Iaoe?iiaeueia aaaionoai c ieoaiue ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? i?e

I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie

Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo

?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e

AI?IAAEUe ?iiai Aioiiiae/

OAeE 681.325

OeEO?IAA IA?IAEA CIA?AAEAIUe IA INIIA?

OAI??? EIIO?ANOIINO?

05.13.06- Aaoiiaoeciaai? nenoaie

oi?aae?iiy oa i?ia?aneai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?i. A.A.Ea?iaiea IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iiiia Aiaaeai Ieaenaiae?iae/, O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. A.A.
Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee ae?y/
iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie NAAINII Ieaen?e Ieeieaeiae/, Euea?anueeee oeaio?
?inoeoooo eini?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie
? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai eini?/iiai aaaionoaa Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? N??IAeAEA ?ai? Ai?eniae/, Aea?aeaaiee
aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.?. AEoeianueeiai “OA?”, i. Oa?e?a,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? IAIAeC?E Aiaaeai Aiae??eiae/,
Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo e?aa?iaoeee ?i. A.I. Aeooeiaa IAI

Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e ea?oth/eo iaoei

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_15__” _eeiiy 1999 ?. i _13-30 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.35.813.01 i?e Aea?aeaaiiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e (290601, i.
Euea?a, aoe. Iaoeiaa, 5a)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo (290601,
i. Euea?a, aoe. Iaoeiaa, 5a).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee __14_ _/a?aiy _ 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe Aoiue ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O aaaaoueio aaeocyo iaoee, oaoi?ee, iaaeeoeeie
iniiaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue iinooia? o aeaeyae?
cia?aaeaiue — aeaiaei??ieo i?iaeoe?e i?inoi?iaeo noeai, ye?
niinoa??aathoueny. Aeey ia?iaee ? aiae?co oaei? ?ioi?iaoe?? iaiao?aeii
caaacia/eoe aenieo a?coaeueio ye?noue cia?aaeaiiy, yea ao?a/a?oueny
/a?ac iacaaeia?euei? oiiae ?? io?eiaiiy, iaaeineiiaeino? cia?aaeath/eo
nenoai /e nenoai ia?aaea/? a?aeai?ioi?iaoe??, iiyao ??ciiai ?iaeo caaaae
? niioai?aiue. Oea coiiaeth? i?eeiyooy iaa?aeiia?aeieo ??oaiue i?e
aiae?c? oaeeo aeaieo.

Cia?aaeaiiy iathoue ??cio o?ce/io i?e?iaeo. ?o ia? ni?eeiaoe
ethaeeia-iia?aoi? /e aaoiiao. Oiio aaaeeeaith ? iayai?noue iiaeeeaino?
aaeaiooaaoe ia?iaeo cia?aaeaiiy aei eiie?aoiiai ei?enooaa/a, oiaoi aei
aocueei? caaea/?, yeo ?ica’yco? niiaeeaa/ ?ioi?iaoe??. *anoi
iaaeinoaoiuei i?aaenoaaeoe niinoa??aa/o ia’?eo ca aeiiiiiaith
?aeaaeueii? cia?aaeath/i? nenoaie. Iio??ai? caniae io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??
i?e neo?ioeueiciiio aiae?c? cia?aaeaiiy c iaoith iiooeo oa
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia’?eo?a, aecia/aiiy ??ciiai ?iaeo e?euee?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oa ?i.

?icaeioo? o aeai?e ?iaio? iia? i?aeoiaee aei iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a
oeeo?iai? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue aacothoueny ia aei?iaeo aaaaoueio o/aieo,
ui ?ic?iaeyee oai?aoe/i? oa i?eeeaaei? iniiae ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue,
?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a, iiaoaeiae ?ici?ciaaaeueieo aaoiiao?a, nenoai
oeeo?iai? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue. Na?aae ieo: A. Aeaenaiae?ia, ?. Aaeon, A.
Aaneeaiei, A. Aaneeue?a, O. A?ioethe, A. A?oo?o, A. A?iaeueoa?a,
?.Aiinaean, A. A?eoeee, ?. Ao?aae/, A. Aeaeaei, Ae. Aeaienia, A.
Aiae?thn, TH. AEo?aaeueia, I. ?aaoiaiei, A. Eaoen, I. Ee?e/aiei, Ae.
Eaaaae?a, Ae. Ia??, I.Ie?ioieeia, N. I??ioie/aiei, ?. Io/iee, A.
Ianoa?oe, ?. I/?i, O. Iaae?ae?n, N.Iaeca?, O. Iaeaa, ?. I?oan, O. I?aoo,
?. Iooyoei, A. ?icaioaeueae, I.Naainii, ?. N??iaeaea, O. Noieoai, Aeae.
Oo, A. Oi?, O. O?ae, E. Oo, A. Oiee, O. Ooaia, ?.Oeoeea?iai, I.
Oeac?iaa?, E. ss?ineaanueeee oa ?i.

Iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy ?aaeueiiai /ano, iaae?eiino? oa
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiino? nooo?ai oneeaaeiththoue iiaoaeiao
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo nenoai ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue aac a?aooaaiiy
?icia?aeaethaaiiy ? aaoiiaoecaoe?? ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??. Iia’ycaii oea c
oei, ui a?aeii? i?aeoiaee ye i?aaeei aeai?eoi?/ii neeaaei?, a?ii?caee?,
aeiaaathoue ae?aeiaiai? ia?iaee. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeiaeaoeiaeo
/aniaeo oa aia?aoo?ieo cao?ao.

Oiio aeooaeueiith ? ?ic?iaea iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei oeeo?iai? ia?iaee
iai?aoiiiaeo iiiio?iiieo cia?aaeaiue, yea aaco?oueny ia iniiaao oai???
eiio?anoiino?. Aaeaea i?e ni?eeiyoo? cia?aaeaiiy e?euee?niith ioe?ieith
?aaeoe?? ci?iai? nenoaie ia aaee/eio na?oeiaiai caoaeaeaiiy ? eiai
eiio?ano — eieaeueiee ? ocaaaeueiaiee. Oiio eia?/ii aeei?enoaoe oe?
e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee cia?aaeaiiy ye iniiao aeey iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a
ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o a?coaeueii? yeino? oa
ioe?iee, iacaeaaeii? a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai ni?eeiyooy. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe ni?eueio oai?aoe/io iniiao iiaoaeiae ??cieo eean?a
iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o a?coaeueii?
yeino? ? noai?thaaoe caaaeyee oeueiio iia? nenoaie oaeaeei? ia?iaee
cia?aaeaiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie oa oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue a ?aieao aea?aeathaeaeaoieo oai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
iaoe Oe?a?ie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a ioe?iee i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo
caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue o ae?iaao ia iniia? ia?oeioth/eo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi oeueo?acaoeiai?
ia/enethaaeueii? oiiia?ao??, iae?i?eii? aeonoeee oa aaoiiaoeciaaii?
ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??” (1991-1993, Iinoaiiaa I?aceae?? AI Oe?a?ie ?1 a?ae
22.01.91); “?ic?iaea ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa i?ia?aiii-i???ioiaaieo
cania?a ia?iaee aeaieo aeey ae?aaiinoeee ? ioe?iee noai?a na?aaeiaeu a
?aaeueiiio /an?” (1994 — 1996, Iinoaiiaa I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?8 a?ae
22.02.94), “?ic?iaea iaoiae?a oa aeai?eoi?a i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iioe/ieo
cia?aaeaiue noiniaii aei caaea/ ae?aaiinoeee iaoa??ae?a oa aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e” (1997 — 1998, Iinoaiiaa I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?8 a?ae
13.05.97); aea?aeaaiiai eiio?aeoo ?9/94 a?ae 08.08.94 “?ic?iaea
iaoiae?a, aeai?eoi?a, i?ia?ai ? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey
aeaoeo?oaaeueii? oa oaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue, ui oi?iothoueny i?e
aeenoaioe?eiiio ciiaeoaaii? Caie? c eini?/ieo aia?ao?a” c AeIAI “I?a?oa”
(1994) oa ?yaeo ?ioeo oai.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
iniia oeeo?iai? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue, yea aaco?oueny ia oai???
eiio?anoiino? ye cania? aecia/aiiy iacaeaaeii? a?ae ni?eeiyooy
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo ? oa?aeoa?enoee cia?aaeaiiy a
oe?eiio oa noai?aiiy ia oe?e iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ?
oaoi?/ieo cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiue a
?aaeueiiio ianooaa? /ano.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ?ica`ycothoueny oae? caaea/?:

( ?ic?iaea iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy e?euee?nii? i??e
eiio?anoiino? aeaio aeaiaio?a cia?aaeaiue, ui ia? aeanoeaino? a?aenoai?
iao?e/iiai i?inoi?o, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??aiii?aaiei aoiaeaeaiiyi
aeaiaio?a ? neiao?e/ieie aeanoeainoyie oa?aeoa?o ci?ie;

( ?ic?iaea iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo
cia?aaeaiiy a oe?eiio, ui ia caeaaeeoue a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai ni?eeiyooy;

( anoaiiaeaiiy ni?eueii? iniiae iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy
a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiue, ui ia?iaeythoueny a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano?,
aeey noai?aiiy oeyo?a ?o neioaco;

( iiaoaeiaa iiaiai eeano iaoiae?a ?icoyao ae?aiaciio yne?aainoae
cia?aaeaiue, ui aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe a?coaeueio ye?noue cia?aaeaiiy
/a?ac aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo iciae ?iciiae?eo a?noia?aie cia?aaeaiiy
i?e eoneiai-e?i?eiiio oa eoneiai-iae?i?eiiio ia?aoai?aii? a?aaeaoe?e;

( iiaoaeiaa iaoiae?a a?noia?aiieo ia?aoai?aiue cia?aaeaiue;

( iiaoaeiaa iaoiaeo caaaeaieo ?aiaiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ui caaacia/o?
i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiue caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith
eeaneo?eaoe?? ia’?eo?a ca ?o eiio?anoii ? oeiii e?eaecie;

( iiaoaeiaa iiaiai eeano iaoiae?a ia??ceiai ianeoaaiiy, ye? ni?eythoue
i?aeaeuaiith yeino? cia?aaeaiue /a?ac iae?i?eia ia?aoai?aiiy oiiiai?
neeaaeiai? oa aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo yaea? aecia/aiiy eiio?anoo aeaiaio?a
cia?aaeaiiy;

( noai?aiiy iiaiai eeano iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a,
ye? caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiue /a?ac
a?aooaaiiy eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a aeaio aeaiaio?a /ei ni?eythoue a?eueo
iiaiiio iieno eieaeueii? no?oeoo?e ao?aeiiai cia?aaeaiiy;

( ?ic?iaea aeai?eoi?/ieo cania?a, i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a,
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai ? niaoe?aeueieo i?eno?i?a c
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeai?noth oa oaeaeeiae??th ia?iaee aeey i?eeeaaeieo
nenoai ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeoiaey/e c aeeiiaieo
oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue caii/aoeiaaii iiaee
iaoeiaee iai?yiie – oeeo?iaa ia?iaea cia?aaeaiue ia iniia? oai???
eiio?anoiino?, ui iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a c
aeanoeainoyie a?aenoai? iao?e/iiai i?inoi?o ye aeey iacaeaaeii? a?ae
noa’?eoeaiiai ni?eeiyooy e?euee?nii? ioe?iee oa?aeoa?enoee cia?aaeaiue
??cii? o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee oae ? aeey iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a ia?iaee c iaoith
iie?ioaiiy ?o a?coaeueii? yeino?.

