Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Einoaoeueea eTHAIA iEAENAIAe??AIA

OAeE: 883 “19” — 95

OAI?*?NOUe O?IOEIA C?IUeE?ANUeEIAI

A EIIOAENO? E?OA?AOO?IIAI I?IOeANO

80-O — II*AOEO 90-O ?IE?A O?O NO.

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Oaa/aiei A?oae?e Oaaei?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Aoiaiiee Ieeiea Oiie/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e Oa?niinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Aeoiye Ieoaeei sseiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e,

i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 10 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 17.051.02 i?e Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? (330600, i.Caii??aeaey, aoe.AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?ion 2,
o?eieia?/iee oaeoeueoao, aoaeeoi??y 230).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (330600, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe.AEoeianueeiai,66,
ei?ion 2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Oiiye O.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiiaao iiaa?iaiiy aiae?oe/ii?
na?aeiiino? ia iiceoe?? ia?eoeaiiai ?noi?ecio, ia?ainieneaiiy
eiioeaioe?? e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano, nenoaiiiai aena?oeaiiy caeiaooe?a ?
ao?ao ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?/ino? O?ioeia C?iuee?anueeiai
(1861-1891), yeee caeeoea yne?aaee ne?ae a oe?a?inueeiio ienueiainoa?, a
iaoe?iiaeueii-noni?eueiiio ?on? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no., iaeiae
i?ioyaii oe?eiai noie?ooy aoa caiia/oaaiee ? iani?aaaaeeeai
inoaeaeoaaiee. Neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie ??ciiiai?oii? a oaiaoe/iiio ?
aeai?iaiio aniaeoao, iicia/aii? iiaaoi?nueeeie ooaeiaei?ie iiooeaie
niaaeueie oeueiai ienueiaiieea, ioae?oeenoa, e?oa?aoo?iciaaoey ? aaeee,
iiia?aeaiiy, i?na, noaoo?, iaeyaee, ?aoeaic??. C?a?ai? o aea? eieae ?
iioae?eiaai? A.A??i/aieii a 1893-1896 ??. o Eueaia? oai?e
O.C?iuee?anueeiai ? aein? ia ia?aaeaeaaaeeny e caeeoeeeny na?aae
iaeia?aeiieo ? iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo.

Aeooaeueiith ? iio?aaa a?aeoai?aiiy ni?aaaeiuei? ea?oeie e?oa?aoo?iiai
i?ioeano 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no., caeaoi?iiaaii? ? niioai?aii?
aoeueaa?iith canioe?ieia?ciaai?noth ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?ieo i?aoeue ?
iaae?iaeai?noth eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa ye iaiiaoi?iiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaiiiaia. Aac ona?aeiieaiiy ?ie? O.C?iuee?anueeiai a
a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo?, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? oeueiai iie?oe/iiai
ieneeoaey, i?noey eiai ?aeae ? oai?/i? niaaeueie a aeooiai?e nea?aieoe?
ia?iaeo oyaeaiiy i?i iaeei ?c iaeneeaaei?oeo ia??iae?a ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo aoaea iaiiaiei, a
oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?ii-anoaoe/ia aeoiea caeeoeoueny ca?aeiaiith. ? ia
nueiaiaei? ia canoa??ee ia?aeiiaiiy ienueiaiieea uiaei iaiao?aeiino?
aeoiaoaaoe a no/aniee?a ?ioi?oao i?ioe caiaiaaeo oe?a?inoaa,
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaa?aaeaoe??, aeooiaiiai coaiae?iiy, iiaiiai i?a?e?cio.
Caeeoathoueny ceiaiaeaiieie eiai coneeey aeoiaaoe iaoe?iiaeueio
na?aeii?noue oe?a?ioe?a, aeni?yoe i?ei?oeaio ineoieia?th “iaei?in?a”.

Ia?eoeaia aea/aiiy niaaeueie O.C?iuee?anueeiai ?icii/eiaa A.A??i/aiei
(Aaneeue *ae/aiei), c?aaeaaoaaaoe eiai oai?e (“Ienaiiy”) o aeaio eieaao
(ia?oa — iiac?y, i?ica, ae?aiaoo?a?y, ae?oaa — ioae?oeenoe/i? e
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? i?aoe?) oa iaienaaoe ? iioae?eoaaaoe o oeueiio aeaeaii?
eiai ei?ioeee aeeoo?ien, a oaeiae a?ae?ia?ao?/iee iieaae/ee eiai
ioae?eaoe?e. Ia aeaeue, A.A??i/aieo ia aaeaeiny c?a?aoe an? ?oeiiene
C?iuee?anueeiai, aeei?enoaoe eiai ai?noiey??e.

Ni?iae aena?oeaiiy ae?yeueiino? e oai?/ino? O.C?iuee?anueeiai ?iaeee
I.Eiienueeee, Ii.Iaiiianueeee. Ie?ai? noi??iee eiai niaaeueie
aiae?coaaee ?.O?aiei, I.Ae?aaiiaiia, N.?o?aiia.

Ine?eueee, ca aeneiaii I.AEoeeinueeiai, oe?a?inuee? e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?
o?eaaeee /an “aoee i?ae ?aeaieia?/iei eieiaeii”, O.C?iuee?anueeiai
ca?aoiaoaaee aei e?aa?aeueii-ao?aeoacieo, iio?i — aei
e?aa?aeueii-ia?iaeieoeueeeo ienueiaiiee?a. Iaiao?aei?noth
ia?ai???ioaoe?? ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?ii? aeoiee, aei?aaeaiiy
aoeueaa?ii-nioe?ieia?/ieo oeoia/aiue oai?/ino? ie?aieo ienueiaiiee?a,
na?aae ieo ? C?iuee?anueeiai, aoee aeeeeeai? inoaii?i /anii noaoo? e
iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? I.Canaiea, I.Oa?aiaiea, A.Ne?eiee, N.E??aey,
I.Nieieiaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa cae?eniaia ni?iaa oe?e?niiai neioaoe/iiai
?icaeyaeo e aiae?co ooaeiaei?o oai??a, ioae?oeenoe/ieo ?
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo i?aoeue O.C?iuee?anueeiai, ui aoee iii?oiei yaeuai o
eiioaeno? e?oa?aoo?iiai ? noni?eueiiai aeeooy 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a
O?O no.

Aeaia aeena?oaoe?y ia? caycie c iiaeie iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie ? ieaiaie
?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.O.Oaa/aiea,
aiia aeeiiaia a ?one? iaoeiaiai iai?yieo “E?oa?aoo?a e ?noi??y”,
aeeth/aiiai aei eiiieaeniiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny iaiao?aei?noth i?aeaiooaaoe
aiae?oeei-neioaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?/i? niaaeueie O.C?iuee?anueeiai,
?? ?iaeiai? oa aeai?iai-noeeueiai? niaoeeo?ee, i?iaanoe oeiieia?/i?
c?noaaeaiiy oai??a, ie?aneeoe i?noea oeueiai ienueiaiieea ?
a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a o e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a
O?O no., o eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiueiio ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on? —
ia oe? naiai /ano ? c iiceoe?e iaoeo aei?a. Aeena?oaoe?y oaeiae
aeooae?co? iaoe?iiaeuei?, i?ina?oieoeuee? ?aea? O.C?iuee?anueeiai.

?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aea ?icaycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1. Cynoaaoe aeoiee ? aeyae noni?eueii-eoeueoo?ieo ?
e?oa?aoo?ii-anoaoe/ieo canaae O.C?iuee?anueeiai.

2. Nenoaiaoecoaaoe ? ocaaaeueieoe oeyoe ? caniae ai?ioueae
O.C?iuee?anueeiai ca eiinie?aeaoe?th oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, ca
aeaaaeaiiy ?? ?c noaio aiao?? ? ciaa??e, i?iaiae?coaaoe
ooaeiaeiuei-ioae?oeenoe/i? aenooie ca iaoe?iiaeueio naiaiaeo Oe?a?ie, ca
?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa.

3. Ie?aneeoe ia??? oaiaoeee ? i?iaeaiaoeee oai??a O.C?iuee?anueeiai,
aecia/eoe nai???aei?noue ?o ooaeiaeiueiai ao?eaiiy, aaanoe ?o o eiioaeno
e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano.

4. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?iaeiao ? aeai?iai-noeeueiao niaoeeo?eo ooaeiaei?o
oai??a, aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe ?o aeai?ia? ??ciiaeaee ? iaa?oiooaaoe
aioo??aeai?ia? ci?ie, i?iaanoe oeiieia?/iee ?icaeyae, i?iaiae?coaaoe
iniaeeaino? ?o iiaoeee ye inai?iiy o?aaeeoe?eii? oa iiai? anoaoe/ii?
na?aeiiino? 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no.

5. Aeine?aeeoe ioae?oeenoe/i? i?aoe? O.C?iuee?anueeiai oa aeiaanoe
iaia?ao?aei?noue cia/aiiy e aeooaeuei?noue eiai oai?/eo i?eioeei?a ?
aeoiie c i?eaiaeo oi?ioaaiiy o ni?aa?o/eciee?a iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? e ?noi?e/ii? iaiyo?.

