EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? ?AAIA O?AIEA

Aieei ?ai? Eineiiae/

OAeE 340.0.(478)

Oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Euea?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – Eoeue/eoeueeee Aieiaeeie? Naiaiiae/, aeieoi?
th?eaee/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

Neaeoi Ieueaa Oaaei??aia, aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio
Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie.

Neeaea Noaiai Noaiaiiae/, eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Euea?anueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o
ni?aa i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: eaoaae?a ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie ?
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai?
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 7 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.35.051.03. o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith 290000, i. Euea?a,
aoe. N?/iaeo no??eueoe?a, 14 (cae can?aeaiue th?eaee/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo, aoae.409).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290005, i.
Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 31 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.I. Einnae

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Coai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? aeniei?icaeiaiiai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa e ?icaoaeiaa ia iniia? Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae iio?aaothoue aeiei??iiiai
eiioeaiooaeueiiai ia?ainieneaiiy i?ioeano ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oe?a?ie. Na?aae th?eaee/ieo iaoe aaaeeeaa i?noea caeia? ?noi??y
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie, yea, aea/ath/e aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoie, ci?ie
oei?a oa oi?i aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, ni?ey? iiaeeaeaiiio i?ciaiith e
aeei?enoaiith caeiiii??iinoae noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, ui aea? ciiao
oieeiooe c?iaeaieo o ieioeiio iiieeie [].

Aeooaeuei?noue ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o no/ani?e Oe?a?i?
aecia/aia o Iinoaiia? I?aceae?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie
a?ae 30.11.1994 ?. ca ?269. O i?e a?aecia/ai? aeaye? oni?oe o ?ic?iaoe?
?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai, iaeiae o oe?eiio noai ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia aeciaii caaeia?eueiei. O iinoaiia? iae?aneai?
i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o IAI Oe?a?ie aei
2000 ?ieo e ia iiaeaeueoo ia?niaeoeao, a oaeiae c iaoith a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?e/iiai i?aaiciaanoaa oa iie?ioaiiy
eii?aeeiaoe?? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie
noai?aii eii?n?th c aea/aiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa.

O no/anieo oiiaao ia?aae aeine?aeieeaie ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oe?a?ie iinoaei aaaeeeaa caaaeaiiy – aea/eoe oa ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? i?aaioai?aiiy ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo o ieioeiio, c
oei, uia iae?aneeoe oeyoe aeei?enoaiiy iaee?aueo eiai caeiaooe?a o
iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue oe?a?inueei?
?noi?eei-i?aaiai? iaoee ? oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii
1743 ?ieo “I?aaa, ca yeeie noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae”.

A?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueieo iiiia?ao?/ieo ?ic?iaie i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy,
?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii
1743 ?ieo coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Caa?iaiiy aei oe??? i?iaeaie aea? ciiao i?iaiae?coaaoe iaeia ?c
ia?oiaeaea?ae oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa OVIII no.

Oae? i?iaeaie, ye ?ice?eooy nooiino?, i?noey oa ?noi?e/iiai cia/aiiy
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo a ?noi???
?icaeoeo i?aaa Oe?a?ie, i?inoaaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo i?aaiai?
nenoaie oiai/anii? Oe?a?ie, i?iaaaeaiiy anaa?/iiai aiae?co
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i oa ?inoeooo?a ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo o
eiioaeno? no/anieo i?aeoe/ieo aea?aeaaioai?/eo caaaeaiue iaaoaathoue, ye
aeaea?oueny, aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy e aeooaeueiino?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?inoeoooe oa ii?ie oeea?eueiiai i?aaa
Aaoueiaiueie, cae??ieai? o Eiaeaen? 1743 ?ieo, a oaeiae i?aeoeea ?o
canoinoaaiiy o i?ioean? ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeuei? ? niaoeeo?/i? caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeea?eueiiai i?aaa a
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiiaao, ye? aeyaeeeny a ?inoeoooao oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie, cae??ieaieo o Eiaeaen? 1743 ?ieo «I?aaa, ca yeeie
noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae».

O?iiieia?/ii ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaaeai? aieiaii ae?oaith iieiaeiith
XVII – ia?oith iieiaeiith XVIII no., ine?eueee naia a oeae ia??iae o
Aaoueiaiuei? aoee /eiieie o? oeea?eueii-i?aaia? ii?ie, ye? i?noyoueny o
Eiaeaen? 1743 ?ieo.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo;

?ice?eooy nooiino?, aecia/aiiy i?noey oa ?noi?e/iiai cia/aiiy
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo aeey iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo i?aaiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie.

C iaeyaeo ia iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia i?aoaiaeoth/e ia iiaia oa
aaccaia?a/ia aena?oeaiiy an?o aniaeo?a oe??? neeaaeii? i?iaeaie, aaoi?
c?iaea ni?iao ae??oeoe oae? eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy:

i?iaiae?coaaoe i?e/eie oa oiiae oeeaaeaiiy Eiaeaeno 1743 ?ieo;

i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee aiae?c iniaeeainoae oaeeo ?inoeooo?a
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie, ye i?aaa aeaniino? ? i?aaa aieiae?iiy;

ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe nooi?noue oa ci?no ciaia’ycaeueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie;
i?iaiae?coaaoe ie?ai? aeaee iaea?eueo iioe?aieo aeiaia??ieo
ciaia’ycaiue;

i?iaanoe i?aaiaee aiae?c n?iaeiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie c iaoith
anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oethaii-n?iaeieo
a?aeiinei aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo;

aeyaeoe nooi?noue niaaeeiaiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie oa i?iaiae?coaaoe eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy;

aecia/eoe aeii?ioth/ee oei i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei
o Aaoueiaiuei? ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo;

aecia/eoe i?noea ? ?ieue oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii
1743 ?ieo a ?noi?e/iiio eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
nioe?aeueii-aeaoa?i?i?noe/ii? aiinaieia?? aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo yaeu,
no/ani? caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i aea?aeaao oa i?aai. O
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? ianaiia?aae oae? i?eioeeie noni?eueiiciaa/iai
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye aiae?c yaeu o eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiiaao,
ia?ao?ae a?ae aano?aeoiiai aei eiie?aoiiai, ?aei?noue eia?/iiai oa
?noi?e/iiai, iniaeeaiai ? niaoeeo?/iiai, a oaeiae canoiniaai? oae?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee, iiaeaethaaiiy e
i?iaiicoaaiiy, ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee, eia?/ii-th?eaee/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, iaoiae oeoia/aiiy i?aaa.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iieiaeaiiy, ye? i?noyoueny o
i?aoeyo a?aeiieo i?aaenoaaiee?a noni?eueieo iaoe – oai?aoee?a oa
?noi?ee?a i?aaa, ?noi?ee?a, iie?oieia?a,cie?aia: A.I.Aaa?y,
A.Ae.Aaae?ia, E.A.Aeneiaieiaa, A.Ae.Aii/a?aiea, ?.I.A?icianueeiai,
I.?.Ao?ae?y, A.A.Aeoa?ia?ii?, A.A.Aeyaee/aiea, E.I.Caeoeaaa,
A.N.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, A.Ae.I?nyoea, I.I.Ie?iiaiea, I.I. Ioce/aiea,
A.E.Iaooea, I.I.?aa?iiae/a, TH.?.?eia?aiea, A.E.?iaiaeeia,
A.I.?oiyioeaaa, I.O.Neaeoi, E.A.Nio?iiaiei, ?.I.Nio?iiiai?,
I.I.No?aoiaa, A.E.Oeueea, A.I.Oea/a, ?.A.Onaiea, A.A.Oea?oeiaa,
A.A.*aoiae/a, I.Ae.*oaaoiai, TH.N.Oaioo/aiea, N.A.THoeiaa,
Ae.?.ssai?ieoeueeiai, A.?.sseiae?aa, I.I.ss?ieoa.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ? ia?aaeon?i Eiaeaen 1743 ?ieo
“I?aaa, ca yeeie noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae”, iaoeia? ioae?eaoe??
c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa XVIII no., a?o?ai? iaoa??aee i?i eiai
i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy, ?io? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe i?i eiai aeaea?aea,
niaoe?aeueia iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiae?ciaaii iiiaae 70 ni?aa Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o i.Ee?a?, ye? i?noyoue
??ciiiai?oiee iaoa??ae uiaei i?aai?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy o
Aaoueiaiuei?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, noaei/einoaa, ui aeaei
ciiao ?aeiino?othaaoe oeea?eueii-i?aaia? a?aeiineie Aaoueiaiueie,
aeei?enoaoe ??ciiiai?oi? aeiaiai?e, caiia?oe oa ?ioee oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae, yeee caa??aa?oueny o oeueiio a?o?a?. A?eueo?noue
aeine?aeaeaieo a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a aaaaeaii o iaoeiaee ia?a aia?oa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeon?i oei,
ui aaoi? oia?oa c?iaea ni?iao eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo oa eiai canoinoaaiiy o Aaoueiaiuei?.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaai? i?e/eie oa oiiae oeeaaeaiiy Eiaeaeno
“I?aaa, ca yeeie noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae”. C?iaeaii ni?iao
i?iaanoe iiaiee aiae?c ?inoeooo?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca
Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo. O iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeai? aeaye? aein? iaa?aeii?
a?o?ai? aeaea?aea, a oaeiae iaa?aeiiee aai iaeia?aeiiee oaeoe/iee
?noi?e/iee iaoa??ae i?i /eii?noue oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie. Ia
i?aenoaa? aiae?co noaeiaeo ni?aa, cie?aia oeea?eueieo, ye?
caa??aathoueny o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? o i.
Ee?a?, iieacaii i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy Eiaeaeno 1743 ?ieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? eiie?aoeco?oueny a oaeeo iieiaeaiiyo, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

“I?aaa, ca yeeie noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae” – oea Eiaeaen
oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa ia?oi? iieiaeie XVIII no., ine?eueee nenoaiaoecaoe?y
ii?i oeueiai i?aaa aoea cae?eniaia niaoe?aeueii noai?aiith io?oe?eiith
eiaeeo?eaoe?eiith eii?n??th, ye?e iaaeaii noaoono aea?aeaaiiai i?aaio
oeacaie ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo 1728 ? 1734 ??. Oea aeaea?aei ia? on? iciaee
eiaeeo?eiaaiiai ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeoa – aioo??oith ?aei?noue,
ocaiaeaeai?noue th?eaee/ieo ii?i oa no?oeoo?o.

