OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IAI*AIEI AAEAIOEIA A?EAI??AIA

OAeE 541.133(08+1)+541.132

O?AINII?OI? OA ??AIIAAAEI? AEANOEAINO? 1-1 AEAEO?IE?O?A A ?IC*EIIEEAO C
IECUeEEIE CIA*AIIssIE Ae?AEAEO?E*II? I?IIEEIINO?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 02.00.04 — o?ce/ia o?i?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a oaeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,A’thiee ?aai
Ieeieaeiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iai?aai?/ii? o?i??

oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy o?i??, i. Oa?e?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,Eaaaaeue Aaeaioei
?ee?/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? o?i??, i. Oa?e?a.

eaiaeeaeao o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,Aoeaa?i A?eoi? ?aaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao.

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i??, i. Oa?e?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?inoeooo o?ceei-i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa aoaeao?i??

?i. E.I. Eeoaeiaiei IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e niaeo?io?i?? i?aai?/ieo
niieoe, i. Aeiiaoeuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1600 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.14 Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (310077, i. Oa?e?a, ie. Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. 7-80)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? OAeO.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “14“ aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eia?iiaa E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. ?ic/eie aeaeo?ie?o?a a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeei
cia/aiiyi ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? a oaia??oi?e /an ciaoiaeyoue oe?iea
aeei?enoaiiy a aeaeo?io?i?/i?e ?iaeono???, i?e i?iaaaeaii? aaaaoueio
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, a o?i?/ieo aeaea?aeao no?oio ? o.i. Aeey
?icoi?iiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy i?ioean?a, ye? i?io?eathoue a oaeeo
?ic/eiieeao iaiao?aeia aeinoia??ia e?euee?nia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
??aiiaaaei?, o?ainii?oi? oa no?oeoo?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeo?ie?oieo
?ic/ei?a. Iaeiae /a?ac neeuei? i?ae?iii? aca?iiae?? iaea?aeaiiy
e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ic/ei?a o na?aaeiaeuao c iecueeith
ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth ? neeaaeiith caaea/ath. No/aniee ??aaiue
oai?aoe/iiai a?aooaaiiy ??aiiaaa ooai?aiiy ?iiieo aa?aaao?a a?eueo
aenieiai ii?yaeeo, i?ae ?iii? ia?e, ia aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe
iae?ineii?/i? aeanoeaino? ?ic/ei?a o oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? oa
i?e aa??thaaii? eiiiiiaio?a ?ic/eio. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?iiieo ??aiiaaa c o?aooaaiiyi ooai?aiiy ?iiieo o??eiee?a o ?ic/eiieeao c
iecueeith ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth iaei/enaeuei? ? caeaa?eueoiai
aeeiiai? ia cian?i ei?aeoii. O ca’yceo c oeei aenia?eiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy noeoiiino? ??aiiaaa ooai?aiiy ?iiieo ia? ? o??eiee?a o
?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth iaaoaa? ana
a?eueoi? aeooaeueiino?.

Ii?yae ?c oeei iie?oa?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic/ei?a aeaeo?ie?o?a o
?ic/eiieeao c iecueeei cia/aiiyi ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? i?e
caeo/aii? oyaeaiue noaoenoe/ii? o?ceee aeicaieythoue anoaiiaeoe
caeiiii??iino? aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaeoeii?anueeeo i?ae?iiieo aca?iiae?e, ui aeicaieeoue a iaeaooiueiio
i?iaiicoaaoe aeanoeaino? aeaeo?ie?oieo nenoai.

Oey ?iaioa ? /anoeiith aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ia eaoaae??
iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy o?i?? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo. Aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo aeeiiaii ca?aeii c
eii?aeeiaoe?eiei ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie ? 0197U008103 “Aeeiai?ea ?iiii? nieueaaoaoe?? oa i?ae/anoeieia?
aca?iiae?? a ?ic/eiao neiao?e/ieo oa ianeiao?e/ieo aeaeo?ie?o?a a
iaaiaeieo ?ic/eiieeao”, a oaeiae a iaaeao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie
AeEII N?N? “Nicaeaiea iiauo aunieiyooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia e i?eai?ia
aiaeeca aauanoa e iaoa?eaeia” ?icae?e “Nicaeaiea n?aaenoa
iao?ieiae/aneiai iaania/aiey iiiaioeaeaaiai eniieueciaaiey, aeeth/athueo
noaiaea?oiua ia?acoeu aauanoa, iao?ieiae/aneea yeaeaaeaiou e o.i.,
ea?aeeiaeueii oeo/oathueo iao?ieiae/aneia iaania/aiea i?e auionea e
eniieueciaaiee aiaeeoe/aneie oaoieee e iaoiaeee aiaeeca” (i?eeac AeEII
N?N? ?454 a?ae 2.07.1990).

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ??aiiaaaeieo oa
o?ainii?oieo oa?aeoa?enoee 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith
ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth ca aeaieie eiiaeoeoiiao??? ia iniia?
iiaeae?, yea a?aoiao? ooai?aiiy ?iiieo ia? oa ?iiieo o??eiee?a;
anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aieeao oaiia?aoo?e, ?ici??o ? i?e?iaee ?iia
ia ia?aiao?e i?ae/anoeieiaeo aca?iiae?e a ?ic/eiao 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o
na?aaeiaeuao c iecueeith ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth.

O caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiaeeei: aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? (AI) ?ic/ei?a 1-1
aeaeo?ie?o?a a aoeeaoeaoao? (AA) i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 278.15-318.15 E, a
noi?o? aooai-1-ieo c i-ieoaiii (ianiaa /anoea aooai-1-ieo 50%) (a
iiaeaeueoiio noi?o AO) i?e 298.15-368.15E ? a aoeaoii? (Aoe) i?e
278.15-318.15E; aecia/aiiy aonoeie, a’yceino? oa ae?aeaeo?e/ii?
i?iieeiino? AA oa noi?o? AI a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?;
iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeae? ??aiiaaa 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o ?ic/eiieeao c
iecueeith AeI; ?ic?aooiie a?aie/ii? iiey?ii? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino?
(li) ? eiinoaio anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo ia? (EA) oa ?iiieo
o??eiee?a (EO); ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ii
?ic?aoiaaieo eiinoaio ?iiii? anioe?aoe??, ?ic?iaea aeaeo?ie?oieo nenoai,
ia?niaeoeaieo aeey noai?aiiy c?aceiaeo cania?a iia??ee
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo i?eeaae?a a ae?aiacii? aei???a ieoiii? AI ieae/a,
i?ae 10-3 Ni/i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia:

-cai?iiiiiaaii iiao iaoiaeeeo ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo aeaieo aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o ?ic/eiieeao c
iecueeith AeI, ui aeicaiey? iaeii/anii aecia/eoe a?aie/io iiey?io
aeaeo?e/io i?ia?aei?noue (AIAI) ?ii?a oa ?iiieo o??eiee?a, a oaeiae
eiinoaioe anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo ia? oa o??eiee?a.
I?aoeacaeaoi?noue iaoiaeeee i?i?ethno?iaaii ia i?eeeaae? ?ic/ei?a 1-1
aeaeo?ie?o?a a iaoeeaoeaoao?, iaoeeoi?i?ao?, AA oa noi?o? AI;

-aeiaaaeaii, ui aaeaeaaoiee iien aenia?eiaioaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe?eii?
caeaaeiino? iiey?ii? AI ?ic/ei?a 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o ?ic/eiieeao c
iecueeith AeI iiaeeeaee eeoa i?e a?aooaaii? iiaeae? ??aiiaaa ooai?aiiy
?iiieo ia? oa ?iiieo o??eiee?a;

-aia?oa iieacaii, ui oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie aia?a?? A?aana iaeoeii?anueei?
i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? (DAG*+-) aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a ?ic/eiieeao c
iecueeith AeI, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ic/eiiee?a c na?aaeiueith AeI,
iaoiiaeai? ia o?eueee ci?iaie ei?ioeiae?th/i? neeaaeiai? a?eueii?
aia?a?? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? a ?ic/eiieeo, aea e cia/iei aianeii a?ae
aia?a?? ?ii-aeeiieueii? aca?iiae??;

-aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeeie cia/aiiyie AeI aia?a?y
A?aana iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith
a?eueoa, i?ae o ?ic/eiieeao c na?aaei?i cia/aiiyi AeI. Ca?eueoaiiy
aaniethoieo cia/aiue iaeoeii?anueei? neeaaeiai? a anioe?aoe?th ?ii?a i?e
ciaioaii? AeI iaoiiaeaii ?inoii aia?aaoe/ieo cao?ao ia aeo?niaiiy
iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea ?c nieueaaoieo iaieiiie ?ii?a;

-c aiae?co ao?aeoe?eiiai eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a aia?oa
anoaiiaeaii, ui e?iaoe/ia nieueaaoaoe?y iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a
iineaaeth?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e, ?aae?ona eao?iia,
ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? ?ic/eiieea oa i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae i?ioiiieo
?ic/eiiee?a aei ai?ioiiieo. Aia?oa aeyaeaii, ui a i?ioiiieo ?ic/eiieeao
c iecueeeie cia/aiiyie AeI oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie ao?aeoe?eiiai eiao?oe??ioa
oa?oy a?eueo cia/i?. Iieacaii, ui anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? iaoiiaeai?
ciaioaiiyi aeeiai?/ieo ei?aeyoe?e i?ae aeeiieyie iieaeoe oa ?iiii;

-oia?oa ia i?aenoaa? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa
oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaieo eiinoaio anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo o??eiee?a
iieacaii, ui ?o ??cieoey (DlgKT) iiaea neoaeeoe e?euee?niith i??ith
iaeoeii?anueeeo i?ae?iiieo aca?iiae?e, iaoiiaeaieo ia?ae?eaaiiyi
nieueaaoieo iaieiiie ?ii?a. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae aia?a??th
A?aana iaeoeii?anueei? aca?iiae?? aeey ?iiieo o??eiee?a (DG*T) oa
iaeoeii?anueei? neeaaeiai? aia?a?? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? (DdF*) a
oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a AA ? noi?o? AI. Neiaaoiee oa?aeoa?
iie?oa?i DG*T ? DdF* na?ae/eoue i?i aieea no?oeoo?iiai noaio ?ic/eiieea
ia ei?ioeiae?th/o neeaaeiao i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? i?e ooai?aii? ?iiieo
o??eiee?a;