A ?aieao oeueiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo io?eiaii oae? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe:

( aaaaeaii iiiyooy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo, yeee ia? aeanoeaino? a?aenoai?
iao?e/iiai i?inoi?o, ui aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy
ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo nthaeaoiiai cia?aaeaiiy ye eiai e?euee?nii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, iacaeaaeii? a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai ni?eeiyooy;

( anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e noaoenoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo ocaaaeueiaiee eiio?ano
io?eiaiiai cia?aaeaiiy ia caeaaeeoue a?ae nthaeaoo ia?aoai?aiiai
cia?aaeaiiy, eiai eiio?anoo oa a?noia?aie, a ? oa?aeoa?enoeeith oeueiai
ia?aoai?aiiy;

( anoaiiaeaii e?i?eio caeaaei?noue i?ae eieaeueiei eiio?anoii i?e eiai
e?i?eiiio iien? oa eaiean?aiii, yea aeicaieeea iieacaoe, ui eieaeueiee
eiio?ano i?e eiai e?i?eiiio iien? ? iniiaith iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a
i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiue;

( iiaoaeiaaii ocaaaeueiai? iaoiaee aeiaaeueiiai oa eiaciiai ?icoyao
ae?aiaciio yne?aainoae cia?aaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi aeiaeaoeiaiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ia?aiao?a, ui caaacia/othoue ea?iaai?noue oiiaaie
i?aeneeaiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo;

( ?ic?iaeaii ocaaaeueiai? iaoiaee a?noia?aiieo ia?aoai?aiue, ye?
aacothoueny ia iae?i?eieo ? eoneiai-iae?i?eieo ia?aoai?aiiyo eiiiiiaio
a?noia?aie oa eoioeyoeaii? a?noia?aie, a oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiee iaoiae
eiacieo caaaeaieo ?aiaiaeo ia?aoai?aiue c eeaneo?eaoe??th ia’?eo?a ca ?o
eiio?anoii oa oeiii e?eaecie, ui caaacia/o? i?aeneeaiiy eieaeueiiai
eiio?anoo oiieino?oeoo?ieo ia’?eo?a;

( ?ic?iaeaii iia? eeane ??cieoeaaeo iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
cia?aaeaiue, ui aacothoueny ia yae?ao aecia/aiiy eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a
aeey oi?ioaaiiy aeaoaeueieo neeaaeiaeo oa ?o eieaeueii-aaeaioeaiiai
i?aeneeaiiy c iae?i?eiei ia?aoai?aiiyi oiiiai? neeaaeiai?;

( iiaoaeiaaii iia? eeane iaoiae?a iae?i?eiiai ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueiiai
eiio?anoo, ui coiiaeai? ??cieie i?aeoiaeaie aei aecia/aiiy eieaeueieo
eiio?anoo oa ??aiy aaeaioaoe??;

( cai?iiiiiaaii oa iaa?oioiaaii niin?a e?euee?nii? ioe?iee a?coaeueii?
yeino? iiiio?iiieo iai?aoiiiaeo cia?aaeaiue;

( iiaoaeiaaii iaeiii?io?aei? iaoiaee iae?i?eii? ei?aeoe?? a?ia?ieo
cia?aaeaiue, ui oi?iothoueny i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaieie nenoaiaie ia?iaee
oeueo?acaoeiaeo cia?aaeaiue;

( ?ic?iaeaii niaoe?ae?ciaai? i?ioeani?e ia?aoai?aiiy oaeaa?c?eieo
cia?aaeaiue a ?aaeueiiio /an? oa eiiaa??i? aeai?eoie aeae?eaiiy
ii?yaeeiaeo noaoenoee, iia? i?ia?aii? i?iaeoeoe aeey ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue
??cii? o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo cia?aaeaiiy aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?? ye iaeio c iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo caaaeueii? ioe?iee
a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiiy, ui ia caeaaeeoue a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai
ni?eeiyooy. Oea aea? ciiao i?iaiaeeoe e?euee?nia ii??aiyiiy aoaeoeaiino?
??cieo iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue.

Iaoaiaoe/ia caaacia/aiiy, yea ?ic?iaeaia aeey eeano a?noia?aiieo
ia?aoai?aiue, aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ?o oi/i?noue /a?ac ciaioaiiy aieeao
ie?oaeaiue oa ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? a?aaeaoe?e, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny o
ia?aoai?aiiio cia?aaeaii?.

Eiaci? iaoiaee ?icoyao caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith aeiaeaoeiaiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ia?aiao?a, ui oa?aeoa?eco? eieaeueiee ie?e cia?aaeaiiy,
caaacia/othoue e?auo ea?iaai?noue i?aeneeaiiyi aeaoaeueiino?
cia?aaeaiiy. Eiaci? ae caaaeai? ?aiaia? ia?aoai?aiiy caaaeyee
eeaneo?eaoe?? ia’?eo?a ca oeiii ?o e?eaecie aeicaieeee onoiooe
niioai?aiiy o ia?aoai?aieo cia?aaeaiiyo, ye? coiiaethaaeeny ni?eeiyooyi
an?o ia’?eo?a o?eueee iioeeeie.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
a?coaeueii? yeino? aeicaieeee cai?iiiioaaoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe niin?a
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee yeino? cia?aaeaiiy. A eiai iniia? ? aeei?enoaiiy
ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo oa ioe?iie yeino? ??aiy aaeaioaoe?? ca
yne?aa?noth, ??ceino? ? iiaiioe a?aaeaoe?e yne?aaino?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui ia io?eiai?e iia?e
oai?aoe/i?e iniia? oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoaoao ?ic?iaeaii
iaoaiaoe/ia ? i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy oaeaeei? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue, a
oaeiae i?ioeani?e aeey ?o ia?aoai?aiiy. Oea aeicaieeei iiaoaeoaaoe ?yae
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai (NIN) aeey
i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaii? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue, ye? oni?oii
aeei?enoiaothoueny. Cie?aia, NIN “NENOAIA” oa ”OEUeO?ECAI”
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ia?iaee oeueo?acaoeiaeo cia?aaeaiue, ui
oi?iothoueny i?e oeueo?acaoeiaiio eiio?ie? e?oiiiaaaa?eoieo ae?ia?a c
iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a a EA Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAI «?ne?a»
(i.Ia?i, ?in?y). NIN “EAAe?” aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aaoiiaoeciaaii?
ia?iaee oaeaa?c?eieo cia?aaeaiue i?e ?aioaaioaeaa?c?eieo oa
i?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo no?oeoo? iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a a EA Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAI «?ne?a» (i.Ia?i, ?in?y). NIN
“EAAe?-I”, iniiaith yei? ? eiiieaen i?ia?ai “EIIO?ANO”, canoiniao?oueny
aeey ia?aaeaeaoeo?oaaeueii? ia?iaee einiiaa?ioioia?ao?/ieo cia?aaeaiue,
ui io?eiothoueny i?e aeenoaioe?eiiio ciiaeoaaii? c eini?/ieo ei?aae?a
eeano “N?/-1” a AeIAI «I?a?oa» ( AAO “IAI “I?a?oa”, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)
? AeIAeI “EIIAEN” (i.Euea?a), a oaeiae a AIOE ?i. I.E.Aioiiiaa (i.Ee?a)
aeey ia?iaee ?aioaaiia?ao?/ieo cia?aaeaiue i?e ia?oei?aiiio eiio?ie?
yeino? ae?ia?a ? iaoa??ae?a aa?aoe?eii? oaoi?ee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A ?iaioao iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?
caeiaoaa/o iaeaaeaoue: [15,17] — iaoiaee a?aeiiaeaiiy cia?aaeaiue c
i?aeneeaiei eieaeueiei eiio?anoii; [16,46] — iaoiaee caaaeaieo ?aiaiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue; [18,19,24,30,32,35-40] — iinoaiiaea caaea/?, iaoeiaa
ea??aieoeoai, ?ic?iaeaiiy no?oeoo? nenoai, iiaeaeae, aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a; [20-23,29,31,34,42] — aaoi?e iaee iaeiaeiaee oai?/ee
aei?iaie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe oa
iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii oa iaaiai?aii ia 12 I?aeia?iaeieo, 9
Ananithcieo ? 15 ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (IOE)
oa oeieao-nai?ia?ao: I’yo?e-Nueii?e Ananithcieo oeieao-nai?ia?ao
«?icia?aeaethaaiiy ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??» (Euea?a, 1985, 1987, 1989);
?anioae?eainuee?e IOE «I?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? iaoei ?
nii?oae» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1985); X-OII-e Ananithci?e IOE «Ia?oei?ai?
o?ce/i? iaoiaee oa caniae eiio?ieth» (Euea?a, 1984, Iineaa, 1987,
Naa?aeeianuee, 1990); O?ao?e Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoaiaoe/i?
iaoiaee ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a» (Euea?a, 1987); ?anioae?eainuee?e IOE
«I?eeaaee ? iaoiaee ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth yeino? i?iaeoeoe??»
(Neaanueea, 1987); Ananithci?e IOE «Iaoiaee ? i?e?iaeaeo?iii? caniae
oeeo?iaiai ia?aoai?aiiy ? ia?iaee neaiae?a» SIAP-89 (?eaa, 1989);
Ae?oaiio ?anioae?eainueeiio nai?ia?? «I?iaeaie noai?aiiy nenoai ia?iaee,
aiae?co ? ?ici?ciaaaiiy cia?aaeaiue» (Oaoeaio, 1989); ?anioae?eainuee?e
IOE «Oaeaa?c?ei? iaoiaee ? caniae a iaooe? oa oaoi?oe?» (Oaeai?iae,
1989); oeie?-nai?ia?? «Aaoiiaoecaoe?y iaoiae?a ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth
yeino? caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue» (Neaanueea, 1989); Ananithci?e IOE «Iaoiaee
? caniae i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiino? ? aeinoia??iino? ?acoeueoao?a
oeueo?acaoeiai? aeaoaeoineii?? caa?ieo iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e (Eai?ia?aae,
1989); Iaeeiaaeoeyo?e IOE «I?ia?aneai? iaoiaee ? caniae ia?oei?aiiai
eiio?ieth iai?aoaa?eeao?a, aeaoaeae oa ae?ia?a» (Eoeaeoaa, 1989); O?ao?e
i?aeaaeocaa?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ia?oei?ai? iaoiaee eiio?ieth ae?ia?a c
iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a» (Ooaina, 1989); nai?ia?? «Aaoiiaoeciaai? nenoaie
ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a» (Neaanueea, 1990);
Ia?o?e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e aeey
aiae?co cia?aaeaiue oa ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a ITIAPR’90 (Euea?a, 1990);
Ia?o?e, o?ao?e ? /aoaa?o?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo
«Ia?iaeaiiy neaiae?a ? cia?aaeaiue oa ?ici?caaaiiy ia?ac?a» Oe?IA?AC
(Ee?a, 1992, 1996. 1998); Ia?o?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ? nenoai ?O?N-93 (Euea?a, 1993); IOE
«Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? oa i?eeeaaei? i?iaeaie eini?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue»
(AEeoiie?, 1993); nai?ia?? «Ia?iaea cia?aaeaiue a oeeo?iaeo nenoaiao»
(Ee?a, 1993); nai?ia?? «Eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia??: canoinoaaiiy aei
oaoi?/ieo, eiia?oe?eieo, eaaeano?iaeo, aeaeaaie/eo oa iaa/aeueieo
i?iaeai» (Euea?a, 1994); Ia?o?e Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oaoi?/ia
ae?aaiinoeea ? ia?oei?aiee eiio?ieue a Oe?a?i?» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1994); Ia?o?e-*aoaa?o?e Oe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo c aaoiiaoe/iiai
ea?oaaiiy «Aaoiiaoeea-94»-«Aaoiiaoeea-97» (Ee?a, 1994; Euea?a, 1995;
N?ioa?iiieue, 1996; *a?eane, 1997); Oino?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a a aeaeo?iiaai?oi?e oai??? IIAO’96 (Euea?a, 1996);
*aoaa?oiio Oe?a?inueei-?in?enueei-Eeoaenueeiio neiiic?oi? c eini?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? oaoiieia?e SST-4 (Ee?a, 1996); I?aeia?iaeieo IOE
«I?iaeaie o?ce/ii? ? a?iiaaee/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee» (Ee?a, 1996, 1997, 1998);
Aeaaaeoeyoue ia?o?e Ia?aae? Aano??enueei? anioe?aoe?? c ?ici?ciaaaiiy
ia?ac?a OAGM’97 (Aaeueooao, 1997); Ae?oa?e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
ia/enethaaeueieo iaoiae?a oa iaa?iaieo caaea/ a ia?oei?aiiio eiio?ie? ?
ae?aaiinoeoe? (I?inuee, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 46 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, a oiio /ene? 1 i?ai?eio, 19 noaoae a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 22 ioae?eaoe?? a ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a oa oac
eiioa?aioe?e, io?eiaii 4 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 369 noi??ieao ? i?noeoue 273 noi??iee
iniiaiiai oaenoo oa nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 441 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie ?ic?iaee
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia?iaee iiiio?iiieo
iai?aoiiiaeo cia?aaeaiue c iaoith ci?ie ?o a?coaeueii? yeino? oa
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee ? oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa oa iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaea?oueny aiioaoe?y iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii i?iaeaie, ui iia’ycai? c ci?iaei
ni?eeiyooyi na?oea ieii ethaeeie, oi?ioaaiiyi cia?aaeaiue oa ?o
iaoaiaoe/ieie iiaeaeyie, i?iaaaeaii iaeyae iaoiae?a ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue
c iaoith iie?auaiiy ?o a?coaeueii? yeino?.