Nai???aei?noue “I?aa, ca yeeie noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae” ye
Eiaeaeno oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa iieyaa? a oiio, ui aei eiai neeaaeo
aoiaeeee ii?ie ??cieo aaeocae i?aaa – aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai, oeea?eueiiai,
e?ei?iaeueiiai, i?ioeanoaeueiiai. I?ioa aiane?aeie ae?? oiai/anieo
ia’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a (?iceeaae oaiaeaeueieo oa noaiiaeaiiy ao?aeoacieo
ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei, o??ciiiai?oithaaiiy ? ?icaeoie iaeiiaeo a?aeiinei,
ianaiia?aae a?aeiinei i?eaaoii? caiaeueii? aeaniino?, ?icoe?aiiy
aioo??oiueiai ?eieo oiui) i?ia?aeia i?noea o Eiaeaen? iaeaaeeoue ii?iai
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa.

TH?eaee/ieie aeaea?aeaie Eiaeaeno 1743 ?ieo a i?ioean? a?aaoethaaiiy iei
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei o Aaoueiaiuei? noaee ii?ie Eeoianueeiai
noaoooo, ca??iee?a iaaaeaao?cueeiai i?aaa oa ii?ie cae/a?aiai
oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa.

Noa’?eoaie oeea?eueieo i?aaia?aeiinei o Aaoueiaiuei? aoee “a?euei?
ethaee” oa ?oi? ia’?aeiaiiy. Ia’?eoaie oeea?eueieo i?aa aenooiaee i?aaa,
?a/?, a a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao – iaa?eueieee.

Oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie oi?ioaaeiny ye i?eaaoia i?aai noiniaii
«a?eueieo ethaeae» oa ?oi?o ia’?aeiaiue, ui a?aeiia?aeaei ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?/ieo (?eieiaeo) a?aeiinei XVII-XVIII no., ? aoei ni?yiiaaia ia
?icaeoie aeiaia??ieo a?aeiinei. O Eiaeaen? aoee ?icaeioo? oae? i?aaia?
?inoeoooe, ye “aeiaia??”, “eiio?aeo”, “ciaia’ycaiiy”, “canoaaa”.

O oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ii?iao Eiaeaeno aoa iaea?eueoa iioe?aiee
niaoe?aeueii-aeicaieaiee oei i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei noiniaii ?ioeo in?a (iaa?eueiee?a), ye? iaee iaiaaeai?
oeea?euei? i?aaa o Aaoueiaiuei? .

Uiaei no?oeoo?e Eiaeaeno, oi iniiai? ?inoeoooe oeea?eueiiai i?aaa
Aaoueiaiueie aoee ?iciaaeiaai? a?aeiia?aeii aei iaiaeaeoii? nenoaie:
caaaeueia /anoeia (noa’?eoe e ia’?eoe oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, iiciaia
aeaai?noue) oa niaoe?aeueia /anoeia (?a/iaa i?aai, ciaia’ycaeueia i?aai,
n?iaeia i?aai, niaaeeiaa i?aai).

?a/iaa i?aai ioiiethaaei ?inoeoooe i?aaa aeaniino?, i?aaa aieiae?iiy,
i?aaa ia /oae? ?a/? ? a?aeiaaeiaoaaeinue a?ae ciaia’ycaeueiiai i?aaa,
yea ?aaoethaaei iaeiia? a?aeiineie i?ae ethaeueie, eio?? iaeaaeaee aei
??cieo noai?a, oa i?ae ?o ia’?aeiaiiyie c iaoith caaeiaieaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo iaoa??aeueieo iio?aa.

N?iaeia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie aoei naiino?eiei ?inoeoooii oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa, ni?yiiaaiei ia ?aaoethaaiiy aieiaii iaeiiaeo a?aeiinei i?ae
iiae?oaeaeyi, aaoueeaie ? ae?oueie, ii?eoiaie oa i?aeii?/ieie,
oneiiaeoaeyie e oneiiaeaieie.

Niaaeeiaa i?aai ia?aaeaa/aei aea? i?aenoaae niaaeeoaaiiy – ca caiia?oii
? ca caeiiii, iaeiae ia?aaaaa iaaeaaaeany niaaeeoaaiith ca caiia?oii.

No?oeoo?a, ci?no oa ?inoeoooe oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca
Eiaeaenii na?ae/aoue i?i oi?ioaaiiy oiai/anii? nenoaie oe?a?inueeiai
i?aaa a?aeiia?aeii aei ?iiaii-aa?iainueeiai oeio i?aaiaeo nenoai.

Ia aoaeo/e io?oe?eii caoaa?aeaeaiei, Eiaeaen iaaoa iioe?aiiai
canoinoaaiiy o noaeiaeo onoaiiaao Aaoueiaiueie ye caeiiiaeaa/ee aeo i?ae
/an ?icaeyaeo ? ae??oaiiy ieie, cie?aia oeea?eueieo ni?aa, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?o?aieie iaoa??aeaie, aia?oa aaaaeaieie aaoi?ii o
iaoeiaee ia?a.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aeeeaaeai? a i?e iieiaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aeniiaee, ye aeaea?oueny,
iiaeia aeei?enoaoe:

o iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?iaioao – aeey a?aeoai?aiiy oe?e?nii? ea?oeie,
?aeiino?othaaiiy o?aaiaio?a i?ioeano aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie;

o i?aaioai?/ino? – c iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai oeea?eueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa;

o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, aeeeaaeath/e eo?n “?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oe?a?ie”, a oaeiae ?noi?e/ii? /anoeie aeayeeo eo?n?a aaeocaaeo
th?eaee/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea; aeeeaaeai?
aaoi?ii ia ???, IV ? V ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo – “I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?” a?aeiia?aeii (6-7
ethoiai 1997 ?., 19-20 ethoiai 1998 ?., 8-9 ethoiai 1999 ?.); ia ia?o?e
?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? ani??aio?a-i?aaiciaaoe?a – “I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa caeiiioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?” (7 o?aaiy 1998 ?.);
ai?iaiaaii o oaeeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo: “I?aaiaa noaiiaeua ianaeaiiy
Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo” (1997), “ I?e?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie aei
neeaaeo ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae” (1997), “I?aai aeaniino? ca Eiaeaenii
oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa 1743 ?ieo ” (1997), “Ciaia’ycaeueia i?aai
Aaoueiaiueie ca “I?aaaie, ca yeeie noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae”
1743 ?ieo” (1998), “Aeiaia??ia i?aai ca “I?aaaie, ca yeeie noaeeoueny
iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae” 1743 ?ieo” (1998), “I?i oeea?eueia i?aai
Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo” (1999).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a,
ye? iiae?eythoueny ia i?ae?icae?ee e ioieoe, aeniiae?a (ianya 176 n.) oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (224 iaeiaioaaiiy, ia 16 n.).

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/aii iaoo,
caaaeaiiy ? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iaoiaeieia?/io oa oai?aoe/io iniiao,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeiao iiaecio oaie oa iieiaeaiue, aeianaieo ia caoeno,
iieacaii oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, aeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
ai?iaaoe?th ? ioae?eaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ?icae?e? ? «?noi?eei-i?aaiaa e?oa?aoo?a i?i oeea?eueia i?aai
Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo» iieacaii, ui ieoaiiy oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo iio?aaothoue aeaoaeueiiai
aea/aiiy.

Cia/iee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie o eieeoi?e
?in?enuee?e ?iia??? c?iaeee oae? a/ai?, ye I.O.E?noye?anueeee [],
I.?.Neaa/aiei [], ?.A.Oaee/aiei [] oa ?i.

Aeaye? i?iaeaie oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie aeine?aeaeoaaee ?noi?eee
i?aaa o 20-30-o ?ieao OO no., cie?aia I.I.Aaneeaiei [], I.Oianoie?n [],
?.TH.*a?eanueeee [].

Iaaiee ?ioa?an a ieai? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue
i?aoe? o/aieo 60-o ?ie?a OO no., cie?aia, A.A.Aeoa?ia?ii? [],
A.A.Aeyaee/aiea [], A.Ae.I?nyoea [], A.E.Iaooea [], A.I.Oea/a [],
N.A.THoeiaa []. I?ioa a?eueo?noue oeeo a/aieo aeine?aeaeoaaee ie?ai?
?inoeoooe oeea?eueiiai i?aaa o?aaiaioa?ii.

Iaea?eueo aeieeaaeii i?aai Oe?a?ie XVII-XVIII no., cie?aia oeea?eueia,
aeine?aeaeoaaa A.N.Eoeue/eoeueeee []. Na?e aianie o aea/aiiy
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie c?iaeee oaeiae A.Ae.Aii/a?aiei,
E.I.Caeoeaa, A.E.?iaiaeei, ?.I.Nio?iiiaa, I.I.No?aoia, I.I.ss?ieo oa
?i. [].

O i?ioean? iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? nie?aany oaeiae ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?ee?a, i?aaiciaaoe?a oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e, cie?aia
ia i?aoe? E.I.Ie?ioaae/a [], ss.Iaaeioa [], I.Ae.*oaaoiai [],
A.?.sseiae?aa []. Aeaye? c oeeo aaoi??a o nai?o ?iaioao oyae?thoue aei
caaaeueii-?noi?e/iiai, a ia i?aaiaiai aiae?co ?inoeooo?a oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo.