— aia?oa io?eiaii iia? aeai? c ieoiii? AI, c AIAI oa eiinoaio
anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo ia? oa o??eiee?a; c aia?a?? A?aana
iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? (DAG*+-), c ao?aeoe?eiiai
eiao?oe??ioo oa?oy (z*) aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a AA (i?e 278.15-318.15E),
noi?o? AI (i?e 298.15-368.15E), Aoe (i?e 278.15-318.15E); c aonoeie,
a’yceino? oa ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? noi?o? AI o aeacaiiio aeua
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao oaiia?aoo?e oa
i?e?iaee aeaeo?ie?oo ? ?ic/eiieea ia AI oa anioe?aoe?th ?ii?a
iiaeeaeththoue ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
iaaiaeieo aeaeo?ie?oieo ?ic/eiao. Aeai? c eiinoaio anioe?aoe??
iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?aooieao o?i?/ieo
??aiiaaa. Aeai? i?i AI 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a AA iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e ?ic?iaoe? o?i?/ieo aeaea?ae no?oio. Aia?oa caaaeyee noaa?eueiino? a
/an? oa a?aeoai?thaaiino? cia/aiue ieoiii? AI ?ic?iaeaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii
ye c?aceia? caniae aeey iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo
aiae?caoi??a ??aeeiieo na?aaeiaeu ?ic/eie NaClO4 a noi?o? AI (ianiaa
/anoea aooai-1-ieo 50 %) aeey ae?aiaciio ieoiii? aeaeo?e/ii?
i?ia?aeiino? ieae/a, i?ae 10-3 Ni/i. ?ic/eie ieoiii? AI ai?iaaaeaeaii a
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean oa i?e aeeiiaii? IAe? ia eaoaae?? o?ce/ii? o?i??
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a io?eiaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a,
aeeeaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??; a iinoaiiaoe? ? i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioo oa
iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee iaea?aeaieo aeaieo; i?iaaaeaii? aiae?co aeanieo oa
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, oeoia/aii? ?acoeueoao?a, oi?ioethaaii? aeniiae?a oa
ocaaaeueiaiue. Iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c AI
i?iaiaeeee c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aiiiai iaeaoo “LOPT”, neeaaeaiiai
e.o.i., aeioe. Eaeoa?iei I.I. oa ?iae. Ieaooo?iei A.O.

Ioae?eaoe?? oa ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6
noaooae o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeieeaaeaii ia II
Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oeiey e i?eiaiaiea iaaiaeiuo ?anoai?ia” (i.
Oa?e?a, 1989 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iiuoeaiiinoue
no?ieiaoa?eaeia e no?ieeiaeono?ey, yia?ai- e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea a
oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee” /anoeia 9. OIV iaoeia? /eoaiiy
“Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?an a iaeanoe i?iiyeieiaee e yeieiae/aneee
iiieoi?eia” (i. A?eai?iae, 1997 ?.); XI I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
iieiaeeo a/aieo c o?i?? oa o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? “IEOO-97” (i. Iineaa,
1997 ?.), VII I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaiu nieueaaoaoeee e
eiiieaeniia?aciaaiey a ?anoai?ao” (i. ?aaiiai, 1998 ?.), ??
Oe?a?inueeiio aeaeo?io?i?/iiio c’?cae? (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999 ?.).

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 4-o
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 137 noi??iie, 30 noi??iie
aeiaeaoeo, 40 oaaeeoeue, 23 ?enoiee. A?ae?ia?ao?y ia?aoiao? 215
iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa
iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaia iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii e?oa?aoo?iiio iaeyaeo niinia?a iieno
eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? AI ?c caeo/aiiyi oyaeaiue i?i
i?ae/anoeieia? aca?iiae?? a ?ic/eiao aeaeo?ie?o?a oa aia?aoo
noaoenoe/ii? iaoai?ee. ?icaeyaeathoueny no/ani? oai??? anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a
aei ?iiieo ia? oa ?iiieo o??eiee?a, ?o ia?aaaae oa iaiaaeaiiy. Iaaaaeaii
iaea?eueo iioe?ai? oai?aoe/i? ??aiyiiy aeey eiinoaio anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a
aei ?iiieo ia? oa ?iiieo o??eiee?a. I?iaiae?ciaaii oai???, ye?
iienothoue ?iiio a?aie/io iiey?io aeaeo?e/io i?ia?aei?noue oa ?? ca’ycie
?c aeanoeainoyie ?ic/eiieea oa ?iia.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iaoiaeee oa ia’?eo?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy. C iaoith ooi/iaiiy oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue i?i ?iii?
??aiiaaae, ye? ?niothoue a ?ic/eiao aeaeo?ie?o?a o ?ic/eiieeao c
iecueeith AeI oa c iaoith ia?aa??ee io?eiaieo ?ai?oa caeiiii??iinoae
(iayai?noue aeno?aioi?a ia iie?oa?iao lgKA 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a i-nie?oao;
a?aeoeeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?cioa?i lgKA a?ae oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaieo
ca aeaeo?inoaoe/ieie oai??yie aeey i?ioiiieo oa ai?ioiiieo ?ic/eiiee?a ?
o.?.) a aeai?e ?iaio? aeeiiaii aeine?aeaeaiiy 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o
?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI oa ??ciei oa?aeoa?ii i?aeiieaeoey?ii?
aca?iiae??: AA (e298=6.0) oa noi?o AI (e298=7.3). Aeey ii??aiyiiy aoei
aea?aii aoeaoii, yeee ia? na?aaei? cia/aiiy AeI (e298=20.8).

Ca iaoiaeeeaie, iienaieie a e?oa?aoo??, aoei aei??yii aonoeio (d),
a’yce?noue (h) oa ae?aeaeo?e/io i?iieei?noue (e) AA i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
278.15-318.15E oa noi?o? AI i?e 298.15-368.15E. A ?iaio? a ?ioa?aae?
eiioeaio?aoe?e 1*10-4-1*10-2 iieue/aei3 aei??yia ieoiia AI ?ic/ei?a: a)
LiClI4, NaClO4, NaBPh4 oa Bu4NClO4 a AA i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 278.15-318.15E;
a) NaClO4, NaBPh4, Bu4NClO4 a noi?o? AI a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
298.15-368.15E; a) NaBPh4, Bu4NBr, Bu4NBPh4 a Aoe a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
278.15-318.15E.

