyaeii,
yeee niiaeaa? ae??iioa, a oaii? oaeaeeiai ?ooo, a aaethoeeia?iiio noai?,
a iiiaio ao?aoe na?aeiiino? ia?niiaaeai, i?ae aieeaii a?e na?oea ? o?i?.

Iie?oeaenueeee ?iiai noa? e?oa?aoo?iei ae?acii aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai
aeooiaiiai anana?oo, o?ainoi?iiaaiiai a nooe?eueiee ciae caieoaiiy.
Ienueiaiieea oe?eaaeoue ia cei/eiaoeue, a cei/ei. Eia?ea iiae?e, yea
?ai?oa aeieeaaea c ?nioaaiiy iaaeioi?eaieo i?aaee (?noei), oaia?
a?aeia?ea. A na?o? iaio? aaceaaeaey, ? naia iiae?y aeyaey?oueny
aeia?/iith. Ii?iaeia/a anana?oo aac aaouee?anueeiai neiaa aecia/a? iiao
aeey aa?iaiin?anueeiai na?oiaeyaeo iane/ai?noue oaie iiooeo e aoioo.
Nia?oue aaoueea cieuo? caeiii?noue ii?yaeeo a?aeiinei, iiaoaeiaaieo ia
?aea? eiai i?enooiino?. Aeeoeia, yea ae?inoa?, ca?eueiy?oueny a?ae ioo,
iaiaaeoth/eo ?? ae?? caeii?a. Aea aiia caa??aa? a??i?noue iai`yo? i?i
aaoueea. Ia?oeyiea No?i? caa??aaoe aeia??aio oa?iieoeth aeeooy ? nia?o?
caeeoa?oueny inoaii?i ino??aeii nayuaiiiai, yeee iaaaaeo? i?i ca`ycie
oaia??oiueiai ? ieioeiai, oai?eoue ?noi??th.

?noi?e/i? ?aae?? OO noie?ooy i?enooi? o ?iiai? a ?icieoiio, ia/?oeiio
aeaeyae?. sse “Caiie” O.Eaoee, einiin Oaioy ? ac??oeaaei i?o?/iei
i?inoi?ii, ia yeiio ?icai?oa?oueny ac??oeaaa ?noi??y. Na?o eioeoueny a
noai oioaeueiiai oaino ? aieaa?oueny nai?th aacnooo?aith i?ioyaei?noth a
/an?. I?o anana?oiuei? nia?o?, nie?ath/enue ia anoaoieia?/ia ienueii
A?ae??, noaiiaeoue noia?no?oeoo?o “Iaia O?ia”. A?i ?ioaa?o? aoi?eii?
i?o?/i? no?oeoo?e, iia`ycai? c a?oaoei?/iei iioeaii ?i?oe?aoe?eiiai
iiooeo.

sseui a a?ae?eiiio anoaoieia?/iiio i?o? ethaenueeee na?o iinoa? ye
oaeee, ui o?ynaoueny a eiiaoeuen?yo, no?aaeaea? ? iiie?a? aeey
a?ae?iaeaeaiiai ?nioaaiiy “i?ae iiaei niioeai ? iiaeie iaaanaie” [Na.
Ienueii, Iaee?eooy Eiaia, aeaaa 21], oi a ?iiai? “Iai O?i” a?ae?eiee i?o
iaa?aeai?ioiiai iaieio/iai e?ioey aeaa?aaeo?. Eiiaoeuen?? ? no?aaeaeaiiy
aeooo ia iathoue e?ioey. Aaii?y oyaiaoueny a /an?, aoaeoue niiaaae i?i
aeaniee ii/aoie. ?? aeaiaioe iiaoi?ththoueny, aea oae ? ia ciaoiaeyoue
nee aeey inoaoi/iiai naiicaaa?oaiiy a e?ioeaa?e iiae??. I? e?i/oaaiiy,
i? nia?oue, i? iioi?ii ia noathoue ?ica`yceith eiioe?eoo. Ae?aiaoeci
neooaoe?? ia ia?inoa?, aea ? ia ciaioo?oueny c? cieuaiiyi eiioe?eoieo
yaea?. Oea na?o aac e?ioey, na?o a-iiae??, yeee caieooaany a oaiaoao
aeooiaii? ae??iioe ? iinooiiai i?aei?iea ni?aaaei? aeeooy “niii iayao”
i?i aeeooy. “Neanoaaiiy i?i?ioeoaa, ui noinoaaeiny e?ioey na?oo,
ni?iaieoaaei ye?nio o?ainoi?iaoe?th aiieae?ine/ii? iiaeae?. C iaieio/iai
e?iaoeue noaa ?iaiaioiei. Aiieae?inen ia?aiineoue ?ano?ne ia?aciiai
aeneiao c Inoaii?o /an?a – /ano no?ao?a, aeaeaaeaino e iiiaeaiiy — ?
noa? i?oii e?ece”. Oey ??ea??anueea oa?aeoa?enoeea a?eueo no/aniiai
iiaea?i?cio a inia? Aaeeaoa yeiae/?oe?oa aena?oeth? niaoeeo?eo
?iiaiii? ia?aaeeaie “Iaia O?ia”.

Na?o Oaioy, ui iinoa? c? noi??iie oeueiai ?iiaio, ia cia? iiae?e a
iiaiiio cia/aii? oeueiai oa?i?ia. Aeoe, ui a?aeaoaathoueny, ia
aienothoueny a ciai?oi?e /an ? ia noathoue ia?ea?aie ?ooo aia?aae.
Aeeiea niiaeae?iiy, ooiai aeooiaii? ae??iioe aeneoue ye iaae on?i
naeeuai, oae ? iaae eiaeiei aoaeeieii, iaae eiaeiith aeeaith ?noioith.
Oea na?o, ui oyaiaoueny a /an? ? i?inoi??, a?aeiiaeaoenue a?ae
iiae?e-aeaoo?a, ye? iiaee a ye?nii ci?ieoe eiai nooi?noue. Nia?oue
naiiai iaia O?ia ae?inoa? ye iiae?y iaoao?ce/ia, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y yei?
iiaea aooe aeaicia/iith.

Eiaeai ia?niiaae o oeueiio na?o? ia? aeaniee i?o, yeee ?ioa?i?aoo?
ae?eni?noue, aeaoaeiao? iaaio nenoaio oe?iiinoae ? ii?aeueieo
i???ioe??a, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ia caieoaiiy ? aeathoue ?aoeei??ioai
iiyniaiiy neeaaeieo aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?e. Aea i?oe ia?niiaae?a, ye ?
aei?iae a einiin? Oaioy, “i?eoaee ia aaaeooue”, ia?eaathoueny, ia
aeioiaey/e aei ai?eciioo. I?o caeaiiai /ieia?/ea, yeee ?ice?ea
Aeaaaiaeiio a?enoie?aoe/ia iioiaeaeaiiy eiai i?aaee?a, noa? i?e/eiith
o?aa?/ii? nia?o? eiai aei/ee, cyoy e iioea A?eiia, oiaoi naia oeo eiai
iauaaee?a, ye? iiaee iia`ycaoe a iaeia oe?ea ieioea ? iaeaooi?. I?o
ca?eueiaiiy ? oe?eeiaeoi? naiaiaee aeyaey?oueny aeey No?i? ii?iaeia/ith,
cieuo? aeeooy Ainaeueia. I?o ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ii?iaei?e nii, yeee
e?oaeey? iaaeiei oaie, ieaoa ia?aaeo aa??aio?a ? ia?eaa?oueny oae naii
iai/?eoaaii, ye ? ii/eia?oueny. I?o e?ioey na?oo, ui ae?inoa? c?
noi??iie “Iaia O?ia”, oea iacae/aeia ii?iaeaeaiiy oai?/i? oyae
ienueiaieea, aaniethoii ia iia`ycaia c ia`?eoeaiith ae?eni?noth. I?o?/ia
anoaoieia?y ienueiaiieea ia? i?ioaoe/io oi?io, oiaoi ?aaaeth? /a?ac
ia?ace, /a?ac ?oith naiaioeeo e i?aai?caoe?th ni?aaaei?e noai no/aniiai
na?oo, yeee noi?oue ia ii?ic? aeooiaii? nia?o?.

