IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO OE?A?IICIAANOAA ?I. ?. E?EI’ssEAAE*A

?INOEOOO IA?IAeICIAANOAA

Ae O Ae A Iaoae?y Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 394 (= 083) (477.8) (09)

O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao

e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue

07.00.05. — aoiieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? eoeueoo?ieia?? Oe?a?inueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

                        aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

                        IAAETHE Noaiai Iao?iae/,

                        aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

                        aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

                        OEAIAeA? Ieoaeei Iao?iae/,

                        eaoaae?a ?noi??? noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo ?
na?aaei?o a?e?a

                        Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

                        eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee,

                        C?EAOeUeEEE ?iiai A?ii?neaaiae/,

                        eaoaae?a aoiieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

                        ?i. ?.O?aiea, aeioeaio

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

                        *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH.
Oaaeueeiae/a,

                        eaoaae?a aoiieia??, aioe/ii? oa na?aaeiueia?/ii?
?noi???

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 11 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. i 15.30 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 35. 222. 01. ?c caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe i?e ?inoeooo? oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 290026, Euea?a, aoe. Eicaeueieoeueea, 4

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 290026, Euea?a-26, aoe.
Eicaeueieoeueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “09”  aeiaoiy   1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe NOAAE?E
O.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

 AEOOAEUeI?NOUe AeINE?AeAEAIIss. O iiiyoo? «o?aaeeoe?y» ao?eaia any
nooi?noue ?aea? ia?ic?eaiino? oa ?aeiino? aeooiaieo, aeiiii?/ieo ?
aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a ?nioaaiiy on?o no?oeoo?ieo oi?i aeeooy, a oaeiae
aaaaoiiai?oi?noue ?o i?aai?caoe?? o nenoaii? a?oie. Naia caaaeyee
o?aaeeoe?? ye ae?acieeo oaei? a?oiiai? oe?e?niino? (aeina?aeo, ciaiue)
caaacia/o?oueny no?ee?noue oeeo nenoai o /an? ? i?inoi??, i?e an?o
iaieio/eo i?e oeueiio ci?iao ? o?ainoi?iaoe?yo.

AEeoo?aee oeeee ea?iaonueeiai naeyieia, eiai ciaiiy ? oyaeaiiy aoee
o?nii iia’ycai? c n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii. O neeo aii??e/iiai
oa?aeoa?o ciaiue, i?ei?oeaiino? cia?yaeue i?aoe?,
i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ii? niaoeeo?ee Ea?iao, i?ioean
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oe?a?inueeeo ai?yi aoa
iiaeeeaee eeoa caaaeyee cae??ieaiith ? ia?aaea/? o?oaeiaiai aeina?aeo
o?aaeeoe??th. A?aea?? ? i?enoinoaaiiy cia?yaeue caiea?ianoaa, oa?i?ie
oeo /e ?ioeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o, nenoaie caiea?ianoaa,
ca?? ? caa?aaeaiiy o?iaeath ca?iiaeo oa ai?iaei?o eoeueoo?, n?ia,
a?aea?? aeae?a oa ii??ae oaa?ei — ana oea oi?ioaaeiny o ?acoeueoao?
cae??ieaiiy, iiaeaeueoi? ia?aaea/? oa a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaiai aeina?aeo
iieie?iue aaciina?aaei?o ae?iaiee?a.

Aeooaeueiei ia?aaeon?i ? oaiaoe/ii aecia/aiee oaeo caa?iaiiy o
i?iiiiiaai?e ?iaio? aei i?iaeaiaoeee o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue ye eiiieaeniiai ?
aaaaoia?aiiiai yaeua. Aiae?c o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao,
aeyaeaiiy oeiiaeo ianoaaei ?o iiaoooaaiiy ia ??aiyo ?iaeeie oa a?iiaaee
o e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO noie?oue ni?eyoeiooue e?auiio ?icoi?iith
caaaeueiiai noaio oa ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo oeueiai c??co o?aaeeoe?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao e?ioey
O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. ia eeoa caiiaieoue a?ae/ooio i?iaaeeio o
aena?oeaii? oe??? oaie, a e noaia eia?/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi o??? iaoeiai?
i?aoe?, ui i?iaiaeeeanue oe?a?inueeeie a/aieie o aea/aii?
iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ?aa?iio.

?icaeyae cacia/aieo ieoaiue iaaoaa? aeooaeueiino? naia ia no/aniiio
aoai?, eiee eaeaoueny i?i noai?aiiy ia an?o ??aiyo oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa noaa?eueieo, aaceiioe?eoieo ? nie?aea?ieo a?aeiinei.
Ine?eueee naia o?aaeeoe?y (o oiio /ene? e o?oaeiaa) ? iaeiei c
iaeaeoeai?oeo cania?a naii?aae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa, oi noa? i/aaeaeiei,
ui aac ?icaeoeo o?aaeeoe?e an? iiooae noai?aiiy oaeiai noni?euenoaa
caeeoaoueny ia?ieie.

I?AAeIAO AeINE?AeAEAIIss. I?aeo?ae aei aoiieia?/ieo yaeu ye
naiiaeinoaoi?o nenoai ? a oie aea /an ye nenoai a?aee?eoeo,
coiiaeth?oueny ianaiia?aae i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy — c’ynoaaiiy
na?aaeiaeua iiaoooaaiiy oa iaoai?cio ae?? (niiniae oi?ioaaiiy,
caa?aaeaiiy oa ia?aaea/?) o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e o caiea?ianoa? oa
oaa?eiieoeoa? oe?a?inueeeo aoiia?oi Ea?iao ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O —
ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

Aeyaeaiiy iaoai?cio ae?? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e, oiaoi niinia?a ?o
oi?ioaaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy oa ia?aaea/?, aeiaaa? ianaiia?aae ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie o ?aieao yeeo nioe?aeueieo a?oi oa na?aaeiaeua ooieoe?iiothoue
oe? o?aaeeoe??. O ea?iaonueeiio oe?a?inueeiio nae? oaeeie nioe?aeueieie
a?oiaie aoee naeyinueea n?i’y oa n?euenueea a?iiaaea.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. ae?iaie/? i?ioeane
ia?aie?oaeenue c aeiiaoi?i, ?iaeeiiei aeeooyi ai?yi, ine?eueee naia
naeyinueea ?iaeeia aoea ia?aeiiei ae?iaie/ei ina?aaeeii a
iai?aiaoo?aeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?. O o?e neeaaei?e nenoai?
ae?iaie/i-?iaeeiieo a?aeiinei, yeo noaiiaeea naeyinueea ?iaeeia
iaoai?ci ae?? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e aoa iaa?aeae?eueiee a?ae
?aaoethaaiiy o?aaeeoe??th ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a, oi?ioaaiiy iaoiae?a
o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy ? aoeee a?aeiinei ??cieo iieie?iue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeeo aoiia?oi Ea?iao
iia’ycaii ? c aeyaii ?ie? n?euenueei? a?iiaaee o ooieoe?iioaaii?
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e. Aaaeeeai ?icaeyiooe oae? caniae o/ano? a?iiaaee
o oi?ioaaii?, caa?aaeaii? oa ia?aaea/? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e ye
aca?iiaeiiiiiaa, aaaaoiiai?oi? oi?ie aioo??oiueia?iiaaenueeeo o?oaeiaeo
eiioaeo?a, iaia’yceia? o?oaeia? iiaeiiino?, o oiae? yeeo ae?iaeyeany
a?iiaaenueea aeoiea i?i eiie?aoieo ?ia?oiee?a, a?aeoe?oiaoaaeenue
iaae/ee, ia?aaeaaaeenue o?oaeia? ciaiiy.

CA’ssCIE ?IAIOE C IAOEIAEIE I?IA?AIAIE, IEAIAIE, OAIAIE. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o ?aieao iaoeiai? oaie eaoaae?e eoeueoo?ieia?? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo “?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo canaae
iii?oi?eiao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?niae?iaie/iai eiiieaeno”
AeA. 06-32 — 95.

IAOA AeINE?AeAEAIIss — c’ynoaaoe iniiai? i?e/eie oi?ioaaiiy oa
noaiiaeaiiy : a oaeiae i?aeoe/iee ci?no o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e
oe?a?inueeeo naeyi Ea?iao ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.,
na?aaeiaeua ?o iiaoooaaiiy oa iaoai?ci ae??.

Aeoiaey/e c iinoaaeaii? iaoe, o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii:

1) o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? a ainiiaea?nuee?e ae?yeueiino? oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao;

2) ianooii?noue ? eiina?aaoeci o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e a caiea?ianoa? oa
oaa?eiieoeoa?;

3) ?aaoeyoeaia ooieoe?y o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e o
ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nuee?e ae?yeueiino? naeyinueei? ?iaeeie ye
ia?aeiiiai ae?iaie/iai ina?aaeeo;

4) o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy ye iniiaiee niin?a caa?aaeaiiy ? iioe?aiiy
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e a oe?a?inuee?e ea?iaonuee?e n?i’?;

5) ?ieue n?euenueei? a?iiaaee o oi?ioaaii?, caa?aaeaii? oa ia?aaea/?
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e;

6) iaoiaeieia?th ? iiiyo?eiee aia?ao aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

OA?EOI??ss AeINE?AeAEAIIss — aoiia?ao?/i? ?aeiie Ea?iao: Aiee?aueia,
Aooeoeueueia, Eaie?aueia.

O?IIIEIA?*I? ?AIEE — ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O — ii/aoie OO no., ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e
oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao. Naia o oeae ia??iae o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? ai?yi
iaea?eueo iiaii ioi?ieeenue ? aeyaeeenue ye iaaia oe?e?nia nenoaia
n?euenueeiai na?aaeiaeua. Iaeiae, ia’?eoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoiieia?/ieo oa aoii?noi?e/ieo aniaeo?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
o?aaeeoe?e iio?aao? iaaiiai ci?uaiiy ? ?icoe?aiiy cacia/aieo
o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie.

IAOIAeIEIA?*IO INIIAO AeINE?AeAEAIIss o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao noaiiaeoue I?EIOeEI ?NOI?ECIO, ai ci?ie nioe?aeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, aeiiii?/iee oa eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie aecia/aeueiith i??ith
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie o?aaeeoe?e. Aeey aiae?co ci?noo
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e o caiea?ianoa? oa oaa?eiieoeoa?, aeyaeaiiy niinia?a
?o cae??ieaiiy ? ia?aaea/?, canoiniaoaaeeny oae? iaoiaee ye
?NOI?EEI-II??AIssEUeIEE OA ?AO?INIAEOEAII-?AEIINO?OEOe?EIEE IAOIAeE, ye?
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo o?oaeiaeo
o?aaeeoe?e i?ioyaii cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo.

Oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ioaaeanue eiiieaenii, ye oaea, ui
i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aoiia?ao?/ieo ?ic?iaie, ?
aeai? aiae?oe/ieo ?ica?aeie, cae?enithaaieo o ??cieo aaeocyo
aoiai?oa?ieo ciaiue, cie?aia: ?noi???, nioe?ieia??, eoeueoo?ieia??, a
oaeiae ineoieia?? oa o?einio??.

OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeAEA?AEUeII? AACE. Aei ae??oaiiy cacia/aieo ieoaiue aoei
caeo/aii oe?iea eiei a?o?aieo oa e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, cie?aia
iaoa??aee a?o?ao ?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o Eueaia?, A?aeae?eo ?oeiien?a
Euea?anueei? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?iai? A.Noaoaieea. Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii
noaea oiai/ania ia??iaeeea: aacaoe, aeo?iaee, aeueiaiaoe, ??ciiiai?oi?
ca??ieee, eaeaiaea?? oiui.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy
aeaea?aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ia canaaeao no/anii? iaoiaeieia??,
iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo, a oaeiae iiiyo?eieo iiaiaaaaeaiue eiiieaenii
aeine?aeaeaii:

— o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Ea?iao ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue.

— eoeueoo?o oe?a?inueeeo ai?yi ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO
noie?oue.

— caeo/aii aei iaoeiaiai aaeeoeo cia/io e?euee?noue iaeia?aeiieo
oaeo?a, aeieoiaio?a oa iaoa??ae?a.

— eiie?aoiee ci?no oa iaoai?ci ae?? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e a iniiaieo
aaeocyo ainiiaea?noaa aiee?a, aooeoe?a, eaie?a — caiea?ianoa? ?
oaa?eiieoeoa?.

— o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? ye aaciaa iiiyooy no/anii? aoiieia??.

— ?ieue o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e ye iniiaiiai niiniao i?aai?caoe?? oa
?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo i?ioean?a, cae??ieaii? ? ia?aaea/? ?o a
oe?a?inuee?e ea?iaonuee?e ?iaeei?;

— i?noea n?euenueei? a?iiaaee ye na?aaeiaeua oi?ioaaiiy
niinia?a caa?aaeaiiy oa ia?aaea/? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e.

— cia/aiiy o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e o caa?aaeaii? aoi?/ii? naiiaooiino?
oa iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?ioe?a a oiiaao ?iicaiiiai aiiaeaiiy.

IAOEIAA ? I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeINE?AeAEAIIss. Oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee ?iaioe uiaei o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeeo
aoiia?oi Ea?iao ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue,
oa?aeoa?enoeea na?aaeiaeua ?o ?icaeoeo, niiniae ia?aaea/? oa iioe?aiiy
noaiiaeyoue iaaiee ?ioa?an aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e, ?o
?ie? a ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey noai?aiiy
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue i?i o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo.

?noi??ia?ao?/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y, yea aeeth/a? a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee ? iaeia?aeii? ioae?eaoe??, iiaea iineoaeeoe aeia?aeeiaei
aeaea?aeii aeey ?ic?iaee ?ioeo i?iaeai aoiieia??.

IIEIAEAIIss, ssE? AEIINssOUeNss IA CAOENO:

1. O?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y — oea ae?aaeaiee o nioe?aeueii  i?aai?ciaaieo
noa?aioeiao o?oaeiaee aeina?ae, yeee oeyoii i?inoi?iai-/aniai?
ia?aaea/? aeoioeth?oueny oa a?aeoai?th?oueny o ?aieao n?i’? oa a?iiaaee
ye iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo ina?aaee?a oe?a?inueeeo ai?yi.

2. O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? aoee iniiaiith oi?iith caa?aaeaiiy ? ia?aaea/?
aeina?aeo a caiea?ianoa? ? oaa?eiieoeoa?.

3. Iniiaieie na?aaeiaeuaie oi?ioaaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy oa ia?aaea/?
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao aoee naeyinueea ?iaeeia oa
n?euenueea a?iiaaea.

4. O ?aieao naeyinueei? ?iaeeie o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? aenooiaee
?aaoeyoi?aie aeeoo?aiai ?eoio, a o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy ae?oae — aeoeaiei
niiniaii i?inoi?iai? oa i?aeiieie?iii? ia?aaea/? oeeo o?aaeeoe?e.

6. A?iiaaenueea aeoiea ye niin?a cae??ieaiiy oa ia?aaea/? o?aaeeoe?e
oi?ioaaeanue aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy eiie?aoieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o, aca?iiaeiiiiiae, ??cieo oi?i
eiiia?aoe??, aeeiiaiiy o?oaeiaeo iiaeiiinoae.

7. O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? aoee oi?iith caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiiaooiino? oe?a?inueeeo ai?yi, neeaaeiaith ?o aoiieoeueoo?iiai
naiiaecia/aiiy.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?IAIOE. ?iaioo iaaiai?aii ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
eoeueoo?ieia?? Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
a?aeae?eo caaaeueii? aoiia?ao?? oa A/aii? ?aaee ?inoeoooo
ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
«Iaoeiaa niaaeueia N.Aaeay oa i?iaeaie ca’yceo o?einio?? oa
ineoieia??» oa «Aeaiie?aoe/i? oe?iiino? oe?a?inueeiai aeoiaaiiy», a
oaeiae ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao Oe? AeEOO.

Eeth/ia? iiiaioe e aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii o
iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eo?no c ia?iaeiciaanoaa a
Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio e?nioaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

NO?OEOO?A AeENA?OAOe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio (n.3-11) o?ueio ?icae?e?a
(n.12-145), aeniiae?a (n.146-151) oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?
e?oa?aoo?e (n.152.-183), ui i?noeoue 275 iaeiaioaaiue.

NOENEEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe? ?

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aecia/aii iaoo ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaecio iaea?aeaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe??: ?noi??ia?ao?/iee oa
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aniaeoe” neeaaea?oueny c aeaio ia?aa?ao?a.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?noi??ia?ao?y oa a?ae?ia?ao?y
i?iaeaie.

O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao ua ia aoee i?aaeiaoii naiino?eieo
iiiia?ao?/ieo ?ic?iaie, aea i?eaa?oaee oaaao aeine?aeiee?a c ii/aoeo
O?O noie?ooy. O i?aoeyo ss. Aieiaaoeueeiai, ?. Aaaeeaae/a, I.
Coa?eoeueeiai, A. Io?eiiae/a i?noyoueny o?aaiaioa?i? a?aeiiino? i?i
o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao.

E?iaoeue O?O no., a iniaeeai 90-o? ?iee a?aecia/eeeny a aoiia?ao?/i?e
iaooe? Aaee/eie ye ia??iae ?icea?oo iaoeiai? aeoiee. Iiaee aoai aoa
iia’ycaiee c iaoeiaith ? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iith ae?yeuei?noth ?.O?aiea
oa eiai o/iy ? iine?aeiaieea A.Aiaothea. Naia ?. O?aiei oa A.Aiaothe
aecia/eee iai?yiee o cae?aii? aoiia?ao?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, o nenoaiiiio
aea/aii? o?oaeiai? eoeueoo?e Ea?iao oe?a?inueeeie, iieuenueeeie ?
aano??enueeeie a/aieie.

C ii/aoeo OO no. c’yaeythoueny i?aoe? c i?iaeai aoiiaaiaco, aoi?/ii?
?noi??? ai?yi, ui iathoue iaaaeyea cia/aiiy o eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiiy
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e.

Anoaiiaeaiiy ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee aianei
nai? ei?aeoeae ? o aoiia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ea?iaonueeiai e?ath. Oa,
iacaaaeath/e ia an? ?aeaieia?/i? iie?o/?, oe?a?inueea aoiia?ao?y
?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo c?a?aea iaaaeyeo ?ieue o caa?aaeaii? oa
i?iiaaaiae? ia?iaeii? eoeueoo?e, aeyaeyth/e ?? aaaaonoai oa
aaaaoia?aii?noue. I?iaeaiaoeea o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oae /e ?iaeoa
i?aei?ia?oueny o i?aoeyo no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo-aoiia?ao?a,
aeine?aeiee?a Ea?iao TH.A.Aioea, ?.O.Ee?/?aa, I.I.Oeaiaea?a,
A.E.Ai?eiue, I.Ae.Iaiaeeao?e, N.I.Iaaethea oa ?i.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao “Nooi?noue, no?oeoo?a oa ooieoe?? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e”
i?enay/aiee aiae?co iai?yie?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o?oaeiaeo
o?aaeeoe?e a ?iaioao oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a.
Aiae?cothoueny oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee ia o?eueee oao?aoe?a-aoiieia?a, a e
?noi?ee?a, o?einio?a, nioe?ieia?a, eoeueoo?ieia?a.

Cie?aia, o i?ae?icae?e? inieneaii i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iiiyooy
“o?aaeeoe?y”, Noi?iiaaia o O?O no. i?ae aieeaii e?oa?aoo?iiai ?iiaioecio
oea iiiyooy noaei iaia’yceiaei, oi/a e ia aeoaea /?oeei icia/aiiyi aei
aaaaoueio ?iaiiee?a. O O?O ? ua ia ii/aoeo OO no. neiai “o?aaeeoe?y”
iaei aeaui ?ioee nain. Iae/ano?oa i?ae iei ?icoi?ee oa, ui nueiaiaei?
iaceaathoue eiie?aoieie aniaeoaie o?aaeeoe?e: ?ae?a?ei?,
a??iniia?aeaeuei?, eiioan?ei?, iaoe?iiaeuei?. O oeueiio eiioaeno?
iiiyooy o?aaeeoe?? anioe?thaaeinue ianaiia?aae c i?oii, oieueeei?ii,
?ae?a??th, iiaooiaith ia?yaeia?noth oa ?ioeie iiae?aieie niiniaaie
iane?aeoaaiiy.

Iine?aeiai?oa, oi/a iaiaaeaia ?aieaie ia?enenonueei? ?aeaieia??,
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y o?aaeeoe?? “ye iaaiiai oeio a?aeiinei” c’yaeeanue o
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? c e?ioey 70-o ?ie?a iaoiai noie?ooy.

O eoeueoo?ieia?? iaea?eueo iiaii aecia/ea o?aaeeoe?th A. N. Ia?ea?yi,
oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ?? ye niin?a caaacia/aiiy iiaeeeaino? ae??oaiiy iiaeo
oai?/eo caaaeaiue, ea?oth/enue eieaeoeaiei aeina?aeii ieioeeo iieie?iue
.