Iienaii iaoiaeeee i?aeaioiaee ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic/eie aiooaaee
a?aa?iao?e/iei iaoiaeii. Aeaeo?e/iee ii?? ?ic/ei?a aei??thaaee ca
aeiiiiiaith iinoa ci?iiiai no?oio ? 5083 ia /anoio? 1 eAoe a eii??eao c
ieaoeiiaaieie ieaoeiiaeie aeaeo?iaeaie. I?aenoieiaa iioeaea aecia/aiiy
AI neeaaeaea 0.6-0.8 %, aonoeie — 0.1-0.2 %, a’yceino? — 0.2-0.3 %,
ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? — 0.4-0.5 % a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e.

Noaiaea?oi? ?ic/eie ieoiii? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ieoiii? AI ?ic/ei?a NaClO4 a noi?o? AI /a?ac 1, 3, 6 oa 12 i?nyoe?a
iieacaee, ui aiia a?aeoai?th?oueny i?ioyaii ?ieo a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
298-368E, ui aeaei i?aenoaao cai?iiiioaaoe ?o aeey aeei?enoaiiy ye
noaiaea?oieo cania?a aeey a?aaeothaaiiy ??aeeiieo eiiaeoeoiiao??a o
ae?aiacii? aei??thaaiue ieoiii? AI ieae/a, i?ae 10-3 Ni/i, yeee ia
caaacia/aiee iaae?eieie caniaaie iia??ee.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii iaa?oiooaaiith aeai?o iiaeae? ??aiiaaa o
?ic/ei? oa ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai aenia?eiaioo.

Iaoiaeeea ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino?.
I?e ia?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI
a?aoiaoaaee aea? iiaeae? ?iiii? ??aiiaaae. Ca?aeii ia?oi? iiaeae? (?)
(Nooio?i, A??ai) a?aee aei oaaae ??aiiaaao anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a o?eueee aei
?iiieo ia?. A iaaeao ae?oai? iiaeae? (Ooinn, Naeiiii, Aa?oaeue oa ?io?)
iaeii/anii a?aoiaoaaee ??aiiaaae anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo ia? (I) oa
o??eiee?a (IIa) ? (IIa)
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, (I)
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 (IIa)
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 (IIa)

aea E1 = EA, a E2 = E3 = EO.

Ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo aeaieo o iaaeao iiaeae?
?iiii? ??aiiaaae (I) i?iaiaeeee ca ??aiyiiyie E?-O?oiia aeey AI oa
ae?oaiai iaaeeaeaiiy oai??? Aeaaay-Otheaey aeey eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino?
c aeei?enoaiiyi ne?aeoth/eo aa??aio?a iioei?caoe??: 1) ca o?ueiia
ia?aiao?aie (lo, KA, R); 2) ca aeaiia ia?aiao?aie (lo, KA) i?e
caaeaaaii? a?aenoai? iaea?eueoiai caeeaeaiiy ii A’???oio ? 3) ca aeaiia
ia?aiao?aie (lo, KA) c o?eniaaiei cia/aiiyi a?aenoai? iaea?eueoiai
caeeaeaiiy ?ii?a ca iiaeaeeth Aa?oaea: R=r++r-+ndS, aea r+ ? r- —
?aae?one ?ii?a, dS — ae?aiao? iieaeoee ?ic/eiieea, n — /enei iieaeoe
?ic/eiieea. n i?e??aithaaee 0 aeey aaeeeeo neaainieueaaoiaaieo
oao?aaee?eaiii??aeo ?ii?a oa ai?ii?a ? n=1 — aeey ?ii?a eoaeieo iaoae?a.
Aoei i?iaaaeaii oaeiae ?ic?aooiee lo oa ia?aiao?a iaea?eueoiai
caeeaeaiiy ?ii?a ca ??aiyiiyie na?aaeiueinoa?e/iiai iaaeeaeaiiy aeey
eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino? (MSA) oa AI (MSAT) (aa??aio 4). Eiinoaioo
?iiii? anioe?aoe?? i?e oeueiio ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca ??aiyiiyi Aaae?iaa
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. (1)

Ia?iaeo eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo aeaieo aeey iiaeae? (I) i?iaiaeeee ca
i?ia?aiiei iaeaoii “LOPT” (aaoi?e Eaeoa?i I.I., Ieaooo?i A.O.).

I?e ?ic?aooieao li, EA oa R a?aoiaoaaee e?eoa??e E?-O?oiia aeey aeai?o
iaeneiaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe??, aei yei? ooai?aiiyi ?iiieo o??eiee?a
iiaeia ciaoooaaoe (n?iaen.=9.1*10-15(eO)3 iieue/aei3). Aeey ?ic/ei?a
aeaeo?ie?o?a a AA oa noi?o? AI aaee/eie li oa R, ?ic?aoiaai? ca
??aiyiiyie na?aaeiueinoa?e/iiai iaaeeaeaiiy iathoue a?aeoeeaiiy, ye? ia
2-3 ii?yaeee ia?aaeuothoue naio aaee/eio, yea iioei?coaaeanue. Ie??i
oiai, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? aeenia?n?y ai?ieneiaoe??
ci?ith?oueny ia aeiaaeeiaei /eiii, a nenoaiaoe/ii ca?eueoo?oueny. I?e
oeueiio aeyaeaii a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae aeeiiaiiy caeiio Eieue?aooa. Aaee/eie
li oa EA aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a AA ? noi?o? AI, ?ic?aoiaai? c
aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeae? Aa?oaea aeey R, aoee caieaeaieie ? oaeiae
iaaeinoia??ieie, i?i ui na?ae/aoue a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae caeiio Eieue?aooa.
Aiaeia?/ia neooaoe?y aoea iienaia a e?oa?aoo?? i?e aecia/aii? lo ? lgEA
aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a oao?aa?ae?ioo?ai?, iaoeeoi?i?ao?, iaoeeaoeaoao?.
Oe? a?aeoeeaiiy iiyniththoueny ciaoooaaiiyi ooai?aiiy ?iiieo aa?aaao?a
a?eueo aenieiai nooiaiy (o??eiee?a, eaaae?oiie?a ? o.?.). Ia i?aenoaa?
aeanieo ?ic?aooie?a oa iieno e?oa?aoo?e ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui aaeaeaaoiee
iien eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? AI 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o ?ic/eiieeao c
iecueeith AeI iiaeeeai cae?enieoe c o?aooaaiiyi noeoiiino? ??aiiaaa (I)
oa (IIa), (IIa).