Aa?iaiin noaaeoueny aei a?ae?eiiai i?oo ia ye aei eiioeaiooaeueii?
oi?ie, a ye aei aeeaiai, ci?noiaiiai ae?aco iaaei?e?iaeiiai iica
aeiaiaie ? oea?eiaieie ?inoeoooaie, a ?noi?e/i?e ae?eniino?, a
uiaeaiiiio ethaenueeiio aeeoo?. sse ? Ianeaeue, Aa?iaiin aaaaea?
ia?oii?e/eiith anueiai oiai, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?noi???, noai
ethaenueei? aeoo?, a naia, ia?aaaao a i?e oaiieo /e na?oeeo nee. Cei,
yea ia?aaaaea? a einiin? Oaioy, ?aae?co?oueny ye nii iaaoooy, ye
?ethc?y iiaiioe, ca yeith noiaaeany ?ioa — ni?aaaeiy, aeua ae?eni?noue.
Ine?eueee cei ia? caeaoi?noue aei i?i?e???, aei ia?iae?thaaiiy, yea
aeineoue aeaoaeueii aea/a?oueny a aeaiiio ?icae?e?, ?noeia ia iiaea
i?iyaeoeny a nai?o cae/ieo oi?iao. I?enooi?noue ieeino? Ainiiaeiuei?
a?ae/oaa?oueny a ?? a?aenooiino? (ua iaeei aa?iaiin?anueeee ia?aaeien).
Iai O?i – ii?iaei?e oeaio? einiino. A eiai o?e? oaea ae naia ii?iaeia/a
(eaaai? c`?a ooaa?eoeueic, a na?oe? oieiae, ai iaia? ethaia?). Aieooy
o?ce/ia ? aeooiaia — ciae ianoaiiy inoaii?o /an?a, ca yeeie ia ai?eciio?
aeaei??oueny nia?oue. Aea yeui a Eiec? Iaee?iaaiue oaaaa
neiioeaio?iaaia ia ?aea? nia?o? ? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aei ni?aaaeiueiai
aeooiaiiai aeeooy, oi “Iai O?i” yaey? cia/io o?ainoi?iaoe?th /aniaiai
i?inoi?o. Oea na?o, yeee ia cia? e?ioey. A?oa?, ui caaeaa? a einiin?
Oaioy, iana a nia? ceia?nio ca?noeo, aea eini?/i? eaoaee?cie, ui
cae/aeii noi?iaiaeaeothoue a Aiieae?inen? inoaii? /ane, ia
?aae?cothoueny a i?inoi??. Oea, nei??oa, neooaoe?y aaci?aaeiaoiiai
i/?eoaaiiy, niiii? ae??iioe, ii?aeueiiai caaoooy, i?ae io?eiaiiy
inoaoi/ieo Iaee?iaaiue.

Caiey, iia?o?y, noo?iee, i?/, aeaiue, in?iue ? ceia — ana i?aeeyaa? i?ae
??ciiieaiia? i?iyae iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a eini?/ii? ei?oioe??. I?i?ioeoai
ienueiaiieea a?aeiinii aeooiaii? nia?o? ia?ao?? ? noo?iie oeea?e?caoe??
ae?inoa? ia oe? eiai ianei?noe/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ao?aoe a??e a oe?ieeo
ianao eieenue o?enoeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ia?ao?y, ye i?noe/ia o?ei,
ui ii?aeio? a aeooiaiiio nithc? aaaaoueio /eai?a, cieea?, cieuo?oueny,
?iciaaea?oueny. Aeoo ? iaoa??y, ca Aa?iaiinii, ia i?inoi iia`ycai? —
aiie nie?aea?i? ? i?aeeyaathoue o nai?io ooieoe?iioaaii? caeiiai
?iea?iaoe??: aeooiaia ? o?eaniei, a o?eania — aeooiaiei.

Eieaeoeaiee noai a??oiaiino? ia?a?eaa? oee?eoeyoe?th Aiaei? ieeino? a
i?noe/iiio o?e? Ainiiaeiueiio, aeeeeea? noai canoith ? iinooiiaiai
a?aeie?aiiy. Aa?iaiin aoaeo? iiaeaeue no/aniiai na?oo a cae?eoiio
i?inoi?? anoaoieia?? iica o?enoeyinueeith ?aaaeyoe??th ?, noaey/e c
aiieae?ine/ieo ciae?a, ?iceeaeaieo o /an? ? i?inoi??, caeeoa? eiai aac
iaae?? ia nian?iiy. Eth?a i?i?ieo? ia?aae oaioeoeyie ia?iaeaeaiiy ?ioiai
ii?yaeeo, yeee cana?ae/eoue iaioaaiiy Iaiiie. Aa?iaiin cia? ? a??eoue,
ui Oea?noai Ainiiaei? — ia caie? [Eiaia 18, 34-35], ui aeeooy
ethaenueea ? iino?eiei ?ooii iacono??/ ?noeiiiio Oea?noao. sse aaoi?
“Iaia O?ia”, a?i canoa??aa? ethaenoai a?ae oeaiiai e?ieo, a?ae
iaaei??ii? aeia??e anueiio ?aoe?iiaeueiiio. A?i a??eoue o iieiae?noue, o
caa?aaeaio aeeoy/o aeia??eea?noue, o aeooiaio neeo a?aea??a. “Iai O?i”
ia ? cae?i/aiith ?noi???th, ?aaeuei?noue cea ia oi?aeanoao? a ?iiaiiiio
einiin? inoaoi/ii, no?oeoo?a ia caieea?oueny, ooai?thth/e oyaiee na?o
aac aeiaeiiai aeoiaeo a eiie?aoio ?noi??th OO noie?ooy. Nia?oue Aaeaia
oa Aeai ? oe?eeiaeoei ? aacoiiaiei oi?aeanoaii ethaia?, ia?aiiaith iaae
eiioi?i?ciii naea. ?? i?noa??y ?oeio? aiaaiai?noue ? ciooo? caieneeoeny
iii?e anth aaciaae?th iaae iiaeeea?noth ii?yooieo.