O?einionueeee i?aeo?ae aei o?aaeeoe?? ye eiiieaeniiai yaeua aeicaiey?
ioiieoe i?aeoe/ii an? ?? iniiai? ia?aiao?e: 1) oa, ui o?aaeeoe?y
i?noeoue noio yei?nue aaaeeeai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (aeina?aeo); 2) oa?aeoa? ?
ci?no oe??? ?ioi?iaoe?? aecia/a?oueny a?oiith (eieaeoeaii), a yeiio aiia
iiaooo?; 3) a?aea??, iioe?aiiy oa ia?aaea/a oe??? ?ioi?iaoe??
cae?enith?oueny o?aaeeoe??th /a?ac caeeaaeai? o ?? no?oeoo?e iaoai?cie.

O ia?aa?ao? iieacaii, ui oaeee iiaeyae ia o?aaeeoe?th aeineoue eaaei
i?iaeoo?oueny c caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiai ??aiy ia ie?ai? ia’?eoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia ia o?oaeiao noa?o eiie?aoiiai ?noi?e/iiai
?aa?iio iaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? ?icaeyaeathoueny aacia? aeey eiiieaenii?
aeao?i?oe?? o?aaeeoe?? iiiyooy: “noa?aioei iiaaae?iee”, “nioe?aeueia
ii?ia”, “aeeiai?ea o?aaeeoe??”. Oea aeicaiey? cai?iiiioaaoe
eeaneo?eaoe?th o?aaeeoe?e. O?aaeeoe?? eeaneo?eothoueny ca noa’?eoaie
(iin?yie), ca noa?aie, a yeeo aiie ooieoe?iiothoue oa ca caniaaie
aeoioeyoe?? ? ia?aaea/? a?oiiaiai aeina?aeo ethaeae. Oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y
aaciina?aaeiuei iaaeeaea? aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “o?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y.
O?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny ye eieaeueiee i?iya o?aaeeoe??
acaaae? (eoeueoo?ii?), a ia a?aei?iia a?ae ia? yaeua. Caaaeueiei
caeeoa?oueny iaoai?ci o?aaeeoe??: o?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y oae naii o?eno?,
caa??aa? ? o?aineth? ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueeee aeina?ae iaaii?
ni?eueiioe, ye eoeueoo?ia o?aaeeoe?y i?aai?ciao? anth noio iaaooi?
ni?eueiioith ?ioi?iaoe??.

Oaea eiie?aoecaoe?y o?aaeeoe?? ?acii c iaa?oiooaaiiyi neiaa “o?oaeiaa”
aeicaiey? iaaeae? ?ice?eoe ?? no?oeoo?o ? ooieoe?iiaeueio ?aae?caoe?th
o noa?? ae?yeueiino?.

No?oeoo?o o?aaeeoe?? iiaeia aeaanoe oeyoii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiiyooy
“o?aaeeoe?y” c ?ioeie iiiyooyie, ui oaeiae iicia/athoue ie?ai?
??ciiaeaee noa?aioeiieo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? aeina?aeo: cae/ae, ia?yae,
?eooae. Aeoaea /anoi oe? iiiyooy aai ia ni?aa?aeiinyoueny i?ae niaith,
aai ni?aa?aeiinyoueny ia iniia? ni?iuaii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iiiyooy
“o?aaeeoe?y” ye neiii?ie, O aeena?oaoe?? ae aeiaeueiao?oueny noaia,
iiaoaeiaaia ca i?eioeeiii “??ae-aeae”, aea o?aaeeoe?? a?aeaiaeeoueny
i?noea caaaeueiiai, ?iaeiaiai iiiyooy, a cae/ae, ia?yae ? ?eooae
?icaeyaeathoueny ye aeaeia? ? neeaaeia? eaoaai??? o?aaeeoe??.
Iine?aeiaii aecia/athoueny iiiyooy cae/ath, ia?yaeo ? ?eooaeo,
anoaiiaeth?oueny a?aeiioaiiy oeeo iiiyoue aei o?aaeeoe??. Oea
oiiaeeeaeth? aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a iniia? cae/ath, ia?yaeo, ?eooaeo
eaaeeoue o?aaeeoe?y, a aiie aenooiathoue ?? eiie?aoieie i?iyaaie.
Oaeoi?ii, ui oeaiaioo? o?aaeeoe?th ? ?? neeaaeia? /anoeie o ?aeeio
eiiieaenio nenoaio ? no?aoaa?/ia ?o i?ecia/aiiy — ?ai?iaeoeoe?y oa
i?enoinoaaiiy nai?o aea aeanieo oi?i o /an?. Iaeiiai?oa aeyaeoe oeae
neeaaeiee ? aaaaoia?aiiee i?ioean iiaeia, ?icae?eeaoe eiai ia
ooieoe?iiaeuei? /anoeie, ye? ei?ioei ai?uothoueny o aecia/aii?:
oi?ioaaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy, ia?aaea/a o?eniaaiiai aeina?aeo.

O ia?aa?ao? aeaoae?co?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy ?
aaeaioeaii? ci?ie ye o?aaeeoe?? caaaeii, oae ? ?? no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a, ye? noaiiaeyoue ci?no aeoioeyoeaii? ooieoe?? o?aaeeoe??.

Caa?aaeaiiy o?aaeeoe??th aeina?aeo o ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nuee?e noa??
icia/a? iaeia?oa noaa?e?caoe?th iath iaaiiai o?oaeiaiai ?eoio, yeee ia
eeoa cae??iethaaany o?aaeeoe??th, a e ?aeaieia?/ii iath
iaa?oioiaoaaany. Iioeiaeueiee aeey oeo /e ?ioeo oiia o?oaeiaee ?eoi
?acii c aeaoaeueiei aii??e/iei eieaeoeaiei ciaiiyi
i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?aa?iio aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue aeinyaoe
aaaeaieo ae?iaie/eo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ianooiiei e?ieii aeoioeyoe?? o?oaeiaiai aeina?aeo aenooia? eiina?aaoe?y.
Ia?oueny ia oaac? eiina?aaoeci ia ye uinue ?aaeoe?eii-canoeaea, ui
iaia’yceiai iio??aii iiaeieaoe, a o i?yiiio cia/aii?: conservo —
caa??aath, ioi?iiyth.

Naia c eiina?aaoeciii iia’ycaiee aeanoeaee an?i o?aaeeoe?eiei nenoaiai
eoeueo i?aaee?a ? noa?oeo. Ciaiiy oa?i?i?a ? oa?aeoa?o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o, ?o ee?iaoe/ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y,
iniaeeaino? ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo?, aieiae?iiy an?ia iaiao?aeieie aeey
oni?oo o?oaeiaeie iaae/eaie ? i?eeiiaie ia?ia?oeo caie?, aeiaeyaeo ca
ooaeiaith, caa?aaeaiiy ? ia?a?iaee io?eiaiiai i?iaeoeoo — an? oe? ciaiiy
aeoioethaaeenue o noa?oiai iieie?iiy. Eiina?aaoeci i?iyaeyany ? /a?ac
noeeue iiaaae?iee noa?oeo ca a?eii: iaii?ooia aiaaiai?noue o nai?e
aaniethoi?e i?aaio?, ona?aeiieaiiy (/anoi a?ia?o?ioiaaia) cia/eiino? ?
iaci?iiino? iaaooiai aeina?aeo, caieaeaia ioe?iea iieiaeoeo. Iaaiith
i??ith oaeee eiina?aaoeci iaa?oue noeioethaaa iiyao iiaiai, aea o?eueee
niiniaii ?ic?eao c iiia?aaeiueith o?aaeeoe??th, a ia ?? aaiethoe??th.

?aaoeyoeaia ooieoe?y o?aaeeoe?? i?iyaeyeanue ia i?ioeanoaeueiiio ??ai?.
Cae/ae ?aaeaiaiooaaa ci?no, ii?yaeie ? oaoiieia?th aeeiiaiiy oeo /e
?ioeo ?ia?o ia iniia? cae??ieaiiai iei i?aeoe/ii cia/eiiai aeina?aeo.
Ia?yae ? ?eooae ea?oaaee oiaeii eiie?aoieo o?oaeiaeo iia?aoe?e ? /a?ac
caeeaaeaio o ieo nenoaio naieoe?e eiio?iethaaee ?? aoaeoeai?noue.

Iaea?eueo ae??aei caniaii ?aae?caoe?? o?oaeiaith o?aaeeoe??th
?aaoeyoeaii? ooieoe?? aoea a?iiaaenueea aeoiea — ?iaeeie, ?iaee/?a,
?iaaniee?a, non?ae?a, a?iiaaee, yea caaaeii noaaaea ae??oaeueiei
/eiieeii a ioe?ioe? o?oaeiai? ai?aaiino? iniae.

An? cacia/ai? aeua ooieoe?? o?aaeeoe?? ?aae?cothoueny o ?aieao iaeeo
nioe?aeueieo a?oi — ?iaeeie oa a?iiaaee. O ia?aa?ao? aiae?co?oueny
?ieue ?iaeeie oa a?iiaaee o oi?ioaaii?, caa?aaeaii? oa ia?aaea/?
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e, iaoai?ci o?aaeeoe?? oa eiai
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oi?ie — iane?aeoaaiiy, iaa?thaaiiy ? o. i.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ainiiaea?nuee? o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao: ci?no oa iaoai?ci ae??” ocaaaeueiththoueny a?aeiiino? ienaiieo
oa iieueiaeo aeaea?ae uiaei ci?noo o?aaeeoe?e a caiea?ianoa? ?
oaa?eiieoeoa?. Ci?no oeeo o?aaeeoe?e aecia/a?oueny ianaiia?aae
o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth, ui oi?ioaaeanue i?ae aieeaii i?e?iaeieo oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a. Iniiaieie aeaeaie caiyoue ooo aoee
caiea?ianoai oa oaa?eiieoeoai, c ia?aaaaith ia?oiai ia Aiee?auei? oa
Eaie?auei?, a ae?oaiai — ia Aooeoeueuei?.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? o caiea?ianoa? oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao” aeena?oaio, a?aeooiaooth/enue a?ae eeaneo?eaoe?? I.I.A?iieei1 ,
cai?iiiioaaea oaeo noaio iaoai?cio ae?? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao: 1) ia?iaeiee eaeaiaea?, ui i?noea ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oa?i?ie oa
oeeee?/i?noue iniiaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o; 2) ia?iaei?
i?eeiaoe oa iaoai?ieia?/i? ciaiiy; 3) o?oaeia? nayoa (ia?oee aeo?ae o
iiea, ia?oee aea?i ooaeiae, caaeeiee, iaaeeiee oiui); 4) ainiiaea?nueea
iaa?y; 4) a?iiaaenueea aeoiea, ui oi?ioaaeanue i?ae /an iaaeaiiy
o?oaeiai? aeiiiiiae oa i?iaaaeaiiy i?eioniaeo a?iiaaenueeeo ?ia?o; 6)
o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy iieiaeiai iieie?iiy; 7) ona?aeiieaiiy cia/eiino? ?
aaaeeeaino? naeyinueei? i?aoe?.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. o caiea?ianoa? oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? o?enoaaee iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie
ae?iuoaaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo eoeueoo?: aeiaeyae, cae?aiiy, caa??aaiiy oa
ia?a?iaeo. Oi?ioaaee neeaae ae?iuoaaieo iieueiaeo oa ai?iaei?o eoeueoo?.