Ie?ai? ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie aea/aee ca?oa?aei?, cie?aia,
i?iaoeuee? oa iieuenuee? ?noi?eee i?aaa: A.Aaeueaai [], N.E?iaea [],
O.*aoeueeee []. O nai?o i?aoeyo aiie iaiaaaeeny aeiaanoe iiceoeaiee
aieea iaaaeaao?cueeiai i?aaa ia ?icaeoie oeea?eueiiai i?aaa o
Aaoueiaiuei?, eiai /eii?noue i?ney ia?iaeii-aecaieueii? a?eie 1648 –
1654 ??.

O i?ae?o/ieeao ? iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao c ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oe?a?ie ia ia?aaeaa/aii aea/aiiy oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca
Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo, oiio oea ieoaiiy aena?oethaaee noenei aai e cian?i
ia ii?oooaaee.

Oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui aeine?aeaeoaaio oaio iaiiaeeeai aena?oeeoe a
iaaeao iaei??? /e iaa?oue aeae?eueeio i?aoeue. Aaoi? na?aeiiee oiai, ui
eiai aeena?oaoe?y ? eeoa ni?iaith c?iaeoe iineeueiee aianie o oo
neeaaeio ?iaioo, yeo i?iaiaeyoue ?noi?eee i?aaa uiaei anaa?/iiai ?
ia’?eoeaiiai aea/aiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa.

O ?icae?e? ?? “I?aaa, ca yeeie noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae” 1743
?ieo – Eiaeaen Aaoueiaiueie” ?ice?eoi i?e/eie oa oiiae oeeaaeaiiy
Eiaeaeno 1743 ?ieo, eiai aeaea?aea, no?oeoo?o oa caaaeuei? oeea?e?noe/i?
iieiaeaiiy.

C o?aooaaiiyi inoaii?o iai?aoethaaiue o aaeoc? ?noi?eei-i?aaiai?
e?oa?aoo?e c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy, ui ca Aa?aciaaeie noaooyie 1654 ?ieo
Aaoueiaiueia oa?eoea aei ?in?? ia i?aaao iie?oe/ii? oa i?aaiai?
aaoiiii??. Iieacaii, ui ca oeei th?eaee/iei aeoii o Aaoueiaiuei? aoea
cae??ieaia i?aaiaa nenoaia, yea neeaeany o ia??iae ia?iaeii-aecaieueii?
a?eie 1648-1654 ??. ? i?noeea ii?ie Eeoianueeiai noaoooo,
iaaaeaao?cueeiai i?aaa, ii?iaoeai? aeoe aaoueiainueei? aeaaee,
cae/a?aiai i?aaa oiui. Aeyaeaii, ui i?aaiaa nenoaia Aaoueiaiueie iaea
nai? iaaeie?ee. Aaoi? iiae?ey? iiaeyaee aaoi?eoaoieo aeine?aeiee?a
(cie?aia, E.I.Caeoeaaa, A.N.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, A.Ae.I?nyoea, A.E.Iaooea,
A.I.Oea/a, ?.A.Onaiea, A.A.*aoiae/a, TH.N.Oaioo/aiea, N.A.THoeiaa,
A.?.sseiae?aa), eio?? noaa?aeaeothoue, ui /eii? o Aaoueiaiuei? i?aaia?
ii?ie /anoi noia?a/eee iaeia iaei?e ? aoee cia/iith i??ith canoa??eeie.
Oea aeaaaei ciiao noaeiaei i?aaiai noiniaii iaeieo ? oeo aea ni?aa
aeiineoe ??ci? ??oaiiy caeaaeii a?ae oiai, ia yea aeaea?aei ?i aoei
aea?aeii iineeaoeny.

A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia iaaaaeaiei a?aoiaioai, aeena?oaio cai?iiiioaaa
nai? aa/aiiy i?e/ei oeeaaeaiiy Eiaeaeno. Aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe
ia’?eoeai? ? noa’?eoeai? i?e/eie, ui coiiaeee oeeaaeaiiy Eiaeaeno. Aei
ia’?eoeaieo a?aeiineii ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVII – ia?o?e iieiaei? XVIII no., ye?
iio?aaoaaee i?aaiaiai a?aaoethaaiiy, a aei noa’?eoeaieo – /eii?noue
??cieo i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui iaee ??cia iioiaeaeaiiy ? noia?a/eee iaeia
iaei?e.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii oie oaeo, ui oeace ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo 1728
? 1734 ??. iaaeaee eiaeeo?eaoe?ei?e eii?n?? noaoono aea?aeaaiiai i?aaio,
a nai?e ?? i?aoe? – oa?aeoa?o io?oe?eii? nenoaiaoecaoe?? /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a Aaoueiaiuei? o oi?i? eiaeeo?eaoe??.

Ia i?aenoaa? iieiaeaiue caaaeueii? oai??? i?aaa c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
eiaeeo?eaoe?y caeiiiaeaanoaa o Aaoueiaiuei? iaea aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy,
ine?eueee anoaiiaethaaea e onoaaea iaaeie?ee caeiiiaeaanoaa,
i?aeaeuoaaea eiai aoaeoeai?noue, caaacia/oaaea c?o/i?noue ei?enooaaiiy
iei, iieaaooaaea iiooe th?eaee/ii? ii?ie, yea i?aeeyaaea canoinoaaiith,
ni?eyea aea/aiith caeiiiaeaanoaa.

O ?iaio? a aeeneon?eiiio ieai? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co no?oeoo?e
Eiaeaeno. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?i iaa /?oeo no?oeoo?o ? neeaaeaany c 30
aeaa, ye? iiae?eyeeny ia 532 a?oeeoee oa 1607 ioieo?a. ?aoaeueii
aeine?aeaeai? i?e/eie iacaoaa?aeaeaiiy Eiaeaeno: iinooiiaa iaiaaeaiiy, a
a?aeoae iiaia neanoaaiiy ?in?enueeei naiiaea?aeaanoaii aaoiiiiiiai
ono?ith Aaoueiaiueie, cie?aia aeanii? i?aaiai? nenoaie; iaa?oiooaaiiy a
Eiaeaen? i?aaa ia iie?oe/ia naiiaecia/aiiy; aeayea a?aei?ii?noue
oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa a?ae ?in?enueeiai; a?eueo aeineiiaea th?eaee/ia
oaoi?ea; a?aenooi?noue iineeaiue ia ?in?enuee? aeaea?aea; ?ica?aeiino? o
iiaeyaeao noiniaii aeioe?eueiino? caoaa?aeaeaiiy Eiaeaeno na?aae
aaia?aeueii? noa?oeie.

Aeena?oaioii c?iaeaii iao?aaeeoe?eiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui, ia aoaeo/e
io?oe?eii caoaa?aeaeaieie, «I?aaa, ca yeeie noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee
ia?iae» – oea Eiaeaen, yeee iaaoa iioe?aiiai canoinoaaiiy a noaeiaeo
onoaiiaao Aaoueiaiueie ye caeiiiaeaa/ee aeo i?e ?icaeyae? ? ae??oaii?
noaeiaeo ni?aa, cie?aia oeea?eueieo, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
aeieoiaioaeueii a?o?aieie iaoa??aeaie. Eiaeaen Aaoueiaiueie iaa
iiceoeaiee aieea ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneaii, ui oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie aoei
a?aaoeueiaaia a iaeeiaaeoeyoe aeaaao Eiaeaeno (e??i oiai, a iueiio
ai?uaii ii?ie aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai, e?ei?iaeueiiai, i?ioeanoaeueiiai
i?aaa). Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oeea?eueia i?aai aoei iaea?eueo ci?noiaiei ?
a?aeia?aaeaei aeey naiai /ano aenieee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei oiai/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aiae?co oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i Eiaeaeno uiaei
aecia/aiiy oeio i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o
Aaoueiaiuei?. Aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i
aeaee i?aenoaao aeey aeniiaeo, ui o Eiaeaen? aoa iaea?eueoa iioe?aiee
niaoe?aeueii-aeicaieaiee oei i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei noiniaii in?a (iaa?eueiee?a), ye? iaee iaiaaeai? oeea?euei?
i?aaa.

Oia?oa a ?noi?eei-i?aaiaia?e e?oa?aoo?? anoaiiaeaii, ui no?oeoo?a, ci?no
oa ?inoeoooe oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie, ca Eiaeaenii, na?ae/aoue
i?i oi?ioaaiiy oiai/anii? nenoaie oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa a?aeiia?aeii aei
?iiaii-aa?iainueeiai oeio i?aaiaeo nenoai.

Aaoi? iiae?ey? iiaeyaee aeine?aeiee?a i?i aieea ?einueeiai i?aaa ia
?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa, cie?aia ia oi?ioaaiiy oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo
ii?i Eiaeaeno .

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa a no/ani?e ?noi?eei-i?aaia?e iaooe? cai?iiiiiaaii
aecia/aiiy oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ye noeoii?noue th?eaee/ieo
ii?i oe?a?inueei? na?aaeiueia?/ii? aea?aeaae XVII- XVIII no., ye?
?aaoethaaee iaeiia? e iniaeno? a?aeiineie i?ae ethaeueie, eio??
iaeaaeaee aei ??cieo noai?a, ianaiia?aae in?a oeyoaonueeiai e
a?enueeiaiai noaio oa ?o ia’?aeiaiiy c iaoith caaeiaieaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo iio?aa.