6. Aena?oeeoe aianie O.C?iuee?anueeiai o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo iniia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, a nenoaiaoecaoe?th
ca?oa?aeii? Oaa/aie?aie.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee nenoaia na?oiaeyaeieo
ia?aeiiaiue O.C?iuee?anueeiai, niaoeeo?ea oai?/i? iaia?e ienueiaiieea,
eiai iiaoe/i?, i?icia?, ae?aiaoe/i? oai?e, ioae?oeenoe/i? ?
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? i?aoe?, ?o ia?oiae?oee ? ioae?eaoe?? o aeaioiiiiio
c?a?aii? 1893-1896 ??. oa ?oeiiene, a oaeiae ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy 80-o —
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no., a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, niiaaaee no/aniee?a,
ai?noiey??e ienueiaiieea. ?icaeyaeathoueny oaeoe e?oa?aoo?iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy, iaiao?aei? aeey cynoaaiiy na?oiaeyaeieo aeii?iaio ? oai?/i?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? C?iuee?anueeiai-ienueiaiieea,
C?iuee?anueeiai-ioae?oeenoa, C?iuee?anueeiai-e?oa?aoo?iciaaoey.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco ?iaioe neeaee, e??i aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaeno?a,
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? ?ica?aeee A.A??i/aiea, ?.O?aiea, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
Ii.Iaiiianueeiai, N.?o?aiiaa, I.Ca?iaa, I.Aiciyea, iaeyaee e
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, e?oa?aoo?ii? e?eoeee.
Aei aiae?co caeo/ai? a?o?ai? e ?oeiieni? oiiaee Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai?
a?ae?ioaee ?i.A.Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e
?i.O.Oaa/aiea, Euea?anueei? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i.A.Noaoaieea,
Aa?aeyinueeiai e?a?ciaa/iai iocath.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? o?einionueea a/aiiy i?i
ae?aeaeoeeo i?ciaiiy, i?i ia?eoeai?noue i?aeoiaeo aei yaeu noni?eueiiai
aoooy, i?i caycee oai?/ino? c aeeooyi. Aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeoiaeea ?c
oiai, ui aea/aiiy niaaeueie ienueiaiieea o eiioaeno? e?oa?aoo?iiai
i?ioeano ie?aeia i?e ?noi?e/ii ci?ithaaiiio ?icoi?ii? niaoeeo?ee ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e, i?iya?a ?noioieo iciae oaeaioo
a eiie?aoiiio oai??. A i?ioean? ?iaioe aeena?oaio ea?oaaany iaoeiaeie
?ic?iaeaie ?noi?ee?a ? oai?aoee?a e?oa?aoo?e I.A?eaoeueeiai,
A.A?thoiaaoeueeiai, I.Aieeinueeiai, A.Aycianueeiai, A.A?aaiae/a,
?.A?iiyea, I.A?ooaanueeiai, O.Aoiaei?iai?, E.Aeaiyi?anueei?,
?.Aeaienthea, ?.Aecthae, A.Aeii/eea, N.?o?aiiaa, I.AEoeeinueeiai,
I.Ca?iaa, I.Eiiiiaiea, I.Ia?iea, Ae.Iaeeaaeea, Ii.Iaiiianueeiai,
A.Iia??aiiai, A.Neaieiiy, A.Ni?eyinueei?, A.Oauaiea, I.Oaae/aiea,
?.O?aiea, E.O?ieiai?, Ae.*eaeaanueeiai, TH.Oaaaeueiaa (Oa?aoa),
I.ssoeaiea, ?in?enueeeo a/aieo I.Aaoo?ia, A.Iini?eiaa, E.Oeiioa?aa,
E.*a?iaoeue oa ?i. ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ?iaioe ni?eyee
nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee ? aaiethoe?eiee i?aeoiaee aei e?oa?aoo?iiai
yaeua, ii?aeiai? c oaaaith aei ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiai eiioaenoo.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?? ?aae?ciaaii ii?aeiaiiy
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai, ?noi?eei-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ?
ii??aiyeueii-oeiieia?/iiai iaoiae?a. *anoeiai canoiniaaiee a?ia?ao?/iee
iaoiae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Ia ioe?iaiee iaeaaeiei /eiii ca aeeooy,
O.C?iuee?anueeee ? i?ney nia?o? eeoa c??aeea iio?aieya o iiea ci?o
iiiaeeiieeo aeine?aeiee?a. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue ia?aaeyae eieeoi?o
?aeaeii-anoaoe/ieo ? e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo oyaeaiue i?i niaaeueio
ienueiaiieea ? eiai i?noea a ?noi??? e?oa?aoo?e.

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa a iaoiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? eiiieaenii
aeine?aeaeai? aeeooy, ae?yeuei?noue ? oai?/?noue O.C?iuee?anueeiai a
eiioaeno? e?oa?aoo?ii-ienoaoeueeiai ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano,
?icaeyioo? eiai iiaoe/i?, i?icia? e ae?aiaoe/i? oai?e, ioae?oeenoe/i? e
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? i?aoe?. O cayceo c oeei i?iaiae?ciaaia oe?iea eiei
e?oa?aoo?ieo, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ? eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi?o ?aeae /ano
(?oneo?eaoe?y Oe?a?ie ? oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no., iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue, caaaa/aiiy
aeooiaiino?, eiinie?aeaoe?y iaoe??, i?iaeaia naiino?eiino? Oe?a?ie), ye?
iaee aieea ia ?icaeoie na?oiaeyaeo ? oai?/iai oaeaioo O.C?iuee?anueeiai,
ia aca?iiiiaycai?noue eiai oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a ? ooaeiaeiuei?
i?aeoeee. A ?iaio? aia?oa i?iaiaeeoueny iine?aeiaia ni?iaa oeiieia?/iiai
?icaeyaeo oai??a O.C?iuee?anueeiai oa ?ioeo iaeno??a neiaa oe?a?inueei?
? na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aiie
?icoe?ththoue ? iiaeeaeththoue ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?i?, oai?aoe/i?
i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy niinia?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ienoaoeoaa neiaa a
noni?euenoa?, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue caeo/aiiy ?o aei oa?aeoa?enoeee
e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i? 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no.
Aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii? iaaieo ?icae?e?a
i?ae?o/iee?a, a eaeoe?yo c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, o
niaoeeo?nao ? niaoenai?ia?ao, iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao, i?e iaienaii?
aeeieiiieo ? eo?niaeo ?ia?o a oi?aa?neoaoao ? iaae?inoeoooao, ia
oaeoeueoaoeaieo caiyooyo a oaoi?eoiao, iaaeo/eeeuao, eieaaeaeao,
e?oeayo, a?iiac?yo. Eiiieaenia aea/aiiy oai?/ino? O.C?iuee?anueeiai
aeicaiey? caiiaieoe ooo/io i?iaaeeio a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa ? ienueiainoaa.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeany o oi?i? aeiiia?aeae “?icaeoie
aioe/ii? o?aaeeoe?? o neiayinuee?e aaeoe? (oai?e O?ioeia
C?iuee?anueeiai)” ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeiaa
niaaeueia I.N.Aea?aeaa?ia ? ?icaeoie neiayiiciaanoaa” (Caii??aeaey,
1995), “O?ioei C?iuee?anueeee — e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue” ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “E?oa?aoo?a e ?noi??y” (Caii??aeaey, 1996),
“O?ioei C?iuee?anueeee — aoaeeoaeue iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?” ia
?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “?icaeoie eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?? oa eoeueoo? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei: ?noi??y, no/aniee noai,
ia?niaeoeae (ia iaoa??ae? I?aaeaiiiai Noiaeo Oe?a?ie)” (Caii??aeaey,
1995), “Oai?/?noue O?ioeia C?iuee?anueeiai a ioe?ioe?
e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a”, “I?iciaa niaaeueia O.C?iuee?anueeiai”,
“E?oa?aoo?iciaa/? ? ioae?oeenoe/i? i?aoe? O.C?iuee?anueeiai”,
“Iiaa?iaiiy — a ?aea? ? a neia?”, “AEai?ia? iniaeeaino? oai??a
O.C?iuee?anueeiai” ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1994,1995,1996,1997,1998).

Iaoa??aee ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaai? o eaeoe?eieo eo?nao ? ia
i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e o Caii??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ie?aieie ?icae?eaie ? a iiaiiio ianyc? iaaiai?thaaeany ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa?:

1. O iiaeeaeaii? aa/aiiy neeaaeiinoae aeya?a noni?eueii-eoeueoo?ieo ?
e?oa?aoo?ii-anoaoe/ieo canaae O.C?iuee?anueeiai, oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, eiai iaioaeueiino?.

2. O aecia/aii? ?ie? O.C?iuee?anueeiai a eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe??, a ai?iouea? i?ioe oa?i?iue ? ?aanueei? ineo?ee, ca
?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?inoaa.