Aeniiaee. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aeiiaei, ui ana oa ?iiaie
AE.Aa?iaiina ii?iaeaeai? aiioith e?ece o?aaeeoe?eieo aoiai?noe/ieo
oe?iiinoae. Aiioa ?aeyoeaii? ii?ae? ? a?aeiia a?ae Aaouee?anueeeo ?noei
noaaeea ieoaiiy iioieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ia ye? eiaeai c eiai?oe
aiaaaeiaaieo a ?noi??th ieooe?a aeaaaa aeanio a?aeiia?aeue. I?iaeaia
iniaenoino? a ?noi??? ?ioa?i?aoo?oueny eaoieeoeueeei ienueiaieeii ye
e?eca ethaeeie ? e?eca oeea?e?caoe??.

Iaoao?ce/i? ieoaiiy noo? cea ? i?aaii??iino? aoioo i?ioe eiai
?iciiacaiiy a no/aniiio na?o?, iiooe iaae? aeicaieaiiai oa a??oiaiiai ia
??cieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo no/aniiai noni?euenoaa ? oai?/iai ioaei?iiy
naiiai Aa?iaiina io?eioaaee ??cia ae??oaiiy. Ienueiaiiee aeaaeae?
a?eueoa noeey?oueny aei ?aea? aeoeaiiai i?ioenoiyiiy eiioi?i?ciia?,
a??eoue o ethaeeio a?eueii? ae??. ?aeaeia ianiaaa eiai oai??a
a?aeiia?aea? no/aniiio ?icaeoeia? o?enoeyinueei? aeoiee.

Aa?iaiin – yne?aaa iinoaoue ia ai?eciio? ?a?iiaenueeiai o?enoeyinueeiai
aecenoaioe?ae?cio. No/ania o?enoeyinoai ia?aiineoue aeoeaio c iioieia??,
o?einio?? aoooy ia nooue ? i?e?iaeo ?noi???, ia ca’ycie ethaeeie ? oiai
na?oo, a yeiio aiia ?nio?. Aecenoaioe?eieie i?iaeaiaie oe?eaaeeeny
o?enoeyinuee? ieneeoae? A.Ianeaeue, N.E??eaai?, A.Ia?naeue, ienueiaieee
OO noie?ooy O.Iaa?, I.Eeiaeaeue, O.Ii??ae. O?enoeyinueeee oa aoa?noe/iee
aecenoaioe?ae?ci iathoue ni?euei? na?oiaeyaei? canaaee, iaeiaeiaee
i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie ethaeeie, ni?eueia oaiaoe/ia i?aea?oioy. Aeey
“aecenoaioe?eii?”ethaeeie AE.Aa?iaiina oa?aeoa?ia ia?aaoaaiiy a noai?
iino?eiiai naiicaaeeaeaiiy, iiae?aiiai aei iieeoae, iiooe aaoaioe/iiai
?nioaaiiy. sseui ?icaeyaeaoe o?enoeyinueeee aecenoaioe?ae?ci ia ye
o?einionueeo nenoaio, ui iiaoaeiaaia ia niiaeyaeaii? ? a?aenoi?iiaiiio
aiae?cia? ae?eniino?, a ye ia i?ia?aio ae?e, yeith ea?othoueny o?, ooi
a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae cae/aeii? ethaenueei? aeie?, oi aa?i? Aa?iaiina
iinoaiooue ye aecenoaioe?ei? ?noioe a iino?eiiio i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy, a
?aae?caoe?? a?eueii? ae??. Na?o ?ice?eaa?oueny ia?aae ieie ye i?noa??y,
i?i yeo oae aaaaoi ienaa Aaa??aeue Ia?naeue.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae i?iaeai, ye? ae?inoathoue ia?aae ethaeeiith ?
aeiaaathoue iaaaeiiai anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy, eiie?aoiiai aiae?co oa
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ae??oaiiy, i?noa??y na?oo aiaaaeo? ethaeeio, ioi/o? ?? c
on?o aie?a, ia?inoa?, aeaooa? iiaeie i?iaeaiaie, ye? aeiaaathoue
iino?eiiai cina?aaeaeaiiy. AEiaeai c ia?niiaae?a AE.Aa?iaiina ia
iaiaaa?oueny ia?aaanoe i?noa??th na?oo a ?ic?yae i?iaeai, ae??oeoe ?ac ?
iacaaaeaee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeia?a ? cea, aoooy ? nia?o?. Aa?ie nie?aiii
ni?eeia? nai? ?nioaaiiy a ieei? uiaeaiiino?, aioo??oiuei a?aeaea? naaa
oiio na?oia?, yeee ?ice?eaa?oueny iacono??/ eiio, yeee ?nio? ii?yae c
iei, oaia?, ? i/?eo? ia eiai iaaaeio o/anoue. Iieeoaa, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?
eth?a Aia??eo?a, eiai uiaeaiiee ? uiaeaiiee AE.Aa?iaiina /an?a
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a ?niai??, uiaeaiieeiaa oi?ia ana-iaaeeoaoe??
“Ciaaaaeai? ae?oe” a?aeaeaathoue ae?aeaeoeeo aioo??oiueiai
cina?aaeaeaiiy. Aiii i?eiee ia iaae?aei o oeueiai ieooey oi?i ea??oecio.
AEeooy caa??aa? na?e ieeiiee oa?aeoa?, i?ioa iiiaio cina?aaeaeaiino?
aeiiiiaaa? ia?niiaaeaa? i?ic??oe nooue ia?aaeieno ? a yeonue ieoue
iaieiae?oe aeaniei aoooyi. Eiaeai, ooi ia? aeina?ae aeooiaiiai aeeooy,
ni?eeia? ?nioaaiiy ye oyaeeee aeina?ae iaaaaei?iiy, a?ae/oaa? aeeooy ye
oyaa? ? iaeii/anii ia?aaeeaa? oai?iaeeao iaiao?aei?noue i?ieoe oeei
oeyoii aei e?ioey.

Aecenoaioe?y aa?iaiin?anueeiai aa?iy oea ia o?eueee noai eayooy, ia
o?eueee cina?aaeaeai?noue ia nai?e inia?, — aiia iiae?aia aei iieeoae,
ui ii?aeio? eiai c ?nonii. Oea ? iniaeeaa ona?aeiieaiiy nai??
i?enooiino? ooo ? oaia?, oe?eeiaeoa a?aee?eo?noue ia?aae a?/i?noth,
a?aeeeaeaiiy i?eaianaiiai, aea?aiiiai. Caa?oiy ??ii?y, neaioeoeeci,
ciaaaaa aei ethaenueeeo coneeue, ?noi?e/iee oaoae?ci aeey eiai
ia?niiaae?a ia oa?aeoa?i?. ?noi??y ia? e?iaoeue, ieei OO noie?ooy ?
anoaoieia?/iei, aea ethaeeia ia a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae ?eceeiaaii? ae?? ?
iana a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca na?e aeeoo?aee aea??. Iae/ano?oa aiia
aeeaa a iaeaiueeiio naeeu?, aeeiio? iacia/i? ooieoe?? a i?noeaa?e
ni?eueiio? ? ia ia?oee iiaeyae i?/ei o i?e ia ae??ciy?oueny. Aea oaeoe
aoaeaiiiai aeeooy io?eiothoue cian?i ?ioo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th a na?oe?
eeth/iai? aeey ieooey ?aea? niai?iino? nayoeo ? aaee/ii? iiae??
nian?iiy aeoo? oa niieoooaaiiy a??o?a ethaenueeeo.