Aeena?oaioii oia?oa aeyaeaii, ui oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie iaei
naith nenoaio, oiaoi ?ici?uaiiy oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a o
Eiaeaen? a iaai?e iine?aeiaiino?. Aiae?c oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i,
o?aaoeueiaaieo o Eiaeaen?, aea? i?aenoaao aeey oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui nenoaia
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie iiae?eyeany ia aea? /anoeie: caaaeueio ?
niaoe?aeueio. Caaaeueio /anoeio oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, yea oi?eaeany an?o
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o Aaoueiaiuei?, noaiiaeee ii?ie i?i noa’?eoe oa
ia’?eoe oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, iiciaio aeaai?noue oiui. Niaoe?aeueia
/anoeia neeaaeaeany c oaeeo ?inoeooo?a, ye ?a/iaa i?aai, ciaia’ycaeueia
i?aai, n?iaeia i?aai, niaaeeiaa i?aai. Oeei coiiaeaia no?oeoo?a
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui noa’?eoaie oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei o
Aaoueiaiuei? aoee ye ie?ai? iniae, oae ? ?o ia’?aeiaiiy. ?ioa?ane
i?ea?eaeiaaiiai noaio ia aeiioneaee ??aiino? an?o ethaeae. Iiaiii?aaieie
aeciaaaeeny “a?euei? ethaee”, yeeo ?icae?eyee ca noaiii ? ca i?ioan??th:
ethaee “aeooiaiiai ? na?onueeiai caaiiy ? /eio”, “oeyoaonueeiai e
a?enueeiaiai caaiiy e /eio, i?nueea ianaeaiiy, aai i?uaie». I?ioa e aiie
ia iaee iaeiaeiaeo i?aa. Ianya i?aa caeaaeaa, cie?aia, a?ae oaeeo
oaeoi??a: a?eo, noao?, noaio caei?ia’y, caeiiiino? ia?iaeaeaiiy,
nioe?aeueiiai noaio, a??iniia?aeaiiy ? iaoe?iiaeueiino?, /ano?, iiaaae
oa ii?aeueii? iiaaae?iee. C’yniaaii, ui iaea?eueo iaiaaeaieie, a ?iiae?
iiai?noth aaci?aaieie aoee iaa?eueieee. Aeena?oaio a?aecia/a?, ui
iayai?noue i?ea?ea?a o Eiaeaen? na?ae/eoue i?i nioe?aeueio ia??ai?noue o
Aaoueiaiuei?.

O ?iaio? iieacaii, ui a Eiaeaen? ia aeyaeaii iiiyooy th?eaee/ii? iniae,
aea caaaeo?oueny i?i ia’?aeiaiiy o?ce/ieo in?a, cie?aia aea?aeaaiee
nea?a, i?nuee? ? n?euenuee? a?iiaaee, oea?eae, iiianoe??, oieoae?,
aeia?iae?ei? onoaiiae, aeaaeai??, oeiee, ye? iaee i?aai iaaoaaoe iaeii.
I?aee?aneaii, ui o oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiineiao caaaeai? ia’?aeiaiiy
? onoaiiae aaaaeaeeny o Aaoueiaiuei? iiaiii?aaieie noa’?eoaie
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa.

Aiae?coth/e oeea?eueii-i?aaia? ii?ie Eiaeaeno, aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?,
ui ia’?eoaie oeea?eueieo i?aa o Aaoueiaiuei? aoee i?aaa, ?a/? ? a
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iaa?eueieee.

Aaoi?ii aia?oa aeyaeaii o Eiaeaen? iayai?noue ?inoeoooo iiciaii?
aeaaiino? (oi/ oeae oa?i?i ia aaeeaaany o Eiaeaen?), oiaoi no?ieo,
i?ioyaii yeiai iniaa iaea i?aai caa?iooeny ca caoenoii i?aaa aei noaeo.
Aeey caoenoo i?aaa ia ia?ooiio ??/ Eiaeaen anoaiiaethaaa aeanyoue ?ie?a,
a aeey caoenoo i?aaa ia ?ooiio ??/ – aeaa no?iee: a) o?e??/iee aeey
aeanieea, yeee i?ioyaii oeueiai no?ieo ia caa?ioany aei noaeo ca
caoenoii ii?ooaiiai i?aaa; a) aeanyoe??/iee aeey oeo aeiaaee?a, eiee
aeaniee iaea?aeaa noaeiaa ??oaiiy, i?ioa ia ?aae?ciaoaaa aeciaiiai eiio
i?aaa oi?iaeiaae oeueiai no?ieo. ?acii c oei cacia/aii oiiae ia?a?ae oa
coieiaiiy iiciaii? aeaaiino?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo iieiaeaiue Eiaeaeno c?iaeaii
aeniiaie, ui a oe?e iai’yooe? i?aaa aeey naiai /ano ia aenieiio ??ai?
aoee a?aaoeueiaai? ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy noa’?eo?a oeea?eueieo
i?aaia?aeiinei, anoaiiaeaii ia’?eoe oeea?eueieo i?aa, aeyaeaii iiciaio
aeaai?noue, a oea ni?eyei iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, cie?aia oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo, ui aoei i?ia?aneaiei yaeuai
oiai/aniiai noni?euenoaa.

?icae?e ??? – “?a/iaa i?aai” – i?enay/aiee aiae?co i?aaa aeaniino?,
i?aaa aieiae?iiy, i?aaa ia /oae? ?a/?.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui i?aai aeaniino?, ca Eiaeaenii, aoei iniiaiei ?a/iaei
i?aaii ? ?icoi?einy ye i?aai aieiae?oe, aeei?enoiaoaaoe, ia?aaeaaaoe,
aea?oaaoe, a?aeienoaaoe, i?iyoe e canoaaeyoe iaeii ca aeaniith aieath oa
iio?aaith.

O ?iaio? cia/ii oe?oa ii??aiyii c iioae?eiaaiith niaoe?aeueiith
e?oa?aoo?ith i?iaaaeaii aiae?c oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?aaa
aeaniino? ia caieth. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVII-XVIII no.
aoee aeaa aieiai? ??ciiaeaee aeaniino? ia caieth – aio/eia ? oei/aniaa
aieiae?iiy. Aio/eia, aai “coiieia aieiae?iiy”, yaeyea niaith aieiae?iiy
ia i?aaao iiaii? aeaniino?. Oey caiaeueia aeani?noue iiaea aooe ia’?eoii
eoi?ae?, i?iaeaaeo, niaaeeoaaiiy, i?ie oiui. Oei/ania? aieiae?iiy
iaaeaaaee iniaai ia no?ie aea?aeaaii? aai a?enueeiai? neoaeae.

O aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui an? niiniae iaaoooy i?aaa aeaniino?
oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii iiae?eyei ia ia?aeii? ?
iio?aei?, aai aea?aei?. Aei ia?aeiieo niinia?a iaaoooy i?aaa aeaniino?
iaeaaeaee: caaieiae?iiy, aai caeiaiueia, i?e?iaeiee i?e??no, ciaeaeaiiy
caaoaeaieo ?a/ae, a aei iio?aeieo niinia?a – aea?aeaai? aeoe (oea?nuee?
aeaeoaai? a?aiioe, aaoueiainuee? oi?aa?naee, eenoe iieeiaieea), noaeia?
??oaiiy (aeae?aoe), aeiaiai?e. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aai aeaniino?
i?eieiyeiny ia oaeeo i?aenoaaao: a?aeiiaa aeanieea a?ae ?a/?, ia?aaeaiiy
i?aaa ?ioei noa’?eoai ca aeiaiai?ii; aeeo/aiiy ?a/? (eiio?neaoe?y);
cieuaiiy ?a/? iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, /e noaeiny oea aiane?aeie ??
caaeaae?, niiaeeaaiiy /e ?ioeo i?e/ei, aai ca aeaai?noth.

Cia/ia oaaaa a aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaia aiae?co oi?i aeaniino? o
Aaoueiaiuei?. Iieacaii, ui o Aaoueiaiuei? aoee iayai? o?e oi?ie
aeaniino?: caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia, aai caaaeueiia?enueeiaa,
?iaeea?aeoaeueia (i?eaaoia) ? iaueiia (eieaeoeaia, aai ni?eueia).
C’yniaaii, ui iacaai? oi?ie aeaniino? ia noia?a/eee iaeia iaei?e, a
iaaiaee, ie?ii ni?a?nioaaee. ?acii c oei aecia/aii, eiai naia aeciaaaee
noa’?eoaie caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii?, ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ? iaueiii? aeaniino?,
a oaeiae, ye? ia’?eoe cae??iethaaea eiaeia c oi?i aeaniino?.

Aeena?oaio iaaieioo?, ui ?inoeooo i?aaa aeaniino?, ca Eiaeaenii, aeey
naiai /ano aeinyaioa aenieiai ??aiy, a?aaoeueiaoth/e a?aeiineie o
ieoaiiyo aieiae?iiy, ei?enooaaiiy, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy iniaaie, ui iaeaaeaee
aei ??cieo noai?a, iaeiii, cie?aia caieath. ?aaeaiaioaoe?y oeueiai
aaaeeeaiai i?aaiaiai ?inoeoooo a Eiaeaen? na?ae/eoue i?i ?icaeiaiee
oa?aeoa? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie o ia?o?e iieiaei?
XVIII no.

?ice?eoi, ui oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie a iiiyooy aieiae?iiy
aeeaaeaei aeaiyea cia/aiiy: a) naiino?eiee i?aaiaee ?inoeooo,
iacaeaaeiee a?ae i?aaa aeaniino?; a) iaeia c iiaiiaaaeaiue aeanieea.

Iieacaii, ui ca?aeii c Eiaeaenii, aieiae?iiy aecia/aeiny ye oaeoe/ia
iaioaaiiy iniae iaae ??//th, ii?aeiaia c iai??ii noaaeoeny aei ia?, ye
aei nai??. Eiaeaen ?ic??ciya aeae?eueea aeae?a aieiae?iiy, ? a iniiao
iiae?eo aoa iieeaaeaiee niin?a eiai iaaoooy. Ca niiniaii iaaoooy
aieiae?iiy ?ic??ciyee caeiiia ? iacaeiiia.