:

. (1)

? iino?eiith aaee/eiith. ?ica’ycoth/e i?iaeaio aei??thaaiiy
yne?aaino?, Oaoia? (Fechner G.) o 1858 ?. cai?iiiioaaa aaaaeaoe
iaeeieoeath aeaeeii? yne?aaino? ni?eeiyooy ii?iaiaiai ?ic??ciaiiy i?ae
aeaiia na?oeiaeie iieyie, yea /anoi iaceaathoue eaaeue cai?oiei
?ic??ciaiiyi /e aeeoa?aioe?aeueiei ii?iaii. A?i io?eiaa aiae?oe/iee iien
aecia/aiiy ?aaeoe?? nenoaie ni?eeiyooy o a?aeiia?aeue ia ci?io
caoaeaeaiiy, yeee ua iaceaathoue caeiiii Aaaa?a-Oaoia?a. Ca?aeii c iei
i?e??no ??aiy ci?iaiai a?ae/oooy, ui aecia/a?oueny e?euee?noth ii?ia?a
?ic??ciaiiy, i?iii?oe?eiee eiaa?eoio yne?aaino?:

,
(2)

.

i?iii?oe?eiee ocaaaeueiaiiio eiio?anoo ciai?oi?o na?oeiaeo aieea?a

, (3)

— ia?aiao?, ui oa?aeoa?eco? o?c?ieia?/iee ??aaiue ni?eeiyooy ?aaeoe??.
A?i aeeth/a? caeii Aaaa?a-Oaoia?a ye ia?oa iaaeeaeaiiy. Ine?eueee
e?euee?niith ioe?ieith ?aaeoe?? na?oeiaiai caoaeaeaiiy, coiiaeaiiai
ni?eeiyooyi cia?aaeaiiy, ? eiio?ano, oi oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaee
i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui a?i ? o??th oa?aeoa?enoeeith, yea a?aeia?aaea?
?ioaa?aeueii anth oiieo no?oeoo?o cia?aaeaiiy, ? eiai iiaeia aeei?enoaoe
ye iniiao aeey e?euee?nii? ioe?iee, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ye?noue cia?aaeaiiy.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaeaea o?eaeoeyoe??/ia ?nioaaiiy caeiio
Ianoa?oea-Ii?oe?’?ai? e?eoe/i? caoaaaeaiiy uiaei iueiai ia a?aeii?. Oiio
i?aaenoaaey?oueny ca aeioe?eueia aeei?enoaoe i?eioeei ?aaeoe?? ci?iai?
nenoaie ia aaee/eio yne?aa?niiai noeioea ye iniiao aiae?co cia?aaeaiue
aeey iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a oaeaeei? ci?ie ?o a?coaeueii? yeino? oa
anoaiiaeoe iiaeeea? iiaeae? cia?aaeaiiy, ye? ae aacoaaeeny ia neeaaeiaeo
?aaeoe?? ci?iai? nenoaie ia aaee/eio yne?aa?niiai noeioea aeey iiaoaeiae
aeai?eoi?a oaeaeeiai ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
yeino?. Aeey oeueiai i?iaaaeaii noeneee iaeyae iiaeaeae cia?aaeaiue.
Iieacaii, ui iiaeae? cia?aaeaiue iiae?eythoueny ia aeaa iniiai? eeane –
noaoenoe/i? oa no?oeoo?i?. I?ii?aeieie i?ae oeeie eeanaie ? o?, ui
aeei?enoiaothoue i?aaenoaaeaiiy cia?aaeaiue /a?ac aea? eiiiiiaioe –
i?inoi?iao (iecueei/anoioio, oiiiao) oa oaenoo?io (aeniei/anoioio,
aeaoaeueio) neeaaeia?. I?eeeaaeii oaei? iiaeae? ? ioeueoeie?eaoeaia
iiaeaeue cia?aaeaiiy Noieoaia (Stochem T.). A ?? iniia? eaaeeoue o?ce/ia
oi?ioaaiiy cia?aaeaiiy ye aia?aaoe/iiai neaiaeo. ?ioaineai?noue
na?oeiaiai iioieo ?iceeaaea?oueny ia aea? eiiiiiaioe – ina?oeai?noue oa
a?aeaeaath/o caeaoi?noue.

Oe?eaaa ua aeaieiiiiiaioia aaeeoeaia iiaeaeue ssia-Nae??niia, yea
i?aaenoaaey? cia?aaeaiiy ye noio aeaio iacaeaaeieo eiiiiiaio:
eoneiai-aeaaeei? oiiiai?, ui aecia/a? na?aaei? ??ai? yne?aaino? a
eiaei?e oi/oe? cia?aaeaiiy, ? aeniei/anoioii? oaenoo?ii? eiiiiiaioe, ui
iana ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oaenoo?o ? ae??ai? aeaoae? cia?aaeaiiy, a oaeiae
?? ocaaaeueiaia iiaeaeue *i/?a I.A.

I?aenoiiaoth/e ?icaeyioo? a?aeii? iiaeae? cia?aaeaiue cacia/aii, ui c
oi/ee ci?o ?o canoinoaaiiy aei aeai?eoi?a ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue c iaoith
ia?aoai?aiiy iaea?eueo i?eaeaoi? ? o?, ye? i?ii?aei? i?ae noaoenoe/ieie
oa i?inoi?iaeie, a naia aaeeoeaia oa ioeueoeie?eaoeaia iiaeae?
cia?aaeaiiy. ?o ia?aaaaaie ? ia/enethaaeueia i?inoioa ? iai/i?noue.
Aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth oeeo iiaeaeae ? aeei?enoaiiy ieie i?inoi?iaeo
neeaaeiaeo, yeeie aecia/a?oueny ?aaeoe?y ci?iai? nenoaie ia aaee/eio
yne?aa?niiai noeioea, a naia oiiiai? (ui a?aeiia?aea? ??aith aaeaioaoe??
ca yne?aa?noth ci?iai? nenoaie) oa aeaoaeueii? (ui a?aeia?aaea?
eieae?caoe?th aeaea?ae i?aeneeaiiai yne?aa?niiai noeioea). Oea ?iaeoue
?o iaea?eueo i?eeiyoieie i?e iiaoaeia? iaoiae?a ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue, ui
aeoiaeyoue c iniaeeainoae ni?eeiyooy cia?aaeaiiy ci?iaith nenoaiith
ethaeeie. Oiio aeae? ?icaeyiooi iaoiaee ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue c iaoith
aeae?eaiiy ?o iniiaieo eean?a.

A caaaeueiiio iaoiaee ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue c iaoith ci?ie ?o a?coaeueii?
yeino? ?icae?eythoue ia aeaa eeane. Ia?oee – iaoiaee ia?iaee a /anoioi?e
iaeano?, a ae?oaee – iaoiaee ia?iaee a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano?.

Iaoiaee ia?iaee a /anoioi?e iaeano? aacothoueny ia a?aeiia?aeieo
iiaeaeyo ci?o ethaeeie, iaeoaeeaai?oith c yeeo ? iiaeaeue Noieoaia. Aiia
iieaco?, ui aoaeoeaio ci?io a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiiy iiaeia
i?iaiaeeoe /a?ac ci?io aeaio iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo cia?aaeaiiy –
iecueei/anoioii? (oiiiai?) oa aeniei/anoioii? (aeaoaeueii?), oiaoi c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a e?i?eii? o?eueo?aoe??, yea ae?noaea iacao
aiiiii?oii? o?eueo?aoe??. Oeae i?aeo?ae neeaaeiee, ai aeiaaa? aeeiiaiiy
i?yiiai ? cai?ioiueiai ia?aoai?aiue Oo?’?. I?ioa a?i ? i?eeeaaeii, ui
aeia?a ?ethno?o? nii??aeiai?noue caaea/ ia?iaee cia?aaeaiiy ? eeane/ii?
oai??? ia?iaee neaiae?a, ai naia a i?e e?i?ei?e o?eueo?aoe?? a?aeaaaeaia
iaea?eueoa ?ieue. Ii?yae c iioeiaeueiith ocaiaeaeoth/ith o?eueo?aoe??th
aeei?enoiaothoue ua iaa?iai? (?iaa?ni?) o?eueo?e. ? oaeiae oe?eee eean
iaoiae?a, iia’ycaieo c i?aeaeuaiiyi yeino? cia?aaeaiue oeyoii ?o
a?aeiiaeaiiy /a?ac ?ica’ycie iaa?iaieo caaea/. Oe? iaoiaee a?aeiiaeaiiy
cia?aaeaiue ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith a?eueo oe?iei? i?iaeaie ?ica’yceo
iaei?aeoieo caaea/ a?aeiiaeaiiy cia?aaeaiue, aeeth/ath/e ?aeiino?oeoe?th
cia?aaeaiue ca i?iaeoe?yie. ?ioee i?aeo?ae aei ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue c
iaoith iie?auaiiy ?o a?coaeueii? yeino? iieyaa? a aaciina?aaeiueiio
aeei?enoaii? ??cieo o?eueo??a. Iaeanoue ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy – a iniiaiiio
/anoioia ? a iaio?e i??? – i?inoi?iaa. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaothoue
??ci? iaoiaee neioaco o?eueo??a, ye iaeiiaei??ieo, oae ? aeaiaei??ieo.
Iaeiae a a?eueo?e i??? oe? ?iaioe a?aeiinyoueny aei ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue
a /anoioi?e iaeano?, ui aeiaaa? cia/ieo cao?ao /ano. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
iieaco?, ui aeei?enoaiiy o?eueo?aoe?? cia?aaeaiue c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
?o a?coaeueii? yeino? i?e caaacia/aii? aeniei? oaeaeeiae??, ? iaea?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueiei i?e ?aae?caoe?? a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano?, aea, iaeiae,
a?naiae aeai?eoi?/ieo cania?a ia?iaee ? iaaeinoaoi?e. Aeei?enoaiiy ae
ia?iaee a /anoioi?e iaeano? aeiaaa? cia/ieo ia/enethaaeueieo cao?ao, ui
cieaeo? oaeaeeiae?th ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue. Oiio aeaoaeuei?oa ?icaeyiooi
iniiai? iaoiaee ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano? c iaoith
ci?ie ?o yeino?.

Iaeiei c iaei?ino?oeo iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue c iaoith ci?ie
?o a?coaeueii? yeino? a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano? ? a?aaeaoe?eia ei?aeoe?y.
?aeay a?aaeaoe?eii? ei?aeoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia iiaeiia
ei?aeooaaoe iaaeie?ee nenoaie, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? aoei noi?iiaaia
cia?aaeaiiy. Na?aae iaeiioe?ai?oeo iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii?
yeino? iiiio?iiieo iai?aoiiiaeo cia?aaeaiue oeueiai eeano ? e?i?eiee
?icoya. Aeei?enoiaothoue oaeiae aaon?anueeee ?icoya ? eoneiai-e?i?eiee,
noi?iiaaiee iia?aoi?ii a ae?aeiaiaiio ?aaeei?. Aeoiaey/e c iaoiae?a
oeueiai eeano oi?iothoue oaeiae oaaee/i? ia?aoai?aiiy c iaoith io?eiaiiy
a?noia?aiith ?iciiae?eo yne?aainoae ia?aoai?aiiai cia?aaeaiiy iaaiiai
caeiio, cie?aia ??aiii??iiai. Oeae eean iaoiae?a io?eiaa iacao
a?noia?aiieo. Ii?yae c ieie ? ua eean iaoiae?a, yeee iaceaathoue
iaoiaeaie ?aiaiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, aeey yeeo iaoiae ae??aithaaiiy
a?noia?aie ? /anoeiaei aeiaaeeii. Iaoiaee ?aiaiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a naith
/a?ao /anoeiai ia?aoeiathoueny c ??cieoeaaeie iaoiaeaie, /e ye ?o ua
iaceaathoue – iaoiaeaie ia??ceiai ianeoaaiiy. Oea ? iniiai? iaoiaee
ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano?, aei yeeo aeiaeaeeny a inoaii?
?iee iaoiaee ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a. Oe? iaoiaee
neeaaeathoue iniiaio aaco iaoiae?a i?inoi?iai? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue c
iaoith ?o iie?auaiiy. ?o ni?eueiith iiceoeaiith ?enith ? i?eaeaoi?noue
aeey oaeaeei? ia?iaee a ianooaa? ?aaeueiiai /ano oaeaa?c?eiiai
a?aeaineaiaeo, a iaaeie?eii – iaiaaeai?noue ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iiaeeeainoae oa iaaeinoaoiy aoaeoeai?noue. Iniiaith oeeo iaoiae?a ?
eieaeueia a?aei?ii?noue aeaiaio?a cia?aaeaiue, oiaoi ?o eieaeueiee
eiio?ano. Caaaeyee oeueiio iiaeia noai?thaaoe ?o iia? eeane oa cia/ii
?icoe?eoe ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino?. Ioaea, ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai
aiae?co anoaiiaeaiee oeyo iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o a?coaeueii? yeino?.