O?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y aecia/aea iniiai? oi?ie caieaei?enooaaiiy: ia
Aiee?auei?, /anoeiai ia Eaie?auei? — i?eioniaa n?aici?ia i?e
aeaii?euei?e nenoai? caiea?ianoaa, ia Aooeoeueuei? — nai???aeia
aaaaoii?eey, iaia’yceiaa an?ia /eaiaie a?iiaaee aeio?eiaiiy oa?i?i?a
iieueiaeo ?ia?o aeey aaniyiiai oa in?iiueiai aeiano ooaeiae ia an?o
a?oioao, o ni?eueiiio ei?enooaaii? ianiaeuaie, e?naie ? n?iieinaie.

Uiaei ia?oiai, oi i?aeoe/ii aae aei e?ea?aeaoe?? ?aaeyinueeith aeaaeith
i?eaaoii? oa a?iiaaenueei? aeaniino? ia caieth aeaii?eey o Ea?iaoao
aeaeyaeaei oae: on? i?i? caie? naea oiiaii ae?eeeenue ia aea? iaeaea
??aiii??i? oa ??aiioe?ii? /anoeie: i?ia iiea — “oea?eio” oa ianiaeua —
“oieieo”. Oiio aeaii?eey o Ea?iaoao /ano?oa iaceaathoue
oiei/ii-oea?eiiith nenoaiith caiea?ianoaa, yea iiaea aeieeiooe e
?icaeiooenue o?eueee ca oiiae neeueiiai, i?aai?ciaaiiai o?oaeiaith
o?aaeeoe??th, a?iiaaenueeiai i?eiono. Aac oeueiai aoei a i?inoi
iaiiaeeeaa ?aaoey?ia /a?aoaaiiy ae?eyiie caie? ??cii? aeaniino? ia
ni?eueia ianiaeua /e iiea. O i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ci?ie, ye?
a?aeaoaaeeny o oiei/ii-oea?eii?e nenoai? ai?iaeiaae ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O
noie?ooy.

Ia Aooeoeueuei? o?aaeeoe?y cae??ieea nai???aeia aaaaoii?eey oa
ae?oaii-aiaiaaa ainiiaea?noai, oiei/ii-oea?eiii? nenoaie ooo ia aoei.
Aieiaieie /eiieeaie ia?aaaae aaaaoii?eey aoee o?ii?/ia ianoa/a
i?eaeaoieo aeey i?ia?aneaiiai ia?ia?oeo caiaeue oa ae?oai?yaei?noue
caiea?ianoaa ye aeaeo ae?yeueiino? ii??aiyii c oaa?eiieoeoaii.
Aooeoeuenueea aaaaoii?eey iaei naith niaoeeo?eo. Canoiniaoaaeinue aiii
ia?aaaaeii ia iaaaeeeeo ae?eyieao — “ai?iaeao” (a?ae “ai?iaeeoe”,
“iaai?iaeaeoaaoe”), ?icoaoiaaieo aai aaciina?aaeiuei a?ey naaeeae, aai
ae o ai?ao, aea oaeei /eiii, uia aei ieo iiaeia aoei aei?oaoe aicii.
Oiaoee caie? i?ae ie?ai? eoeueoo?e aoee cian?i iaeeie, ia ia?aaeuoaaee
10-15 nioie.

Ci?noii o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e aecia/aany o?oaeiaee ?eoi caiea?ianueeeo
?ia?o, oiaoi /an ? ii?yaeie ?o i?iaaaeaiiy. Iniiaiei iin??i ?ioi?iaoe??
iiae?aiiai oa?aeoa?o neoaeea ia?iaeiee eaeaiaea?. A?i aoa iaeiei c
aeoeaieo niinia?a o?aini?n?? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e, ine?eueee a iueiio ia
eeoa eiaeoaaeanue ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ii/aoee oa oa?i?ie iaaieo ?ia?o, aea e
ca eiai aeiiiiiaith i?aai?ciaoaaany aanue o?oaeiaee i?ioean. Cie?aia,
/a?ac nenoaio caai?ii cae?enithaaeenue /a?aoaaiiy aei?a i?aoe? oa
a?aeii/eieo, ?aaeaiaioaoe?y iaaieo ?ia?o o o? /e ?io? aei?. Iai?eeeaae,
ia Aooeoeueuei? o i’yoieoeth ia iiaeia aoei iaeoe, oeoe, naaeeoe
ea?oiieth.

O i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny o?aaeeoe?? ca oeeeeaie iieueiaeo ?ia?o.
Aaniyiee oeeee iieueiaeo ?ia?o ii/eiaany c i?aiee ? iia’ycoaaany c
iaae?yie ia aeia?ee o?iaeae. C oe??th iiae??th aoei iia’ycaii /eiaei
a??oaaiue, caaiaii?a, iaa?/ieo ae?e. ?aoe?iiaeueia iiyniaiiy oaeeo
ia?yae?a, ye ea/aiiy ii caie?, ia?aaaeyaaiiy o nayoeiaee, “/enoee”
iaeya, aaeeaaiiy oe?aa ? aiaee ye iaa?aa?a, niaoe?aeuei? caeeeiaiiy ?
iieeoae (iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o iioiaeaeaiiy) aoei iaeia: uia a?iaeea
aeia?ee o?iaeae.

Iiaoooaaee e ?io? ia?yaee aaniyiiai oeeeeo ?ia?o, ui ?o aecia/aee
o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe??. Ia ??ai? i?aeaioiaee aei aaniyieo ?ia?o o?oaeiaa
o?aaeeoe?y cae?enithaaea aeineoue /?oeee iiae?e i?aoe? ca
noaoaai-a?eiaei i?eioeeiii. Any ?iaioa, iia’ycaia c i?aeaioiaeith aei
iin?ao ca?iiaeo, i?iaiaeeeanue /ieia?eaie, ai?iaei?o eoeueoo? —
ae?ieaie.

I?ae /an iin?ao aeeiioaaany ?yae ??ciiiai?oieo iaa?/ii-?eooaeueieo ae?e:
aei iin?aiiai ca?ia e?eoeee caeeoee Aaeeeiaei?o ianie, e?aoaiie,
iiaeaeoaee aeiaeaaaee ca?ii iaiiei/aiiai aeeoiueiai niiia — “ae?aeooa”,
e?iieee eiai nay/aiith ia “Ei?aeaia” aiaeith, caaiai?thth/e iieeoaaie oa
o?anoy/e. O i?ae?icae?e? iienaii e?oith oa in?iith i?aiee.

Aaeeea e?euee?noue o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e iia’ycaia c ae?iuoaaiiyi
ea?oiie?. O O?O noie?oo? ea?oiiey caaieiaoaaea iia? oa?eoi??? o ?a?ii?,
noath/e iinooiiai iaeaea iiiieoeueoo?ith o naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noaao,
ci???ioiaaieo ia iai?aiaoo?aeueia ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Neacaia noino?oueny
? oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Ea?iao. O i?ae?icae?e? aeaoaeueii iienaii
oaoiieia?th ae?iuoaaiiy ea?oiie?, ui aeieeea, cae??ieeanue ?
ia?aaeaaaeanue /a?ac o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe??.

Cia/io ?ieue o naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noaao a?ae?a?aaaee e ai?iaei?
eoeueoo?e, iniaeeai “ei?ieaaa a??” — eaionoa.

Iniiaiith caiea?ianueeith i?aoeath naeyieia o e?oi?e ia??iae aoa
aeiaeyae ca ?ineeiaie, ?o i?iiiethaaiiy oa i?inaioaaiiy. O ai?iaeieoeoa?
o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? caa?aaee oaeiae /eiaei ?i?oaoeaii-iaa?/ieo ae?e,
iai?aaeaieo ia caa?aaeaiiy oa iie?auaiiy yeino? o?iaeath. Iiaeeeai, oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui ai?iaeieoeoai aoei iaeaea aeeeth/ii ae?ii/ith
?iaioith, a ae?iee i?aeoe/ii a on?o neia’yi niieiia?e?a aoee
aeeiiaaoeyie aeiiaoiueiai, aoaeaiiiai /a?oaaiiy. Aaaaoi oaaae
i?eae?eyeinue o iueiio ioi?ii? ai?iaeeie a?ae iinyaaiue “ia/enoi? neee”,
“ceiai iea”, /a??a, a?aaeo, a?iio, Ua ia ii/aoeo OO no. o aaaaoueio
a??nueeeo naeao aoee “oia?ieee”, eio??, ca a??ith ai?yi, ai?ee
a?aeaa?iooe iaaiaeo.

O?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y ?aaeaiaiooaaea ii?yaeie cai?o ?ineei: ia?oeie
cae?aee icei? — aeeoi, y/i?iue, cae?i/oaaee y?ei aeeoii oa a?anii. O
aeena?oaoe?? iienai? ia?yaee, iia’ycai? c aeieaaie: aeaiue ii/aoeo aeiea
oa iaaeeiee. Iniaeeai o?i/enoei o Ea?iaoao, ye ? ii an?e Oe?a?i?, aoa
aeaiue caaa?oaiiy aeiea — iaaeeiee. Nayoi oea aoei aaaaoa ia ia?yaeia?
ae?? oa ?eooaee, na?aae yeeo /eiaei oaeeo, ui ?o iiaeia a?aeianoe aei
iaeaeaai?oeo ieano?a ia?iaeii? eoeueoo?e.

O ia?aa?ao? iienaii cae/a? “a’ycaiiy “ai?iaee” /e “nianiai? ai?iaee”,
inoaiiueiai niiia — “nayuaiiiai i?aaeiaoo” oa ?io?.

O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? iaoiiaethaaee ?io? caiea?ianuee? ?iaioe: cae?aiiy
ai?iaeeie, iieioueao, caaio?aeth n?ia oiui.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? o oaa?eiieoeoa? oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao” aiae?co?oueny ci?no oa ooieoe?? o?aaeeoe?e o iaeaeaai?oiio
caiyoo? ianaeaiiy Ea?iao — oaa?eiieoeoa?. A oe?a?inueeeo ai?yi Ea?iao,
iniaeeai o aooeoe?a, aiii caeaaia aoei iniiaiei caiyooyi ? oiio iaei
iaaecae/aeii aaeeeee aieea ia aanue aeeoo?aee oeeaae, iiaoo oa eoeueoo?o
ai?yi.