Ia iniia? aiae?co oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i Eiaeaeno ? noaeiaeo ni?aa,
cie?aia oeea?eueieo, ye? caa??aathoueny o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio
?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie, iaa?oioiaaii i?aenoaae aeieeiaiiy oa
i?eieiaiiy aieiae?iiy. C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui ?inoeooo aieiae?iiy, ca
Eiaeaenii, iaa aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo i?aaa
aeaniino? ? ni?eya aeieeiaiith oa ci?oeiaiith iiaeo oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo
a?aeiinei o ia??iae Aaoueiaiueie.

I?iaiae?ciaaii i?aaa ia /oae? ?a/? ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie aei i?aa ia /oae? ?a/? a?aeiineei
na?a?oooe, ye? iiae?eyee ia ?a/ia? e iniaeno?. O Eiaeaen? cia/io oaaao
i?eae?eaii na?a?oooo aieiae?iiy ? ei?enooaaiiy /oaeei ia?ooiiei iaeiii
(ocoo?oeo).

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa a ?noi?eei-i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo?? c?iaeaii ni?iao
aeaoe aeeaieee th?eaee/iee aiae?c i?aenoaa aeieeiaiiy oa i?eieiaiiy i?aa
ia /oae? ?a/?, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?o?aieie iaoa??aeaie.
?aaeaiaioaoe?y a Eiaeaen? i?aa ia /oae? ?a/? na?ae/eoue i?i /?oea
aecia/aiiy iiaaae?iee noa’?eo?a i?aaa aeaniino?. Ca aeiiiiiaith oeueiai
i?aaiaiai ?inoeoooo ?aaoethaaee ? oaeineiiaethaaee aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie
oiai/aniiai noni?euenoaa.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oeea?eueii-i?aaia? ?aea? e iieiaeaiiy ?a/iaiai i?aaa
Aaoueiaiueie, cae??ieaiiai o Eiaeaen? 1743 ?ieo, iaaoee aeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo ? oaeineiiaeaiiy a i?ci?o? /ane. Ie?ai? ?aea? aoee iieeaaeai? a
iniiao noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oeea?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie o
?aaeyinueeee ia??iae.

O /eiiiio Oeea?eueiiio eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie ?a/ia? i?aaa ?icaeyioo?
iaiaaeaii. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui oeea?eueia i?aai anoia?a/ eiai i?e?iae?
ia?aaoaaei i?ae cia/iei aieeaii ioae?/iiai i?aaa. Oiio a oeea?eueiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? ia iaaoei ?icaeoeo i?aai caaoaeiae, ia ?icaeyaeaeeny ye
ia’?eoe oeea?eueiiai ia?ao caiey oa ?io? i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne, ye?
aecia/aeeny o?eueee ye ia’?eoe aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?, oiui.

Eaoaai??y ?a/iaeo i?aa ciaeoea na?e iiaee ?icaeoie o i?iaeo?
Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie a?ae 25 na?iiy 1996 ?ieo, aea ?a/ia? i?aaa
iin?ee iaeaaeia ?i i?noea. Aaaaeaii niaoe?aeueio aeaao “Caaaeuei?
iieiaeaiiy i?i ?a/iaa i?aai”, aea e??i aecia/aiiy iiiyooy ?a/iaeo i?aa
i?iaaaeaia ?o aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y, ca?aeii c yeith aei ieo a?aeianaii:
i?aai aeaniino?, i?aai aieiae?iiy, na?a?oooi? i?aaa, i?aai ei?enooaaiiy
/oaeith caieath aeey caaoaeiae (noia?o?oe?e), canoaaa, a oaeiae ?io?
?a/ia? i?aaa. Ia?ae?e ?a/iaeo i?aa ia ? ae/a?iiei, ui aea? ciiao
?icaeaaoe ?o i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy ? aeiiiiaaa? a?eueoith i??ith
caaeiaieueiyoe iio?aae ethaeeie.

Aiae?c “Caaaeueieo iieiaeaiue i?i ?a/iaa i?aai” aeuacaaaeaiiai i?iaeoo
Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie aea? i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui eiai
aaoi?e nie?aeeny ia iaoe?iiaeueiee aeina?ae caeiiioai?aiiy, cie?aia
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ?a/iaiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743
?ieo.

I?aee?aneaii, ui ?a/ia? i?aaa o Aaoueiaiuei? caaacia/oaaeeny caoenoii c
aieo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ? ui aoei aeaa aeaee caoenoo ?a/iaeo i?aa:
a?iaeeeaoe?eiee oa iaaaoi?iee iiciae. Ia iniia? aiae?co
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i Eiaeaeno oa iaoa??ae?a noaeiaeo ni?aa, cie?aia
oeea?eueieo, aeiaaaeaii, ui aeey caoenoo i?aaa aeaniino?, i?aaa
aieiae?iiy ? i?aaa ia /oae? ?a/? anoaiiaethaaee ?aeeiee noaeiaee
ii?yaeie ?o caoenoo.

O ?icae?e? ?V “Ciaia’ycaeueia i?aai” ?icaeyiooi iiiyooy ? aeaee
ciaia’ycaiue, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii i?aenoaae ?o aeieeiaiiy oa i?eieiaiiy,
aeeiiaiiy e caaacia/aiiy, i?iaiae?ciaaii ie?ai? aeaee aeiaia??ieo
ciaia’ycaiue.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui, ca Eiaeaenii, ciaia’ycaiiy – oea i?aai ia iaeii iniae,
yea ia aeeiiaea aeiaia?? /e caiiae?yea oeiaeo; iieacaii, ui o aeeoo?
na?aaeiueia?/iiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ciaia’ycaiiy iaee aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy. Ii-ia?oa, oea aoee niaoeeo?/i? th?eaee/i? oi?ie iaeiiaeo
a?aeiinei ?, ii-ae?oaa, c ?o aeiiiiiaith caaacia/oaaee iniaeno? ?
iaeiia? i?aaa. ?ice?eoi e?eoa??? iiae?eo ciaia’ycaiue ia iaeiinoi?iii?,
aeainoi?iii? oa aaaaoinoi?iii?.

A?aecia/aii, ui Eiaeaen ia?aaeaa/aa aea? i?aenoaae aeieeiaiiy
ciaia’ycaiue: aeiaia?? oa caiiae?yiiy oeiaee. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
aiae?cii a?o?aieo noaeiaeo ni?aa.

C’yniaaii, ui aieiaiei niiniaii i?eieiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue aoei eiai
aeeiiaiiy. Ciaia’ycaiiy oaeiae i?eieiyeiny, yeui ianoaaaea aeiaaeeiaa
iani?iiaei?noue eiai aeeiiaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a Eiaeaen? aoee
?ic?iaeai? i?aaeea aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue ? aecia/aia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?o ii?ooaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi oae?
i?aaia? caniae caoenoo ciaia’ycaiue, ye caaaeaoie, canoaaa, ii?oea ?
aeiaaaeaii, ui aiie aoee aoaeoeaieie caniaaie caaacia/aiiy ciaia’ycaiue
o Aaoueiaiuei?.

Aeyaeaii, ui, a?aeiia?aeii aei Eiaeaeno, aeiaiai?e aoee iniiaiith
i?aaiaith oi?iith, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? a?aeaoaaeeny iaoe?iee oiaa?iia?a
? ainiiaea?nueea aeeooy Aaoueiaiueie. C’yniaaii, ui aeiaiai?ii
aaaaeaeany caiaea in?a i?ae /an cae?eniaiiy aoaeue-yei? i?aaiai? ae??
aai oo?eiaiiy a?ae ?? cae?eniaiiy.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeyaeaiiai iiaiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo anoaiiaeaii, ui
aeiaia?? iaae?aa th?eaee/ii? neee ca iaaieo oiia: yeui noi?iie aeyaeee
aieth, ni?yiiaaio ia eiai oeeaaeaiiy, yeui aeciaia caeiii?noue aeiaiai?o
? a?i ioi?ieaiee a?aeiia?aeii aei anoaiiaeaieo aeiia , ca oiiae iiaeaiiy
oa ?a?no?aoe?? aei o?yaeiaeo (noaeiaeo) eiea ienueiiaeo aeiaiai??a, ca
iayaiino? iaoe aeiaiai?o ? ni?iiiaeiino? eiai aeeiiaiiy.

Ii??aithth/e c iioae?eiaaiith niaoe?aeueiith e?oa?aoo?ith o aeena?oaoe??
cia/ii aeeaoa i?iaiae?ciaaii iaea?eueo iioe?ai? aeiaiai?e o ia??iae
Aaoueiaiueie, ye-io: eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo, aea?oaaiiy, iice/ee, i?ie,
iaeiiaiai iaeio, ii?oee oiui. Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee c a?o?aieo noaeiaeo
ni?aa, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy Eiaeaeno a i?ioean?
?aaoethaaiiy oeea?eueieo i?aaia?aeiinei.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui ciaia’ycaeueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie aoei aoaeoeaiei
caniaii ?aaoethaaiiy ?ioaineaii c?inoath/eo oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei o
ia?o?e iieiaei? XVIII no. Ia?aaeaa/ai? o Eiaeaen? aeiaiai?e
caaacia/oaaee iaae?eio i?aaiao iniiao aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
ae?eiaeo a?aeiinei. Aaaaoi aeiaiai??a aoee aaeineiiaeai? o ianooii?
ia??iaee ?icaeoeo oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie ?, i?enoiniaai? aei iiaeo
oiia, caa?aaeeny a no/aniiio oeea?eueiiio i?aa?.