A aeaiee /an ?nioaaiiy o??eiee?a ? iaa?oue a?eueo neeaaeieo ?iiieo
anioe?ao?a a na?aaeiaeuao c iecueeith AeI aeiaaaeaii aaaaoueia
aenia?eiaioaeueieie iaoiaeaie (?E-niaeo?ineii?y, iiey?ia?ao?y,
?aioaaiia?ao?y, ianniaeo?ineii?y) oa iaoiaeii eiii’thoa?iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei oai??? Ooinna, o aeiaaeeo ooai?aiiy
?iiieo o??eiee?a, caeaaei?noue l*Oen a?ae n iiaeiia aooe aeecueea aei
e?i?eii?, ui ae?enii aeeiio?oueny aeey ?ic/ei?a 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a AA oa
noi?o? AI. A Aoe oey caeaaei?noue a aeine?aeaeaiiio ?ioa?aae?
eiioeaio?aoe?e a?aeoeey?oueny a?ae e?i?eii?, ui iaoiiaeaii anioe?aoe??th
?ii?a o?eueee aei ?iiieo ia?. A Aoe aaeaeiny i?iaanoe iioei?caoe?th
cia/aiue lo oa lgEA (iiaeaeue ??aiiaaae (I)) ca ia?ae?/aieie aeua
aa??aioaie. Io?eiai? cia/aiiy lo oa lgEA iathoue i?i?iaeuei? iioeaee i?e
caaeaaaii? ia?aiao?o iaea?eueoiai caeeaeaiiy ?ii?a ii Aa?oaeo. Oaeei
/eiii, aeey iieno eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? iiey?ii? AI ?ic/ei?a 1-1
aeaeo?ie?o?a a AA ? noi?o? AI a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e 1*10-4?1*10-2
iieue/aei3 iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ooai?aiiy ?iiieo o??eiee?a, a oie /an
ye a Aoe aeineoue a?aoiaoaaoe anioe?aoe?th ?ii?a o?eueee aei ?iiieo ia?.

Aeey ?ic?aooie?a AIAI ? eiinoaio anioe?aoe?? i?e a?aooaaii? ??aiiaaa (I)
? (II) iaie iiaeeo?eiaaii noeoiiee iaoiae ia?iaee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo
aeaieo. Aeey iieno eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? iiey?ii? AI ?ic/ei?a
1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a AA oa noi?o? AI aeei?enoiaoaaee ?icoe?aia ??aiyiiy
E?-O?oiia aeey ianeiao?e/ieo oa neeaaeiianioe?eiaaieo aeaeo?ie?o?a.
??aiiaaaei? eiioeaio?aoe?? a ?ic/ei? ciaoiaeeee ca iaoiaeii A??iee? c
o?aooaaiiyi eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino?. Nenoaio iae?i?eieo ??aiyiue aeey
iieno eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? AI, eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino?, caeiio
ae?th/eo ian oa iaoa??aeueiiai aaeaino ae??ooaaee a?aeiinii aaeoi?o
iaa?aeiieo ia?aiao??a

X=X (li, liO, lgKA, lgKT,t+D, t+T, R), (2)