O cae/iiio ia’?eoeaiiio na?o? a?aenooi? aa?aio?? oa inoaoi/i?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iiae?e. O iaaei?e?iaeiiio aei??? a??oieee ii?aeiothoueny
c i?aaaaeieeaie iaaeaeeieie ocaie. A??a o nian?iiy aeoo?, o niieoooaaiiy
a??o?a ii/eia?oueny c noii?a?a o iiaeeeaino? ?o ?aae?caoe??.
Aa?iaiin?anuee? ia?niiaae? aeeaooue o o?aa?/i?e naiioiino?. Na?aeii?noue
ia?an?/ieo ethaeae, ye? noaiiaeyoue a?eueo?noue, nai???aeio iaaio
oeueiai einiino, — ?oiy na?aeii?noue caio?iaaia a eiioi?i?ci,
coeaiaioiaaia a?aoiath. I?ioa eiaeia ethaeeia iana a nia? oa?inoai,
iaa?oue ia caeiaaaeoth/enue i?i eiai nooue. A??oiee ? i?aaaaeiee – aeaa
iaiao?aei? iiethne ?nioaaiiy. I?ae ieie iino?eii a?aeaoaa?oueny
i?eoyaaiiy ? a?aeooiaooaaiiy.

O iaaei?e?iaeiiio na?o? ?noeiia a??a ?aae?co?oueny ye i?noa??y. Aeia?i ?
cei ia oeueiio ??ai? aoooy ia ? ii?aeueieie i?eioeeiaie, ye? iiaeia
i?ciaoe, aena?oeeoe, eeaneo?eoaaoe, iiynieoe. A einiin?, ui oai?eoue
Aa?iaiin, iaaei?e?iaeia na?oei i?ieeaa?oueny a aoaeaii?noue, ooai?th?
oa?iie/o ieo. Ineoieia?/i? iioeae, ia’?eoeai? i?e/eie a/eie?a, ui
eia?/ii aienothoueny a nenoaio iiaeeeaeo iiyniaiue, iinoathoue ye
ianooo?a? a nooi aa?iaiin?anueeeo ia?niaeoeaao aa/aiiy ethaeeie ye
?noioe ao?a/aii? ? nianaiii? iaeii/anii. Aecenoaioe?eiee ianiie?e iaio?
a oeueiio einiin?. Ui ? aeia?i? Ui iio??aii aaaaeaoe ciaeii ethaia? e
ia?aiino?, a ui niieonith, ii?iaeaeaiiyi a?ae/ath? I?iaaaeaiee o
aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c ia?aeiio? a iiai?e a?aenooiino? aacia/iino? /e
aa?aio?e. A??a aa?i?a ii/eia?oueny c noii?ao ? i?iaeeaa?oueny a
o?aa?/iiio iaa?aeaii?. I? nayuaieee, i? i?noeee ia ciathoue iino?eiiai
noaio niieith. Oe?eeii ni?aaaaeeeai A. Ioiue? aaaaeaa, ui o aeoai?aiiio
AE.Aa?iaiinii na?o? iaaaaaoi a?eueoa ?ae?a?eiiai aia?o?cio a aeon?
E??eaai?a, i?ae i?oiaeienaeueiiai eaoieeoeecio. Eiai nayo? ? i?inoi
nayuaieee aeaeae? a?ae cae/iiai ?icoi?iiy ii?aeueieo ii?i ? aoe/ii?
iiaaae?iee: Aeii?nnai iauaaeii eeaea? neiaa i?aaaee a iaee//y nai??
aea?oae, a iio?i iana ia?oaa o?ei a o?ai, aac?iaiiee nayuaiee Aia??eo?a
oeiaeo?, ui a no/aniiio na?o? ao?a/aia ai?ae?noue, iiaaaeia
iao??-?aoiaiy ai?oueny nia?o?.

A??a eiai aa?i?a o?eueee iicia/aia, i?ioa ia noi?ioeueiaaia,
noaanoiaaia, i?ioa ia ie?aneaia a nai?o iaaeao. Aa?iaiin?anuee? nayo?
ia no?eueee i?eethaeii aeeeaaeathoue canaaee nai?? a??e, ne?eueee
aeeaeiii i?iaeeaathoue ??, caeeoath/enue o ii?ieo. Nai ienueiaiiee
iaiaeii?aciai iaaieiooaaa, ui a??eoue o eaoieeoeueeo oea?eao ye o
oea?eao nayoeo. Niinoa??aath/e eiioi?i?ci aa?o?aee ?niainueeiai
aeooiaainoaa, a?i iao?th?oueny ? i?ioanoo? i?ioe iaa?aeieo a/eie?a
nayuaiee?a, i?ioa ia aoioo? i?ioe oea?eae ye ?inoeoooo.

Aiae?c oai?/ino? AE.Aa?iaiina cana?ae/o?, ui eiai ?iiaie e ana
ii?iaeaeai? aiioith e?ece o?aaeeoe?eieo aoiai?noe/ieo oe?iiinoae. sse ?
A.Aa?athn /e AE.A??i, A.Oai?iaoae /e A.-I.?aia?e, AE.Aa?iaiin iaa
o?aioaeiee aeina?ae Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie. I?ioa ia a?aei?io a?ae
no/aniee?a, a?i aa/eoue ?noi?e/i? ?aae?? a aiieae?ine/i?e ia?niaeoea? ?
iaa?oue ia iaiaaa?oueny ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe ineoieia?/iee noai i?aaenoaaieea
“ao?a/aiiai iieie?iiy”. Ia ia?oee ieai aeoiaeeoue ia iniaeeaee ?noi?e/ii
coiiaeaiee iiaoo, ia ineoieia?/iee oa?aeoa?, a ieei i?ioyaeii? ?noi???,
ia?iaiaioia ethaenueea neooaoe?y a ?noi?e/iiio iioioe?. sse ?
?in?enueeee o?einio I.Aa?aey?a, AE.Aa?iaiin ooea? eeth/ aei ?icoi?iiy
iiae?e a “iaoa?noi???”. A?i ia?aaeyaea? cia/aiiy oaeo?a, ia?ainieneth?
?o a na?oe? a?ae?eii? neooaoe?? iiaeooy iaiiaeyo ? iiaea? o ?iiai? “I?ae
niioeai Naoaie” o o?ainoi?iiaaiiio aeaeyae?. No/ania noni?euenoai
noa??? aeooii ? cieuo? aeeoo?aeaeio aia?a?th iieiaeeo na?aeaoeue,
iaiaaath/enue i?iaeiaaeeoe nai? ii?iaei?, iicaaaeaia naino ?nioaaiiy.