3. A ie?aneaii? ia???a oaiaoeee e i?iaeaiaoeee oai?/ino?
O.C?iuee?anueeiai, o aeyaeaii? aeinyaiaiue ? iaaeie?e?a ?o aea/aiiy, o
aecia/aii? iiaeaeueoeo ia?niaeoea ?iaioe.

4. O cae?eniaii? nenoaiiiai aiae?co ?iaeiai? ? aeai?iai? niaoeeo?ee
oai??a, ?o ia?acii-o?iia?/ieo cania?a, o ii??aiyeueiiio c?noaaeaii? oa
?icaeyae? iiaeeo?eaoe?eieo iciae ? iiooe?a iiaiai ooaeiaeiueiai neioaco.

5. O aeine?aeaeaii? ioae?oeenoe/ieo ? e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/ieo i?aoeue
O.C?iuee?anueeiai oa aeieacao iaia?ao?aeiino? cia/aiiy e aeooaeueiino?
eiai ooaeiaei?o i?eioeei?a ? aeoiie c i?eaiaeo oi?ioaaiiy o
ni?aa?o/eciee?a iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?, oeyo?a ? iaoiae?a
?icaeoeo e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo ?ica?aeie, o aena?oeaii? noi??iie ca?oa?aeii?
Oaa/aie?aie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeaiee o ainueie
ioae?eaoe?yo, a oiio /ene? /ioe?ueio noaooyo, aeaio iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?e ? aeaio oacao aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Ianya ?iaioe 194
noi??iee, c ieo 180 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, a?ae?ia?ao?y aeeth/a? 209
iaeiaioaaiue ? iiaeaia ia 14 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O “Anooi?” iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, caycie aeena?oaoe??
c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie, aecia/aii iaoo ? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaea?aeueio aaco, iieacaii
eiai iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao, iaoiaee ?iaioe, aecia/aii iaoeiao iiaecio ?
i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe??, iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a, iiaeaii
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Ai?aoeue ca ae?a?inueeo ?aeath. AEeooy ? ae?yeuei?noue
O?ioeia C?iuee?anueeiai o eiioaeno? eiai aeiae ? c iiaeyaeo no/aniino?”
aena?oeth? aaee/ ethaenueei? iniaenoino?, yaeaii? a
ienueiaiieeia?-iiaeaeaeieeia?, ui aeaeuoaaa aeoo ni?aa?o/eciee?a, o
ienueiaiieeia?-i?ina?oeoaeaa?, ui iiynithaaa ia?iaeia? naiiai naaa, a
na?oia? — oe?a?inueeo iaoe?th, yea caneoaiao? ia naiino?ei?noue, o
ienueiaiieeia?-ai?oeaa? i?ioe i?eieaeaiue ? ia?ane?aeoaaiue, caai?ii ?
caaeieiaaiinoae oe?a?inueeiai neiaa, oaeueneo?eaoe?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?
eiithieoo?ieo cai/aiue o?einionueei? aeoiee, ca aeaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? ?c noaio aiao?? oa ciaa??e, ca ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? oe?a?inoaa, ca naiaiaeo Oe?a?ie /a?ac aea?aeaai?noue.

O 80-o — ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no., ui noaee ia??iaeii aeaeueoiai
iinooio oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, ?icaeoeo e?aueo o?aaeeoe?e iiia?aaei?o
aoai?a oa aec??aaiiy iiaeo ooaeiaei?o yeinoae, oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth
aeey oe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a, iaoeiaoe?a a oiiaao aacaea?aeaaiino? aoei
iaeaea iaiayceiaa ii?aeiaiiy oai?/eo ooieoe?e c
iaoe?iiaeueii-noni?eueiith ae?yeuei?noth. Ac??oeai oaei? aeoeaiino? ?
iaaoiiieo oai?/eo iiooe?a noaa O.C?iuee?anueeee, c yeiai, ca neiaaie
A.A??i/aiea, “ iaee ie ethaeeio, ui a?ae ia? iiaee a/eoeny ?icoi?oe, u i
o a e a ae ? y e ue- i ? n o ue, c iueiai iaee ie ethaeeio,
ia/a niaoe?aeueii ia oa noi?iiaaio, uia aooe ai?oeai ca ae?a?inueeo
?aeath”.

Aeoiee oi?eaeueii? i?aoeacaeaoiino? oa oi?aa?naeueiino?
O.C?iuee?anueeiai c iaoith i?eneoaeeoenue ??aei?e iaoe??, ??aei?e
eoeueoo?? aaa/a?ii o eiai o?oaeia?e ?iaeei?, a i?ioenoiyii? aei?noieei
aei?iaoaaiiyi aeie? ? a oe?eani?yiiaaiino? oa?aeoa?o, o aieea? ia?oiai
oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa, aei yeiai a?i iio?aiea, — oiainueeiai ao?oea,
i/iethaaiiai a?aeiiei a?ae?ia?aoii, eaeneeia?aoii ? ienueiaiieeii
I.Eiia?iaei, o ee?anueeeo eiioaeoao c I.Eiienueeei, I.Eenaieii,
I.Noa?eoeueeei, Ieaiith I/?eeith oa ?i.

?noioii? aaiethoe?? caciaee na?oiaa/aiiy ? ooaeiaeiuei-ioae?oeenoe/ia
ieneaiiy C?iuee?anueeiai — a?ae caeaoiino? aiae?coaaoe ianoaaeie aei
nioe?aeueii? aeoeaiino? — ca ?iee iaa/aiiy o a?enueeia?e i?aaie/?e
aeaaeai?? Aaiooaao ? i?iaeeaaiiy a Iaoa?ao?c?. Aaeeeo ?ieue a?ae?a?aee
a?aea?aeoaaiiy aenoaa oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o. Eiei?eoi? iniaeeaino?
ni?eeiaiiy ?o iaoeaioeyie ?in?enueei? noieeoe?, i?ea?iaeueiee aiae?c
aeinyaiaiue aeeiiaaoe?a i?ia?aeieo ?ieae I.E?iieaieoeueeiai ?
I.Caiueeiaaoeueei?, aeeaiea ciaiiy oaenoo i?n “Iaeie/ea”, “Ia?oei
Ai?oey”, “Iaoaeea Iieoaaea”, a?aoiaioiaai? ? nenoaiaoeciaai? ioe?iee ?o
noeai?/ieo ao?eaiue i?noeeeny a cai?ooe?, ui aoea iioae?eiaaia a
aeo?iae? “Ci?y” (1888).

Iniaeeaeie, iaeaieiai?oeie noaee aeey O.C?iuee?anueeiai oai?/? ?
ae?oaei? caycee c A.A??i/aieii, ?oi? eenooaaiiy, ?oi? cono??/?.
A.A??i/aieo iaeaaeeoue aeine?aeieoeueea a?aee?eooy noiaeino?,
oioiaeiino? iao?aiue C?iuee?anueeiai eo?nii ?in?enueeiai oea?ecio ia
iinooiiaa oi?ioaaiiy iieie?iue aac iaoe?iiaeueiiai /oooy e ona?aeiieaiiy
aeaniiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ei??iiy ? aa?iy eiai iia?no? “Eany”.

Aaaaeath/e ca iaiao?aeia, uia o caeiaooo? aie? ii?aeiaeeny iaaea?aeaai?
ia?iaee ?iia???, O.C?iuee?anueeee ieoa noaooth “Iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy a
?in??” (I?aaaea, 1889, /.?O). Oaiaeaioe?y noaeaeaiue ?? aaoi?a iieyaaea
o iaa?oiooaaii? ia?aaaa oaaea?aoe?? ia i?eeeaae? Oaaeoea??? oa Aano???.
Aee?eaaeueii? neee iaaoaathoue aeao?i?oe?? i?i eeoa i?iaieioaio
?in?enueeo oaaea?aoe?th. Oai?aoe/i?, iieai?/i? oa aee?eaaeuei?
naioaioe?? ? eiiaiooaaiiy i?eeeaae?a ?c noni?eueiiai aeeooy ni?yiiaai?
i?ioe caai?ii oe?a?inueei? iiae, i?ioe ?in?enueeiai oia?i?cio ?
aeaniioecio, niiaiai? aee?eaaeueiiai iaoino oa ?aeei? ??ii??. Noaooy
cana?ae/eea iaoeiaee ? ioae?oeenoe/iee oeno O.C?iuee?anueeiai, aiia
i?ieiyoa caoe?eaaeaii-noa?eoeaiei noaaeaiiyi aei aiae?ciaaiiai e
cia?aaeoaaiiai, i?aaiaiiyi ni?eyoe iaoe?iiaeueiiio i?iaoaeaeaiith,
?ioaineai?noth aaoi?nueeiai ieneaiiy, ni?yiiaai?noth ia a?iiaaenueeee
?aciiain.

I?aaiaiiy aeaanoe ?icaycaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy a ?in?? ia
?a?iiaenueeee ??aaiue aeeeooaaei O.C?iuee?anueeiio, ye ? I.Ae?aaiiaiiao,
I.Eiienueeiio, Ii.Iaiiianueeiio oa ?i., ?noi?e/io iaiao?aei?noue
ae?yeueiino? ye oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai ienueiaiieea, ioae?oeenoa,
aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? ?aea?.