aea lio — AIAI ?iiieo o??eiee?a, a t+D oa t+T — oiiai? /enea ia?aiino
aeey eao?ii?a oa iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo ?iiieo o??eiee?a. No?ee?noue
iioei?caoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae aeecueeino? ii/aoeiaeo iaaeeaeaiue
ia?aiao??a lo, lio, lgKA, lgKT oa ?o iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue oa a?ae
i?aaeeueiino? aeai?o o?eniaaieo ia?aiao??a aeey t+D, t+T ? R. Ii/aoeia?
cia/aiiy aeey lo caaeaaaee ca aeiiiiiaith i?aaeea
Iena?aeaanueeiai-Aaeueaeaia (IA) c aeei?enoaiiyi e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c
lii a ai?ioiiieo ?ic/eiieeao aeey AA oa i?ioiiieo ?ic/eiieeao — aeey
noi?o? AI. Oe? ae na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/i? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i lii
aeei?enoiaoaaee ? i?e ?ic?aooieao oiiaieo /enae ia?aiino aeey eao?ii?a,
t+D=lo+/(lo++lo-). Iaoiaeii neaioaaiiy aoei aecia/aii /enea ia?aiino
t+T=0.45 aeey iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo ?iiieo o??eiee?a, ye? i?noyoue ?iie
Li+ ? Na+ oa t+T=0.40 aeey iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo o??eiee?a c
Bu4N+-?iiii. Ia?aiao? iaea?eueoiai caeeaeaiiy ?ii?a caaeaaaee ca
iiaeaeeth Aa?oaea. I?e iioei?caoe?? ii/aoeia? iaaeeaeaiiy aeey loT,
lgKA, lgKT ci?ithaaee aei io?eiaiiy o?ce/ii ?icoiieo aaee/ei
iioei?ciaaieo ia?aiao??a c i?i?iaeueieie aeia??/ei ?ioa?aaeii oa
aeenia?n??th ai?ieneiaoe??. A oaaeeoe? 1 iaaaaeaii aaee/eie AIAI oa
eiinoaio anioe?aoe??, iaea?aeai? aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a aoeaoii? c
o?aooaaiiyi i?e iien? eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? AI ??aiiaaae (I), a
a AA oa noi?o? AI — ??aiiaaa (I) oa (IIa, IIa). A?aeiioaiiy loT/lo
(oaae. 1) ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao 0.53?0.90 a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e?iaee
?iio oa oaiia?aoo?e ? ia aei??aith? 1/3 aai 2/3, ye i?eeia?oueny a
e?oa?aoo??.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iaaiai?aiith ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ooii?noue oa ?ii-iieaeoey?i? aca?iiae?? iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a. Noia?i?
AIAI, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeaeo?ie?o a oe?eiio, ia aeathoue ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i aeanoeaino? ie?aieo ?ii?a. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy cia/aiue ?iiieo AI (loi)
a AA ? noi?o? AI aeei?enoiaoaaee oiiai? /enea ia?aiino. Aaee/eie loi a
Aoe i?e 298.15 E aoee ?ic?aoiaai? c aeei?enoaiiyi e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo
i?i /enea ia?aiino. Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue ?iiii? AI aecia/a?oueny ye
oaiia?aoo?ieie ci?iaie a’yceino? ?ic/eiieea, oae ? iayai?noth
aaeueioth/eo aoaeo?a, iia’ycaieo c ?ii-iieaeoey?iith aca?iiae??th. Aeey
iiyniaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? aaee/ei loi a oa?i?iao
?ii-iieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae?? oa iaoai?cio ?ooo iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea
aeei?enoiaoaaee ?aea? iieaeoey?ii? oai??? Aie?iana. Aeo?aeiith
iiceoe??th oai??? ? ?iciiae?e eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy V ia neeaaeia?,
coiiaeai? “aei?noeeie” a?aeooiaooaaeueieie aca?iiae?yie (Vo) oa
“i’yeeie” i?eoyaoaaeueieie (ao?aeoe?eieie) ?ii-iieaeoey?ieie
aca?iiae?yie (V*).

V=zeF/loi =4prih+V*. (3)

Eiao?oe??io ao?aeoe?eiiai oa?oy V* ia/enethaaee ca ??aiyiiyi (3) ca
aenia?eiaioaeueieie cia/aiiyie loi. Iie?oa?ie ao?aeoe?eiiai eiao?oe??ioa
oa?oy *, io?eiai? c e?oa?aoo?ieo (aoeaoii?o?ee, iaoaiie) oa aeanieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i AIAI iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a, iiaeaii ia
?en.1.

Oaaeeoey 1 — A?aie/i? iiey?i? aeaeo?e/i? i?ia?aeiino?, eiinoaioe
anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo ia? oa ?iiieo o??eiee?a ? DlgKT=lgKTaeni.-
lgKToai?. a AA, noi?o? AI ? Aoe