Aa?iaiin aeooae?co? a?ae?eiee a?oaoei. Eiai aa?i? ia?aaeeaathoue
a?oaoei?/io neooaoe?th ia aeaniiio aeeoo?aiio aeina?ae? e
ona?aeiieththoue ii?aeueii-aoe/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy aaciai? noaie ca iiaeo
?noi?e/ieo oiia. Nayoee c Eaia?a ae?ooa? ia iieeee a?nioaaoi?, uia
a?yooaaoe “caaoaeaio a?aoeth”. A?i /eoa? ciaee ? ?ici?cia? iiae?th ca
oaeoaie, ui ?? i?eoiaothoue, o?ainoi?io? ?o o iiae?th aeooiaii? niaae.
Aa?o/e ia naaa no?aaeaeaiiy ?ioeo ethaeae, niieoooth/e ?oi? a??oe,
nayoee ia?aaeeaa? no?ano? ?nona e caaeeaeth?oueny a noai aaii??.
Anoaoieia?/iee oa?aeoa? ?iiai?a Aa?iaiina iia’ycaiee c ?o i???ioaoe??th
ia /an ?aae?caoe?? Aiaeeo ae?yiue a na?o? e ethaenueei? a?aeiia?ae? ia
oe? ae?yiiy. Naia a oeueiio /an?, ui eiai I.O?ae iaceaa?
Heilsgeschichte, cae?eniththoueny ?eooaeuei? aeoe a?ae?eieo i?o?a,
?aae?cothoueny a?oaoei?/i? neooaoe??, ? oa?aeoa?e aa?i?a ciaoiaeyoue
naith ?eooaeueio i?o?/io iniiao. Aa?iaiin ia?aeiiaiee, ui i?ae
eieaeoeaiei, ye ? i?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei i?aena?aeiiei, ciaoiaeeoueny
aeeaeii?oee i?ioa?ie ?nioaaiiy, aea eaea iino?eia ai?ioueaa nee aeia?a ?
cea, eeia “/an aaii??” ye /an anoaoieia?/iee. Oeaio?aeueia ae?aia
?noi??? iieyaa? a iino?eiiio eiioe?eo? e i?ioenoiyii? aeaio ye?nii
a?aei?iieo oaiii?aeueiinoae: /an a?/iino?, a yeiio ?aae?cothoueny
iiae??, i?ioenoi?oue ai?eciioaeueiiio /ania? oaeo?a.

Eiioe?eo nee aeia?a ? cea ia?aaoaa? a oeaio?? eiaeiiai aa?iaiin?anueeiai
?iiaio oa ana. A?i ?aae?co?oueny ye i?ioenoiyiiy aeaeeiino? ? noo?,
iiaa?oiaiai oaeoo ? aeeaei aeooiaiino?, aea i?eiee ia ae/a?io?oueny
inoaoi/ii. Aa?iaiin ia?aeiiaiee, ui cei iaiiaeeeai ia?aiiaoe. Cei ?
no?aaeaeaiiy iiaeooue iaoe cia/aiiy ia o?eueee i/euaiiy ? ia?anoi?iae.
Canooiieoeueeee oa?aeoa? cea noa? i/aaeaeiei o Iiaiio Caa?o? i?ney
iiia?ae? i?i no?aaeaeaiiy ?nona ca a??oe ethaenuee? oa ?o niieoooaaiiy.
Aiii ? iaei??th c aaaaoueio oiia naiaiaee ethaeeie, na?ae/aiiyi
cae?eniaiiai iath aeai?o. Iinooiiai Aa?iaiin ia?aiineoue iaaiein ia
?aeath niai?iino? nayoeo, ia i?noe/iee ca ‘ycie a??oieea ? io/aieea a
o?e? O?enoiaiio. ?aeay, iia?aeii cayaeaia a ?iiai? “I?ae niioeai
Naoaie”, aeoiaeeoue ia ia?oee ieai nii/aoeo a aa?ia?ao??, a iio?i o
?iiaiao oa ana ienueiaiieea.

O eiaeiiio oai?? Aa?iaiina ?nio? nai???aeia yae?i, e??cue yea
a?aena?/othoue aioo??oi? no?oeoo?e ? cia/aiiy ?iiaio /e ana. Iae/ano?oa
oea iiiaio ?aaaethaaiiy ?noeie — i?i?i/a ieoue, aai ae nia?oue aa?iy,
yea ianooia? a ?acoeueoao? aeiaai? aaii??. I?i?i/a ieoue ? nia?oue
ii?aeiothoueny ye aeaa iiooaeieo oieone aena?oeaiiy aeooiaiino?, ui
a?eaa?oueny a ieai aecenoaioe??. Aeooiai?noue a aa?iaiin?anueeiio
?icoi?ii? aeaia ethaeei? a iiaiio? a?ae/ooo?a. Nayoee io?eio? oa?ecio
yniiaa/aiiy ye aea? ca i?eianaia a aea?oao ?ioei ethaeyi aeania aeeooy.
?noeiia iieeeeaiiy a?aee?eaa?oueny a iiiaio nia?o?.

A on?o ?iiaiao Aa?iaiina ae?aeia ? iiia?aeue aiaaiaii ?icai?oathoueny,
i?aei?iath/enue aei ae??oaeueiiai iiiaioo ?aaaethaaiiy ?noeie. A
i?i?i/o ieoue ia?niiaae ?aioiai a?aee?eaa? naith aeanio nooue, /eoa? a
na?oe? aeeaeiueiai eiai aeieth, aeaieioo? aaiein i?aaaeo, ia
caaeoioth/enue, aei yeeo iane?aee?a oea ?aaaethaaiiy iiaea i?eaanoe.
Oaeoe uiaeaiiiai aeeooy i?iaeiaaeothoue neeaaeaoenue ia iiaa?oi?
iiia?ae? a a?eueo-iaio /?oeo, eia?/ii ioi?ieaio ?noi??th, i?ioa o
ae??oaeueio ieoue ?o ca`ycie aeyaey?oueny ?ethci?iei.

Nia?oue ? ?aaaethaaiiy ?noeie a ?iiaiao Aa?iaiina ? iiae?yie
oeaio?aeueiiai ieaio. Aiie aeeaiei aei??iththoueny a ethaenueeo aeooo,
oi?eath/enue ?? noo?, ? ?aae?cothoueny a aecenoaioe?eiiio /an?. I?i?i/a
iiae?y caa??aa? na?e i?noe/iee oa?aeoa?. Aiia aeieea? ye aeeneaaea,
?icaeaa? niie?eiee ieei aca?iiiia’ycaieo oaeo?a oa yaey? ?ioee eee
?aaeueiino?, iiaeeea?noue ?ioi?, aeeaeii?oi? ? nooo?a?oi?, aea
iaaeinyaeii? ? i?ae?anii? ?noeie. Iiiaio iaiioeaiaaii?, aaci?e/eiii?
ae?? ? anoaoieia?/iei aeina?aeii iiaii? ethaenueei? naiaiaee.