Noaooy O.C?iuee?anueeiai aeeeeeaea ??ceo ioe?ieo ?.O?aiea (“Oi?iaeueiee
? ?aaeueiee iaoe?iiae?ci”). A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui i?e/eie
oaeiai iaoeiiaiai aeey ?.O?aiea “cai?ia?aioaaiiy”, oaei? ai??i?ii?
caaeaiino? aoee o i?aeia?o?ei?e iie?oe/i?e ai?iouea? 80-o ?ie?a.

E?oa?aoo?iciaaoe? iaceaaee O.C?iuee?anueeiai “nioe?ieiaii oeio
Ae?aaiiaiiaa” (N.?o?aiia). Aaaaea?ii, ui o ii??aiyii? c aeina?ae/aiei
aeaiaioeai O.C?iuee?anueeee iiaeaeoaee aeyaey? iaa?oue a?eueoee oeno
uiaei aino?ioe, iaaaeueii? eia?ee a iieai?oe?, ia?aeiieeaino? aeieac?a,
cania?a iiaii? aeni?an??.

O.C?iuee?anueeee aeaaa i?i oa, uia ii?icoi?oeny c aaaaoueia caieyeaie o
Iaoa?ao?c?, ye? “i?eciaaaeenue aei ae?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueiino?”, ?
caeo/eoe ?o “aei ni?eueii? iiceoeaii? ?iaioe”, i?aaioa cae?enieoe
e?eueea e?oa?aoo?ieo ieai?a, na?aae ieo — canioaaoe /aniien ?in?enueeith
iiaith, aea uia a?i ai?iiea oe?a?inueeo ?aeath.

Aac ia?aa?eueoaiiy, a?iiaaeyinueeei iiaeaeaii aoea ai?ioueaa
O.C?iuee?anueeiai c oeaico?ith. A?i a?a ?? “o anaica?i?ii?” — ? ciaiue,
? aoii?o, ? ioaeeoeueei? aia?oino?”.

O Iaoa?ao?c? O.C?iuee?anueeee “ia aeoaea eaaeiaa” c? noa?eie
oe?a?ioeyie: /ei aeae? aei ieo i?eaeeaeyany, oi ana a?eueoa iii?/aa, ui
aiie aoee aaeaeoae? aei ae?ea aai e neoaeeee ?in?enueeiio
anei?eyoi?noao. I?ae eiai i?iaiaeii neeaany ao?oie c iieiae?, o yeiio,
ca aeneiaii A.A??i/aiea, “iaeeaaei a aeooao oe?a?inueeeo i?eai?/aia
iineianueeith inaaaeieoeueoo?ith iaoe?iiaeueia ii/oaaiiy,
?icao?eoaaeenue neee aei i?aoe?”.

Ia a?aecia/aii? Oaa/aieiaeo ?ieiaei o 1890 ?. O.C?iuee?anueeee i?i/eoaa
c?a?ai?e a?iiaae? na?e ?aoa?ao “Iieiaea Oe?a?ia, ?? noaiiaeua ? oeyo”,
ui i?noea e?eoe/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??. Caaaeyee
ooaeiaeiueiio oaeaioo aaoi?a eiie?aoi? ?aae??, ci?ia? ia?ace (oa/??,
ii?a, ieoai) ia?a?inoaee a ?aoa?ao? a ocaaaeueiai? neiaiee ? aeaai???.
Nieneiaa ?icoe?aiiy ia?ac?a ni?eyei e?auiio aa/aiith noni?eueieo
eie?c?e: iioiee ?ioae?aaioe?? oa/ooue o ??ci? ii?y, aeiiiaiththoue
caeaa?eueoiai /oae? aiaee, eeoath/e Oe?a?io aac aeooiaiiai iaiith.

Ia ao?aoeee nai?? aeooaeueiino? e nueiaiaei? noaeaeaiiy ioae?oeenoa i?i
“aa?iii?eieo” oe?a?ioe?a — oeo, ui “aeoiathoue aooe ca?acii ? iineaeyie,
? oe?a?ioeyie”, i?i caiia/oaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo oai??a o
eieaeoe? O.Ae/aanueei? “*oi /eoaoue ia?iaeo?”, i?i einiiiie?o?a.

Oaaao O.C?iuee?anueeiai caa?ioa ia naaa oie, ooi iaoeiai ?icaeioa
iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath, i?oeii ci?oeiea ?? ia o?einionueeeo i?aeaaeeiao ?
c?iaea oeth ?aeath iaeiei ?c i?eioeei?a o?einio?? ?noi??? ? i?i eiai a?i
iaienaa noaooth “O?ooa Noa?oee”. O i?e aaoi? aeoeaioo? ia oiio, ui c
iiaeyaeo o?einionueeiai aeooiaiee iieii iaeiiai ia?iaeo iaa?oue o
ni?aaae? aeui? eoeueoo?e — ??/ iaci??ii oe?aeeeaa ? caoaia, ai aaeaa? a
iueiai naiino?eio oai?/?noue.

Aecia/aeueieie aeey i?aenoioaaiiy aiae?co ?ie? O.C?iuee?anueeiai o
iie?oe/iiio e e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? aaaaea?ii noaeaeaiiy N.?o?aiiaa:
“Ae?oaith ii?o/ A??i/aiea oa?aeoa?iith aeey 80-o ?ie?a iinoaooth a
iaoiio ienueiainoa? aoa oaeaiiaeoee, ia eeoi aei/anii iiia?eee
ioae?oeeno O?ioei C?iuee?anueeee”. Aeaeaoiee e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue
aaaaeaa, ui ioae?oeenoe/i? oai?e O.C?iuee?anueeiai iathoue iaa?oue
a?eueoo aaao, i?ae ooaeiaei?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Ooaeiaeiy niaaeueia. ?iaeiaa ? aeai?iai-noeeueiaa
niaoeeo?ea oai??a” i?enay/aiee ia?iaeaeaiiio c ethaia? aei Oe?a?ie
ooaeiaeiueiio neiao O.C?iuee?anueeiai, yea o nai?e aeea?e ieio? i?noeoue
oe?ieee niaeo? na?oiaa/aiiy e ii?aeueii-aoe/iiai aeina?aeo ??aeiiai
ia?iaeo, uaae?i aeienai? iaoo?e, ye? a noeoiiino? nai?e noai?ththoue
a?aaeaiiy aeeaeie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoooy, ethaenueeiai aeooo /a?ac
iiaooia?, nioe?aeuei?, iie?oe/i? eiioe?eoe.

?icia?oo ca niiniaaie ? caniaaie cia?aaeaiiy ooaeiaeith niaaeueio
O.C?iuee?anueeiai noaiiaeyoue a??oia? aaeee, iiia?aeaiiy, iia?noea,
ae?aiaoe/i? noeaie “Noie?iiy”, a??oiaee oa?? aeey ae?oae “Ieoa/?
i?eaiaee c eioii”.

Aei noai?aiiy aaeie O.C?iuee?anueeiai niiioeaee eiai ia?aeeaaee c Aciia.
Oaenoe oai??a na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui caiice/ai? nthaeaoe oe?a?inueeee
aaoi? iaenoa?ii o?ainoi?io?. Aa?i? a?aoeueeiai aaeea?y aaeaei ia?aianai?
ia oe?a?inueeee a?oio. Iai?eeeaae, o aaeoe? “Aeaa i?ai?” aioe/iee
nthaeao ia?oioai?o O.C?iuee?anueeee ?icoe?ea, oa?a caaaeee i?i
“caacyoeo” oo?e?a oa eyo?a ?c-i?ae Aa?anoa/ea, a?aeiia?aeii e ii?aeue
iiaycaa c oe?a?inueeei inaaaeiiao??ioeciii: “Iiee ie neoaaii iaeei
iaeiiai. A iaoa aeiey … oaea ooiaoa ian aei caaeio”. Ca?aene — ?aeay
?aeiaiiy, ceoee i?ae niaith. Aee?eaaeueiee iaoin cao?th? ia?acio oeaieio
aaeee, oae?acith?, iane/o? naoe?e/iei eiei?eoii anioe?aoeai? ?yaee, a
yeeo ia?ao?auo?oueny ieioea ? no/ania.

Iii?a ia acii?anueeo o?aaeeoe?th, ia aeina?ae na?oiai? aaeea?nueei?
e?oa?aoo?e ia c?iaeea oai?e O.C?iuee?anueeiai aoi?eiieie. Iaaiaee,
iaenoa?i?noue o ia?aianaii? iaiae??aieo nthaeao?a ia iaoe?iiaeueiee
a?oio iaaeaea ?i i?ea?iaeueiino?, ooaeiaeiuei? aeiaa?oaiino?.