. (4)

iaiao?aeia aeeiiaiiy oiiae

,

, oi, aeia?eueii ci?ithth/e yne?aa?noue ae?oaiai aeaiaioa, ie ia
io?eia?ii aaciaaeii? e?eueeino? ?aeaioe/ieo eiio?ano?a. Oeei
ii?ooo?oueny i?eioeei ??aiii?aaiino? aieeao cia/aiiy yne?aaino? ia
aecia/aiiy eiio?anoo. Oaeei /eiii ae?ac (4) ia iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea?
aeiic? icia/aiiy eiio?anoo.

I?aenoiiaoth/e aiae?c ae?ac?a aeey aecia/aiiy eiio?anoo ? a?aoiaoth/e ?o
iiiaeeii?noue cacia/aii, ui o aeiaaeeo, eiee aiie aeieeaathoue c caeiio
Aaaa?a-Oaoia?a –ae?ace (1) ? (2), – oa?aeoa?iei ? iaiaiaaeai?noue
cia/aiue iiaeeeaeo eiio?ano?a. A oie aea /an aeey ae?ac?a, ui
aeieeaathoue ?c caeiio Ianoa?oea-Ii?oe?’?ai? (3)-(4), iniaeeaith ?enith
? iaiaaeai?noue ci?ie eiio?anoo ia i?ii?aeeo [0,1] oa aaaaoicia/i?noue
oiia, i?e yeeo aeinyaa?oueny iaeneiaeueiee eiio?ano. Uia onoiooe oeth
iiiaeeii?noue ? ia??aiii?aai?noue aieeao yne?aainoae ia eiio?ano oa c
iaoith aecia/aiiy eiai ye aac?ici??ii? aaee/eie cai?iiiiiaaii e?i?eiee
iien eiio?anoo, yeee caaacia/o? aeno?aiaeueia eiai cia/aiiy o?eueee
oiae?, eiee iaeia c yne?aainoae i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeaa, a ae?oaa –
iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeia

, (5)

.

ia? aooe oaeei, ui aeey an?o

. (6)

I?eeeaaeii iiaea aooe noaiaiaaa ooieoe?iiaeueia ia?aoai?aiiy yae?a
eiio?anoo (5). ?acoeueoaoii oaeiai ia?aoai?aiiy ? yae?i

,
(7)

:

.
(8)

Cai?iiiiiaai? yae?a aecia/aiiy eiio?anoo i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iiaeeea?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co cia?aaeaiue ia iniia? caaeaieo aeanoeainoae oiai,
ooi iiaeiai ?o ni?eeiaoe. Aiie ? iniiaith aeey e?euee?nii? ioe?iee ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ci?ie a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaiiy ae
oaeoo aaaaoicia/iino? oiia io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai eiio?anoo yae?aie
(3) oa (4) aeaco? ia iiaeeeai caaeuai? cia/aiiy eiio?anoo, ye? aea?
caeii Ianoa?oea-Ii?oe?’?ai? o aeiaaeeo, eiee iaeei c aeaiaio?a
cia?aaeaiiy ia? iecueeee ??aaiue yne?aaino?. Cacia/aii, ui a?aeii?
oaeiae i?aeoiaee aei aeei?enoaiiy noaoenoe/ii? iniiae i?e aecia/aii?
eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a, cie?aia A.?icaioaeueaea oa I.I.Naainiia. Iaeiae
aiie aoaeoeai? i?e ia?iaoe? caooieaieo cia?aaeaiue.

yne?aainoae anueiai cia?aaeaiiy ca oi?ioeith:

, (9)

,

, (10)

aai o aeiaaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiiy cia?aaeaiiy aea?aeaineoieie iieyie, oiaoi
i?e Li=Lj=L

, (11)

— a?noia?aia ?iciiae?eo yne?aainoae cia?aaeaiiy.

. Oiaoi

(12)

aea

, (13)

aai

. (14)

c a?aooaaiiyi ae?aco (10) c (12) io?eio?ii:

(15)

aea

, (16)

aai

. (17)

C a?aooaaiiyi oi?ioee (16) c ae?aco (15) io?eio?ii

(18)

a c (17):

. (19)

Aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo cia?aaeaiiy o aeiaaeeo
i?aaenoaaeaiiy eiai aea?aeaineoieie iieyie c (18) io?eio?ii:

(20)

a c (19)

. (21)

Io?eiaiee ae?ac (21) ? iniiaith ciaoiaeaeaiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo
cia?aaeaiiy a oe?eiio i?e e?i?eiiio iien? eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a, ui
aecia/a?oueny ye

. (22)

eiai ocaaaeueiaiee eiio?ano ia ci?ith?oueny. A oie aea /an ae?ac (11)
aeey ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo, ui anoaiiaeaiee A.O.Ianoa?oeii, aea? eiai
ca?eueoaiiy i?e iaeiaeiaiio aaeeoeaiiio ciaioaii? aaee/ei an?o aeaiaio?a
cia?aaeaiiy.

ca’ycaiee c eaiean?aiii i?e eiai aeene?aoi?e ai?ieneiaoe?? a oiio ae
ieie? ae?acii

,
(23)

— aaee/eia e?ieo aeene?aoecaoe?? cia?aaeaiiy. Iayai?noue aca?iica’yceo
i?ae eieaeueiei eiio?anoii ? eaiean?aiii ye a?aeiiei caniaii ia?iaeaiiy
cia?aaeaiiy c iaoith eiai ia?aoai?aiiy ? ci?ie a?coaeueii? yeino?
aeicaieeea i?eionoeoe, ui eieaeueiee eiio?ano aeaiaio?a cia?aaeaiiy i?e
eiai e?i?eiiio iien? ? iniiaith iiaoaeiae ??cieo iaoiae?a ci?ie yeino?
cia?aaeaiiy a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano?. Io?eiaii i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai
i?eiouaiiy i?e ?icaeyae? iaoiae?a ?icoyao, a?noia?aiieo, ?aiaiaeo,
??cieoeaaeo oa ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo.

Aeey iaoiae?a ?icoyao iieacaii, ui eieaeueiee eiio?ano i?e eiai
e?i?eiiio iien? ? ?o iniiaith ? o aeiaaeeo e?i?eiiai ?icoyao,
eiao?oe??io i?aeneeaiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo aeey ia?aoai?aiiai
cia?aaeaiiy ae?aaea?oueny oi?ioeith:

,

, a o aeiaaeeo iae?i?ei? aaia-ei?aeoe?? oey caeaaei?noue ? oaeith:

.

Aeey a?noia?aiieo iaoiae?a iieacaii, ui aiae?c iieno ?iaioe iae?ii?a
ci?iai? nenoaie o aeiaaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo
nthaeaoiiai cia?aaeaiiy ye i?eaaaeaiiai oeaio?iaaiiai neaiaeo ?aaeoe??
(ui a?aeiia?aea? eoneiai-e?i?eiiio i?aaenoaaeaiith caeaaeiino? neaiaeo
?aaeoe?? ci?iai? nenoaie ethaeeie a?ae neaiaeo caoaeaeaiiy) i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ii?iaeaeaiiy iaoiaeo ae??aithaaiiy a?noia?aie ?iciiae?eo yne?aainoae
cia?aaeaiiy i?e eiai ni?eeiyoo?.

A?noia?aii? iaoiaee ? /anoeiaei aeiaaeeii ?aiaiaeo iaoiae?a. Ine?eueee a
iniia? a?noia?aiieo iaoiae?a ? eieaeueiee eiio?ano c eiai e?i?eiei
iienii, oi ? aeey ?aiaiaeo iaoiae?a oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui a ?o iniia? ?
eieaeueiee eiio?ano aeaiaio?a cia?aaeaiiy.

Aeey ??cieoeaaeo iaoiae?a oa?aeoa?iei ? aeei?enoaiiy i?aeneeaiiy
aeniei/anoioieo i?inoi?iaeo neeaaeiaeo. A?aoiaoth/e aeene?aoio
ai?ieneiaoe?th eaiean?aia, eeane/iee aeai?eoi ia??ceiai ianeoaaiiy
iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ye

,

aai ae, aeei?enoiaoth/e aca?iica’ycie eaiean?aia c eieaeueiei eiio?anoii
(23):

,

ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iayai?noue eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo a iniia? iaoiae?a
oeueiai eeano.

Aeey iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo aeei?enoaiiy
inoaiiueiai ? iaiao?aeiei, ai aiie aacothoueny ia o?eaoaii?e noai?
aecia/aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo, eiai iae?i?eiiio i?aeneeaii? oa
a?aeiiaeaii? cia?aaeaiiy c i?aeaeuaieie eieaeueieie eiio?anoaie.

Ioaea, an? i’youe eean?a ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano?
aacothoueny ia aeei?enoaii? eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a. Iaeiae, ii?yae c
iiaoaeiaith iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue c iaoith ci?ie ?o
a?coaeueii? yeino? aaaeeeaeie ? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy eiio?anoo
ia?aoai?aieo cia?aaeaiue. Oiio a ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi aeaye? i?aeoiaee aei
aiae?oe/iiai aecia/aiiy eiio?anoo cia?aaeaiue i?ney ?o ia?aoai?aiue.
Oae, aeey iaoiae?a eeano a?noia?aiieo ia?aoai?aiue, ye? ? iaeii/anii ?
iaoiaeaie iae?i?eieo noaoenoe/ieo aac?ia?oe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue, iieacaii,
ui ocaaaeueiaiee eiio?ano cia?aaeaiiy i?ney iae?i?eieo noaoenoe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue ia caeaaeeoue a?ae nthaeaoo ia?aoai?thaaiiai cia?aaeaiiy,
eiai eiio?anoo oa a?noia?aie, a ? oa?aeoa?enoeeith oeueiai ia?aoai?aiiy.
Oea aeicaiey? ia/enethaaoe eiai iaia?aae. Anoaiiaeaii aiae?oe/iee ae?ac
ia/eneaiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo cia?aaeaiiy i?ney oaeiai iae?i?eiiai
ia?aoai?aiiy, eiee eieaeuei? eiio?anoe i?aaenoaaeythoueny ?o e?i?eieie
iienaie:

,

— ooieoe?y, iaa?iaia aei ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo, yeee ia? caaacia/oaaoeny
a ia?aoai?aiiio cia?aaeaii?. I?iaaaeaii ia/eneaiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai
eiio?anoo aeey aeiaaeeo ia?aoai?aiue, ui caaacia/othoue ??aiii??iee,
aeniiiaioe?eiee oa ?aea?anueeee ?iciiae?ee a ia?aoai?aiiio cia?aaeaii?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icayiooi iaoiaee ? aeai?eoie oeeo?iai? ia?iaee
cia?aaeaiue a i?inoi?ia?e iaeano?, ui aeieeaathoue c aeei?enoaiiy
eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiue.
Ocaaaeueiaiee eiio?ano cia?aaeaiiy ? iaeiei c ia?aiao??a, ui
a?aeia?aaea? eiai a?coaeueio ye?noue. Eiai ca?eueoaiiy ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith aeinoia??iino? ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia’?eo?a. Iaeiae aeey iiaii?
ioe?iee a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiiy o?eueee oeueiai ia?aiao?a
iaaeinoaoiuei. Aaaeeeaeie ? ioe?iea yeino? ??aiy aaeaioaoe??
(na?aaeiueia?eoiaoe/iiai cia/aiiy yne?aaino?), ui aecia/a?oueny ye
a?aeoeeaiiy ??aiy aaeaioaoe?? a?ae na?aaeeie ae?aiaciio yne?aainoae,
iiaiioa aeei?enoaiiy a?aaeaoe?e oa ??ce?noue cia?aaeaiiy. Oiio
cai?iiiiiaaii aii??e/iee i?aeo?ae aei e?euee?nii? ioe?iee a?coaeueii?
yeino? cia?aaeaiiy, yea aecia/a?oueny i?iii?iiaaiei aeiaooeii
ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo, ioe?iee yeino? ??aiy aaeaioaoe??, iiaiioe
aeei?enoaiiy a?aaeaoe?e oa ??ceino? cia?aaeaiiy. Oe? ia?aiao?e a
noeoiiino? ni?eythoue ia’?eoeai?e ioe?ioe? a?coaeueii? yeino?
cia?aaeaiiy.

, eia?/ii i?eionoeoe, uia

,

a oea cia/eoue, ui a?i ia? aooe ?ica’yceii /aaeoianueei? caaea/?
??aiii??iiai iaaeeaeaiiy c aaniethoiith iioeaeith, a naia

.

.