Aa?iaiin ia?aeiiaiee, ui a eiaei?e ethaeei? aeeaiei i?eoiaaia ?? aeania
i?aaaea, yea eieenue iaia`yceiai noa? yaiith. Oea ii-aeeoy/iio
aeia??eeaa noaaeaiiy aei aeeooy. Ia a?aei?io a?ae i?inoi? oe?eaaino?,
ethaia aei aeeaeiueiai aea? ni?aaaei? ?icoi?iiy ?ioiai. Oea oa?ecia,
i?enooiia an?i, a ia o?eueee a??oth/ei. Iniiaiee aeooiaiee i?eioeei
i?i?i/i? ieo? ciaoiaeeoueny a A?ae??: “I?/iai-ai iaia caoiaaiiai, ui a
ia a?aee?eeiny, ? ne?eoiiai, ui a ia aeyaeeinue” [Eoee 12,2]. Noeaie
coe?eaiiy, aeaiaiiy a?n?a, aine?an?iiy ia?oaeo iinoathoue a on?o
/ioe?ueio ?aaiaae?yo. Aa?iaiin ia eii?th? ?o, aea /a?ia? oai?/a
iaooiaiiy, caaeeaethth/enue o niaoeeo?/io aeooiaio aoiinoa?o. A eiai
?iiaiao cono??/athoueny /ioe?e oeie noeai ?aaaethaaiiy ?noeie: ?iciiaa
aeaio aeecueeeo ca aeooii ethaeae, c yeeo iaeia ethaeeia a?aee?eaa?
ae?oa?e i?eoiaaia a?ae i/ae; eiioe?eoia neooaoe?y, a ye?e iaeei
iaiaaa?oueny ae?aaoe o ae?oaiai c?ciaiiy a a?aoi? ? a?aee?eaa? ?noeio;
iaeei iaiaaa?oueny i?ciaoe nai? aeani? aeeaeie ? i?iaeoo? na?e aeaniee
ineoieia?/iee noai ia ae?oaiai; ni?eueiee iiooe ?noeie, yeee ia`?aeio?
aeaio aeecueeeo ethaeae.

Aa?iaiin oe?eeii iiae?ey? o?enoeyinueea ?icoi?iiy aeooiaiiai ye
?iea?iaoe?? Aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea a ?aae?yo ethaenueeiai aeeooy. Aea
eiai aeoiea eaea aeae? oeueiai oea?eiaii-oaieia?/iiai aecia/aiiy.
Aa?iaiin iiae?ey? ia?aeiiaiiy O.Iaa?, eiee cayaey?, ui ana aeooiaia ?
o?eaniei ? ?aae?co?oueny a ieio?. A ?iiaiao Aa?iaiina iaaei?e?iaeia
ao?eth?oueny a ethaeyo, ye? aeeaooue aeooiaiei aeeooyi. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
ana a ooaeiaeiueiio oai?? ea?oo? /ooo?aa ia?aci?noue. Aiia ?ai?acaioo?
ineo?/iee noai ethaenueei? aeoo? a aeno?aiaeuei?e neooaoe?? i?ioenoiyiiy
neeai ?oeiaoe?? ? ieuaiiy.

Iiceoeaiee aa?ie Aa?iaiina — nayoa ca noaiii aeoo?, ca niiniaii ieneaiiy
? i?aeoe/iith ae?yeuei?noth ethaeeia. Aea aiaeii/an aa?iaiin?anueeee
nayoee ia oa eaiii?ciaaia oea?eaith ?noioa, ui ao?aoeea naith
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, ?icaoaeea ei?ii?aeueio aeooiai?noue, caa?aaea
eeoa ethaenueeo iaieiieo. Aa?iaiin?anueeee nayoee — oea ethaeeia, yea
ai?? o?ainoi?ioaaoe ineo?/io aia?a?th ?oeioaaiiy a iaae?th ? ethaia, a
ioeao ? no?aaeaeaiiyo i?iaeeaa? aeaiue ca aeiai, aea ?aae?? niioeth,
iaao, iini?ooe? aeeaeiueiai.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Oai?/?noue AE.Aa?iaiina: iiaoeea iiae?? oa i?i?ioeoaa. — Ee?a, 1998. –
208n. (10,1 ae?oe.a?e.).

Ethaee Ainueiiai aeiy: Aa?iaiin oa Aa?aey?a // Anana?o. — 1996. –
N°10-11.- C.157-163 (0,45 ae?oe.a?e.).

Oaeo, iiae?y oa iiiaio ?noeie a ?iiaiao AE.Aa?iaiina //Neiai ? /an.
-1998. — N°7.- N.15-21 (0,45 ae?oe.a?e.).

Eaoieeoeueea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a e?oa?aoo?? oa oai?/?noue AE.Aa?iaiina //
Anana?o. –1998. – N°11-12.- N.156-162 (0,5 ae?oe.a?e.).

AE.A??i: iaethiie aeie? ia eeeei? // ?iicaiia o?eieia?y. – Ee?a: ?AOe
“Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao”. – 1997. – Aei.26. — C.58-62 (0,25 ae?oe.
a?e.).

Iiae?y oai?aiiy ?iiaio nayoino? ? a??oa. Aeina?ae aa?iaiaaoe/iiai
aiae?co //Aeooaeuei? o?einionuee? oa eoeueoo?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie
no/aniino?. – Ee?a: EAeEO. –1998. – C.149-157 (0,5 ae?oe.a?e.).

Eini?/i? ia?oiaeaiaioe a iia?no? AE.Aa?iaiina “Iiaa ?noi??y Iooaooe” //
A?niee I?aeeinueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. I.A. Aiaiey. – 1999. –
N.33-40 (0,3 ae?oe.a?e.).

Ni?eeiyooy a?o/eciyiith e?oa?aoo?iith e?eoeeith oai?/ino? o?aioeocueeiai
ienueiaiieea-eaoieeea AE.Aa?iaiina // Aeooaeuei? aniaeoe e?iaa?noeee ?
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??. – Ee?a: EAeEO,
1996. – N.14-15 (0,01 ae?oe.a?e.).

Aa?aey?a oa Aa?iaiin, cono??/ aeaio i?i?ie?a // Roman 20\50. –
Paris,1997. – N°23. – P.163 –175 (o?aioe. iiaith, 0,5 ae?oe.a?e.).

Eiioeaioe?y oai?/ino? o AE.Aa?iaiina oa I.Aa?aey?aa //Bernanos:creation
et modernite: Actes du colloque de Lublin. — Paris:Klicksieck. – 1998. –
P.237-249 (o?aioe. iiaith, 0,5 ae?oe.a?e.).

I?ioaoe/ia ieoue a ?iiaiao AE.Aa?iaiina // Pour un humanisme romanesque:
Melanges offerts a Jacqueline Levi-Valensi. — Paris: S.E.D.E.S.- 1998.-
P.157-163 (o?aioe.iiaith, 0,55 ae?oe.a?e.).

Iiaaea AE.A??ia “Eeth/? a?ae nia?o?”.//Bulletin de la societe
internationale des etudes greeniennes. – 1996. – N°2. — P.16-22
(o?aioe.iiaith, 0,4 ae?oe.a?e).

Aiioaoe?y

Oanaiei A.?. Oai?/?noue AEi?aea Aa?iaiina : iiaoeea iiae??
oa i?i?ioeoaa. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
o?eieia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.04 — e?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?i. –?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith niaoeeo?ee iiaoeee ?iiai?a oa
ana o?aioeocueeiai

ienueiaiieea-eaoieeea AE.Aa?iaiina. O a?ae?eiiio nain? aiia ?
i?i?ioeoaii, oiaoi iiae??th neiaa o a?aeiia?aeue ia caieoaiiy, ui eoia?
ia ?noi?e/iiio ai?eciio?. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny iiiyooy “iiae??” a oi/ieo ?
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao, aea/athoueny oi?ie i?i?ioeoa ? i?ioaoe/iiai aeai?o,
i?ioenoiyiiy oaeoo ? iiae?? o ?icoi?ii? naiiai ienueiaiieea. Caniae
iiaoeee — aeai?e ana oa ?iiaio. Iiia?aeue, eiiaioa?, a?aoiaioaoe?y,
ae?aeia, iien, eaeneei-noee?noe/i? o?ao?e aiae?cothoueny ye oae?, ui
cae?eniththoue o?ainoi?iaoe?th iiaa?oiaiai oaeoo a oaenooaeueio iiae?th
aeooiaii? niaae. A aeena?oaoe?? canoiniao?oueny i?eioeei aa?iaiaaoe/ii?
a?ee. Aiae?c ?noi?e/ii? aiioe ia?aaeo? aea/aiith ae?yeueiino? oai?/i?
oyae ieooey, yea o?ainoi?io? o?aaeeoe?eio e?oa?aoo?io aeai?iao
ia?aaeeaio. Iniaeeaa oaaaa iaaea?oueny aoaeoo (eiaeo) oaenoo, yeee
ii?iaeaeo? anoaoieia?/io ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oai?/iai aei?iaeo
ienueiaiieea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaeo, iiae?y, a?oaoei, einiin, o?enoeyinueea
aeooiai?noue, anoaoieia?y.