O ?icae?e? V “N?iaeia i?aai” ?icaeyiooi ii?yaeie oeeaaeaiiy oethao oa
oiiae eiai ae?eniino?; i?iaiae?ciaaii i?aaia? a?aeiineie iiae?oaeaey,
aaouee?a ? ae?oae, ii?eoi?a oa i?aeii?/ieo, oneiiaeoae?a e oneiiaeaieo.

Aeena?oaioii aia?oa aeyaeaii, ui Eiaeaen aeei?enoiaoaaa oa?i?i “oetha” o
aeaio cia/aiiyo: a) oetha ye aecia/aiee caeiiii oa caniiaaiee ia
aeia?ia?euei?e caiae? aeiaia?? i?ae /ieia?eii ? ae?ieith i?i ni?eueia
aeeooy aae aei nia?o? c iaoith noai?aiiy n?i’? e i?iaeiaaeaiiy
ethaenueeiai ?iaeo; a) oetha ye iiae?oaei? ni?aaeeooy. Oethaiee a?e o
Aaoueiaiuei? anoaiiaethaaany aeey ia?a/aii? 13 ?ie?a, aeey ia?a/aiiai –
18 ?ie?a. I?eieiyany oetha c? nia?oth iaeiiai c iiae?oaeaey /e
?iceo/aiiyi. Ae??oaiiy ni?aa caeiiiino? oetha?a ? io?oe?eieo ?iceo/aiue,
a oaeiae ieoaiiy a??e ? ii?ae? iaeaaeaee aei eiiiaoaioe?? oea?eiaieo
noae?a. Iaeiae ieoaiiy i?i iaeiia? nii?e ?iceo/aieo ae??ooaaee i?noeaa?
noaeia? onoaiiae.

Aeena?oaioii anoaiiaeaii, ui aaeiaa /e aae?aaoeue iaee i?aai oeeanoe
iiaee oetha, iaeiae iaiao?aeii aoei aeio?eioaaoeny o?ao?iiai no?ieo –
oanoe i?nyoe?a i?ney nia?o? ae?iee /e /ieia?ea. Oaea iaiaaeaiiy aoei
aeyaeaiiyi iiaaae aei iai’yo? iiia?eiai. ?iceo/ai? oaeiae iaee i?aai
anooieoe a iiaee oetha eeoa /a?ac o?noue i?nyoe?a. Ii?ooaiiy
oanoei?ny/iiai no?ieo a iaio aeiaaeeao ia?aaeaa/aei ao?aoo aaeiaith
a?ia, a aae?aoeai – caienaiiai eiio iiia?eith ae?oaeeiith iinaao aai
?ioiai iaeia.

C’yniaaii, ui a?aeiineie iiae?oaeaey iaee iniaenoee ? iaeiiaee oa?aeoa?.
Iniaeno? a?aeiineie i?ae /ieia?eii oa ae?oaeeiith a?oiooaaeeny ia oiio,
ui, oeeaaoe oetha, ae?oaeeia i?aeiaaeaea i?ae aeaaeo /ieia?ea ye aeaae
n?i’?. Aiia i?eae?aea eiai i??caeua e ei?enooaaeany iioaiith, yea
iaeaaeaea /ieia?eia? c iaeyaeo ia eiai nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua, neoaeao
aai caiyooy ca eiai aeeooy /e i?ney eiai nia?o?.

?iaeoa neeaaeaeeny iaeiia? a?aeiineie iiae?oaeaey. Iaeii, yea aeae?eyee
aaoueee aei/oe?, aeaeath/e ?? cai?ae, iaceaaeiny iinaaii, aai i?eaeaiei,
a iaeii, i?eianaia /ieia?eii, – a?iii. Iinaa neeaaeaany c ?ooiieo ?a/ae,
ui iiae?eyeeny ia aea? a?oie. Ia?oo a?oio noaiiaeee i’youe i?aaeiao?a:
a?io?, cieioi, n??aei, ia?ee ? aei?iaioe?iia eai?iiy. Ae?oaa a?oia – oea
ae?ii/ee iaeya, a?eecia, eii? oa ?io? ?ooii? ?a/?. A?ii – oea o?aoeia
ia?ooiiiai iaeia, yeei caaacia/oaaany iinaa ae?oaeeie. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy
??aiiaa?oino? iinaao ? a?ia i?iaiaeeee ioe?ieo iinaao ca o/anoth
a?aeiia?aeieo niaoe?ae?no?a.

Cia/ia oaaaa a aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaia aiae?co iniaenoeo ? iaeiiaeo
a?aeiinei i?ae aaoueeaie oa ae?oueie, ii?eoiaie e i?aeii?/ieie,
oneiiaeoaeyie ? oneiiaeaieie. Ca Eiaeaenii, ae?oae iiae?eyee ia oeo, ui
ia?iaeeeeny o caeiiiiio oetha? ? iica oethaii. Ae?oe, ia?iaeaeai? o
caeiiiiio oetha?, iaee onth iiaiioo i?aa, anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii aeey
caeiiiiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae, ?io? ae?oe aoee iicaaaeai? oaeeo i?aa.
Eiaeaen oaeiae iiae?eya iaoethaieo ae?oae ia aea? a?oie: ia “aaiea?o?a”,
eio?? ia?iaeeeeny a?ae /ieia?ea ? ae?iee, ye? ia aoee iia’ycai? i?ae
niaith oethaii, oa ia ae?oae, ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae iaiae?oaeaieo /ieia?ea e
ae?iee, i?ioa ye? caiaeii oeeaee oetha ?, e??i i?eaeeoeo ae?oae aei
iae?oaeaiiy, ia?iaeeee oethaieo ae?oae.

I?inoaaeaii, ui iniaeno? e iaeiia? a?aeiineie i?ae aaoueeaie oa
ae?oueie, a?aeiia?aeii aei Eiaeaeno, ?aaoethaaeeny ia i?aenoaa?
caaaeueiiai i?aaeea, a naia: neie, iiee ia aeinyaee iiaiie?ooy e ia aoee
aeae?eai? aaoueeaie, ? aei/ee, iiee ia iae?oaeoaaeenue, ia?aaoaaee i?ae
aaouee?anueeith aeaaeith e ia oo?eiaii? oa aeoiaaii? aaouee?a. Ca
Eiaeaenii, aeaaea aaouee?a iaae ae?oueie aecia/aeany oaeeie i?aaaie:
a) a ?ac? iaiao?aeii? iio?aae, cie?aia i?ae /an aieiaeo aai eeoa, ye?
i?ecaiaeeee aei ao?aoe n?iaeiiai iaeia, aaoueee iaee i?aai iaaeae?eaieo
nei?a ? aei/ie a?aeaeaoe o iaeie aai aeaoe a canoaao ia neoaeao
o?enoeyieiia?; a) aaoueee ia ianee a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia?aae noaeii ca
nea?aaie /e iiciaaie nai?o ae?oae; a) iaeii, iaaooa ae?oueie i?ae /an
ni?eueiiai aeeooy c aaoueeaie, caeeoaeiny i?ae aeaaeith aaouee?a;
a) ae?oe iaee i?aai aenooiaoe a noae? o?eueee o ni?aaao, aei?o/aieo
aaoueeaie; ae) niaaeueia, yeo iaea?aeoaaee ae?oe, a oaeiae iaeii, yea
aiie naiino?eii iaaoaaee caeiiiei oeyoii, o aeiaaeeo ?o nia?o?
ia?aoiaeeei aei aaouee?a.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iaeiiaeo a?aeiinei aaouee?a oa ae?oae iaa
?inoeooo “aeae?eo” aaoueeaie nei?a ia “na?e oe?a”. Ca?aeii c Eiaeaenii,
oaeee aeae?e iieyaaa o oiio, ui aaoueee, aeae?eyth/e nei?a, aeaaaee ?i
ca naiai aeeooy /anoeio iaeia c oei, uia aiie noai?eee aeanio n?i’th,
nai? naaa oo?eioaaee ? aeiaeieo i?aoaic?e ia niaaeueio i?ney ?o nia?o?
ia iaee iaa?oue oiae?, eiee a iaea?aeaee iaioo /anoeo, i?ae i?ney nia?o?
aaouee?a ae?noaee a iaaeae?eai? neie. Aeae?e ae?oae i?iaiaeeee o
i?enooiino? na?aee?a ? caienoaaee eiai aei o?yaeiaeo eiea ?acii c
ienueiiaei ciaia’ycaiiyi ae?oae ia aeiaaaoe i?ney nia?o? aaouee?a
a?eueoa, i?ae iaea?aeaee ca aeeooy.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aea/aiiy n?iaeiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie,
a?aaoeueiaaiiai o Eiaeaen?, aeiiiiaaa? aeyaeoe nooi?noue no/aniiai
n?iaeiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie, ni?ey? aeeaoiio ?icoi?iith eiai i?ecia/aiiy a
noni?eueiiio aeeoo?.

O ?icae?e? VI “Niaaeeiaa i?aai” ?icaeyiooi ii?yaeie ia?aoiaeo iaeia
(oeea?eueieo i?aa ? iaia’yce?a) iiia?eiai aei niaaeei?ioe?a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a Eiaeaen? ia?aaeaa/aii aea? i?aenoaae niaaeeoaaiiy: ca
caiia?oii oa ca caeiiii, iaeiae ia?aaaao a?aeaeaaaee niaaeeoaaiith ca
caiia?oii. Cacia/aii, ui ca Eiaeaenii oanoaiaio (eao.testamentum
-caiia?o), aai aeooiaiee caien, – oea aeia?ia?eueia ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, aai
caiia?oia iinoaiiaa, aai na?aeioeoai c aeanii? aie? ia aeiaaeie nia?o?
i?i oa, ye aac caeaeo nii??a, naa?ie ? iaiaaeno? iiaea aooe ?icae?eaii
i?ney nia?o? caiia?aea/a eiai iaeii i?ae cacia/aieie a oanoaiaio?
iniaaie aai onoaiiaaie. Oanoaiaio neeaaeaee o ienueiia?e oi?i?.
Ia?aaenia?oi? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, ye? noia?a/eee caaaeueiiia?iaeiei i?aaai,
aeia?ei cae/ayi, nia?no? ? i?enoieiino?, ia iaee th?eaee/ii? neee.