O i?ae?icae?e? iienaii o?aaeeoe?? a?aeai?o ii??ae, ?icaaaeaiiy ?
a?aeaiae?ae? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, iaaoeue, eiiae, naeiae, e?c. C
oi/ee ci?o aeiaeyaeo ca aeiiaoiueith ooaeiaith ea?iaonueea
oaa?eiieoeoai oa?aeoa?ecoaaeiny oaeeie oaeoi?aie: naciiiee aeian ooaeiae
ae?oeo (ia oieieao oa a??nueeeo ianiaeuao), iaaani? oa ainaie (ia eoeao,
iieyo, o e?n?) oa no?eeiaei oo?eiaiiyi ?o aceieo.

A aoi?/ieo oe?a?ioe?a o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? aecia/aee oae? iniiai? oi?ie
aaaeaiiy a?iiaaenueeiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-a?iiaaenueeiai
oaa?eiieoeoaa ae?oeo: 1) ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aeian, eiee aeaniee ooaeiae
nai /e /eaie eiai ?iaeeie ianee oaa?ei (ia aeanieo /e a?iiaaenueeeo
caieyo), caaiyth/e ?o ia i?/ o naei. Oaea oi?ia aeiano ia?aaaaeaea o oeo
aeiaaeeao, eiee e?euee?noue ooaeiae aoea iaaaeeeith ? iiaeeco naea aoei
aeinoaoiuei iao?; 2) a?iiaaenueeee aeian, i?e yeiio e?eueea aeaniee?a
ia’?aeioaaeenue, aeaaiyee ooaeiao ia oe?ea e?oi ia iieiieie /e oieiee,
/a?aoth/enue aeey ?? aeiano; 3) iaeiaiee aeian, eiee aeanieee ooaeiae
aeaaaee ?? aeey aeiano i?ioyaii iaaiiai ia??iaeo iaeiyoei ianoooai c
iaoith oaii?iiy iiey ia aeiiiaeaieo iiia?aaeiuei oiiaao; 4) ia
Aooeoeueuei? — aeian ooaeiae ia iieiieiao.1

O ?iaio? iienaii oaeiae oaeo oi?io aeiano ooaeiae ye “caaiyoe naeao”, ui
?? o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? cae??ieee ia?aaaaeii ia Aiee?auei?.

Ia Aooeoeueuei? o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? cae??ieee iieiieinueea a?aea?iia
oaa?eiieoeoai, ie?ai? oi?ie oa aeaiaioe yeiai caa?aaeenue aei iaoeo
aei?a.

Aea?i ooaeiae ia iieiieio — “iieiieinueeee o?ae” — o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe??
cae??ieee ye iaeia c iaeo?i/eno?oeo oa iaeyne?aa?oeo nayo ia
Aooeoeueuei?. Ii/eiaany a?i ?aii-a?aioe? c oiai, ui aeanieee ooaeiae
(“i?oaieee”) i?eaaiyee ?? ia cacaeaeaa?aeue aeiiiaeaia i?noea, ca?aeee
o?aaeeoe?eii a?aeaoaaeeny iieiieinuee? oiaee. Iiia?aaeo eoee ianoooe c
o?aia?oaie, aeaiooaoe oa ainiiaea?? iieiiei, iio?i aiaee aaeeeo ?iaaoo
ooaeiao — “ia?aeeio”, aeae? — a?aoe?, iio?i — eiiae, iaa’th/aieo i?oeaie
c ai?ioiii, n?eeth, iaeyaii oiui. Caaa?ooaaee o?ae aeanieee ooaeiae.
Oaeee “?oo iieiieinueeee” i?a o?eaaoe aei aeaio oeaei?a.

Iieiieinueea aeeooy oaeiae ?aaeaiaiooaaeinue o?oaeiaeie o?aaeeoe?yie.
Oi?ioaaa ianoooo a?iiaaeo aaoaa a?aeiia?aeii aei oiai, yea ooaeiaa
aeianaeanue ia iieiiei? ? ne?eueee. Iaaoeue aeianaee “a?a/a??”, aa?ai?a
— “?ei/a??”. ssaiyoaie caeiaany “?aie/iee”, naeiae ian “naeia?”, aaeeeo
?iaaoo ooaeiao — “aiaaa?”, “aaeaeae”, eiiae — “noaaea?”, aeey oaeyo
iaeiaany “oae?/a?”. Ie?aii iaeiaany “nioca?”, ui iinea aiaeo, caaioiaeya
ae?iaa aeey aao?e oa i?aeo?eioaaa ??.

?icii?yaeie aeiy ia iieiiei? oe?eeii i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaany o?aaeeoe?yi oae
naii, ye ? a?aeiineie ianooo?a c aeanieeaie ooaeiae, niiniae ?ic?aooieo
ca aeian ? ?iciiae?e iieieii?iaeoeo?a oiui. O i?ae?icae?e? aeaoaeueii
iienaii o? ??ciiiai?oi? cae/a? oa ia?yaee, ui aoee neeaaeiaeie o?oaeiaeo
o?aaeeoe?e o oaa?eiieoeoa?. O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae o?oaeia?
o?aaeeoe?? aecia/aee ?icaeoie oaa?eiieoeoaa oe?a?inueeeo ai?yi ye o
i?aeai?? aeae?a oa ii??ae oaa?ei, oae ? o oaoiieia?? ??
a?aeaiae?ae? oa aeiaeyaeo.

O?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao — caiea?ianoai ? oaa?eiieoeoai
— aoea aeaea?aeii oi?ioaaiiy oe?eiai ieanoo o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e. ?acii
c oei, oey ae?yeuei?noue aoea a iaiiaeeeaa iica o?aaeeoe?yie, aaeaea
naia aiie oi?ioaaee, caa??aaee ? ?icaeaaee aanue iaaooee o?oaeiaee
aeina?ae naeyi.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?iaeeia oa a?iiaaea — na?aaeiaeua oi?ioaaiiy,
caa?aaeaiiy ? o?aini?n?? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao”
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ci?no ? ooieoe?? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e o ?iaeei? oa
a?iiaae? oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao.

O ia?aa?ao? 3.1. ?icaeyaea?oueny ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e a
naeyinuee?e n?i’? oe?a?inueeeo ai?yi.

A oiiaao ae??aiiai iai?aiaoo?aeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe??
aecia/aee n?i’th iaeii/anii ye o?oaeiaee oa ?iaeeiiee ina?aaeie. Aaeaea
o?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue ? ?iaeeiia aeeooy naeyi ia ?icae?eyeenue ca
i?noeai ? /anii, a i?ioiaeeee a iaeiiio ? oiio ae na?aaeiaeu?,
i?aeei?yth/enue ?aeeiiio ?eoiia? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?ieo.

Aoaeo/e caniaii oi?ioaaiiy ? ia?aaea/? o caiea?ianoa? ? oaa?eiieoeoa?,
o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? aecia/aee aeeoo?aee oeeaae ai?yi a caaaeueiiio. Ae?y
o?oaeiai? o?aaeeoe?? o naeyinuee?e ?iaeei? aeyaeyeanue /a?ac
?aaoethaaiiy ?? o?oaeiaiai ?eoio oeyoii /?oeiai ?iciiae?eo o?oaeiaeo
iaia’yce?a i?ae ?? /eaiaie ? o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy ae?oae ye iniiaiiai
niiniao ia?aaea/? aeina?aeo.

Uiaei ia?oiai, oi o?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue /eai?a naeyinueei? ?iaeeie
?iciaaeiaoaaeanue ca noaooth oa a?eii. Aieiaiei aoa noaoaaee iiae?e.
Aeaye? aeine?aeieee aeae?eythoue ua e o?aoth a?oio — ni?euei? ?iaioe
/ieia?e?a ? ae?iie: ca?? o?iaeath, aeiaeyae ca ooaeiaith oiui. C iaoiai
iiaeyaeo, ?e oe? ?iaioe aoee aieiaiei /eiii /ieia?/eie, a ae?iee
aenooiaee eeoa ye iii?/ieoe?. O aeayeeo i?noeaainoyo ae?iee aei
“oeiinueei? ?iaioe” acaaae? ia a?aeeny. “AE?iee caeiathoueny oai
iae/ano?oa eeoa aeiiaoi?i ii?yaeeii,” — ienaea I.Eia?einueea.1 E??i
oeueiai, “ni?euei?noue ?ia?o” aeaeyaeaea aeineoue iaeiiaiei, aaeaea a
Ea?iaoao, ye ? iianthaee a Oe?a?i?, /ieia?ee aaaaeaee aeey naaa
i?eieceeaei aeeiioaaoe oae caai? “aaanuee? ?iaioe”, ye-io: ai?iae,
ii?yaeeoaaiiy a oao?, aeiaeyae ca ioeoeath ? o.i. Oiae ni?eueia ?iaioa
?nioaaea aeeeth/ii ye ao?o/aiiy ae?iie o /ieia?/? noa?e ? aae i?ye ia
iaaiaee. Oaea neooaoe?y ?aeaieia?/ii i?aeo?eioaaeanue naeyiaie /a?ac
iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei /ieia?ea, yeee aeeiioaaa “aaanueeo ?iaioo”.
AE?ieo, ui caeaoia aoea aei /ieia?/eo ?ia?o, iaaiaee, ioe?ithaaee
aeeeth/ii iiceoeaii.

Ca /ieia?eaie cae??iethaaeeny oae? aeaee ?ia?o: i?aiea, n?aaa, ca??
o?iaeath, caaio?aey n?ia ? ae?ia, aeaioiaeaiiy oa ?aiiio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?aiaiaioo, aeiaeyae ca ooaeiaith ? o. i.
Oi?a?aey ooaeiaith oaae aoea /ieia?/ith ni?aaith. Aeiyoeiai /ieia?/eie
aoee an? ?iaioe ia iieiiei?. A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca i?iaaaeaiiy oeo /e
?ioeo ?ia?o oaae eyaaea ia /ieia?ea, iniaeeai ia aaoueea — aieiao
?iaeeie. Naia /ieia?e ye aieiaa ?iaeeie ?iciiae?eya o?oaeia? iaia’ycee
ia i?nyoeue, oeaeaeaiue, aeaiue. Eiio?ieue ca aeeiiaiiyi ?ia?o oaae
cae?enithaaa /ieia?e. Ooieoe?y /ieia?ea ia iaiaaeoaaeanue ?aieaie
?iaeeie — a?i aoa ?? i?aaenoaaieeii o a?iiaaenueeeo ? aea?aeaaieo
i?aaiao. Noaiiaeua ? aaoi?eoao /ieia?ea o a?iiaae? anioe?thaaeenue c
aaoi?eoaoii ?iaeeie.