O. C?iuee?anueeee, ye ? A.A??i/aiei, I.Na?ioe?oeueeee, ?.Aa?o?aonueeee,
o ?icaeoeo aeai?o aaeee a 80-90-? ?iee O?O no., ia eaea ca
“ae?aianueeei” c?aceii, a iiaa?oa? eiio ? caaino?th? ae?acio
?aeaieia?/io eiioeaiooaeuei?noue. Ie?ai? oai?e O.C?iuee?anueeiai noaee
ac??oeyie ii?aeiaiiy acii?anueeiai nthaeaoo ?c o?aaeeoe??th
A.Neiai?iaee: aaeea ye ?ethno?aoe?y ooaeiaeiuei? ?aea?.

Aeineoue /anoi O.C?iuee?anueeee aeiae?a? aei nai?o aaeie ia?iaei?
i?ene?ay, ye? eiiaeainothoue o nia? ii?aeue oai??a, ui ie?aii ia
iiaeaia. Ciaeueiaai? Aciiii iiae?? o?ainoi?iothoueny,
aeaeici?iththoueny, nthaeaoe oai??a oiiae?aiththoueny aei oieueeei?ieo.

Aeecueei iieiaeie aaeie O.C?iuee?anueeiai noai?ai? ca nthaeaoaie,
aa?iyie yeeo ? ia ca???, ?ineeie /e i?aaeiaoe, a ethaee. Oea a?aeaeaey?
eiai oai?e a?ae aeaai??? e iaaeeaea? aei aoii?enoe/ieo ia?iaeieo
iiia?aeaiue A.Nai?eeaiea, I.Eocueiaiea. O ieo ienueiaiiee noai?ea ieceo
iaoe?iiaeueieo oei?a.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aaeie O.C?iuee?anueeiai c oai?aie-ia?oiac??oeyie
Aciia na?ae/eoue, ui oe?a?inueeee ienueiaiiee aeii?any ?a?iiaenueeiai
??aiy iiaoe?iiaeueiaiiy aioe/ii? o?aaeeoe??, ?? ino/aniaiiy.
Nthaeaoii-ia?aciee iaoa??ae oai??a ?iaeiia/aeueieea aeai?o Aciia
?aoeai?eiaaiee c iiaeo /aniaeo, nioe?aeueieo oa ?aeaeii-ooaeiaei?o
iiceoe?e, ia?ainieneaiee ? ia?a?iaeaiee.

Ine?eueee aeai?iaee neeaae oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O
noie?ooy, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaei?o ia??iae?a, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
a?ae/ooiei aeii?ioaaiiyi ai?ei-i?iciaeo oi?i, o aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioaii,
ui ii/aoie oai?/ino? O.C?iuee?anueeiai aoa icia/aiee aaeeaie, a caiaeii
iaeiiai?oa eiai ienueiaiieoeueeee oaeaio ?ice?eany a iiia?aeaiiyo ?
ae?ai? “Noie?iiy”.

A iiia?aeaii? “?noi?e/ia eacea” a ia?acao A?eoeueea Eica?aiea, ?aaia
Aiaiiinoey oa iaia Oaaeueea ssaeoiianueeiai aeaaaeai? o?e
ia?nii?o?eiaai? oeie i?aaenoaaiee?a Oe?a?ie, Iineae e Iieueu?. O oai??
a?aeia?aaeai? ?noi?e/i? yaeua aca?iei ?in?? c Iieueuath oa Oe?a?iith.
sseui c iieyeaie ?in?enueeee o?yae yeithnue i??ith caa?aaaa, oi aeey
oe?a?ioe?a i?ney Ia?ayneaanueei? ?aaee ii/aeeny ooenee ye iaoe?iiaeuei?,
oae ? nioe?aeuei?.

A iia?e “?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e O?O noie?ooy” oai?/ino?
O.C?iuee?anueeiai i?eae?eaii iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae, iia?aeii caaaeothoueny
eeoa aeaa iiia?aeaiiy “Iiioa?-eica/a” e “Neae?? Iaea?iae/ I?eoeea”, ye?
a?aeianai? aei oaeeo, aea “iaoo?ae?noe/ia no?oeoo?a ooaeiaeiueiai
cia?aaeaiiy caeia? aaeeea i?noea”. C oaeei oaa?aeaeaiiyi iiaeia
iiaiaeeoeny eeoa /anoeiai, eiee a?aoe aei oaaae canoa??ea caoaeaia
iiiyooy iaoo?ae?cio ye a?oaiai a?aeoai?aiiy o?c?ieia?/ieo aniaeo?a
aeeooy ethaeeie. Eiee ae caa?iooeny aei iiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oeueiai
iai?yieo, oi iaoo?ae?ci ?icoi??ii ye neeaaeia yaeua: c iaeiiai aieo a?i
aeaiie?aoecoaaa ienoaoeoai, ?icoe?thaaa eiai oaiaoeeo, iieacoth/e ana
iia? ieiueie aeeooy — aeii i?noa, “iaeaiueeo” ethaeeio, iaoieia?/io
ineo?eo ? o.i., a c ?ioiai — iaiaaeoaaa naaa o i?iieeiaii? aei aeeaei
noni?eueiiai aoooy, o caniaao ooaeiaeiuei? oiiaiino?.

A iiia?aeaii? “Neae?? Iaea?iae/ I?eoeea” nai???aeiei ? oa, ui
O.C?iuee?anueeee ia aea? aaciina?aaeiuei oa?aeoa?enoeee aieiaiiai
ia?niiaaea. Aaeeei? aaae iaaoaa? ?ice?eooy oa?aeoa?o /a?ac a/eiee,
a?aeoai?aiiy ineo?/iiai noaio, ui ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey e?oa?aoo?e e?ioey
ieioeiai noie?ooy. Ciaethaaiiiy ia?aco aoaeo?oueny ia iniia? eiio?anoo.

O oai?? ie?aneaia aeaa?aaeaoe?y ethaeeie o a?enueeiaiio na?aaeiaeu?.
O.C?iuee?anueeee ?ice?eaa? i?e/eie oeueiai yaeua. O aeayeeo ai?ciaeao c
aeeooy aieiaiiai ia?niiaaea ienueiaiiee iaiaaa?oueny iieacaoe oe?e?
i?ioa?ee a?enueeiaeo — io?oea??a, ?yaeiaeo.

I?ae?anii ciaa O.C?iuee?anueeee oae? ?ene oe?a?inueei? iaoo?e, ye
i?aoeueiaeo?noue ? iaoee aei ii?yaeeo, oae? aioo??oi? yeino? eicae?a, ye
iauaaei?noue aei ai?ia?a, a??i?noue o oiaa?eooaaii?, aeia?iaeooi?noue,
aacei?eneea?noue, uaae??noue. C aaeeeei aeooaaiei aieai ?i i?ioenoaaeai?
?ene no/aniee?a o na?eanoe/ii iane/aiiio ca/ei? aoii?enoe/iiai
iiia?aeaiiy “Iiioa?-eica/a”.

Iiia?aeaiiy iiaeia iacaaoe “onia?noeoaeueiei” aoii?ii i?i a?enueeiaeo
?in?enueei? a?i?? — caeeoeyeueiee?a, na?oea?ae?a. ??ii?y ?
na?oiaeyaeiith eaoaai???th, yea aecia/a? e?eoa??? ioe?iee ae?eniino?.

O.C?iuee?anueeee ?ic?iaeya oae? nthaeaoe, noai?thaaa oae? ia?ace, ye?
ie?aneeee eiai nai???aeio aoe/io i?ia?aio: canoaeaeaiiy aai?cio,
i?eneoaeieoeoaa, caaee/aiiy oaeeo ?en oe?a?inueei? iaoo?e, ye
aieaethai?noue, aacei?eneea?noue, eeoea?nueea aeaai?iaei?noue.

Ii.Iaiiianueeee a?aecia/aa, ui iiia?aeaiiy “Ia aoeeoe?” ? aeecueeei aei
aoii?anee ?.Ia/oy-Eaaeoeueeiai “Ia iiaeia aaa? Ia?anoe? aaea?aeaoenue ia
nae?”. Oa?aeoa?iith aeey oaenoo oai?o ? oaoi?ea caiaeueiaee c
aeei?enoaiiyi aoaeoo i?enooiino? /eoa/a o iiiaio ae??. Eaae?ia?noue,
aeni?aneai?noue iiaea/? iiae?e, ?o ciaethaaiiy — an? oe? ooaeiaei?
aeaiaioe aeaee i?ea?ae Ii.Iaiiianueeiio aecia/eoe “Ia aoeeoe?” ye
ia?acie. Iaeiae /?oei ?icaeiaiee nthaeao, o?niee aca?iicaycie ia?ac?a
oai?o, iayai?noue iien?a, aoiia?ao?/ieo anoaaie,
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ?icaeoi?a aaoi?a, iiia?aeia iaia?a a?ae ia?oi?
iniae na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ca aeai?ii oa?? ? iiia?aeaiiyi.

Caniaii eii?/iiai ? ia?aeaeue, yeo aaoi? i?iaiaeeoue i?ae ia?eaiaioaie
Aiae?? e O?aioe??, aea o?aeoe?? aaaeooue caiaee? aeeniooe, oa
ai?iaoth/eie n?euenueeeie i?ecueaaie.