Ocaaaeueiaiee ae?ac aeey oaeiai eoneiai-e?i?eiiai ia?aoai?aiiy ia?
aeaeyae:

(24)

. Ae?ac (24) iiaea aooe oaeiae ? iniiaith aeai?eoio iae?i?eii?
a?aaeaoe?eii? ei?aeoe?? cia?aaeaiiy, ui aaco?oueny ia iiaeeo?eaoe??
aaia-ei?aeoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi S-iiae?aii? ooieoe?? ia?aoai?aiiy. Oiae?
eiai aeaeyae oaeee:

Ocaaaeueiaiee aeai?eoi iae?i?eii? a?aaeaoe?eii? ei?aeoe?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi S-iiae?aii? ooieoe?? ia?aoai?aiiy iieno?oueny ae?acii

? ia?aoai?aiiy Aeea?a, iniiaith yeiai ? iiai? oa iaiiai? A-ooieoe??. O
aeiaaeeo ae aeei?enoaiiy ?iaa?nieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui
aaeaeaaoi? A-ia?aoai?aiiyi, io?eio?ii oaeee ae?ac:

A oie aea /an e?ooecio ia?aoai?aiiy iiaeia nooo?ai ciaioeoe, yeui
ona?aaeithaaoe e?i?eia ia?aoai?aiiy c ia?aoai?aiiyie oeio Aeea?a.
Ooieoe?? ia?aoai?aiiy aeey oeeo aeiaaee?a a?aeiia?aeii ? oae?:

oa

Iaeiae ii?yae c aeiaaeueiei ia?aoai?aiiyi aeaiaio?a anueiai cia?aaeaiiy
iiaeia cae?enithaaoe eiai oaeiae ? eiaciei niiniaii, eiee aiii
cae?enith?oueny iio?aaiaioii. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo ca o?aaiaio
aeae?a?oueny iaaiee ie?e Sij c oeaio?ii a aeaiaio? c eii?aeeiaoaie
(i,j), aeeth/ath/e eiai naiiai. A?aeii? i?aeoiaee aei iiaoaeiae eiaciiai
iaoiaeo i?aeaeuaiiy eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a cia?aaeaiiy ia iniia? ?icoyao.
Iaeiae aiie aeei?enoiaothoue eeane/iee e?i?eiee ?icoya. A ?iaio? ae
cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a eiaci?e ?aae?caoe?? iae?i?eiee ?icoya,
cie?aia:

,

. Ii?yae c oeei iaoiaeii cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ??ci? oeie
I-ieie?a, ui ? i?aeiiiaeeiaie S-ieieo oa aaaaeai? E.I.ss?ineaanueeei.
Aeey oaeeo ??ciiaeae?a eiacieo ieie?a aeei?enoai? aeai?eoie
eoneiai-e?i?eiiai oa eoneiai-iae?i?eiiai ?icoya?a, ui iienai? aeua. I?e
eiaci?e ?aae?caoe?? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue ?o iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ye

aai i?e eiaciiio iae?i?eiiio ia?aoai?aii?:

iiaeooue i?eeiaoeny oaeiae aiaeia?/i? ioe?iee ca I-ieieaie, a naia
a?aeii? na?aaei? E iaeaeeae/eo non?ae?a, ?acoeueoao aaciina?aaeiuei?
“n?aia-o?eueo?aoe??”, /e c aeiaeaoeiaei iaae?aiiei ioe?ithaaiiyi oa ?i.

Acai?i noaiaiaai? ooieoe?? i?e ia?aoai?aii? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny
eiaa?eoi?/i?, aeniiiaioe?aeuei?, o?eaiiiiao?e/i?, a?ia?aie?/i? oa ?io?
ooieoe??, aea oae?, ui caaeiaieueiythoue oiia? iiiioiiiino?
ia?aoai?aiiy. E??i oiai oe? iaoiaee iiaeooue aooe oaeiae ia iniia?
?iaa?nieo ia?aoai?aiue aiaeia?/ieo iae?i?eieo ooieoe?e.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?aoai?aiue oa c iaoith i?aeneeaiiy
eiio?ano?a oiieino?oeoo?ieo ia’?eo?a cai?iiiiiaaiee o?eaoaiiee iaoiae
eiaciiai ?icoyao, yeee iieyaa? o aeiaeaoeiaiio caeaaeaeaii?
aeno?aiaeueieo cia/aiue aeaiaio?a o eiacieo ieieao, ui ni?ey?
iie?auaiith a?coaeueii? yeino? ia?aoai?aieo cia?aaeaiue.

I?iaiae?ciaaii a?noia?aii? iaoiaee. Aeae?eaii iaoiaee ae??aithaaiiy
a?noia?aie ye oae?, ui ciaeoee iaea?eueoa iioe?aiiy. Ocaaaeueiaii
i?aeo?ae O.I.Aaeeeiai? oa E.I.ss?ineaanueeiai aei noaiaiaai?
?ioaineo?eaoe? a?noia?aie /a?ac iae?i?eia ia?aoai?aiiy ?? eiiiiiaio
oeyoii ia/eneaiue ca ae?acii

– S-iiae?aia ooieoe?y ia?aoai?aiiy , iai?eeeaae oeio ia?aoai?aiiy
Aeea?a, /e ?ioa iae?i?eia ooieoe?y, aiaeia?/ia A-ooieoe??. Cie?aia,
cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eoneiai iae?i?ei? ooieoe?? i?e
ia?aoai?aii? eiiiiiaio a?noia?aie, iai?eeeaae

oa

a eoioeyoeaio a?noia?aio. C iaoith ae iae?i?eii? ei?aeoe??
a?aeaineaiaeo, yea iiae?aia aei “a?ia?aie?caoe?? a?noia?aie” ? iieyaa? o
a?aooaaii? iae?i?eieo aeanoeainoae ci?o, ui aeicaiey? i?aeneethaaoe iae?
cia/aiiy a?aeaineaiaeo ? ineaaethaaoe aaeee?, cai?iiiiiaaii ei?aeooaaoe
ia naio a?noia?aio, a aaciina?aaeiuei eoioeyoeaio a?noia?aio CH(L). Naia
oiae? i?aeneeaiiy iaeeo cia/aiue eoioeyoeaii? a?noia?aie a?aeiia?aeaoeia
ca?eueoaiith aiie?ooaee a?aeaineaiaeo, a ciaioaiiy aaeeeeo cia/aiue
eoioeyoeaii? a?noia?aie a?aeiia?aeaoeia ciaioaiith aiie?ooaee
a?aeaineaiaeo, /ei aeinyaa?oueny iae?i?eia ei?aeoe?y a oe?eiio. Aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoiao?oueny ia?aoai?aiiy

cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe S-iiae?ai? ooieoe?? oeio ia?aoai?aiue
Aeea?a oa ?i aiaeia?/i?. Iieacaii, ui oae? ia?aoai?aiiy iiaeooue
canoiniaoaaoeny eiee ?o iniiaith ? ia o?eueee eoioeyoeai? a?noia?aia,
aea ? aeia?eueia i?iii?iiaaia ooieoe?y a?noia?aiieo ia?aoai?aiue.

I?e oe?e oiia? o ia?aoai?aiiio cia?aaeaii? L* a?aenooi? aeaiaioe c
aaee/eiaie

.

ia/eneth?ii ca oi?ioeith ia iniia? e?i?eii? ?ioa?iieyoe??

,

. Ia oe?e iniia? cai?iiiiiaaia oaoiieia?y i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii?
yeino? cia?aaeaiue i?e ?o ia?aoai?aiiyo. Iieacaii, ui cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoiaee iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ? i?e eiacieo ?aae?caoe?yo
a?noia?aiieo ia?aoai?aiue.

C eeano ?aiaiaeo ia?aoai?aiue aeae?eai? iaoiaee eiacieo caaaeaieo
ia?aoai?aiue (EC?I). Iieacaii, ui a?aeii? i?aeoiaee aei ?o iiaoaeiae
aeei?enoiaothoue eeaneo?eaoe?th aeaiaio?a ca eiio?anoi?noth ia’?eo?a.
I?ioa aiie i?ecaiaeyoue aei ??ciiai i?aeneeaiiy eiio?anoiino? ia’?eo?a,
caeaaeii a?ae ?o e?eaecie. sseui ia’?eoe iioee?, oi EC?I i?aeaeuothoue
?o eieaeuei? eiio?anoe a ii??aiyii? c eiacieie ?aiaiaeie ia?aoai?aiiyie
(E?I). Iaeiae, eiee ia’?eoe aaioo?, oi EC?I caaacia/othoue cia/ii a??o?
?acoeueoaoe i?ae E?I. Aeey onoiaiiy oeueiai iaaeie?eo cai?iiiiiaaii
aecia/aoe oei e?eaecie ia’?eoa i?e eiai eeaneo?eaoe??, a aaaia?
eiao?oe??ioe ia/enethaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith ae?aco

,

– eiao?oe??io i?aeneeaiiy eiio?anoiino?. I?e oeueiio i?iii?iiaaiee
eiio?ano aeaiaio?a cia?aaeaiiy aecia/aany ca aeiiiiiaith e?i?eiiai eiai
iieno

,

.

-aeaae?caoe?? E.I.ss?ineaanueeiai.

?ac,

,

.

=MEAN(S), oiaoi aiia i?aaenoaaeaia eiaciei na?aaei?i, oi

. Oea aeicaiey? caienaoe ??cieoeaaee aeai?eoi o a?eueo caaaeueiiio
aeaeyae? /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy yaea? aecia/aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo, a
naia

.

ii?iaeaeo? iia? eeane iaoiae?a ia??ceiai ianeoaaiiy.

/a?ac aeei?enoaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo ona?aaeiaieo
cia/aiue yne?aainoae oeyoii ia/eneaiiy ca ae?acii

,

aeaiaio?a. ?ic?iaeaiee iaeiii?io?aeiee iaoiae i?aeneeaiiy
eiio?anoiino? caooieaieo cia?aaeaiue, ui iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? aeey
aecia/aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo iaia?aiao?e/ieo ioe?iie iaoaiaoe/iiai
niiae?aaiiy oeaio?aeueiiai aeaiaioa – na?aaeiueiai aeey c??caiiai
aa??aoe?eiiai ?yaeo oa ?i.

?ic?iaeaii ?yae eean?a iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo c
iaoith ci?ie a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiiy, ui aeei?enoiaothoue
o?eaoaiio noaio aecia/aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo, eiai iae?i?eio ci?io
oa a?aeiiaeaiiy cia?aaeaiiy ?c ci?iaiei eiio?anoii. Aiie aacothoueny ia:

( eiio?anoiiio caeii? ni?eeiyooy na?oea Ianoa?oea-Ii?oe?’?ai? oa i?aaee?
aeiaeaaaiiy eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a;

( ia e?i?eiiio iien? eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ye
aaciina?aaeiueiai ona?aaeiaiiy a eiaciiio ieie?, oae ? ona?aaeiaiiy
caaaeaieo ia?aiaae?a yne?aainoae (aeey oeueiai eeano iaoiae?a i?iaaaeai?
?ic?aooiie ?o aoaeoeaiino? oa ii??aiyiiy c a?aeiiei i?aeoiaeii
A.Beghdadi oa A. Le Negrate; iieacaii, ui cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae
caaacia/o? iaeiaeiaa i?aeneeaiiy ye aaiooeo oae ? iioeeeo ia’?eo?a
cia?aaeaiiy, /iai iaia? o a?aeiieo i?aeoiaeao);

( ia eieaeueiiio eiio?ano?, ui aeieeaa? c i?aaeea oi?ioaaiiy eiio?anoo
nthaeaoiiai cia?aaeaiiy i?e e?i?eiiio iien? eiio?anoo aeaiaio?a;

( ia eieaeueieo eiio?anoao, ui i?aaenoaaeythoueny iae?i?eieie yae?aie ?o
aecia/aiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii oiiae, i?e yeeo iiaeia ia o?eueee i?aeneethaaoe, aea ?
ineaaethaaoe eiio?ano a ia?aoai?aiiio cia?aaeaii?, ui ni?ey?
aeinyaiaiith iaiao?aeii? eiai a?coaeueii? yeino?.

Iieacaii, ui iaoiaee ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao aeecuee? aei ??cieoeaaeo iaoiae?a, ui aacothoueny ia
aaeeoeai?e iiaeae? cia?aaeaiiy, a a ?ioeo ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi
ioeueoeie?eaoeaii? iiaeae?.

Iienai? aeua i?aeoiaee na?ae/aoue i?i iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeey
ia?aoai?aiue eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo eiai ??cieo yaea?, iienaieo o
ae?oaiio ?icae?e?. Oea noai?th? oiiae aei ?icaeoeo aeai?eoi?/ii? aace ia
oe?e iniia?, ui a?aeia?aaea? aeanoeaino? eiie?aoieo nenoai ni?eeiyooy
cia?aaeaiue.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi i?ia?aiii-aia?aoi? caniae iiaoaeiae
i?eeeaaeieo nenoai i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaii? oeeo?iai? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue.
Iaeiei c ?o aeae?a ? niaoe?ae?ciaai? ia/enethaaeuei? nenoaie aeey
ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth yeino? ae?ia?a ? iaoa??ae?a o aeaoaeoineii??.
Aiae?c i?eioeei?a ?o i?aai?caoe?? iieacaa, ui i?e oi?ioaaii? cia?aaeaiue
aeey ae?aaiinoeee yeino? ae?ia?a o nenoaiao ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth
iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa ??ai? ia?iaee aeaoaeoineii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??,
ocaaaeueiai? ooieoe?? aaoiiaoeciaaieo i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaieo nenoai
ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue oa o?e??aiaao no?oeoo?o i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy.