Ca o?oaeiaith o?aaeeoe??th, ae?yeuei?noue ae?iee ia aeoiaeeea ca ?aiee
?iaeeie. ?? iaia’yceaie aoee oo?aioa i?i ?aeo oa iaeya aeey an?o /eai?a
?iaeeie, aeoiaaiiy ae?oae, ii?yaeie o oao?, aeiaeyae ca ai?iaeeiith,
ioeoeath, aeiiaoiueith ooaeiaith oiui. O/anoue o o?oaeiaeo iia?aoe?yo
ia??ai? c /ieia?eii, a /anii ? cai?noue iueiai, ia aea?eueiyea ae?ieo
a?ae aeeiiaiiy aecia/aieo o?aaeeoe??th iaia’yce?a. O aeayeeo ?iaioao,
o?aaeeoe?eii /ieia?/eo, ae?ii/ee aianie aoa iaa?oue aaaii?oei,
iai?eeeaae, o aeieaa. Aaeaea oe?a?inuee? ai?yie aeaeeiaee, a ia eineee
ca?iia?.

O?oaeia? iaia’ycee ae?iee cae??iethaaeenue ye nai???aeia “ae?ii/a
ainiiaea?noai”. O a??nueeeo naeao, ?icoaoiaaieo iiaeeco i?noa/ie /e
eo?i?o?a, ae?iee oaeiae i?iaeaaaee i?iaeoeoe oeueiai ainiiaea?noaa:
iieiei, ianei, ne?, ai?iaeeio oiui.

Aiae?coth/e noaiiaeua ae?iee o naeyinuee?e ?iaeei?, /eiaei aeine?aeiee?a
a?aecia/aee eiai aeaicia/i?noue: c iaeiiai aieo aaci?aai?noue, a c
?ioiai — “aeineoue a?eueia iiaiaeaeaiiy”. ?.O?aiei ienaa, ui “a
?iaeei? ae?iea caeia? aeoaea iiaaaeia noaiiaeua” ? ui “ae?iea
i?aoeth? a /ieia?ea a??o iaeie/ee”. 1 Ia?oa coiiaethaaeinue a?aeiiniith
iaoa??aeueiith iacaeaaei?noth ae?iee, yea, e??i ae?ii/iai
ainiiaea?noaa, iaea i?aai ia iniaenoa iaeii: i?eaeaia ? “iaoa?ecio”
(iaeii iaoa??, yea o aeiaaeeo ?? nia?o? oniaaeeiaoaaee ae?oe, a ia
/ieia?e). Aea ia?aaaaeaea ae?oaa oaiaeaioe?y: iiaia i?aeei?ai?noue
/ieia?eia?.

Aecia/aia o?oaeiaeie o?aaeeoe?yie ? ia?aa??aia /anii ?icae?eueia i?aoey
/ieia?ea ? ae?iee aoea iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaith aeey i?aai?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa o an?o aoi?/ieo a?oi oe?a?ioe?a
Ea?iao. O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? ia eeoa aecia/aee ci?no, iaoo ? eiie?aoi?
i?eeiie ?ia?o, aea e i?aai?ciaoaaee oa eiio?iethaaee ae?iaie/ee i?ioean.
O?eueee /?oeee ?iciiae?e iaia’yce?a i?ae on?ia /eaiaie ?iaeeie aeicaieya
aeinyaoe ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, iaiao?aeiiai aeey caaacia/aiiy
?iaeeie.

O ia?aa?ao? i?iaiae?ciaai? iniaeeaino? o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy ye iniiaiiai
niiniao o?aini?n?? o?oaeiaiai aeina?aeo o /an?. O eiai ?aieao
oe?a?inuee? ai?yie ae?iaeee oe?eo ieceo i?eeii?a oa iaoiae?a: 1)
ia?niiaeueia ia?aaea/a o?oaeiaiai aeina?aeo aeeoei? ca i?eioeeiii —
“?iae, ye y”; 2) ineoieia?/iee aieea ia aeeoeio c iaoith i?aeaioiaee ??
aei oiai /e ?ioiai ?iaeo ae?yeueiino?; 3) ??ciiai ?iaeo iaa?/i? ae??,
iaa?no?aeueii iai?aaeai? ia i???iooaaiiy ethaeeie ye aeeiiaaoey iaaiiai
aeaeo ?ia?o. Inoaii? i?iyaeyeinue o /an iiyae aeeoeie ia na?o : o
iiaiia?iaeaeaiiai oeii/eea ioiiaeio a?ae??caee ia niee?? /e ein? (uia
aoa aeia?ei ainiiaea?ai), o ae?a/eiee — ia a?aaai? aai na?i?, uia aoea
aeia?ith i?yoith /e aeieoeath.

Ineoieia?/ia i?aeaioiaea aei iaaiiai ?iaeo ae?yeueiino? cae?enithaaeany
/a?ac oieueeei?: eacee, i?ni?, i?eeacee, i?ene?a’y, a oaeiae — /a?ac
aeeoy/? ?a?aoee, caaaae, ui ?i?ooaaee aeaiaioe ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? aei?ineeo. Na?oiaeyae aeeoeie oi?ioaaany i?ae aieeaii
niinoa?aaeaiue ca ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth noa?oeo. Ona oea
ciaeeo oi?ioaaei o aeeoei? aioiai?noue aei naeyinueei? i?aoe?.

Caeo/aiiy aeeoeie aei aeoeaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy n?i’?
ii/eiaeiny c aeiiaoi?o ?ia?o i?ae iaoa?einueeei ia/aeii. Ianooiiei
iaia’yceiaei aeaiaioii o o?oaeiaiio aeoiaaii? aoea “ianoooa ea?’??a”. C
a?eii aeeoeia ana /ano?oa caeo/aeanue aei o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, aea
ia?aeiaea o?oaeia? iaaeee a?ae aei?ineeo, aiiny/e na?e iineeueiee aeeaae
o aeia?iaoo n?i’?. Aeeoy/a i?aoey iinooiiai ?icae?eyeanue ca noaoaaei
i?eioeeiii: oeii/eee ia?aoiaeeee o ?icii?yaeaeaiiy aaoueea, a ae?a/aoea
— iaoa??. Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy ae?a/aoie aoei
i?yae?iiy, oeooy oa aeoeaaiiy. Oeii/eee aeiiiiaaaee aaoueeai ye
iiaiie/? i?e i?aioe? oa ai?iioaaii?, a/eeenue eineoe, iaeno?oaaoe,
aeiaeyaeaoe ca oaa?eiaie oiui.

Ae?oe noaaeeenue aei o?oaeiaeo iaia’yce?a iaaecae/aeii na?eicii,
aaaaeath/e ?o ?aeeiei niiniaii “noaoe aei?ineei”. O na?aaeiaeu?
ae?oae-?iaaniee?a caaaeaee iaaaoeaii ioe?ithaaee oeo, ooi ia ai?a
?iaeoe /iainue a?aeiia?aeii aei naiai a?eo.

??aaiue caeo/aiiy aeeoeie aei i?aoe? caeaaeaa ? a?ae no?oeoo?e ?iaeeie:
o n?i’yo, aea aoei aaaaoi aei?ineeo, aiii a?aeaoaaeinue i?ci?oa. O
?iaeeiao c iaeith e?euee?noth /eai?a ae?oe ii/eiaee i?aoethaaoe
iaaaaaoi oaeaeoa. Ia o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy aieeaaei e iaoa??aeueia
noaiiaeua n?i’? : o a?aei?oeo n?i’yo ae?oe i?aoethaaee /anoi ye
iaeieoe o /oaeiio ainiiaea?noa?, o caiiaei?oeo — o aaouee?anueeiio.

Ioaea, o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? aecia/aee oa ?aaoethaaee o?oaeiaee oa
aeeoo?aee ?eoi ?iaeeie a oe?eiio ? eiaeiiai ?? /eaia cie?aia.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? i?iaiae?ciaaii ?ieue n?euenueei? a?iiaaee o
oi?ioaaii?, caa?aaeaii? ? ia?aaea/? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e.

Iaeae??a?oei niiniaii caa?aaeaiiy ? ia?aaea/? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e aoea
a?iiaaenueea aeoiea.

Na?aae o?oaeiaeo cae/a?a, aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaieo c oi?ioaaiiyi
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, a a?aeoae ? c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi o?oaeiaeo
o?aaeeoe?e aoea oieiea. Iniiao oieiee noaiiaeea ni?eueia aaciieaoia
i?aoey ia a?iiaaenueeeo ?iaioao /e a ie?aiiai ainiiaea?y.

??ciiiai?oi?noue oieiee i?iyaey?oueny o oaeeo ?? aeyaao: 1) aeaai/eiia,
aaceiooiaia aeiiiiiaa neaaeei ainiiaea?noaai. Aieiaiith ?? iciaeith aoei
oa, ui aiia aeaooiaoaaeanue ca ?i?oe?aoeaith a?iiaaee, a ia naieie
ainiiaea?yie; 2) oieiea “ca ainoeio”, eiee aeiiiiiaa iaaeaaaeanue ia
/e?nue cai?ioaiiy /e i?ioaiiy. Iaia’yceiaei aeey ainiiaea??a aoei o
iaeaooiueiio a?aeiia?noe oaeith ae aeiiiiiaith; 3) oieiea ii/a?aiaa,
i?aai?ciaaia ia oniiio aeiaiai?? i?ae ie?aieie ainiiaea?yie /e a?oiith
ainiiaea??a i?i ni?eueia aeeiiaiiy ?yaeo ?ia?o. Ii/a?aiao oieieo
aeaooiaoaaee i?ae /an aeiea, aeaico aiith ia iiey, i?yae?iiy oiui. Oey
oieiea a?eueoa iaaaaeoaaea eiiia?aoe?th, i?ae aca?iiaeiiiiiao.

Oieieith o Ea?iaoao i?iaiaeeee n?iieine, aeieaa, aeae?aiiy eiiiie? oa
eueiio, iieioueao, aea?c aiith, naae?iiy ? eiiaiiy ea?oiie?, naiaiiy,
ia?aaacaiiy aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?ic/enoeo e?no “i?ae ian?eo”,
caaio?aeth eaionoe, /euaiiy eoeo?oaece, aea?oy i??’y oiui. O eiaeiiio
nae? o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? ia?aaeaa/aee na?e nienie ?ia?o, ui iiaee
aeeiioaaoeny oieieith.

Oieiea a?aeaoaaeanue aeeeth/ii o aoaei? aei?. Aiia ii?aeioaaea o?ce/ii
aaaeeo ? cia/io ca ianyaii i?aoeth c? nayoeiaei, iaaei?iei iano?i?i
i?ae /an ?iaioe ? iniaeeai i?ney ?? caaa?oaiiy.