Aeena?oaioii anoaiiaeaii, ui a Aaoueiaiuei? i?aai neeaaeaoe caiia?o c
i?eaiaeo aeaniiai iaeia ia aeiaaeie nia?o? iaeaaeaei eiaei?e
iiaiii?aai?e ethaeei?, yea aieiae?ea oeea?eueiith i?aaicaeaoi?noth ?
ae??caeaoi?noth. Ca?aeii c Eiaeaenii, o neeaaeaii? caiia?oo iaaiith
i??ith iaiaaeoaaeeny: iniae, yeeo aaaaeaee iaae??caeaoieie (cie?aia,
iaiiaiie?oi?, ineo?/ii oai??, ia?iio?aoieee, aeoo?, i?i?, ne?i? a?ae
ia?iaeaeaiiy); canoaeaeai? ca cei/eie ia nia?oue, c iicaaaeaiiyi i?aa
aai iaieioai? (iioae?eiaai?) aac/anieie; iie?oe/i? cei/eioe?, ye? ao?eee
ca ei?aeii; iaa?eueieee oa iniae, a?aeaeai? aei noaeo i?ae canoaao /e
i?ae naeaano?, iiiaoe, ye? ia?aee /a?ia/ee /ei .

Aeyaeaii, ui Eiaeaen iicaaaeya i?aaa niaaeeoaaiiy oaeeo in?a: ?a?a?a,
a?aenooiiee?a a?ae o?enoeyinueei? a??e; ia?iio?aoiee?a, i’yieoeue,
iicaoethaieo ae?oae (aaiea?o?a); aei/ie, ye? aeoiaeeee cai?ae aac caiaee
aaouee?a, a i?ney ?o nia?o? – aac caiaee a?ao?a aai ?ioeo aeecueeeo
?iaee/?a. Aaoi? iaaieioo?, ui Eiaeaen ia?aaeaa/aa aeaa niiniae
oeeaaeaiiy caiia?oo: cae/aeiee ? iacae/aeiee, ye? aa?aiooaaee
?noeii?noue aie? caiia?aea/a ? ii?iaeaeoaaee iaai? i?aaia? iane?aeee.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaii, ui a iniiao niaaeeoaaiiy ca caeiiii
iieeaaeaii e?iaio nii??aeiai?noue i?ae niaaeeiaeaaoeai ? niaaeei?ioeyie.
Ca Eiaeaenii, nii??aeiai?noue – oea ii?aeiaiiy iaei??? iniae c ?ioith, a
?acoeueoao? /iai ia?iaeaeoaaeany iaeia aai a?eueoa in?a. On? iniae, ye?
iiaee noaoe niaaeei?ioeyie ca caeiiii, iiae?eyeeny ia o?e /a?ae:
i?e?iaeia (e?iaia), oiaoi ca ia?iaeaeaiiyi in?a a?ae oeo naieo i?aaee?a;
“oaaaa?nueea” (naiyoeoai) – aeieeaea ye i?ae /ieia?eii ? e?iaieie
?iaee/aie eiai ae?iee, oae ? i?ae ae?oaeeiith oa e?iaieie ?iaee/aie ??
/ieia?ea; aeooiaia (eoi?anoai) – aeieeaea i?ae o?auaiei aaoueeii (eoiii)
? o?auaieeii oa eiai aaoueeaie e eoiaie.

I?aai ia niaaeeoaaiiy ca caeiiii aecia/aeiny ia i?aenoaa? nooiai?a oa
e?i?e. A?aeiia?aeii aei Eiaeaeno, nooi?iue – oea /enei, yea aecia/aei,
iane?eueee aeaia iniaa aoea a?aeaeaeaia o nii??aeiaii? a?ae ?ioi?, i?ae
yeeie noiyei ieoaiiy, iai?eeeaae, a yeiio nooiai? aoee i?aaioee a?ae
ae?aea. A?aeiia?aeue – o /aoaa?oiio, ii?yaeie ?oia a?ae ae?aea: ae?ae,
aaoueei, nei, aioe, i?aaioe. E?i?e aoei o?e: ieaeiy, aei yei? iaeaaeaee
iniae, ui iioiaeeee a?ae ieco?aeiiai ?iaeo ia?iaeaeaiiy – ae?oe, aioee,
i?aaioee /ieia?/i? ? ae?ii/i? noao?; aa?oiy, aei yei? iaeaaeaee iniae,
ui iioiaeeee a?ae aeno?aeieo ia?iaeaeaiue – aaoueei, iaoe, ae?ae, aaaa,
i?aae?ae, i?aaaaa ye ii e?i?? aaoueea, oae ? ii e?i?? iaoa??; a?/ia
e?i?y aeeth/aea ?iaee/?a /ieia?/i? oa ae?ii/i? noao?, iia’ycaieo ia
?aeeiei i?yiei, a e?eueeiia iai?yieie ia?iaeaeaiiyie – a?aoe, nano?e
(iiaii??aei? e iaiiaii??aei?), ?oi? ae?oe, aioee oa ?i. (ia?oa a?/ia
e?i?y), aai aeyaeueee, o?oee oa ?oi? ae?oe, aioee, i?aaioee (ae?oaa
a?/ia e?i?y) ? o.ae.

Aeyaeaii, ui /ieia?e ? ae?oaeeia, ca Eiaeaenii, niaaeeoaaee iaeei i?ney
iaeiiai eeoa oiae?, eiee ia caeeoaeinue ?iaee/?a ye ii i?yi?e, oae ?
a?/i?e e?i?yo. Iaea?aeaia ieie o niaaeueio iaeii niaaeeoaaee i?ney
nia?o? ?oi? ?iaee/? c aeio?eiaiiyi oiai i?aaeea, ui niaaeueia i?ney
/ieia?ea ia?aoiaeeea a eiai ??ae, a i?ney nia?o? ae?oaeeie – a ?? ??ae.

Iaia’yceiaith oiiaith niaaeeoaaiiy Eiaeaen anoaiiaethaaa caeiii?noue
ia?iaeaeaiiy oa noaiiao i?eiaeaaei?noue. Iicaoethai? ae?oe (aaiea?oe),
iicaaaeyeeny i?aaa niaaeeoaaiiy i?e niaaeeoaaii? ca caeiiii. Eiee
iaiae?oaeaiee /ieia?e c iaiae?oaeaiith ae?ieith ia?iaeaeoaaee ae?oae, a
caiaeii ?acii oeeaaeaee oetha ? ia?iaeaeoaaee ?ioeo ae?oae, oi i?ae /an
niaaeeoaaiiy ia?aaaaa iaaeaaaeany caeiiiiia?iaeaeaiei ae?oyi. E??i oiai,
oeeaaeaiee aaoueeii caiia?o iacaeiiiiia?iaeaeai?e aeeoei? aeciaaaany
iaae?eniei, ine?eueee caeiiiiia?iaeaeai? ae?oe ? ooo iaee ia?aaaae.
sseui a ooinue ca aeeooy caeiiii? ae?oaeeie iaa c eioaieith ae?oae,
i?ney nia?o? ae?oaeeie c oe??th eioaieith oeeaa oetha ? a ieo
ia?iaeaeoaaeeny ae?oe, oi aiie aeciaaaeeny aaiea?oaie, ye? ia iaee i?aaa
niaaeueie. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oe? iieiaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i ?nioaaiiy a
Aaoueiaiuei? ia?aaeeoe?a iao??a?oaeueieo a?aeiinei.

O Eiaeaen? iaaaaeaii ae/a?iiee ia?ae?e i?e/ei, ye? aeaaaee i?aai
aaoueeai a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae ae?oae ? iicaaaeyoe ?o niaaeueie. Ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, oea iieiaeaiiy neoaoaaei aeaai?iaei?e iao? – aoiai?caoe??
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o Aaoueiaiuei?. Iecea iieiaeaiue oe??? ii?ie
ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?iaeo? Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.
Cie?aia, i?iiiio?oueny caaaeueia i?aaeei uiaei iniae, yea ooeey?oueny
a?ae iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae niaaeeiaeaaoeaa?, eiee a?i /a?ac iiaaaei?
i?e/eie iio?aao? ??, oaea iniaa iiaea aooe onoiaia a?ae oeueiai i?aaa ca
??oaiiyi noaeo.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. Aiie na?ae/aoue i?i aenieee ?icaeoie aeey naiai
/ano oeea?eueiiai i?aaa o Aaoueiaiuei? ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo. Aiaeii/an
a?aecia/aii aenieee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo o oe?eiio oiai/anii? oe?a?inueei?
th?eni?oaeaioe??. I?aee?aneaii i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oaie.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui ii?yae ?c
iaiao?aei?noth i???ioaoe?? no/aniiai oeea?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ia
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? noaiaea?oe, aaaeeeai oaeiae o aeioe?eueieo iaaeao
a?aooaaoe iiia?aaei?e iaoe?iiaeueiee aeina?ae i?ae /an ae?iaeaiiy iiaiai
oa aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai oeea?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai?
a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

Eoeue/eoeueeee A.N.,A?a/a?aiei I.A.,Aieei ?.E. Oe?a?inueea
th?eni?oaeaioe?y a ia?niiae?yo. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995. -38 n. (2,4
ae?oe. a?e.).