A ?iaio? iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?e niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai
ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth iiae?eythoue ia aeaa iniiai?
oeie – c ia?iaeith a i?ioean? iinooieaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? (a ianooaa?
?aaeueiiai /ano) ? ?icae?eaieie caiai’yoiaoaaiiyi ao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??
oa ?? ia?iaeith.

Iiia?aaeiy eiacia ia?iaea iai?aoiiiaeo cia?aaeaiue aeiaaa? aeae?eyoe
oae? ?o ?ioi?iaoeai? iciaee: eieaeuei? i?i?ioi, iaeneioi oa caaeaio
ii?yaeeiao noaoenoeeo. Aeey ?ica’yceo oe??? caaea/? ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi
eiiaa??iiai ia/eneaiiy ii?yaeeiaeo noaoenoee, yeiio aeanoeaa a?eueoa
oaeaeeiae?y a ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie.

Aeey aeiaaeeo ei?aeoe?? a?ia?ieo cia?aaeaiue, ui aeieeaa? c aeiia
aeaoaeoineii?? e?oiiiaaaa?eoieo ae?ia?a c iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a, aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaoa?i?iiaai? aeanoeaino?
iaae?aiii? o?eueo?aoe??. Oea aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe ?yae aeai?eoi?a
iae?i?eii? o?eueo?aoe??, ui aeei?enoiaothoue eieaeuei? iaae?aii?
o?eueo?e c ??cieie aia?oo?aie, a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeiae?? ia?iaee
cia?aaeaiue – ?ic?iaeoe i?aeo?ae, ui aeei?enoiao? inaaaeiia?aeaeueio
?aae?caoe?th aeai?eoi?a o?eueo?aoe?? oa iae?i?eio ?icai?oeo ao?aeiiai
cia?aaeaiiy.

Aiae?c oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeiae?? ia?iaee oaeaa?c?eieo cia?aaeaiue c
iaoith iie?ioaiiy ?o yeino? aeicaieea cai?iiiioaaoe aia?aoio
?aae?caoe?th aeai?eoi?a ia?iaee a ianooaa? ?aaeueiiai /ano iinooieaiiy
oaeaa?c?eiiai neaiaeo oa ?ic?iaeoe i?ioeani?e ei?aeoe?? a?ia?ieo
cia?aaeaiue ? i?ioeani? ia?aoai?aiiy iai?aoiiiaeo cia?aaeaiue.

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? no?oeoo? nenoai ia?iaee
cia?aaeaiue ia aeai?eoi?/iiio, aia?aoiiio ? i?ia?aiiiio ??aiyo. Aiie
aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe o ae?iaieoeoai ?yae i?eeeaaeieo
i?ia?aiii-oaoi?/ieo eiiieaen?a ia?iaee oeueo?acaoeiaeo cia?aaeaiue i?e
ia?oei?aiiio eiio?ie? yeino? e?oiiiaaaa?eoieo ae?ia?a c iie?ia?ieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oaeeo ye “Nenoaia”, “Oeueo?ecai” oa
oaeaa?c?eieo ? ?aioaaioaeaa?c?eieo cia?aaeaiue – nenoaia “Eaae?” aeey
ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a, ui ia ieaooi?i? Intel. ?ic?iaeaii ?
ai?iaaaeaeaii eiiieaen i?ia?ai “Eiio?ano” aeey ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue
aeia?eueiiai oi?iaoo ye neeaaeiao /anoeio nenoaie ia?iaee
einiiaa?ioioici?ie?a i?e aeenoaioe?eiiio ciiaeoaaii? Caie? c eini?/ieo
aia?ao?a. ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen i?ia?ai “Eaae?-I” ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue a
na?aaeiaeu? Delphi.

AENIIAEE

A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?icaeiooi iiaee iaoeiaee iai?yi a aaeoc?
?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a oa ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue — oeeo?iao ia?iaeo
cia?aaeaiue ia iniia? oai??? eiio?anoiino?, ui iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii?
eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a c aeanoeainoyie a?aenoai? iao?e/iiai i?inoi?o ye
aeey iacaeaaeii? a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai ni?eeiyooy e?euee?nii? ioe?iee
oa?aeoa?enoee cia?aaeaiue ??cii? o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee, oae ? aeey iiaoaeiae
iaoiae?a ia?iaee c iaoith iie?ioaiiy ?o a?coaeueii? yeino?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ca ?o
oai?aoe/iith, aeai?eoi?/iith ? i?eeeaaeiith cia/eiinoyie. A oai?aoe/iiio
ieai? io?eiaii ianooii? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe.

1. Aaaaeaii iiiyooy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo, ui ia? aeanoeaino? a?aenoai?
iao?e/iiai i?inoi?o. Oea aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe aiae?oe/iee ae?ac aeey
aecia/aiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo nthaeaoiiai cia?aaeaiiy ye eiai
e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee, yea ia caeaaeeoue a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai
ni?eeiyooy.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e noaoenoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo ocaaaeueiaiee eiio?ano
io?eiaiiai cia?aaeaiiy ia caeaaeeoue a?ae nthaeaoo ia?aoai?aiiai
cia?aaeaiiy, eiai eiio?anoo oa a?noia?aie, a ? oa?aeoa?enoeeith oeueiai
ia?aoai?aiiy. Oea aeicaiey? ia/enethaaoe eiai iaia?aae.

3. Anoaiiaeaii e?i?eio caeaaei?noue i?ae eieaeueiei eiio?anoii i?e eiai
e?i?eiiio iien? oa eaiean?aiii, i?aaenoaaeaiei eiai aeene?aoieie
ai?ieneiaoe?yie. Oea aeicaieeei iieacaoe, ui eieaeueiee eiio?ano ?
iniiaith iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiue.

Ia iniia? ia?ae?/aieo oai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a io?eiaii ianooii? iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe a ieai? noai?aiiy iiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, a naia
iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino?
cia?aaeaiue.

1. Iiaoaeiaaii ocaaaeueiai? iaoiaee aeiaaeueiiai oa eiaciiai ?icoyao
ae?aiaciio yne?aainoae cia?aaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi aeiaeaoeiaiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ia?aiao?a ? i?ea’yceith eiai aei na?aaeeie ae?aiaciio c
aeei?enoaiiyi ia?aoai?aiue Aeea?a, aaoa-ooieoe?e, eoneiai-e?i?eieo ?
eoneiai-iae?i?eieo ooieoe?e. Oeei caaacia/o?oueny ea?iaai?noue oiiaaie
i?aeneeaiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo.

2. ?ic?iaeaii ocaaaeueiai? iaoiaee a?noia?aiieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui
aacothoueny ia aeiaeaoeiaeo iae?i?eieo ia?aoai?aiiyo eiiiiiaio
a?noia?aie oa eoioeyoeaii? a?noia?aie oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy aeey oe???
iaoe ia?aoai?aiue Aeea?a, aaoa-ooieoe?e oa eoneiai-iae?i?eieo ooieoe?e;
iaoiae i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? a?noia?aiieo ia?aoai?aiue /a?ac ciaioaiiy
iioeaee ie?oaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ia/eneaiue.

3. Iiaoaeiaaii ocaaaeueiaiee iaoiae eiacieo caaaeaieo ?aiaiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue, ui aeei?enoiao? eeaneo?eaoe?th ia’?eo?a ca ?o eiio?anoii,
oeiii e?eaecie oa aaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eiio aaaiaeo eiao?oe??io?a.

4. ?ic?iaeaii iia? eeane ??cieoeaaeo iaoiae?a (ia??ceiai ianeoaaiiy), ui
aacothoueny ia yae?ao aecia/aiiy eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a aeey oi?ioaaiiy
aeaoaeueieo neeaaeiaeo oa ?o eieaeueii-aaeaioeaiiai i?aeneeaiiy c
aeea?iaeie, aaoa-, eoneiai-e?i?eieie ? eoneiai-iae?i?eieie
ia?aoai?aiiyie oiiiai? neeaaeiai?.

5. Iiaoaeiaaii iia? eeane iaoiae?a iae?i?eiiai ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueiiai
eiio?anoo ia o?eaoaii?e iniia? c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei
aecia/aiiy eieaeueiiai eiio?anoo oa oi?ioaaiiy ??aiy aaeaioaoe??.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii ? iaa?oioiaaii niin?a e?euee?nii? ioe?iee a?coaeueii?
yeino? iiiio?iiieo iai?aoiiiaeo cia?aaeaiue.

7. Ocaaaeueiaii aeai??aiaao no?oeoo?o iiaoaeiae i?eeeaaeieo nenoai
ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue oa ?o o?e??aiaao nenoaio i?aai?caoe?? i?ia?aiiiai
caaacia/aiiy c aia?aoiith ?aae?caoe??th ia?aoai?aiue cia?aaeaiue.

I?eeeaaei? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iieyaathoue o aeei?enoaii? cai?iiiiiaaieo
iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a o eiie?aoieo i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaieo nenoaiao
ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue ??cii? o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee. Iniiai? c ieo ianooii?.

1. Iieacaii aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiue cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a
ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue, io?eiaieo i?e aeenoaioe?eiiio ciiaeoaaii?
iiaa?oi? Caie? c eini?/ieo aia?ao?a. Oea aeicaieeei ai?iaaaeeoe eiiieaen
i?ia?ai aeey ia?iaee einiiaa?ioioia?ao?/ieo cia?aaeaiue.

2. Iieacaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a
ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue i?e ia?iaoe? ?aioaaioaeaa?c?eieo oa
?aae?ia?ao?/ieo cia?aaeaiue aeey ca?eueoaiiy ?o ?ioi?iaoeaiino? c iaoith
ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth yeino? ae?ia?a ? iaoa??ae?a. Oea aeicaieeei
ai?iaaaeeoe niaoe?ae?ciaaio nenoaio c eiiieaenii i?ia?ai ia?iaee
oaeaa?c?eieo cia?aaeaiue aeey ?o ?aae?caoe??.

3. Iieacaii aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a iae?i?eii? ei?aeoe??
a?ia?ieo cia?aaeaiue, noi?iiaaieo i?e oeueoacaoeia?e aeaoaeoineii??
e?oiiiaaaa?eoieo ae?ia?a c iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. Oea
aeicaieeei ai?iaaaeeoe ?yae i?ia?aiii-oaoi?/ieo eiiieaen?a aeey ??
?aae?caoe??.

Ioaea, a ?iaio? noai?aii iiaee aia?ao aeey aoaeoeaiiai ?ica’yceo caaea/
ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue, ui aeieeathoue i?e iiaoaeia? nenoai ia?iaee
cia?aaeaiue; ?ic?iaeaii a?aeiia?aeia aeai?eoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy oa
?ica’ycaii ?yae i?aeoe/ieo caaea/.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. E?i?eiee iien aecia/aiiy eiio?anoiino? aeaiaio?a
cia?aaeaiiy // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ? 1. — N. 128-132.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Ni?eeiyooy nthaeaoieo cia?aaeaiue oa e?euee?nia ioe?iea
?o eiio?anoo ia iniia? e?i?eiiai iieno aecia/aiiy eiio?anoiino?
aeaiaio?a // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ? 9. — N. 103 — 108.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Neieuecyuea acaaoaiiua ?aiaiaua i?aia?aciaaiey
ecia?aaeaiee // I?iaeaiu oi?aaeaiey e eioi?iaoeee. — 1997. — ? 2. — N.
65 — 74.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Aeaye? i?aeoiaee aei iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a ia??ceiai
ianeoaaiiy cia?aaeaiue // Iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoeiu e nenoaiu. — 1998. — ?
2. — N. 53-60.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Eiaci? ?aiaia? ia?aoai?aiiy aa?ieini?/ieo cia?aaeaiue c
eeaneo?eaoe??th aeaiaio?a ca oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia’?eo?a // Eini?/ia iaoea
? oaoiieia?y. — 1998. — O. 4. — ? 4 . — N. 107-112.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. ssae?a aecia/aiiy eiio?anoo aeaiaio?a cia?aaeaiiy //
A?aea?? ? ia?iaea ?ioi?iaoe??. — 1997. — Aei. 11(87). — N. 96-100.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Iaoiaee eiaciiai i?aeaeuaiiy eiio?anoo cia?aaeaiue ia
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— N.94 — 99.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Iie?ioaiiy yeino? cia?aaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi aeae?eaiiy
e?a?a oa ia?aoai?aiiy e?i?eiiai eiio?anoo // Yeaeo?iieea e naycue. —
1997. — ?2.- N. 277-281.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Iaoiae ci?ie eiio?anoiino? cia?aaeaiue ia iniia?
iae?i?eiiai ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a // Aei??thaaeueia oaoi?ea
oa iao?ieia?y». — 1998. — Aei. 53. — N 33-38.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. A?noia?aii? ia?aoai?aiiy ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia oai???
eiio?anoiino? cia?aaeaiue // A?niee Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
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Ai?iaaeue ?.A. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue c
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Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Aeei?enoaiiy e?i?eii? oa aaia-ei?aeoe?? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
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1998. — ? 5.- N. 25-28.