O?aaeeoe?y ?aaeaiaiooaaea e oe?eee eiiieaen aoe/ieo i?aaee o a?aeiineiao
i?ae ainiiaea?yie ? oiei/aiaie. Oae, iai?eeeaae, i? ainiiaea?, i?
ainiiaeeiy ia iiaee c?iaeoe caoaaaeaiiy oiei/aieio, yeee i?aoethaaa o
ieo.

Caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo ?ia?o, oieiee aoee /ieia?/?, ae?ii/?, ci?oai? ?
iieiae?aei?. Iaeiioe?ai?oei aeaeii oieiee aoea ci?oaia, eiee i?aoey
/ieia?e?a ? ae?iie /?oei ?icae?eyeanue o?aaeeoe?yie. Oaeeie aoee,
iai?eeeaae, n?iieine: /ieia?ee eineee, a ae?iee a?iiaaeeee, ?acii aiie
neeaaeaee n?ii o eiieoe?.

Iieiae?aei? oieiee ae??ciyeeny nayoeiaei iano?i?i. ?o iaoith aoea ia
o?eueee ni?eueia i?aoey, aea ? a?aeii/eiie, yeee /anoi iaaoaaa oi?ie
a?e, ciaaaiiy.

Iaei??th c iaeiioe?ai?oeo oi?i aca?iiaeiiiiiae, ui ae?yea o ?aieao
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e o ae?oa?e iieiai? O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue a
oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao aoea noi?yaa aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aaniyieo oa in?ii?o
i?aiie. Aiia a?eueoa iaaaaeoaaea eiiia?aoe?th, coiiaeaio neaaeith
iniauai?noth naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa ?aiaiaioii, oyaeiaith neeith,
ianoa/ath ?iai/eo ?oe, iniaeeai aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oa?i?iiaeo ?
o?oaeii?noeeo ?ia?o.

Ni?eueia i?aoey a noi?yc? aoea aeey ai?yi, ye ? oieiea, i?aeoe/ii
?aeeiei niiniaii aaeineiiaeaiiy ? ia?aaea/? iaae/ie ? ciaiue a iaeiiio c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo oe?ai?ianueeeo caiyoue — i?aioe?, ui e iaaeaaaei ?e o
nenoai? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e iaaecae/aeii? aaae.

Na?aae o?oaeiaeo iaia’yce?a, ui iieeaaeaeenue ia naeyinueeo a?iiaaeo
iaeaaaeeea?oei aoa oa?aa?ie — aoae?aieoeoai ? ?aiiio aei??a. Ai?yie
iaaaoeaii noaaeeenue aei oa?aa?e?a, aiai?y/e i?i ieo ia ?iaeoa, ye “ia
?iaioo aeaiaee”.1 O i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny aea?aeaai? aeiiae
aei noaio aei??a, iiaea?oueny nienie ?ia?o, ui aecia/aany o?oaeiaeie
o?aaeeoe?yie aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oa?aa?e?a, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iniaeeaino?
naieo ?ia?o.

Iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy naeyi aei oa?aa?e?a coiiaethaaeinue oei, ui aiie
iaaaaeoaaee a?eueoa iaiueio, i?ae aeia?ia?eueio aca?iiaeiiiiiao. ? ana
ae, ca oi?iaeueieie ? ca ci?noiaeie iciaeaie, ?o iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye
??ciiaeae oieiee — ni?eueii? aaciieaoii? i?aoe?. O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe??
caeiina?aoaaee o oa?aa?eao ?ene oiai “ia?a?niiai eiioi?cio”, ui eiai oae
/anoi ooeaee o iiaoo? ai?yi ??ci? aeine?aeieee. Iaiiioey?i?noue
ua?aa?e?a ? iaaaaeaiiy naeyi ?o aeeiioaaoe iiaeia ni?eeiaoe ? ye oi?io
i?ioanoo i?ioe oeueiai “eiioi?cio” ? ye na?ae/aiiy oiai, ui o
na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao o e?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue
o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oi?ioaaee nenoaio oe?iiinoae, iniiaiee i?eioeei yei?
o?ainoi?ioaaany o i?inoo oi?ioeo: ana, ui ?iaeoueny caaeo?ii, ?iaeoueny
iiaaii.

Ioaea, o e?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. n?euenueea a?iiaaea aenooiaea oei
na?aaeiaeuai, o yeiio oi?ioaaany ? cae??iethaaany, iaaoaaa iiaeo oi?i
o?oaeiaee aeina?ae.

N?euenueea a?iiaaea aoea oei na?aaeiaeuai, o yeiio iaea?eueo iiaii
?aae?coaaany iaoai?ci o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e. A?iiaaenueea aeoiea, ui
oi?ioaaeanue o a?iiaae?, aecia/aea caeeaaeai? o o?aaeeoe?? aeiiae aei
i?iaaaeaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai aeaeo ?ia?o. Aea iaa?oue a ?aieao oaei?
?aaeaiaioiaaii? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? caeeoaeinue i?noea aeey
?i?oe?aoeae: ainiiaea?nuee? aaeineiiaeaiiy, iia’ycai? c iaiaaaiiyi
yeiiiaa e?aua i?enoinoaaoenue aei iai?inoeo i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia
Ea?iao, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oiai/anieo oaoi?/ieo aeinyaiaiue oa aeina?aeo,
iaaooiai a /oaeeo e?ayo — ana oea iaei oain noaoe o?aaeeoe??th,
?icaeaaoenue o i?e. Ca aeiyoeii yeeoinue aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?e,
oai?/?noue, o?oaeiaa ?i?oe?aoeaa, aa??aoeai?noue ??oaiue oaeiae
aeeaaeaeenue o ?onei o?oaeiai? o?aaeeoe??, ia noi?iae? yei? ? noiyea
a?iiaaea c on?ia nai?ie niiniaaie aieeao ia ethaeeio.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa oi?ioeththoueny
i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Ia??iae e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue aoa iicia/aiee
neeaaeieie ?noi?e/ieie iiae?yie, c?inoaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ?
aeoeaiino? naeyi, e?ecith iai?aiaoo?aeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa,
?iceeaaeii iao??a?oaeueii? n?i’?, aeaoi?iaoe??th a?iiaaenueeeo
?inoeoooe?e, ?ioeie aeiiii?/ieie oa nioe?aeueieie /eiieeaie. Ca oaeeo
oiia o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? noaee ia o?eueee iniiaiith oi?iith
caa?aaeaiiy ? ia?aaea/? aeina?aeo, aea e niiniaii iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aeaioeo?eaoe??, caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?,
ainiiaea?nueei? oa eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii?? oe?a?ioe?a.

2. O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? aoee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoe?iiaeueieo
o?aaeeoe?e, ii?aeioaaee o nia? eiina?aaoeci oa aeeiai?eo, ine?eueee,
i?enoiniaoth/enue aei iiaeo oiia, aiie aoee caeaoi? ni?eeiaoe oa
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiaaoe??. Aea inoaii? iiaee ?nioaaoe a o?aaeeoe?eieo
nenoaiao eeoa ye aaeaioiaai? aei o?aaeeoe?? aeaiaioe. O?oaeia?
o?aaeeoe?? ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye yaeua aeeeth/ii iiceoeaia
/e iaaaoeaia (eiina?aaoeaia /e iia?oi?). Aiie ? yaeuai
ia’?eoeaiei, coiiaeaiei o?oaeiaei aeina?aeii ? o?oaeiaith
iaiao?aei?noth, a oaeiae aaia?ao?/ieie oa i?e?iaeieie oiiaaie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

3. Iniiaieie oi?iaie o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? ai?yi aoee caiea?ianoai
oa oaa?eiieoeoai, c ia?aaaaith ia?oiai ia Aiee?auei? oa Eaie?auei?,
a ae?oaiai — ia Aooeoeueuei?. O e?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.
o?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y o?enoaaea o caiea?ianoa? iniiai? niiniae oa
oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei, ii?yaeie aeiaeyaeo ca
ieie, ?o cae?aiiy, caa??aaiiy oa ia?a?iaee. ?icaeoeia? oaa?eiieoeoaa
o Ea?iaoao ni?eyee oae? oaeoi?e: aaeeea e?euee?noue a??nueeeo ianiaeu
— iieiiei, eoe, ui aeaaaei iiaeeea?noue ia eeoa aeianaoe ooaeiao
naciiii ae?oeo /e ainaie, a e aeicaieyei o aeinoaoi?e e?eueeino?
caaacia/eoe oaa?ei ei?iaie ia aeiaaee ceiiaee ia??iae. O
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae a oe?a?inueeeo ai?yi oaea neeaeeny nai???aei?
?aoe?iiaeuei? niiniae aaaeaiiy oaa?eiieoeueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa: noaa?e?coaaany a?aea?? aoaeoeaieo o ea?iaonueeeo
oiiaao ii??ae ooaeiae, naciiiee ?? aeian oa aeiiaoi?e aeiaeyae ca
oaa?eiaie, ?aoe?ii ei?i?a, i?aai?caoe?y oa oaoiieia?y
oaa?eiieoeueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oiui.

4. Ii?iaeaeai? o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe??
a?ae?a?aaaee ?ieue ?aaoeyoi?a ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a.
O?aaeeoe?y ia eeoa aecia/aea ci?no, iaoo, eiie?aoi? i?eeiie ?iaioe,
a e i?aai?ciaoaaea aanue o?ae ?ia?o ia ??ai? n?i’? ye ia?aeiiiai
o?oaeiaiai ina?aaeeo. Iniiaiei niiniaii oe??? i?aai?caoe?? aoa
?aaeaiaioiaaiee oa ?aaoeueiaaiee ?iciiae?e o?oaeiaeo iaia’yce?a ia
iino?ei? (ca noaoaai-a?eiaei i?eioeeiii) oa oei/ania? (ca
i?eioeeiii iaiao?aeiino? aeey oiai /e ?ioiai aeaeo ?ia?o).

5. Iaiao?aeiei na?aaeiaeuai caa?aaeaiiy ? iioe?aiiy o?oaeiaeo
o?aaeeoe?e aoee nioe?aeuei? a?oie — ?iaeeia oa a?iiaaea. O ?aieao
o?aaeeoe?eii? oe?a?inueei? ?iaeeie ae?iaeeenue iniiai? niiniae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?aaeeoe?e, ye-io: ?iciiae?e o?oaeiaeo iaia’yce?a,
i?aeiieie?ii? o?oaeia? a?aeiineie, o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy,
iao??a?oaeueiee oa?aeoa? oi?aae?iiy ?iaeeiith ye ia?aeiiei o?oaeiaei
eieaeoeaii.