Iii?/aia A.A??i/aieii “oyaeea noiaiaiiy a?aaeaiiai na?oey” coiiaeei
no?oeoo?o ooaeiaeiueiai cia?aaeaiiy a iiia?aeaii? “Nii”, aea aaoi?
cina?aaeaeo? oaaao ia no?eueee ia iiae?yo, ye ia aioo??oiueiio noai?
ethaeeie, ?? ?aaeoe?yo ia ieo, oi/a Ii.Iaiiianueeee ianaiia?aae iiaa/ea
o oeueiio oai?? iiae??a?noue.

Ciaethaaiiy iiaaae?iee ? ii/ooo?a aa?iy oai?o Aaneey I?aeaeoaiiai eaea
/a?ac iiiiae??, iiiiaa/aiiy e iiiiia?aaeeaaiiy.

O.C?iuee?anueeiai, ye ? A.A??i/aiea, Ieaio I/?eeo, Aaiio Aa?a?iie,
I.Eia?einueeo, I.Iaaeeea, i?eaaaeththoue ia?aa?a ethaenueeeo ii/oaaiue o
e?eciaeo ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo neooaoe?yo, ineoieia?y aeieaiiniiai a/eieo.
Neoao? oeueiio i?eeii ?ao?iniaeoe??: iinoa? ?noi??y ia?icae?eaiiai
eioaiiy. Aaneeue “iieioaa na?oea, eio?a aie?? ii “ieeiio aeaeaeiio”, ui
a?aeoeo?aanue oeueiai eioaiiy”.

A aeaai?e/i?e iia?nooe? “Eoaeith eoe?” niin?a aeaiieaiiaiai
ooaeiaeiueiai cia?aaeaiiy, ui a?oiooaaany ia i?eoiaoaaii? ?aaeueieo yaeu
? in?a i?ae eiie?aoieie ooaeiaei?ie ia?acaie c a?aeiia?aeieie
anioe?aoe?yie c oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie i?eoiaoaaiiai, aeaa iiaeeea?noue
ciaethaaoe eeoie?ooy Oe?a?ie, ei?enooth/enue aeaai???th i?i noaaeaiiy
aa?iaioe?a aei caaieiaiee?a ?eio ca /an?a Eana?y Aaaonoa.

Iii?e anth naith ci???ioiaai?noue ia ooaeiaeith oiiai?noue iia?noea ia?
oaiaeaioe?th aei iaae?eaiiy ai?ciae?a ?ioi?iaoeaiei ci?noii. O oai??
aeii?io? oa?aeoa?ia aeey iaoo?ae?cio aaniethoecaoe?y oaeoo, ianoaiiaa ia
?ethc?th i?aaaeiiiae?aiino?. A ooaeiaeiueiio ieai? neioaciaai?
ineoieia?/i? noaano?? e ii?ae?caoi?nueea i?eo/a.

Ae?aiaoe/i? noeaie “Noie?iiy” O.C?iuee?anueeiai, ye? aeaoothoueny 1889
?ieii, iiaeia c iiaiei i?aaii a?aeianoe aei iaeiiai ?yaeo c
ae?aiaoe/ieie iiaiaie ?.O?aiea “Nii eiycy Nayoineaaa” (1895),
I.Noa?eoeueeiai “Inoaiiy i?/” ? c ae?aiaie Ean? Oe?a?iee, iaienaieie
i?ioyaii 1901-1913 ??. Oe? noeaie iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia?oeie c?aceaie
o?einionueei? ae?aie ?aea?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeai? “Noie?iiy” aecia/aiee ye ae?aiaoe/i? noeaie c
i??i?eoaoii iaeiiai ia?niiaaea-aa?iy, a oi/i?oa — aioeaa?iy a?aoa
Iooiia. O.C?iuee?anueeee iaeaeeae/a i?aeoiaeeoue aei ae?aie
I.E?iieaieoeueeiai “Aeeoae, aai ae Iaaoe” (1882), aea cei a on?e eiai
a?aeaa?o?e iioai?iino? ae?aaeaii a iinoao? aieiaii? ae?eiai? iniae —
Ae/ea, a ii?ooai? aaoi?aie iaoe?iiaeuei? aeeoo?a? i?iaeaie aeyaeythoue
naith caaaeueiiethaenueeo aeii?iaioo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o oai??
O.C?iuee?anueeiai i?iaaaeaia aeoiea: ethaeei? ia oieeiooe ioe noie?iiy.
Aeieeiaiiy ?o o aeoo? Iooiia — oea aioo??oi?e eiioe?eo oai?o.

Ciai?oi?e aea eiioe?eo i?ne ?icaeaa?oueny aeaiia iai?yiaie: ia?oee —
noinoiee i?ae a?aoii Iooiiii ? eiai i?aeaeaieie, ae?oaee — i?ae iei ?
i?eaoeeie ia aaieao ainoyie. Ae?aiaoe/i? noeaie iiaoaeiaai? ca
i?eioeeiii aethc??, ye iniaeeaei aeaeii “acii?anueei? iiae”, iaeiei ?c
ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/ieo i?eeii?a iinoaiiaee neeaaeieo
nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaeo i?iaeai naiai /ano.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Canooiath/enue ca ae?a?inueea ienueiainoai.
O.C?iuee?anueeee — e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue” oa?aeoa?eco? O.C?iuee?anueeiai —
aeoeaiiai o/anieea oai?/iai i?ioeano 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O
noie?ooy. Eiai eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? e?oa?aoo?e neeaaeaeany
i?ioyaii onueiai oai?/iai oeyoo.

Na?oiaeyaeio aaiethoe?th O.C?iuee?anueeiai-e?oa?aoo?iciaaoey ?icaeyiooi
o o?niiio cayceo c e?oa?aoo?iei ?ooii, iicia/aiei ai?ioueaith i?ioe
eiina?aaoeaii? ooaeiaeiuei? i?aeoeee, ca i?aeianaiiy e?eoa???a ioe?iee
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ienueiainoaa, ca eiie?aoi? a?aeiia?ae? ia aeniea
iieeeeaiiy o aacaea?aeaaieo oiiaao aeeiioaaoe naith “iniaeeao ?ieth” aae
aei /ano, iiee “ia aeai?eoue” oe?a?inueea ni?aaa.

Iaeiia?o? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaieioothoue ia oiio, ui ia ii/aoeo 80-o
?ie?a, i?iiaaoth/e iie?oe/ia iaaecaaaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?e, a?ae
?a?iiaenueei? oa oe?a?inueei? o?aaeeoe?e a?aeooiaooaaany I.Ae?aaiiaiia,
ai, ca eiai niinoa?aaeaiiyie, o ?a?ii? acaaae? iaia? “ienueiainoaa
iaiie?oe/iiai”. Aenooie, noaoo?, eenoe O.C?iuee?anueeiai cana?ae/othoue,
ui a?aeiaaeoaaiiy ienueiaiieea a?ae iie?oeee a?i, ye ? I.Ae?aaiiaiia,
aaaaeaa “iane?aeeii iaina?/aiino?” ? aeiaiaeea ia?aaeuei?noue oaei?
iiceoe?? a oiiaao iiiaaieaii? iaoe??.

O noaoo? “Iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy a ?in??” o?einionuee? e iie?oe/i? aeoiee
? noaeaeaiiy caaaa/ai? e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eie. I?ae e?eoe/iei eooii ci?o
aiae?co? O.C?iuee?anueeee ?aaeoe?th iieye?a ia oe?a?inueeee
ienueiainueeee iinooi. O /anoeie iieuenueei? a?iiaaee a?i aeeeeeaa
ni?a/oooy, aea aei 1863 ?. aiii aoei a?eueoa ?iiaioe/iei ? aaea i?ney
oeueiai iieyee c?icoi?ee, ui “oe?a?inoai ioneoue aooe a?aaeath
oeaio?ae?noe/iiio iioiiia?, yeee iaiaaa?oueny cieueoe iieuenueeo
ia?iaei?noue”. Aeio?eioth/enue i?eioeeio ia?eoeaiino?, i?aaaeeaino?
aiae?co, O.C?iuee?anueeee eiiaioo? oa, ye o ?aaeoe?eiiio oaai??
?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e oe?a?inueeee ienueiainueeee ?oo, aoaeo/e ao/iei
i?iyaii aeaiie?aoe/ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy, aeeeeeaa iaeaeee?oo ceiao.
Iaoeiai-nioe?ieia?/i? noaeaeaiiy aaoi?a noaoo? ii?aeiai? c ??ii?/iith
i?iaiaioaeuei?noth, aeieoiaioaeueia oi/i?noue (oeeooaaiiy aacaoieo
aenooi?a), o?aaeeoe?ei? oia?i?noe/i? ee?oa — c ??ii?/iei inaaaeiiaoinii.
Eia?/ii aeiaaaeai? aei aano?aeiino? i??eoaaiiy ?aaeoe?eii? i?ane
O.C?iuee?anueeee aaiaeeoue o na?eanoe/ia iiea.

Iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/iee a?naiae noaoo? i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee ?icai?oaiith
nieneiai? aeii?iaioe: caai?iia ae?oeiaaiiai neiaa iai?eeiyoia aeey
oe?a?inoaa. Inieneaiiy O.C?iuee?anueeei ianeeuenoaa iino?eii eaea /a?ac
inoaeaeaiiy aeia?ia?eueiiai cai?iaeainoaa e iiei?e ? iiaea?oueny a
aeeiai?oe? ?o ?ice?eooy ? aee?eooy.

Na?eanoe/ia a?aen?/ oia?i?noe/iei aeiaiai noaea iaeaieiai?oith
iniaeea?noth iie?oii?/ii? noaoo? O.C?iuee?anueeiai “Iieiaea Oe?a?ia, ??
noaiiaeua ? oeyo”. Aiia aeiaiaeeoue, ui o?eueee oie ia?iae, o yeiai
“i?oeia” e?oa?aoo?a, ia ai?oueny caoaeoe naiai i?noey i?ae ia?iaeaie ye
iaoe?y. A?ae/oaa?oueny ae?aaiiai?anueea eaoaai?e/i?noue o aenooi?
O.C?iuee?anueeiai i?ioe “ia?oaioeie noa?ineiayinueei?”, yea “caaaaeaea
?icaeaaoenue iaoe?iiaeuei?e oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo??”, ai ienueiaii?
oe?a?ioe? aaaaeaee oea?eiaio iiao ca e?oa?aoo?ii ia?iaeaio oi?io ??aeii?
iiae, eio?a a onoao ia?iaeo ?i caeaaaeanue ioaeeoeueeei aea?aiiii.

Cae/aeii, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, cae?eniaia
O.C?iuee?anueeei, nueiaiaei? ia a onueiio i?eeiyoia ? eeoa iae?aneaia,
aea aaaeeeai, ui oea iaeia c ia?oeo ni?ia ?? noaie, iaoae ? aeneiaeaia a
aaeao?enoe/iiio ieai?. Nai???aeii ioa?aeoa?eciaai? ?ieue ? caneoaa
O.Oaa/aiea e A.Ea?oee-Iniiayiaiea: o?eueee c iiyaith ?oi?o oai??a a
oe?a?ioe?a ca?iaeeeany aeoiea c?iaeoe ??aeio iiao i?aaiii i?ina?oe ?
eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueei?, i?aaiii oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy.

E??cue ?iee caaoooy e iani?aaaaeeeaiai caiia/oaaiiy iiaeii? iiaa?iooeny
aei ian niiaiai? aieth oaa?aeaeaiiy O.C?iuee?anueeiai i?i eeoiae?enoai
“ia?onaiey”, i?i ao?a/ai? iiaeeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa.

C?noaaeaoe ? i?ieiiaiooaaaoe aeoiee ? noaeaeaiiy ?a?iiaenueeeo
e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a i?i oai?/?noue O.Oaa/aiea, O.C?iuee?anueeee noaa
iaeiei ?c caniiaiee?a ca?oa?aeii? iaoeiai? Oaa/aie?aie. Ia Oaa/aieiaeo
?ieiaeiao o Iaoa?ao?c? 1889 ?ieo a?i aenooiea c ?aoa?aoii, a iniia?
yeiai — “iaiaaaiiy inieneeoe cia/aiiy oai?/i? niaaeueie Eiaca?y aeey
iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy”. ?aoa?ao ia?a??n o e?oa?aoo?iciaa/o
i?aoeth “Oa?an Oaa/aiei a na?oe? ?a?iiaenueei? e?eoeee”, ui aoea
iioae?eiaaia o euea?anueeiio aeo?iae? “I?aaaea” o 1890-1891 ??. O i?e
?ioa?i?aoiaai? i?aoe? e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a aano??enueeeo Ea?ea-Ai?ey
O?aioeica ? Eiaaiia-Aai?aa Ia??noa, o?aioeocueeiai Ai?ey Aeth?aia,
i?iaoeueeiai Aaeueaeaia?a Eaaa?ao, iieuenueeeo Aa?aei Aaooae??,
O?aioe?oaea ?aa?oe, Eaiia?aea Nia?inueeiai oa ?i. a eiioaeno?
ea?aeeiaeueieo i?iaeai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai e e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy
80-o ?ie?a O?O no.

I?aaiaiiy iciaeiieoe /eoa/?a c iiae?eaie ?a?iiaenueeeo iaoeiaoe?a oai??a
Eiaca?y ia aeai?iai-oaiaoe/i? a?oie, c ?oi?i oi?iiyi aeeaiei ?icoi?oe
i?aeoaeno oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?e/iiai aiino, caaeoie aaoi?a, iiaeeeaino?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ooaeiaeiueiai neiaa caeiaoee o i?aoe? O.C?iuee?anueeiai
ia?eoeaii aeooae?ciaaia aena?oeaiiy.

Iieai?coth/e ?c oia?i?noe/ieie ?in?enueeeie e?eoeeaie O.Oaa/aiea,
cie?aia c aeiaaeii A.A?e?inueeiai i?ioe “Aaeaeaiae?a”, O.C?iuee?anueeee
ca aeiiiiiaith nooae?e ?a?iiaenueeeo eieaa iaaieioo? ia aeooaeueiino?
Oaa/aieiaeo iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ieo ?aeaae?a, iaa?oioiao? ii?aeuei?
aaniethoe iaoe??, ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy.

O.C?iuee?anueeee aoa ni?ao/anieeii ?ic?iaee iaoeiaeo iniia
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e. A?aeiia?aeath/e ia aeaye? oace
e?eoe/ii? noaoo? ?in?enueeiai e?oa?aoo?iciaaoey I.Iei?ia “Iniaay enoi?ey
?onneie eeoa?aoo?u” i?i “?noi??th e?oa?aoo?e ?onueei?” Ii.Iaiiianueeiai,
a?i caoeuaa oe?a?inueea ienueiainoai a?ae ?in?enueei? anei?eyoi?nueei?
aeniain??, ?ica?i/oaaa iaoiea?aioi?noue iineianueeiai aaoi?a, eiai
iaiaaaiiy ia aeaoe i?aaa oe?a?inuee?e iia? ? e?oa?aoo?? ia
“ie?ai?oi?noue”, ia “naiiaeinoaoi?noue”. E?oa?aoo?iciaa/a eiioeaioe?y
O.C?iuee?anueeiai ia ao?aoeea nai?? aeooaeueiino? e ia?niaeoeaiino?.

Aaeeeo iiaeeea?noue a?aee?eoe e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? a?oaeeoe?th ? oeno
O.C?iuee?anueeiai aea? eiai ai?noiey??e, noaeaeaiiy i?i ienueiaiiee?a ?
ie?ai? oai?e.

O “Aeniiaeao” ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ooo
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui O?ioei C?iuee?anueeee iaeaaeeoue aei oeo ??aee?nieo
iaoo?, ye? caeeoathoueny a??ieie nia?, nai?io iieeeeaiith, nai?i
iaiayceai ia?aae ??aeiei ia?iaeii ca aoaeue-yeeo ianoaaei. Eiai ei?ioea,
aea iane/aia aeeooy, naiiaooiy oai?/?noue, ye? ua o?eueee ii/eiathoue
aeine?aeaeoaaoenue, iathoue a?ae?a?aoe aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a, noaiiaeaii? ?o ye a?iiaaeyi
nai?? aea?aeaae.

O ?iaio? aeyaeaii, ui ioae?oeenoe/iee, ooaeiaei?e oa e?oa?aoo?iciaa/ee
aei?iaie O.C?iuee?anueeiai ? aaaiiith /anoeith aeooiaii? oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. caaaeyee aino?iaeooaeuei?e
i?iaeaiaoeoe?, aeioeoeuei?e e?eoeoe? ye naiiaea?aeaaii? o?yaeiai?
iie?oeee, oae ? iaaeie?e?a iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? no/aniee?a.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui aiae?ciaaia ioae?oeenoeea O.C?iuee?anueeiai — iniaeeaa
oaca ?icaeoeo oe??? oi?ie a oe?a?inueeiio oa ?a?iiaenueeiio
ienueiainoa?, yea ianea a nia? ye?nii iia? aeai?iai-no?oeoo?i?
aeaeici?ie. Ienueiaiiee oyae?a aei iieai?/ii? iiaeae? noaoo?, ui ia
?aaeaiaiooaaeany aeai?iaei eaiiiii ? a?aecia/aeany iaii?aii?noth,
ioiieaiiyi oe?iei? oeaee ?aeae ? iiaeyae?a, nenoaiiei ?ioaa?oaaiiyi
iaoinieo, noeeueiaeo ? iiaieo eiiiiiaio?a.