Worobel R.A. Correction of binary images in problems of nondestructive
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Ai?iaaeue ?.A., Iie? I.A. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaoiaeo Ai?aeiia aeey
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Ai?iaaeue ?.A., Iie? I.A. I?aeaeuaiiy eiio?anoiino? caooieaieo
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100 — 104.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A., Iie? I.A., Iiiia A.I. Aeaye? iaoiaee ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue
o caaea/ao ?aioaaiia?ao?/iiai eiio?ieth yeino? ae?ia?a // O?ceei-o?i?/ia
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Ai?iaaeue ?.A., AEo?aaaeue ?.I. Canoinoaaiiy eiio?anoo c iae?i?eieie
neiao?e/ieie aeanoeainoyie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino?
cia?aaeaiue // A?niee Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea
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Ai?iaaeue ?.A., Iaaiaea N.A., Iiiia A.A. Aaoiiaoecaoeey nai?a e
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Oeeueo?aoeey aeia?iuo ecia?aaeaiee / Ai?iaaeue ?.A., Eoaeee E.E.,
Iaaiaea N.A., Iiiia A.A. // Ia?aeeaeueiay ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee:
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A. n. 1541639 NNN?, IEE G 06 K 9/36. Ono?ienoai aeey ei??aeoeee
ecia?aaeaiee iaueaeoia / ?.A.Ai?iaaeue, N.A.Iaaiaea (NNN?). — ?
4442144/24; Cayaeaii 11.05.88; Iioae. 07.02.90. — Athe. ?5. — 3 n.

A. n. 1589299 NNN?, IEE G 06 K 9/46. Ono?ienoai aeey ei??aeoeee
ecia?aaeaiee / ?.A.Ai?iaaeue, N.A.Iaaiaea (NNN?). — ? 4264269/24;
Cayaeaii 16.06.87; Iioae. 30.08.90. — Athe. ?32. — 5 n.

A. n. 1291976 NNN?, IEE G 06 F 7/544. Ooieoeeiiaeueiue aaia?aoi? /
?.A.Ai?iaaeue, ss.A.Aaiiithe (NNN?). — ? 3826364/24; Cayaeaii 18.12.84;
Iioae. 23.02.87. — Athe. ?7. — 2 n.

A. n. 1305669 NNN?, IEE G 06 F 7/544. Ooieoeeiiaeueiue aaia?aoi? /
?.A.Ai?iaaeue, ss.A.Aaiiithe (NNN?). — ? 3826364/24; Cayaeaii 18.12.84;
Iioae. 23.04.87. — Athe. ?15.-2 n.

Aaoiiaoecaoeey ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia ia?ac?ooathuaai eiio?iey ecaeaeee
ec iieeia?iuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia // ?.A.Ai?iaaeue, N.A.Iaaiaea,
I.A.Iiu?, A.A.Iiiia. – Eueaia, 1989. – 47 c. – (I?ai?./ AI ONN?,
Oec.-iao. ei-o; ? 156).

Vorobel R.A. A note on image contrast enhancement based on human
physiology // 21’st Austrian Association for Pattern Recognition
Workshop. Hallstatt, Austria, May 26-27, 1997. — P. 20.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Iaoiae ii?ac?yaeiiai ii?aaeaeaiey ii?yaeeiauo noaoenoee
// Iaoiaeu e iee?iyeaeo?iiiua n?aaenoaa oeeo?iaiai i?aia?aciaaiey e
ia?aaioee neaiaeia. SIAP-89: Oac. aeiee. eiio. — ?eaa: Ecae. Ei-oa YAO
AI Eaoaeeneie NN?, 1989. — T.2. — N. 23-24.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Eiiaaea?iue aeai?eoi ii?ac?yaeiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
ii?yaeeiauo noaoenoee // Oac. aeiee. e niiau. naaeueiie Ananithc.
oeieu-naieia?a «?ania?aeeaeeaaiea ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee». — Eueaia: OIE
AI ONN?, 1989. — *. 2.- N. 132-133.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. A?aooaaiiy aieeao iioiaeieo i?e ?aiaiaeo ia?aoai?aiiyo //
1-a Oe?a?inueea eiioa?aioeiy c aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy “Aaoiiaoeea-94”:
Oac. aeii. — *. 1. — Ee?a: IE AI Oe?a?ie, 1994. — N. 226.

5 yeaiaioia // Oac. aeiee. e niiau. naaeueiie Ananithc. oeieu-naieia?a
«?ania?aeeaeeaaiea ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee».- Eueaia: OIE AI ONN?. 1989.-
*. 2. — N. 30-31.

Aiaeec ecia?aaeaiee i?e ia?ac?ooathuai eiio?iea ecaeaeee /
?.A.Ai?iaaeue, A.A.AEe?iaaoeeee, N.A.Iaaiaea, A.A.Iiiia // Oac. aeiee.
o?aoueae Ananithc. eiio. «Iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia»/II?I-O/. -Eueaia: OIE AI ONN?, 1987. — *.II. — N. 182-183.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A., Iaaiaea N.A. ?aeo?neaiue aeai?eoi eiae/aneie
oeeueo?aoeee aeia?iuo ecia?aaeaiee // Oac. aeiee. iyoie Ananithciie
oeieu-naieia?a «?ania?aeeaeeaaiea ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee». — Eueaia: OIE
AI ONN?, 1985. — *.4. — N. 149-150.

Ia i?aaiecaoeee au/eneeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna aeey ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia
ia?ac?ooathuaai eiio?iey / ?.A.Ai?iaaeue, N.A.Iaaiaea, A.A.Iiiia,
I.A.*a?iee // Oac. aeiee. II-e ?anioae. eiio. ii iiauoaieth iaaeaaeiinoe
e aeieaiaa/iinoe iaoei e nii?oaeaiee .- Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1985. — N.
48-49.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Aeai?eoi aeaoia?iie iaaeeaiiie oeeueo?aoeee n
ia?aeeaeueiie ia?aaioeie eioi?iaoeee // Oac. aeiee. oanoie Ananithc.
oeieu-naieia?a “?ania?aeeaeeaaiea e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee”. — Eueaia:
OIE AI ONN?, 1987. — *.2. — N. 40-41.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A., Iaaiaea N.A. I?eiaiaiea ia?aeeaeueiie iaaeeaiiie
oeeueo?aoeee i?e ia?aaioea aeia?iuo ecia?aaeaiee // Oac. aeiee. oanoie
Ananithciie oeieu-naieia?a “?ania?aeeaeeaaiea e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee”.-
Eueaia: OIE AI ONN?, 1987. — *.2. — N. 42-43.

I?eiaiaiea nenoaiu «Oeueo?ecai» aeey aiaeeca aeaoaeoiinoe ecaeaeee ec
iieeia?iuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia / ?.A.Ai?iaaeue, ss.A.Aaiiithe,
N.A.Iaaiaea, I.A.Iiu?, A.A.Iiiia // Oac. aeiee. o?aoueae iaaeio?aneaaie
eiio. «Ia?ac?ooathuea iaoiaeu eiio?iey ecaeaeee ec iieeia?iuo
iaoa?eaeia».- I.: OeIEEOYE, 1989. — N. 172-173.

Nenoaia «Oeueo?ecai» ia?aaioee oeueo?acaoeiauo ecia?aaeaiee a ianooaaa
?aaeueiiai a?aiaie / ?.A.Ai?iaaeue, ss.A.Aaiiithe, N.A.Iaaiaea,
I.A.Iiu?, A.A.Iiiia // Oac. aeiee. II-ai ?anioae. naieia?a «I?iaeaiu
nicaeaiey nenoai ia?aaioee, aiaeeca e ?aniiciaaaiey ecia?aaeaiee». —
Oaoeaio: Ecae. EE n AOe III «Eeaa?iaoeea» AI OcNN?, 1989. — N. 133-134.

Yoaiu aaoiiaoecaoeee ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia aeaoaeoineiiee ecaeaeee ec
iieeia?iuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia / ?.A.Ai?iaaeue, N.A.Iaaiaea,
I.A.Iiu?, A.A.Iiiia // Oac. aeiee. OII-e Ananithc. iao/.-oaoi. eiio.
«Ia?ac?ooathuea oece/aneea iaoiaeu eiio?iey».- Naa?aeeiane: Ecae. OIE
ei.N.I.Ee?iaa, 1990. — T.1. — N. 117- 118.

Image processing in the system for ultrasonic quality control of
articles made of polymeric composite materials / Vorobel R.A., Negoda
S.V., Opyr N.V., Popov B.A. // Latvian Signal Processing Intern.
Conf. LSPIC-90.- Riga, 1990. — V.2. — P. 386-390.

Vorobel R.A., Opyr N.V., Popov B.A. Binary image analysis at
non-destructive articles’ control // First Intern. Conf. on Information
Technologies for Image Analysis and Pattern Recognition. ITIAPR-90.-
Lviv, 1990.- V.2. — P. 387 390.

Ai?iaaeue ?. Iaoiae aaeaioeaiiai iiaeneeaiiy eiio?anoiinoi iaiiaoiiiaeo
cia?aaeaiue // Ia?oa Anaoe?a?inueea eiioa?aioeiy “Ia?iaea neaiae?a ?
cia?aaeaiue oa ?iciiciaaaiiy ia?acia” Oe?IA?AC’92: I?aoe?. — Ee?a: IE AI
Oe?a?ie, 1992. — N. 183-185.

I?ia?aiii caniae ia?aoai?aiiy oeeo?iaeo cia?aaeaiue / ?.A.Ai?iaaeue,
I.A.Iie?, ss.A.Iicth?, A.I.Iiiia// Ae?oaa Oe?a?inueea eiioa?aioeiy c
aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy «Aaoiiaoeea-95»: I?aoe?. — O.3. — Eueaia: IAOe
«IOIN», 1995.- N. 99-101.

Vorobel R., Opyr N. Adaptive interpolation algorithm for transformation
function in image processing // MMET’96. VI-th Intern. Conf.
Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory. Proceedings. — Lviv,
1996. — P. 476-477.

Vorobel R.A. Computer enhancement of remotely-sensed images //
Proceedings of Fourth Ukraine-Russia-China Symposium on Space Science
and Technology SST-4: Kyjiv, 1996. — Vol.1. — P. 101-103.

Ai?iaaeue ?. Iae?i?eia ia?aoai?aiiy cia?aaeaiue c e?i?eiei aecia/aiiyi
eiio?anoiinoe // O?aoy Anaoe?a?inueea i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioeiy.
“Ia?iaeaiiy neaiaeia i cia?aaeaiue oa ?iciiciaaaiiy ia?acia”
Oe?IA?AC’96: I?aoe?. — E.: OAnI??I, 1996. — N. 194-196.

Ai?iaaeue ?. Oai??y eiio?anoiino? cia?aaeaiue ye iniiaa iiaoaeiae
iaoiae?a ?o ia?aoai?aiue // “Ia?iaeaiiy neaiae?a oa ?ici?ciaaaiiy
ia?ac?a” Oe?IA?AC’98: I?aoe?: *aoaa?oa Anaoe?a?inueea i?aeia?iaeia
eiioa?aioe?y. — E.: OAnI??I, 1998. — N. 7 — 10.