6. O o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao aoea caeeaaeaia
nenoaia iine?aeiaii? ia?aaea/? aeina?aeo iaeaooi?i iieie?iiyi.
Iniiaiei na?aaeiaeuai aeey i?aeiieie?iii? ia?aaea/? o?oaeiaiai
aeina?aeo aoea ?iaeeia. Aeey cae?eniaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy
oe?a?inuee? aoiia?oie Ea?iao ae?iaeee oe?eo ieceo i?eeii?a oa
iaoiae?a o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy. Eeth/iaei iiiaioii eiai aoei
caeo/aiiy aeeoeie aei aeoeaii? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? aei?ineeo.
??aaiue caeo/aiiy aeeoeie aei i?aoe? caeaaeaa a?ae no?oeoo?e ?iaeeie,
?? iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua.

7. O e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. a?iiaaea aeoeaii aieeaaea ia
aea?? iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aiia aoea nai???aeiei i?ia?aeieeii
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e, ye?, o naith /a?ao, ni?eyee a?iiaaenuee?e
?aeiino?.

8. O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? ye ??ciiaeae nioe?aeueii? ii?ie /anoeiai
aieeaaee ? ia ?icaeoie ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo ii?i: ii?ae?,
cae/a?aiai i?aaa, naiia?yaeoaaiiy oiui. Aiie aecia/aee iniiai?
oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? naeyinueei? a?iiaaee, ui cia/iith i??ith aieeioei
ia ae?iaeaiiy io?oe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o oe?e aaeoc?.

?icaeyaeath/e o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeeo aoiia?oi Ea?iao
e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue ye iaiao?aeio oiiao aeinyaiaiiy
aa?iii?? i?ae ethaeeiith, ?? o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth ? na?aaeiaeuai,
o yeiio a?aeaoaaeanue ? ia yea aoea ni?yiiaaia oey ae?yeuei?noue,
ia iiaeaii ia?eoenue aac aeoeaiooaaiiy ia ianooiieo oaeoi?ao:

— Ao?aoa o?aaeeoe?e ye ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino? aoooy, iaa?oue i?e
oiio, ui iaei? noni?euei? ?inoeoooe?? i?eeiaoeiooue aeeeth/ii
aeioe?euei? caeiie, a ?io? noni?euei? ?inoeoooe?? ? ie?ai? /eaie
noni?euenoaa iaooeeueii ea?oaaoeiooueny ieie, — oea oeyo aei
naiicieuaiiy. C ao?aoith o?aaeeoe?e ia?a?eaa?oueny ca’ycie ia eeoa c
ieioeei, a e c iaeaooi?i, ?oeiothoueny an? iniiae ii?aeueiino? ?
aeooiaiino?, a oeueiai ia caeaoi? a?aeoai?eoe aeiaei? caeiie. Aaeaea
a eiaei?e o?aaeeoe?? caeeaaeaii iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaee iiiaio —
a?aeiia?aeaeueiinoue ethaeeie ? noni?euenoaa ca iane?aeee nai?o
ae?e ? ono?aie?iue. Caeaoi?noue aooe a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca nai?
a/eiee ia c’yaey?oueny aaoiiaoe/ii c i?iaieioaiiyi iaa?oue
iaeaeaai?iaei?oeo iai???a, a noaiiaeoue niaith ?acoeueoao iino?eii
ae?th/iai i?ioeano aca?iiae?? aeooiaieo /eiiee?a c aeieia?/ieie
iieacieeaie na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?iaeaeaiiy,
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie oeo /e ?ioeo o?aaeeoe?e.

— O?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y e?enoae?co? iiea ae?? o?oaeiai? aoeee, a
?aieao yei? aena?/o?oueny aanue niaeo? ae?yeueiino? ye oai?/i?
ni?ai?aoe? ethaeeie c i?e?iaeith. Ni?ai?aoe?, a ia ia?aoai?aiiy ?
oei a?eueoa — i?aeei?aiiy. ?icoi?iiy ? ona?aeiieaiiy oeueiai ?
?icoi?iiyi ? ona?aeiieaiiyi oiai, ui oai?/?noue iica
o?aaeeoe??th aaaea aei aeenaa?iii??, ?icuaieaiiy, ?oeioaaiiy ?
a?aoo?-?aoo aei caaeaae?.

— Ioaea, o?aaeeoe?y — oea ia eia?/ia aano?aeoe?y, aea ? ia aioia? aei
aaeeoeo ?aoeaioe eiie?aoieo ae?e, a i?e?iaeiee oaiiiai, ui
aeicaiey? aeoiaaoe a ethaeei? iaiao?aei?noue ona?aeiieaiiy iaae
aeicaieaiiai. Ca ci?noii ? oi?iith o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeeo
aoiia?oi Ea?iao e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. aoee yaeuai naia
oaeiai ii?yaeeo.

O na?oe? neacaiiai, i?iaeaia o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e — iaeia c
iaeia?niaeoeai?oeo oai a aoiieia??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? oaie iaaoaa?
ia eeoa ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aiii aeooaeueia ? aeey i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, ai iiaea noaoe iiooiaoii aei aeooiaiiai ?aianaino
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino, ? ye ?acoeueoao — aei iiaoaeiae iei noaa?eueiiai
? aa?iii?eiiai noni?euenoaa. Aaeaea eeoa aa?iii?y, aeinyaiaia
/a?ac aeio?eiaiiy o?aaeeoe??, caeaoia caaacia/eoe noaa?euei?noue
aoaeue-yei? nenoaie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Aeoaea I. Caiea?ianuee? o?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao e?ioey
O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. // “I?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee” — Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. — O.8. -Euea?a-Oa?e?a, 1996. — N. 23 — 31.

2. Aeoaea I. Ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e
ea?iaonuee?e n?i’? e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.// Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue “O?einionuee? iiooee” — Euea?a, 1998. — N. 181-185.

3. Aeoaea I.I., Aiioa? O. I. “Iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee c eo?no
ia?iaeiciaanoaa / Aeey neooa/?a OAe?II/ ”. — Euea?a: Oe? AeEOO, 1997. —
34 n.

4. Aeoaea I. Oieiea o nenoai? o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao
e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue. — Ia?iaeiciaa/? cioeoe. — Euea?a,
1998. — *. 1. — N. 77-81.

5. Aeoaea I. ?aaoeyoeaia ooieoe?y o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e a oe?a?inuee?e
ea?iaonuee?e n?i’? e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue. — Ia?iaeiciaa/?
cioeoe. — Euea?a, 1998. — *. 2. — N. 207-209.

Aeoaea I.I. O?oaeia? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo
OO noie?oue.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.05 — aoiieia?y. — ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa IAI
Oe?a?ie ?i. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a, Euea?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii oa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith o?oaeiaeo
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeeo aoiia?oi Ea?iao e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO
noie?oue. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co oe?ieiai eiea ienaiieo oa iieueiaeo
aeaea?ae aeine?aeaeothoueny niiniae oi?ioaaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy ? ia?aaea/?
o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e aiee?a, eaie?a ? aooeoe?a. Canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai aiae?co aei aeaiiai eiiieaeno o?aaeeoe?e
aeicaieeei aeyaeoe ?o ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie, no?oeoo?o oa noa?e
iiaoooaaiiy na?aae oe?a?ioe?a Ea?iao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?oaeiaa o?aaeeoe?y, cae/ae, ia?yae, ?eooae,
ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue, n?i’y, a?iiaaea.

Aeoaea I.I. O?oaeiaua o?aaeeoeee oe?aeioeaa Ea?iao eiioea O?O — ia/aea
OO aaeia.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.05. — yoiieiaey. — Einoeooo oe?aeiiaaaeaiey ei.
E,E?eiueyeaae/a IAI Oe?aeiu, Eueaia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey i?aaenoaaeaia a aeaea ?oeiiene e iinayuaia i?iaeaiai
enneaaeiaaiey o?oaeiauo o?aaeeoeee oe?aeineeo yoiia?oii Ea?iao eiioea
O?O — ia/aea OO aaeia. Ia iniiaa oe?ieiai e?oaa ienueiaiiuo e iieaauo
enoi/ieeia enneaaeothony niiniau oi?ie?iaaiey, nio?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e
o?oaeiauo o?aaeeoeee aieeia, eaieia e aooeoeia. I?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia
n?aaieoaeueii-enoi?e/aneiai aiaeeca e aeaiiio eiiieaeno o?aaeeoeee
iicaieeei auyaeoue eo enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea, no?oeoo?o e noa?u
i?eiaiaiey n?aaee oe?aeioeaa Ea?iao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?oaeiaay o?aaeeoeey, iau/ae, ia?yae, ?eooae,
oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, naiuey, iaueia.

Duda N.M. Labour traditions of the Carpathian Uerainians at the end 19 —
begining of the 20 centuiries. — Manuscript.

This dissertation is submitted in fulfilment of regurment for the degree
of the candidate of historical siense in specialite 07.00.05. —
etnology. — The Institute of Ukrainian Studies Nameed after I.
Krypjakevych of the National Academi of Ukraine, Lwiw, 1998.

The problems connected with functioning of labour traditions of the
Ukrainian ethnic groups in the Carpathians at the end of the 19 —
beginning of the 20 centuries aut investigated in this dissertation.

On the basis of wide range of written sources and literature analysis,
the problems of formation, preservation and trasmission of bojkies,
lemkies and hutsuls labour traditions are researched.

The usage of comperatire-historical analisys methods made it possible
to reveal historical development and structure of labour traditions.

Key words: labour tradition, custom, ritual, agriculture, family,
community.

Ia?ea?yi Y. N. Oceiaua i?iaeaiu oai?ee eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeee. //
Niaaoneay yoiia?aoey. — 1982. -? 2. — N. 78.

1 A?ii uei I.I. O?oaeiaua o?aaeeoeee ?onneeo e?anoueyi Neae?e (XVIII —
ia?aie iieiaeiu O?O a.) —

Iiaineae?ne: Iaoea, 1975. — N. 76-158.

1 Iaiaeeao?a I.Ae. Iieiieinueea ainiiaea?noai Aooeoeueueie ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O — 30-o ?ie?a OO no. — E., 1978, — N.18.

1 Eia?einueea I. ?onueea ae?iioeoai Aaee/eie a iaoeo /anao // Ia?oee
a?iie. — Euea?a. — 1887. — N. 69.

1 O?aiei ?. Oai?e : A 50 o. / E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea , 1980. — O.26. —
AE?ii/a iaaiey a ?onueeeo i?niyo ia?iaeieo. —

N. 210, 246.

1 O?aiei ?. Aaeeoeueei-?onuee? i?eiia?aeee: A 3 o. — 1901-1909. — O. 3.
— N. 32.

Io?eiiae/ A. I?i inoaiee ia?a?niiai eiioi?cio o aiee?a-aa?oiaeioe?a a
Ne?euenuee?i oa Aeieeinuee?i noaeia?i

iia?o?. — CIOO. — 1899. — O. 31-32. — N. 1-16.

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