Aieei ?.E. I?e?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae
//Aea?aeaaii-i?aaia? canaaee ca?ieieo nee Aaoueiaiueie (ae?oaa iieiaeia
XVII – ia?oa iieiaeia XVIII no.): Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. – Euea?a, 1997.
– N.5-9 (0,4 ae?oe. a?e.).

Aieei ?. E. I?aaiaa noaiiaeua ianaeaiiy Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743
?ieo. – Euea?a, 1997. – 29 n. (1,2 ae?oe. a?e.) .

Aieei ?. E. I?aai aeaniino? ca Eiaeaenii oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa 1743 ?ieo
// I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?.
Iaoa??aee III ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. – Euea?a, 1997. –
N.129-131 (0,3 ae?oe. a?e.).

Aieei ?. E. Ciaia’ycaeueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie ca “I?aaaie , ca yeeie
noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae” 1743 ?ieo. – Euea?a.: Na?o, 1998. -52
n. (2,73 ae?oe. a?e.)

Aieei ?. E. Aeiaia??ia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie ca “I?aaaie, ca yeeie
noaeeoueny iaei?in?enueeee ia?iae” 1743 ?ieo // I?aai Oe?a?ie. – 1998. –
?5. – N. 98-100 (0,3 ae?oe. a?e.).

Aieei ?. I?i oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo //
I?aai Oe?a?ie. – 1999. – ?3. – N.88-90 (0,3 ae?oe.a?e.).

Aiioaoe?y

Aieei ?.E. Oeea?eueia i?aai Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue. – Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea. Euea?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo oa i?aeoeea eiai
canoinoaaiiy. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aiae?co oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo
?inoeooo?a, cae??ieaieo o Eiaeaen?. I?iaiae?ciaai? noaeia? ni?aae,
cie?aia oeea?euei? uiaei eiai canoinoaaiiy, aeei?enoaia niaoe?aeueia oa
?ioa iiiia?ao?/ia e?oa?aoo?a.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aenieee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo aeey naiai /ano
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Aaoueiaiueie ca Eiaeaenii 1743 ?ieo oa aeai? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo caeiiioai?aiiy
Aaoueiaiueie aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai oeea?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aaoueiaiueia, eiaeeo?eaoe?y, cae/a?aa i?aai, oeea?eueia
i?aai Aaoueiaiueie.

Annotation

Boyko I.J. Civil Law of Hetmanschyna according to the Code of 1743. –
Manuscript.

Dissertation for receiving candidate of judicial science degree in
scecialization 12.00.01 – theory and history of state and law, history
of political thoughts and legal science. – Lviv Ivan Franko University.
Lviv, 1999.

Dissertation deals with the problem of founding and development of civil
law of Hetmanschyna according to the Code of 1743 and relevant case law.
The author pays attention to the civil institutes which were prescribed
by the Code and analyses some of the court cases of this historical
period on the basis of special literature and monographs.

The author draws a conclusion about the high level of development of
civil law of Hetmanschyna according to the Code of 1743 for its
historical period and renders a scientifically proved recommendations
for the use of legislative experience of Hetmanschynafor improving the
level of today’s civil law of Ukraine.

Key words: Hetmanschyna, codification, customary law, civil law of
Hetmanschyna.

Aiiioaoeey

Aieei E.E. A?aaeaeaineia i?aai Aaoiaiueiu ii Eiaeaeno 1743 aiaea. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01. – oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa;
enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. – Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei. Eueaia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa ii Eiaeaeno 1743 aiaea, a oaeaea i?aeoeea aai
i?eiaiaiey. A ?aaioa io?aaeaiu iaiauaiey aaoi?a, eanathueany enoi?ee
Eiaeaena 1743 aiaea «I?aaa, ii eioi?ui noaeeony iaei?inneeneee ia?iae»,
auyniaiu i?e/eiu e oneiaey aai ninoaaeaiey. Ia?auaii aieiaiea ia
naiaia?acea Eiaeaena 1743 aiaea. Ouaoaeueii enneaaeiaaiu i?e/eiu
iaooaa?aeaeaiey Eiaeaena: iinoaiaiiua ia?aie/aiey, a ionthaea – iieiay
ioiaia ?onneei naiiaea?aeaaeai aaoiiiiiiai no?iy Aaoiaiueiu, a /anoiinoe
– nianoaaiiie i?aaiaie nenoaiu; iainiiaaiey a Eiaeaena i?aaa ia
iieeoe/aneia naiiii?aaeaeaiea; iaeioi?ia ioee/ea oe?aeineiai i?aaa io
?onneiai; aieaa niaa?oaiiay th?eaee/aneay oaoieea; ionoonoaea iinueie
ia ?onneea enoi/ieee; ?acii?a/eainoue ai acaeyaeao ioiineoaeueii
oeaeaniia?aciinoe ooaa?aeaeaiey Eiaeaena n?aaee aaia?aeueiie noa?oeiu.
Ioia/aii, /oi a?aaeaeaineia i?aai Aaoiaiueiu oi?ioee?iaaeinue eae
i?eaaoiia i?aai ioiineoaeueii «aieueiuo ethaeae» e eo iauaaeeiaiea, /oi
niioaaonoaiaaei ?acaeoeth yeiiiie/aneeo (?uii/iuo) ioiioaiee XVII–XVIII
aa. A Eiaeaena auee ?acaeou oaeea i?aaiaua einoeooou, eae «aeiaiai?»,
«eiio?aeo», «iaycaoaeuenoai», «caeeaae». Iieacaii, /oi iniiaiua
einoeooou a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa Aaoiaiueiu ?aca?aie/eaaeenue
ioiineoaeueii iaiaeaeoiie nenoaiu: iauay e niaoeeaeueiay /anoe.

A ?aaioa i?iaaae?i n?aaieoaeueii-i?aaiaie aiaeec iniaaiiinoae oaeeo
einoeoooia a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa Aaoiaiueiu, eae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e
i?aaa aeaaeaiey. Iieacaia nouiinoue iaycaoaeueiiai i?aaa,
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iaeioi?ua aeaeu iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi, ii Eiaeaeno, iaycaoaeuenoai – yoi i?aai
ia eiouanoai eeoea, eioi?ia ia eniieieei aeiaiai? eee i?e/eieei oua?a.
Iieacaii, /oi niioaaonoaaiii Eiaeaeno aeiaiai?u auee iniiaiie i?aaiaie
oi?iie, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie inouanoaeyeenue oiaa?iiai?io e oicyenoaaiiay
aeeciue Aaoiaiueiu.

I?iaaaeai i?aaiaie aiaeec naiaeiiai i?aaa n oai, /oia ii?aaeaeeoue
iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee a?a/ii-naiaeiuo ioiioaiee
enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi Eiaeaen eniieueciaae oa?iei
«a?ae» a aeaoo cia/aieyo: a) a?ae eae ii?aaeaeaiiue caeiiii e iniiaai ia
aeia?iaieueiii niaeanee iaaeaeo ioaeai e aeaiie i niaianoiie aeecie aei
nia?oe n oeaeueth nicaeaiey naiuee e i?iaeieaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea;
a) a?ae eae noi?oaeaneia niaeeoaeuenoai. A?a/iue aic?ano a Aaoiaiueia
onoaiaaeeaaeny aeey aeaaooae – 13 eao, aeey thiioae – 18 eao. ?aoaiea
aeae caeiiiinoe a?aeia e ioeoeeaeueiuo ?acaiaeia, a oaeaea aii?inu aa?u
e ii?aee aoiaeeee a eiiiaoaioeeth oea?eiaiuo noaeia.

Auyaeaii nouiinoue ianeaaenoaaiiiai i?aaa Aaoiaiueiu e i?iaiaeece?iaaii
aai i?eiaiaiea. Ioia/aii, /oi, ii Eiaeaeno, oanoaiaio (caaauaiea) – yoi
aeia?iaieueiia ?anii?yaeaiea eee caaauaoaeueiia iinoaiiaeaiea, eee
naeaeaoaeuenoai ii nianoaaiiie aiea ia neo/ae nia?oe caaauaoaey i oii,
eae aac eeoieo nii?ia, nni? e iaiaaenoe iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeaii iinea
nia?oe caaauaoaey aai eiouanoai iaaeaeo ii?aaeaeaiiuie eeoeaie e
i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea ia?auaii ia aiaeec a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ii?i
Eiaeaena ioiineoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiey oeia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a Aaoiaiueia. Enneaaeiaaiiua ?acoeueoaou aiaeeca
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ii?i iicaieeee naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi a
Eiaeaena aue iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue niaoeeaeueii?ac?aoaiiue oei
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a Aaoiaiueia a
?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae ioiineoaeueii eeoe (iaaieueieeia), eioi?ua eiaee
ia?aie/aiiua a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa.

A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeece?iaaii aieaa 70 aeae Oeaio?aeueiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai enoi?e/aneiai a?oeaa Oe?aeiu a a. Eeaaa, eioi?ua
aiauatho ?acee/iue iaoa?eae ia i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie a
Aaoiaiueia, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo, noaeii?iecaiaenoaa,
/oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue ?aeiino?oe?iaaoue a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua
ioiioaiey, eniieueciaaoue ?aciua aeiaiai?a, caaauaiey e eiie oaeoe/aneee
iaoa?eae, eioi?ue nio?aiyaony a yoii a?oeaa. Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaiiuo
a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia aia?aua aaaaeaii a iao/iue iai?io.

Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi no?oeoo?a, niaea?aeaiea e einoeooou a?aaeaeaineiai
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I?iaiaeece?iaaiiue iaoa?eae aeae aiciiaeiinoue iieacaoue, /oi
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Naeaeaii auaiae i aunieii o?iaia ?acaeoey aeey naiaai a?aiaie
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Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aaoiaiueia, eiaeeoeeaoeey, iau/iia i?aai, a?aaeaeaineia
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I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 18.03.1999?. Oi?iao 60 o 90/16.

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