Image quality enhancement technique for X-ray testing / Vorobel R.,
Zhuravel I., Opyr N., Popov B. // 2nd International Conference on
Computer Methods and Inverse Problems in Nondestructive Testing and
Diagnostics: Proceedings. — Minsk, 1998. — P. 449 — 455.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Oeeo?iaa ia?iaea cia?aaeaiue ia iniia? oai???
eiio?anoiino?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.13.06 — aaoiiaoeciaai? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy oa
i?ia?aneai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??. — Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
?inoeooo ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaaionoaa c
ieoaiue ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ia?iaoe? cia?aaeaiue a ?aaeueiiio ianooaa?
/ano. A i?e ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoeiaee iai?yiie – oeeo?iao ia?iaeo
cia?aaeaiue ia iniia? oai??? eiio?anoiino?, ui iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii?
eieaeueieo eiio?ano?a c aeanoeainoyie a?aenoai? iao?e/iiai i?inoi?o ye
aeey iacaeaaeii? a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai ni?eeiyooy e?euee?nii? ioe?iee
oa?aeoa?enoee cia?aaeaiue ??cii? o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee, oae ? aeey iiaoaeiae
iaoiae?a ia?iaee c iaoith iie?ioaiiy ?o a?coaeueii? yeino?. Anoaiiaeaii
ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai eiio?anoo nthaeaoiiai cia?aaeaiiy
oa e?i?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae eieaeueiei eiio?anoii ? eaiean?aiii.
Iieacaii, ui eieaeueiee eiio?ano ? iniiaith iiaoaeiae iaoiae?a
i?aeaeuaiiy a?coaeueii? yeino? cia?aaeaiue. ?ic?iaeaii ocaaaeueiai?
iaoiaee aeiaaeueiiai oa eiaciiai ?icoyao ae?aiaciio yne?aainoae ?
ocaaaeueiai? iaoiaee a?noia?aiieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui aeei?enoiaothoue
ia?aoai?aiiy eiiiiiaio a?noia?aie oa eoioeyoeaii? a?noia?aie c
canoinoaaiiyi ia?aoai?aiue Aeea?a, aaoa-ooieoe?e, eoneiai-e?i?eieo ?
eoneiai-iae?i?eieo ooieoe?e. Iiaoaeiaaii ocaaaeueiaiee iaoiae eiacieo
caaaeaieo ?aiaiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, iia? eeane ??cieoeaaeo iaoiae?a
(ia??ceiai ianeoaaiiy), ui aeei?enoiaothoue iae?i?eia ia?aoai?aiiy
oiiiai? neeaaeiai?, oa iaoiaee iae?i?eiiai ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeueiiai
eiio?anoo. Cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia?? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue oa noai?ai?
i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaai? nenoaie ai?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa : ia?iaea cia?aaeaiue, eiio?ano, ye?noue cia?aaeaiiy,
o?eueo?aoe?y, iaoiae ?icoyao, a?noia?aii? ia?aoai?aiiy, ia??cea
ianeoaaiiy.

Ai?iaaeue ?.A. Oeeo?iaay ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee ia iniiaa oai?ee
eiio?anoiinoe. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.13.06 — aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e
i?ia?anneaiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee. — Ainoaea?noaaiiue
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaaionoaa ii aii?inai eioi?iaoecaoeee i?e I?aceaeaioa
Oe?aeiu, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa
a?aiaie. A iae ?ac?aaioaii iiaia iao/iia iai?aaeaiea – oeeo?iaay
ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee ia iniiaa oai?ee eiio?anoiinoe, eioi?ay ninoieo a
eniieueciaaiee eieaeueiuo eiio?anoia ni naienoaaie ?annoiyiey
iao?e/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa eae aeey iacaaenyuae io noauaeoeaiiai
aini?eyoey eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee oa?aeoa?enoee ecia?aaeaiee ?acee/iie
oece/aneie i?e?iaeu, oae e aeey iino?iaiey iaoiaeia ia?aaioee n oeaeueth
oeo/oaiey eo aecoaeueiiai ea/anoaa. ?anniio?aiu iiaeaee ecia?aaeaiee.
Auaeaeaiu ec ieo oa, eioi?ua iniiauaathony ia ?aaeoeee c?eoaeueiie
nenoaiu ia aaee/eio y?einoiiai noeioea. Iieacaii, /oi iie iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa iniiau aeey iino?iaiey iaoiaeia
i?aia?aciaaiey ecia?aaeaiee. Iiyoiio iaoiaeu i?aia?aciaaiey ecia?aaeaiee
a i?ino?ainoaaiiie iaeanoe iiaeia ?anniao?eaaoue eae eiathuea iauoth
oeaeue – iiauoaiea aecoaeueiiai ea/anoaa e eioi?iaoeaiinoe. Oiaaea
eiae/ii aua?aoue ca iauoth iniiao iino?iaiey yoeo iaoiaeia eieaeueiue
eiio?ano yeaiaioia ecia?aaeaiey. Ii oaeie iiaeoiae o?aaoao ?acaeoey
oai?ee eiio?anoiinoe ecia?aaeaiee. Oae eae ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee n
oeaeueth oeo/oaiey eo aecoaeueiiai ea/anoaa iaeaieaa auno?iaeaenoaothuay
i?e aa ?aaeecaoeee a i?ino?ainoaaiiie iaeanoe, oi iaiaoiaeeia ?ac?aaioea
iaoiaeia i?aia?acaaiey ecia?aaeaiee ia iiaie oai?aoe/aneie iniiaa.

Aiaeec iieacae, /oi au?aaeaiea, auoaeathuaa ec eiio?anoiiai caeiia
aini?eyoey naaoa Ianoa?oea-Ii?oe?ueaaie, ia iieiinoueth niioaaonoaoao
o?aaiaaieyi ii?aaeaeaiey eiio?anoa /a?ac iiiaeanoaaiiinoue oneiaee
ii?aaeaeaiey aai iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiey. Iiyoiio i?aaeeiaeaii eeiaeiia
iienaiea ii?aaeaeaiey eiio?anoa yeaiaioia ecia?aaeaiey, eioi?ia
oaeiaeaoai?yao o?aaiaaieyi ?annoiyiey iao?e/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa.
Enneaaeiaaiea au?aaeaiee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eiio?anoa iieacaei, /oi
iniiaiui ioee/eai yaea? ii?aaeaeaiey eiio?anoa yaeyaony ia?aie/aiiue eee
iaia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa? aai eciaiaiey. Yoi iicaieeei i?iaanoe
eeanneoeeaoeeth yaea? ii?aaeaeaiey eiio?anoa.

Iieo/aii aiaeeoe/aneia au?aaeaiea aeey iaoiaeaeaiey eiio?anoa
nthaeaoiiai ecia?aaeaiey eae aai eiee/anoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeee. Iii
iniiauaaaony ia eniieueciaaiee eieaeueiuo eiio?anoia n eeiaeiui
iienaieai e naienoaaie ?annoiyiey iao?e/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa, a oaeaea ia
caaeneo io noauaeoeaiiai aini?eyoey.

Eieaeueiay ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee /anoi iino?iaia n eniieueciaaieai
ie?anoiinoe Io?a eee Iaeiaia, eioi?ua iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae
yeaiaioa?iua ecia?aaeaiey. Yoi iicaieeei onoaiiaeoue eeiaeioth
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo eieaeueiui eiio?anoii i?e aai eeiaeiii iienaiee e
eaieaneaiii, i?aaenoaaeaiiui aeene?aoiuie aii?ieneiaoeeyie. O/eouaay yoi
naienoai iieacaii, /oi eieaeueiue eiio?ano eaaeeo a iniiaa iino?iaiey
iaoiaeia ?anoyaeaiey, au?aaieaaiey aenoia?aii, ?aiaiauo e ?aciinoiuo
iaoiaeia (ia?aceiai ianee?iaaiey) e iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aia?aciaaiey
eieaeueiiai eiio?anoa. Iieacaii, /oi iaiauaiiue eiio?ano ecia?aaeaiee
iinea iaeeiaeiuo noaoenoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee ia caaeneo io nthaeaoa
i?aia?acoaiiai ecia?aaeaiey, aai eiio?anoa e aenoia?aiiu, a yaeyaony
oa?aeoa?enoeeie yoiai i?aia?aciaaiey. Yoi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeyoue aai
iaia?aae.

I?aaeeiaeai niinia ii?aaeaeaiey eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee aecoaeueiiai
ea/anoaa iiiio?iiiiai iieooiiiaiai ecia?aaeaiey. Aai iniiaie yaeyaony
i?iecaaaeaiea cia/aiee iaiauaiiiai eiio?anoa, a oaeaea ioeaiie ea/anoaa
o?iaiy aaeaioaoeee c?eoaeueiie nenoaiu, iieiiou eniieueciaaiey
aeeaiaciia a?aaeaoeee y?einoe e ?aceinoe ecia?aaeaiey.

?anniio?aiu iaoiaeu oeo/oaiey ecia?aaeaiee iooai eo ia?aaioee a
i?ino?ainoaaiiie iaeanoe. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaiauaiiua iaoiaeu aeiaaeueiiai e
neieuecyuaai ?anoyaeaiey. Iie eniieuecotho aeiiieieoaeueiue
eioi?iaoeeiiiue ia?aiao? e i?eayceo aai e na?aaeeia aeeaiaciia, a oaeaea
i?aia?aciaaiea Yeea?a, aaoa-ooieoeee, eoni/ii-eeiaeiuo e
eoni/ii-iaeeiaeiuo ooieoeee. Yoei aeinoeaaaony oi?aaeaiea oneiaeyie
oneeaiey eieaeueiiai eiio?anoa.

?ac?aaioaiu iaiauaiiua aenoia?aiiiua iaoiaeu i?aia?aciaaiee, iniiaaiiua
ia aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaeeiaeiuo i?aia?aciaaieyo eiiiiiaio aenoia?aiiu e
eoioeyoeaiie aenoia?aiiu iooai eniieueciaaiey aeey yoie oeaee
i?aia?aciaaiee Yeea?a, aaoa-ooieoeee e eoni/ii-iaeeiaeiuo ooieoeee;
iaoiae iiauoaiey oi/iinoe aenoia?aiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee iooai oiaiueoaiey
iia?aoiinoe ie?oaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia au/eneaiee.

Iino?iai iaiauaiiue iaoiae neieuecyueo acaaoaiiuo ?aiaiauo
i?aia?aciaaiee, eniieuecothuee eeanneoeeaoeeth iauaeoia ii eo eiio?anoo,
oeio e?eaeciu e aaaaeaiee niioaaonoaothueo aio aaniauo eiyooeoeeaioia.

?ac?aaioaiu iiaua eeannu ?aciinoiuo iaoiaeia, eioi?ua iniiauaathony ia
yae?ao ii?aaeaeaiey eieaeueiiai eiio?anoa aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aeaoaeueiie
ninoaaeythuae e aa eieaeueii-aaeaioeaiii oneeaiee n yeea?iauie, aaoa-,
eoni/ii-eeiaeiuie e eoni/ii-iaeeiaeiuie i?aia?aciaaieyie oiiiaie
ninoaaeythuae.

Iino?iaiu iiaua eeannu iaoiaeia iaeeiaeiiai i?aia?aciaaiey eieaeueiiai
eiio?anoa ia o?aoyoaiiie iniiaa n eniieueciaaieai ?acee/iuo iiaeoiaeia e
ii?aaeaeaieth eieaeueiiai eiio?anoa e oi?ie?iaaiey o?iaiy aaeaioaoeee.

Iaiauaia aeaooo?iaiaaay no?oeoo?a iino?iaiey i?eeeaaeiuo nenoai
ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee e eo o?aoo?iaiaaay nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey n aiia?aoiie ?aaeecaoeeae i?aia?aciaaiey
ecia?aaeaiee. Iieacaia yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
oaoiieiaee i?aia?aciaaiey ecia?aaeaiee a i?eeeaaeiuo iaeanoyo, /oi
iicaieeei aiaae?eoue a i?iecaionoai nenoaiu e i?ia?aiiiua eiiieaenu
ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?iaea ecia?aaeaiee, eiio?ano, ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey,
oeeueo?aoeey, iaoiae ?anoyaeaiey, aenoia?aiiiua i?aia?aciaaiey, ia?aceia
ianee?iaaiea.

Vorobel R.A. Digital image processing based on the theory of contrast.-
Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor degree by speciality 05.13.06 — automatic control
system and progressive information technologies. — State Institute of
Informational Infrastructure of the National Agency on Informatization
by the President of Ukraine, Lviv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the real time image processing. The new
scientific direction – digital image processing based on the theory of
contrast – is developed. It consists of using local contrasts with
properties of the metric space distance both for independent from
subjective perception quantitative evaluation and images characteristics
of different physical nature and for construction of methods of image
processing for the visual quality enhancement.

Expression for computation of general contrast for subject images is
constructed. Linear relation between local contrast and Laplasian is
obtained. It is shown that the local contrast is a base for the
construction of methods for images visual quality enhancement.

General methods for global and moving stretch of the band of the
brightness and histograms transformation are proposed. Euler’s
transformation, beta-functions, linear and nonlinear piecewise functions
for transformation of the components in this methods are used. General
methods of moving weighted rank transformation are built. Novel classes
of methods for unsharp masking using nonlinear transformation of
background component and methods for the nonlinear transformation of the
local contrast are obtained. Techniques of image processing and
problem-oriented systems are implemented in the industry.

Key words: image processing, contrast, image quality, filtering, stretch
technique, histogram transformation, unsharp masking.

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