Ocaaaeueiai? iacaia?a/i? caneoae O.C?iuee?anueeiai o caaaa/aii?
?iaeiaeo, aeai?iaeo i?eeiao, nthaeaoii-eiiiiceoe?eieo eiino?oeoe?e,
ia?acii-o?iia?/ieo cania?a iiaoe/ieo, i?iciaeo ? ae?aiaoe/ieo oai??a.
Cyniaaii oo nenoaio eii?aeeiao, no?oeoo?ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo
aeanoeainoae oa iciae, o ye?e aeai? oaiaeeoue oaeno o a?aeiia?aei?
nai?ioe/ia ? naiaioe/ia iiey.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aaeie O.C?iuee?anueeiai c oai?aie-ia?oiac??oeyie
Aciia cana?ae/ea, ui oe?a?inueeee ienueiaiiee aeii?any ?a?iiaenueeiai
??aiy iiaoe?iiaeueiaiiy aioe/ii? o?aaeeoe??, ?? ino/aniaiiy.
Nthaeaoii-ia?aciee iaoa??ae oai??a ?iaeiia/aeueieea aeai?o Aciia
?aoeai?eiaaiee c iiaeo /aniaeo, nioe?aeueieo oa ?aeaeii-ooaeiaei?o
iiceoe?e, ia?ainieneaiee, oai?/i caaaa/aiee. O c?noaaeaii? c aaeeaie
E.Ae?aiaa aeiaaaeaii, ui oai?e O.C?iuee?anueeiai iiaa?ioee aeai?o ?
caaino?eee ?aeaieia?/io eiioeaiooaeuei?noue, ?icoe?eee ??ii?th aei
na?oiaeyaeii? eaoaai???.

?ic?iaeai? a i?iciaeo ? ae?aiaoe/ieo oai?ao nthaeaoe, ciaeueiaai? a ieo
ia?ace ie?aneeee nai???aeio aoe/io i?ia?aio: canoaeaeaiiy aai?cio,
i?eneoaeieoeoaa, caaee/aiiy oaeeo ?en oe?a?inueei? iaoo?e, ye
naiaiaeiethanoai, aacei?eneea?noue, eeoea?nueea aeaai?iaei?noue.
O.C?iuee?anueeiai, ye ? A.A??i/aiea-i?ica?ea, i?eaaaeththoue ia?aa?a
ethaenueeeo ii/oaaiue o e?eciaeo ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo neooaoe?yo,
ineoieia?y aeieaiiniiai a/eieo. Neoaothoue oeueiio i?eeii ?ao?iniaeoe??,
aeaai?e/i?noue.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. Einoaoeueea E.I. Iiaa?iaiiy — a ?aea? e neia? // I?eaei?i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee. O?eieia?y oa iaaeaaia?ea: Iaoeiaee aeo?iae. —
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea ? ina?oa, 1998. — ? 21 (88). — N.24-29.

2. Einoaoeueea E.I. AEai?iaa niaoeeo?ea oai??a O.C?iuee?anueeiai //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. O?eieia?y oa iaaeaaia?ea: Iaoeiaee
aeo?iae. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea ? ina?oa, 1998. — ? 76 (143). —
N.11-18.

3. Einoaoeueea E.I. Canooiath/enue ca ae?a?inueea ienueiainoai // I?e-
aei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. O?eieia?y oa iaaeaaia?ea: Iaoeiaee
aeo?iae. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea ? ina?oa, 1998. — ? 76 (143). —
N.43-48.

4. Oaa/aiei A.O., Einoaoeueea E.I. “…AEeoe iaeiei — ethaiath aei
??aeiiai e?ath” // Eoeueoo?ieia?/iee a?niee. Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iee
ui??/iee Ieaeiuei? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie. — Aeione 3. — Caii??aeaey, 1996. —
N.69-73.

5. Einoaoeueea E.I. ?icaeoie aioe/ii? o?aaeeoe?? o neiayinuee?e aaeoe?
(oai?e O?ioeia C?iuee?anueeiai) // Iaoeiaa niaaeueia I.N.Aea?aeaa?ia ?
?icaeoie neiayiiciaanoaa: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??.
— Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1995. — N.38-39.

6. Einoaoeueea E.I. O?ioei C?iuee?anueeee — e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue //
E?oa?aoo?a e ?noi??y. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. —
Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1996. — N.69-73.

7. Einoaoeueea E.I. Oai?/?noue O.A.C?iuee?anueeiai a ioe?ioe?
e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a //Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e aeeeaaea/?a
? nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoaoo. — Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1994. — N.83-84.

8. Einoaoeueea E.I. O?ioei C?iuee?anueeee — aoaeeoaeue iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? // ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? oa eoeueoo?
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei: ?noi??y, no/aniee noai, ia?niaeoeae (ia iaoa??ae?
I?aaeaiiiai Noiaeo Oe?a?ie): ?aa?iiaeueia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y. Oace
aeiiia?aeae. — Caii??aeaey: CAeOO, 1995. — N.13-14.

A I I O A Oe ? ss

Einoaoeueea E.I. Oai?/?noue O?ioeia C?iuee?anueeiai a eiioaeno?
e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a. —
Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeooaeuei?e i?iaeai? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
niaaeueie O.C?iuee?anueeiai (1861-1891) a eiioaeno? e?oa?aoo?iiai
i?ioeano 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no.: c?a?ai? o aea? eieae ?
iioae?eiaai? A.A??i/aieii 1893-1896 ??. o Eueaia? oai?e oeueiai
ienueiaiieea e aein? ia ia?aaeaeaaaeenue ? caeeoaeenue na?aae
iaeia?aeiieo ? iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo.

I?iaiae?ciaai? o?e a?oie oaeno?a: ioae?oeenoeea, ooaeiaei? oai?e
(a??oia? aaeee, iiia?aeaiiy, ae?aiaoe/i? noeaie), e?oa?aoo?iciaa/?
i?aoe?. I?iaaaeai? oeiieia?/i? c?noaaeaiiy, aeyaeai? iiaeeo?eaoe?ei?
iciaee, oeyoe ?aoeaioe?e ? aeai?iaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaia
ia?acii-o?iia?/ia nenoaia.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?a?inueea ?aeay, iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue,
iaioae?oao, ioae?oeenoeea, aeai?, oeiieia?/i? ?ene, eiioaeno,
iiaeeo?eaoe?y, iiaoeea, o?iie.

A I I I O A Oe E ss

Einoaoeeay E.A. Oai?/anoai O?ioeia Ceiueeeaneiai a eiioaenoa
eeoa?aoo?iiai i?ioeanna 80-o — ia/aea 90-o aiaeia O?O a. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.01 — oe?aeineay eeoa?aoo?a. — Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aeooaeueiie i?iaeaia eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey
ianeaaeey O.Ceiueeeaneiai (1861-1891) a eiioaenoa eeoa?aoo?iiai
i?ioeanna 80-o — ia/aea 90-o aiaeia O?O a.: nia?aiiua a aeaa eieae e
iioaeeeiaaiiua A.A?ei/aiei a 1893-1896 aa. ai Eueaiaa i?iecaaaeaiey
yoiai ienaoaey e aeiiuia ia ia?aecaeaaaeenue e inoaaaeenue n?aaee
iaeiecaanoiuo e iaeienneaaeiaaiiuo.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu o?e a?oiiu oaenoia: ioaeeoeenoeea, ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey (noeoioai?iua aanie, ?anneacu, ae?aiaoe/aneea noeaiu),
eeoa?aoo?iaaae/aneea o?oaeu. I?iecaaaeaiu oeiieiae/aneea niiinoaaeaiey,
aeyaeaiu iiaeeoeeaoeeiiiua i?eciaee, iooe ?aoeaioeee e aeai?iauo
o?ainoi?iaoeee. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaia ia?acii-o?iiae/aneay nenoaia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oe?aeineay eaeay, iaoeeiiaeueiia niciaiea, iaioaeeoao,
ioaeeoeenoeea, aeai?, oeiieiae/aneea /a?ou, eiioaeno, iiaeeoeeaoeey,
iiyoeea, o?iiu.

SUMMARY

Kostetzkaya Lybov Olexandrivna. Literary works by Orokhim Zen’kovsk in
the context of literary process in the 80-th — beginning of the 90-th
years of the 20-th century. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the degree of the Candidate of Philology award
Specialty 10.01.01 — Ukrainian literature. — Zaporozhye state
university, Zaporozhye, 1998.

The thesis is devoted to an actual problem of complex research of
heritage by T. Zen’kovsk (1861-1891) in the context of literary process
in the 80-th — beginning of the 90-th years of the 20-th century; which
was assembled in two books and published by Boris Greanchenko in
1893-1896 . The works of this author were not reissued up to this day
and were remained among little-known and unresearched literary works.

There were analyzed three groups of the texts: publicistic writings,
belles-letters (fables in verse, short stories, dramatic works),
literature transformations. There were made typological comparisons,
were discovered distinctive features, the ways of perception and genre
transformations. There were characterized the system of types and modes
of expression the figures of speech.

Key word: Ukrainian idea, national consciousness, publicistic writings,
genre, typological features context, distinctive features, poetics,
modes of expression the figures of speech, mentality.

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