Summary

V. I. Fesenko. Bernanos’ s Creative Writing: Poetics of the Event and
Prophecy. – Manuscript.

Thesis for the Doctor of Phylology degree by speciality: 10.01.04 –
Foreign Literature. – National Academy of Science of Ukraine. – Kyiv,
1999.

A thesis under consideration investigates the style of a Catholic French
writer Bernanos being treated as prophecy in the byblical sense, that is
a phenomenon of Word as an Answer to the Question lingering on the
Universe of Culture. A notion of prophecy and of different forms of a
prophetic genre, a notion of event in science and the arts,
juxtaposition of the fact and the event according to Bernanos are in the
focus of attention. Bernanos’s poetics is considered as a projection of
actual historical facts into the language of fiction. Major poetics
means being employed are the literary genres of an essay and a novel.

Narration, commentary, argumentation, dialogue, description, various
figures of speech, used to transform a surface event into an object of
art, are under careful analysis. Special attention could be drawn to the
principle of a hermeneutic arch employed in the thesis as one of the
methods of scientific research. It helps to reveal the relevance of the
Epoch that raises questions, stirs imagination, transforms traditional
literary paradigms, generating peculiar eschatological interpretation of
Bernanos’s texts.

Key words: hermeneutic, poetics, event, fact, prophecy, eschatology,
spiritual.

Aiiioaoeey

Oanaiei A.E. Oai?/anoai AE.Aa?iaiina: iiyoeea niauoey e i?i?i/anoaa. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.04 – eeoa?aoo?a ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. – Einoeooo
eeoa?aoo?u ei.O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?aeiu. – Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aoa?e?oaiie aeenna?oaoeee ?iiaiu e ynna AE.Aa?iaiina(1888-1948)
enneaaeothony a aa?iaiaaoe/aneie ia?niaeoeaa. A eiioaenoa o?aioeocneie
eeoa?aoo?u eaoiee/aneiai aic?iaeaeaiey nicaeaaaaiue ienaoaeai
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue einiin i?aaenoaao iaeiei ec iiiaeanoaa ae?oaeo
aiciiaeiuo ie?ia. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay iaia?a AE.Aa?iaiina ioee/aaony io
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ?aaeenoe/aneiai ?iiaia i?aaeaea anaai ioeacii
aini?eieiaoue iauaeoeaioth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai
iauaeoa io?aaeaiey. Aaeyaeuaaynue e aneooeaaynue a o?aaiaeioth aoiinoa?o
Aa?iiu 30-40-oo aiaeia, Aa?iaiin iuoaaony ?anoeo?iaaoue iineaiea,
caeiaee?iaaiiia a enoi?e/aneeo oaeoao, ?ane?uoue i?enoonoaea
naa?ouanoanoaaiiiai ecia?aiey a yaeaieyo iauaeaiiie aeecie. O?enoeaineea
ienoeee Ooai aea ey E?on, Oa?aca Iaeay, ienaoaee E. Aeoa e O.Iaae
i?eaeaeathony a enneaaeiaaiee ii ia?a eo aicaeaenoaey ia noaiiaeaiea
ie?iaicc?aiey AE.Aa?iaiina.

A ia?niaeoeaa aeaeaeneeo iio/aiee iineaiea AE.Aa?iaiina ?anniao?eaaaony
eae niauoea ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai neiaa a ioaao ia enoi?e/aneoth yiioo n
oa?aeoa?iui aeey iaa oi?ie?iaaieai oioaeeoa?iuo ?aaeeiia,
?ani?ino?aiaieai ianeeey, iianaianoiui ianooieaieai ia naiaiaeo e
aeinoieinoai ee/iinoe. Niaoeeoe/aneea n?aaenoaa iiyoeee eeoa?aoo?iuo
aeai?ia e a?aoiaioaoeaiiai aeeneo?na eniieuecothony ienaoaeai a oeaeyo
ai?ueau n iiiaieeeei ceii. Aai iinoiyiiue a?aa – eaeaieiae/aneay
i?iiaaaiaea, ninoiyiea nuoie oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe ao?aeoacee, /?acia?iia
oaea/aiea eaeaae oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna a oua?a aeooiaiinoe. ?acaeaeyy
eaeae Ianeaey i o?ao ii?yaeeao nouanoaiaaiey e aa?a, Aa?iaiin
?anniao?eaaao ooaeiaeanoaaiiia oai?/anoai a ea/anoaa iaeiie ec
aiciiaeiuo oi?i nii?e/anoey e i?iaeieaeathuaiony i?ioeanno nicaeaiey
ie?a Oai?oeii.

Iiiyoea i?i?i/anoaa e aai aeai?iaua oi?iu enneaaeothony a aeenna?oaoeee
ii ia?a eo aeeyiey ia noaiiaeaiea aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae oi?iu
i?iecaaaeaiee. Enoi?e/aneay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue ana /aua i?aaenoaao a
ynoaoieiae/aneie ia?niaeoeaa Nayoie Aaiiee, no?aaeaiee Eenona ia
Aieaioa. Anee a ynna Aa?iaiin i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao ?ac?anoathuaiony ceo
neeo naiae aa?u e iaaeaaeaeu, oi a ?iiaiao ana aeoaaea ?ac?aaaouaathony
aeaeaeneea oaiu ecaeaiey ieaaeaioeaa, caaeoaeoae iaoeu, i?aaeaoaeuenoaa
Eoaeu. Yoe a?oaoeie/aneea neooaoeee i?eaeatho iiaia ecia?aiea niauoeyi
ia?aie iieiaeiu OO noieaoey, naeaeaoaeai eioi?uo aue AE.Aa?iaiin. Oeao?u
nayouo a aai ?iiaiao eiatho a naiae iniiaa aeaeaeneea a?oaoeiu i?i?ieia:
Enaee, Ea?aiee, Eacaeeeey a Aaooii Caaaoa, Eenona, Eiaiia Aiaineiaa a
Iiaii. I?i?i/anoaa Oaaaina, eth?a Aia?eeo?a, Aeiiennaia ii aeooo aeeaea
i?i?ieai Aaooiai Caaaoa, a oi a?aiy eae ?iiai “Ainiiaeei Oei”
auno?aeaaaony ia iniiaa iaoe?iiai aiieaeeine/aneiai ieoa.

Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony nia?aiaiiui eiioeaioeeyi iiiyoey
“niauoea” a noa?a oi/iuo e aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe. AE.Aa?iaiin n/eoaao
niauoeai oi, /oi ia oeeaaeuaaaony a ?aoeeiiaeueiua nenoaiu, /oi eiaao
iniaoth yecenoaioioth ianuuaiiinoue e ?aaeecoaony eae iiiaio iiaeeeiiie
/aeiaa/aneie naiaiaeu. Iiaeeeiiia niauoea nio?aiyao naie nie?iaaiiue
niune e i?aaeiieaaaao iiiaeanoaaiiinoue eioa?i?aoaoeee. Aiaeec ie?a
“oaeoia” e “niauoee” a ?iiaiiii einiina i?iecaiaeeony a aeenna?oaoeee n
iii?ie ia eaoaai?ee Heilsgeschichte e Weltgeschichte I.O?ay. Iniiaiay
/anoue aeenna?oaoeee iino?iaia eae oaeoaeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea iaeaieaa
oa?aeoa?iuo aeey eaaeaeiai aeai?a i?iecaaaeaiee. Aiaeec ynna “Aieueoea
eeaaeaeua a eoiiii naaoa” e “Oieaeaiiua aeaoe” i?aaenoaaeai a ia?aie
aeaaa; eioa?i?aoaoeey ?iiaiia “Aeiaaiee naeueneiai nayuaiieea”,
“Ainiiaeei Oei” e iiaanoe ”Iiaay enoi?ey Iooaoou” – ai aoi?ie.

A ?aoa?e?oaiie aeenna?oaoeee oe?iei i?eiaiythony i?eioeeiu
“aa?iaiaaoe/aneie a?ee” e “o?ieiiai ieianena“ eae ninoaaiua eeoa?aoo?iie
aa?iaiaaoeee I.?eea?a. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiue oaeno ia anoue ieii/aoaeueii
noi?ie?iaaiiie nenoaiie, a eioi?ie aeeciue inoaiiaeeanue e caia?ea.
Aiaeec o?enoeaineeo iioeaia e aeaeaeneeo a?oaoeiia eae aioo?aiieo
eiaeia, ninoaaeythueo oaenooaeueiua niauoey, iicaieyao iiiyoue e
iauynieoue aeoaeiioth no?oeoo?o oaenoa. Iauaeoeaiay eioa?i?aoaoeey ia
iniiaaiee iiaiai i?i/oaiey aoaeao neaaeothuei oaaii ia iooe e aai iieiie
?aaeecaoeee.

Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony oai?/aneiio aiia?aaeaieth ienaoaey, eioi?ia
i?aauaaao a naiii oeaio?a ieianena. Aace?oynue ia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo noaiao,
Aa?iaiin i?eaiineo iiaoth aeeciue a eioaeeaeooaeueioth iao?eoeo,
nicaeaao iiaua aeeiaie/aneea no?oeoo?u. Aeaeey inoaaony aeey iaai
aeaaiui a?oaoeiiui oaenoii. A ?iiaiao ia ia?aue ieai auoiaeyo ia
iniaaiiua, enoi?e/anee iaoneiaeaiiua auo e oa?aeoa?, ii ia?iaiaioiay
neooaoeey /aeiaaea a enoi?e/aneii iioiea. Aa?iaiin iiaanoaoao enoi?eth
nianaiey /aeiaa/anoaa /a?ac no?aaeaiea oao aai i?aaenoaaeoaeae, eioi?ua
nio?aieee aunieoth aeooiaiinoue. Eiioeeeo nee aeia?a e cea enneaaeoaony
eae i?ioeainoiyiea aeaeeiinoe e nooe, aiaoiaai oaeoa e aeoaei
aeooiaiinoe. Aaiiey, nia?oue e iiiaio ?aaaeyoeee enoeiu i?aaenoatho eae
niauoey oeaio?aeueiiai ieaia. Aeeaeia e iiaanoaiaaiea ?acai?a/eaathony,
iiaeieiaynue e iiiaioo i?i?i/anoaa, eioi?ue ?ac?uaaao eeethci?ioth
naycue niauoee, yaeyao eiie iaeee ?aaeueiinoe, aiciiaeiinoue eiie,
aeoaeiiie, ii iaaeinooiiie enoeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Iiyoeea, niauoea, oaeo, i?i?i/anoai, aeooiaiinoue,
iiaanoaiaaiea, ynoaoieiaey, aa?iaiaaoeea.

?aeeia ioae?eaoe?y, cae?eniaia 1948?ieo a aeo?iae? “A?ea”, ei.5,
iaeaaeaea A.E?einueeiio

Starobinsky J. // Pour une esthetique de la reception / Jauss H.R. –
P.: Gallimard, 1978. – P.18.

Bernanos G. Combat pour la verite. –P.: Plon, 1971. – P.143.

Bernanos G. Oeuvres romanesques. – P.: Plon, 1961. – P.1054.

Ricoeur P. Du texte a l’action. Essais d’hermeneutique. – P.: Esprit,
1986. – P.114.

Oai aea, n.115

Bremond Cl. La logique du recit. – P.: Seuil, 1973. – ?. 31.

Beguin A. Bernanos par lui meme. P.: Seuil, 1982. – P.106.

Bernanos G. Essais et ecrits de combat. –P.: Gallimard, 1971. – P.909.

Frye N. Le Grand Code. – P.: Seuil, 1984.

Picon G. Bernanos romancier // Bernanos G. Oeuvres romanesques. – P.:
Gallimard, 1961. – P.9-24.

Frye N. Le Grand Code. – P.: Seuil, 1984.

Kermode Frank. The Sens of an Ending. Studies in the Theory of Fiction.
– Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1966.

Berdiaev N. Essai de metaphysique eschatologique. –P.: Aubier, 1976. –
P.286.

Adam J. M. Le recit. –P.: PUF, 1984. – P.18.

Beguin A. Bernanos par lui-meme. – P.: Seuil, 1982. – P.83.

Bernanos G. Oeuvres romanesques. – P.: Plon, 1961. – P.198.

Peguy Ch. Clio. — P.: Gallimard, 1932. — P. 20-21.

Bernanos G. Oeuvres romanesques. – P.: Gallimard, 1961. – P.1031.

Bernanos G. Oeuvres romanesques. – P.: Plon, 1961. – P.197.

Aeea.:Fitting P. Le narrateur et la narration // Etudes bernanosiennes.
— 1968 . — N°9. — P.57 — 79.

Bachelard G. L’air et les songes. — P. :Jose Corti ,1990 ; Bachelard G.
 L’eau et les reves. – P. : Corti, 1992 ; Bachelard G. La psychanalyse
du feu. – P. :Gallimard, 1949 ; Bachelard G. La poetique de la reverie.
— P. : PUF, 1965 .

Bachelard G.L’air et les songes. – P.: Corti, 1990. – P.127.

Ibid. p.115.

Ibid., p.116.

Hutin S. Les alchimistes. – P.: Seuil, 1964. – P. 44-45.

Bernanos G. Oeuvres romanesques. – P.: Plon, 1961. – P.83.

Ibid, p.137.

Ricoeur P.Temps et recit II. La configuration dans le recit. – P.:
Seuil, 1984. – P.47.

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