T, Kli,

Ni*i2/iieueloT,

Ni*i2/iieue lg (EA, aei3/iieue)lg (ET, aei3/iieue)sl,

Ni*i2/iieue
DlgKTloT/lo12345678AA-LiClO4278.15108.1±2.382.8±2.88.92±0.022.16±0.051.5
1*10-3-0.850.77288.15126.0±2.190.2±2.39.02±0.242.31±0.232.68*10-3-0.610.
72298.15141.3±3.7106.0±3.89.10±0.042.30±0.102.72*10-3-0.540.75308.15157.
5±7.8125.5±7.89.20±0.042.38±0.052.48*10-3-0.390.80318.15176.9±6.5134.6±5
.39.29±0.042.40±0.062.39*10-3-0.300.76AA-NaClO4278.15116.7±7.685.2±6.09.
08±0.012.10±0.041.53*10-1-0.720.73288.15134.5±1094.0±9.69.13±0.072.12±0.
061.49*10-1-0.610.70298.15149.2±1.6102.2±1.39.17±0.012.19±0.021.74*10-1-
0.470.69308.15166.8±5.1116.3±5.69.21±0.032.16±0.031.70*10-1-0.430.70318.
15186.3±6.7130.1±4.79.26±0.032.14±0.031.53*10-1-0.400.70AA-NaBPh4278.158
0.3±0.651.0±1.24.91±0.013.43±0.181.42*10-11.510.63288.1590.5±8.953.9±3.3
4.90±0.093.72±0.801.89*10-11.830.59298.15102.2±4.658.6±0.64.93±0.053.40±
0.131.27*10-11.550.57308.15113.9±1.661.1±2.14.95±0.023.49±0.211.55*10-11
.670.54318.15132.6±1.270.2±2.95.08±0.013.48±0.013.43*10-11.690.53AA-Bu4N
ClO4298.15142.7±5.4109.2±5.17.68±0.032.49±0.031.43*10-20.730.77303.15150
.4±3.1114.7±3.57.69±0.022.49±0.031.50*10-20.760.76308.15161.0±2.0117.0±5
.37.71±0.022.51±0.031.64*10-20.780.73313.15167.7±1.8126.3±3.37.71±0.042.
41±0.031.70*10-20.700.75318.15177.6±3.3137.3±3.87.72±0.022.53±0.041.67*1
0-20.820.77Noi?o
AI-NaClO4298.1537.1±0.222.3±0.26.40±0.012.50±0.101.55*10-20.480.68308.15
45.3±1.931.4±1.06.71±0.042.54±0.061.35*10-20.400.69I?iaeiaaeaiiy
oaaeeoe?
112345678338.1585.6±4.862.4±5.37.84±0.052.50±0.096.51*10-2-0.390.73348.1
5102.6±0.572.8±0.58.23±0.012.49±0.065.72*10-2-0.530.71358.15121.0±9.183.
5±9.58.63±0.062.58±0.083.89*10-2-0.620.69368.15137.7±6.694.4±8.18.99±0.0
42.57±0.062.03*10-2-0.960.69Noi?o
AI-NaBPh4298.1525.4±0.122.3±0.04.32±0.012.38±0.014.88*10-20.840.88308.15
35.2±4.324.4±7.94.71±0.132.65±0.267.74*10-21.050.84318.1542.6±0.137.9±0.
14.94±0.012.37±0.017.43*10-20.670.89328.1552.5±7.243.5±4.25.24±0.132.32±
0.195.75*10-20.520.83338.1565.6±0.159.4±0.15.60±0.012.34±0.025.52*10-20.
380.91348.1577.6±0.168.3±0.15.89±0.012.32±0.045.09*10-20.300.88358.1590.
8±0.278.5±0.16.23±0.012.41±0.033.43*10-20.310.86368.15106.3±2.581.4±0.16
.63±0.022.65±0.032.35*10-20.400.77Noi?o
AI-Bu4NClO4298.1539.5±1.729.0±1.96.37±0.042.42±0.041.28*10-20.930.74308.
1548.1±0.633.3±0.46.54±0.012.46±0.021.24*10-20.920.69318.1560.6±0.140.8±
0.06.79±0.012.50±0.011.14*10-20.870.67328.1571.6±0.950.0±1.27.02±0.012.5
1±0.029.01*10-30.800.70338.1590.2±1.159.7±1.57.31±0.012.52±0.027.79*10-3
0.680.66348.15107.1±0.171.6±0.17.57±0.012.56±0.016.28*10-30.670.67358.15
124.7±0.684.2±0.57.82±0.012.59±0.015.81*10-30.640.68368.15145.8±0.398.0±
0.18.09±0.012.63±0.014.82*10-30.560.67Aoe-NaBPh4278.15116.9±0.4-1.80±0.8
4-0.50—288.15130.1±0.4-1.81±0.81-0.51—298.15143.8±0.5-1.80±0.86-0.62—
308.15158.0±0.4-1.81±0.78-0.56—318.15173.5±0.5-1.85±0.83-0.66—Aoe-Bu4N
Br278.15152.7±0.6-2.44±1.00-0.64—288.15169.7±0.5-2.49±0.98-0.62—I?iaei
aaeaiiy oaaeeoe?
112345678298.15187.0±0.6-2.52±0.70-0.69—308.15204.7±0.1-2.58±0.97-0.63-
-318.15223.1±0.6-2.63±1.00-0.66—Aoe-Bu4NBPh4278.15105.9±0.6-1.82±1.00-0
.61—288.15117.7±0.6-1.83±1.00-0.65—298.15130.3±0.8-1.86±1.04-0.78—308
.15143.0±0.8-1.88±1.04-0.84—318.15157.1±0.9-1.97±1.15-0.87—?ai?oa ia
eaoaae?? iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? OAeO aoei iieacaii, ui ao?aeoe?eiee
eiao?oe??io oa?oy e?euee?nii oa?aeoa?eco? aeeaeith nieueaaoaoe?th ?ii?a
a oa?i?iao iiceoeaii? (V*>0) oa iaaaoeaii? (V*<0) nieueaaoaoe?? Naiieeiaa. sse aeaeii c ?en.1, iiceoeai? cia/aiiy V* na?ae/aoue i?i iiceoeaio nieueaaoaoe?th ?ii?a ? icia/athoue, ui eieaeueia a’yce?noue iiaeeco ?iia a?eueoa, i?ae iae?ineii?/ia a’yce?noue /enoiai ?ic/eiieea. Ca?eueoaiiy V* i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae ai?ii?a aei eao?ii?a, a oaeiae c? ciaioaiiyi ?aae?ona eao?ii?a eoaeieo iaoae?a (?en.1) coiiaeaii iineeaiiyi aieeao ?iia ia aeeiai?eo iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o eiai nieueaaoi?e iaieiioe?. Iecuee? oa aeecuee? cia/aiiy V* aeey ai?ii?a na?ae/aoue i?i neaaeee ?o aieea ia ?ooii?noue iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeniiaeaie niaeo?ineii?/ieo aenia?eiaio?a i?i neaaeo nieueaaoaoe?th ai?ii?a o aeine?aeaeaieo ?ic/eiieeao. O ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI i?e iaeiaeiaeo oaiia?aoo?ao V* aeey eao?ii?a eoaeieo iaoae?a ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith a?eueoee, i?ae o ?ic/eiieeao c na?aaeiueith AeI (?en.1). Oae, aeey ?iia Na+ aaee/eia V* (I*n/i) i?e 298.15E a AA noaiiaeoue 2.20, a Aoe – 1.69, a AI – 1.30, a oie /an ye a noi?o? AI – 9.52, a a iaoaiie? – 4.10. Ciaioaiiy ao?aeoe?eiiai eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e iiaeia iiynieoe i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ooiiino? iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea, ui, a naith /a?ao, i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy aeeiai?/ieo ei?aeyoe?e i?ae iieaeoey?ieie aeeiieyie oa ?iiii. Iniaeeai ae?acii oea yaeua i?iyaey?oueny aeey ?ic/eiiee?a c aiaeiaaei ca’yceii caaaeyee ?oeioaaiith i?aeiieaeoey?ieo I-eiiieaen?a (anioe?ao?a). Ca ??aiyiiyi (3) aoei ioe?iaii aaee/eie V* aeey ?iiieo o??eiee?a a AA oa noi?o? AI. Aeey iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo ?iiieo o??eiee?a V*>0, a aeey
iaaaoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo V*<0 ( ca aeeeth/aiiyi [(Bu4N)2ClO4] + a AA ? [Na(ClO4)2]- a noi?o? AI). Iaaaoeai? cia/aiiy V* na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ?ooii?noue iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea iiaeeco ?iia a?eueoa, i?ae a ia’?i? ?ic/eiieea. Aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia eiinoaioe anioe?aoe?? oa iaeoeii?anuee? i?ae?iii? aca?iiae??. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? eiinoaioe anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo ia? aeey LiClO4, NaClO4, NaBPh4 ? NaI o aea/aieo ?ic/eiieeao ieae/?, a aeey nieae, ui i?noyoue oao?aaooeeaiii??aee ?ii - aeu? oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaieo ca ??aiyiiyi Aaae?iaa, ui aeaco? ia iaiao?aei?noue o?aooaaiiy iaeoeii?anueeeo aca?iiae?e o i?ioean? anioe?aoe?? ? na?ae/eoue i?i iani?iiiaei?noue iienaoe anioe?aoe?th iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a a aeine?aeaeaieo ?ic/eiieeao eeoa ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?inoaoe/ieo oyaeaiue. Aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a, iaaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe??, iieacaa, ui ia nueiaiaei? ia ?nio? oai???, yea ciiaea a no?iai iienaoe iaeoeii?anueeo neeaaeiao ia?iiai i?ae?iiiiai iioaioe?aeo. Ca noaoenoe/iith oai???th ?iiii? anioe?aoe?? i?ae?iiiee iioaioe?ae c o?aooaaiiyi iaeoeii?anueeeo aca?iiae?e iieno?oueny iiaeaeeth: picscalex100010009000003e1020000020015000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c024007c0151200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffb7ffffff80150000f70600000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000a00110000000fb0203fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000 2040000002d01000008000000320afe03a40201000000280010000000fb0203fedd00000 000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000 008000000320afe03d90301000000290010000000fb0203fedd000000000090010000000 20002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320afe0 37e0901000000280010000000fb0203fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d6 26f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320afe03b30a01000000290 010000000fb0203fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00020400000 02d01000004000000f001010008000000320a75067e0901000000280010000000fb0203f edd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0101000400000 0f001000008000000320a7506b30a01000000290010000000fb0280fe000000000000900 1000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f00101000800000 0320ab205af0501000000ef0008000000320ad906af0501000000ee0008000000320a1b0 3af0501000000ef0008000000320a4204af0501000000ed0008000000320aab01af05010 00000ec0008000000320a77060f12010000003e0008000000320a00046013010000003c0 008000000320a00044211010000003c0008000000320a0004620b010000002b000800000 0320a8f018411010000003c0008000000320a8f01680601000000a50008000000320a000 48804010000003d0010000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000020002001053796d6 26f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ad7062008010000002d0 008000000320ad7069207010000002b0008000000320a6004050e010000002d000800000 0320a6004770d010000002b0008000000320a60042008010000002d0008000000320a600 49207010000002b0008000000320a6004ec01010000002d0008000000320a60045e01010 000002b0015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e6 57720526f6d616e0000e9040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7706421 301000000520008000000320a7706121101000000720008000000320a7706f6090100000 0720008000000320a77064a0601000000550008000000320a00049314010000005200080 00000320a0004691201000000720008000000320a00042c1001000000610008000000320 a0004900c01000000640008000000320a0004f60901000000720008000000320a00044a0 601000000550008000000320a8f01ab1201000000610008000000320a8f018d100100000 0720008000000320a00041c0301000000720008000000320a00041600010000005500150 00000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d6 16e00cce9040000002d01010004000000f001000009000000320acb05b80703000000caf 3eb0009000000320a5403b80703000000caf3eb0015000000fb0220ff000000000000900 1000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000e9040000002d010000040 00000f001010008000000320acb051609010000002e0008000000320a540316090100000 02e000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02100007000000000 0bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030 000000000, (4) aea d+-- aoaeoeaiee iaeoeii?anueeee iioaioe?ae, iia’ycaiee c? niaoeeo?/iith ?ii-iieaeoey?iith aca?iiae??th, R=r++r-+dS,. Aia?a?th A?aana iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? (DAG*+-) a iaaeao iiaeae? (4) ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie eiinoaioaie anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo ia? ca ??aiyiiyi picscalex100010009000003ea030000030015000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c024005402e1200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffaeffffff002e0000ee0400000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000200109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d01000005000000140 2a002de0e050000001302a0027013050000001402a002c219050000001302a0027c1b100 00000fb0203fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0 1010008000000320afe02541d01000000280010000000fb0203fedd00000000009001000 000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320 afe028a1e010000002900050000001402a0026927050000001302a002232910000000fb0 203fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010100040 00000f001020008000000320afe02fb2a01000000280010000000fb0203fedd000000000 09001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f0010100080 00000320afe02312c01000000290015000000fb0280fe000000000000900101000000040 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00006b040000002d01010004000000f001020 008000000320a0003962c02000000647208000000320a0003732b0100000072000800000 0320a2e04f52701000000720008000000320a0902492801000000710008000000320a000 3cc2201000000720008000000320a0003ef1e02000000647208000000320a0003cc1d010 00000720008000000320a2e044e1a01000000720008000000320a0902a21a01000000710 008000000320a0003251501000000720008000000320a2e043a100200000052540800000 0320ac901f41001000000470008000000320a00039208010000004e0008000000320a000 34600010000004b0015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6 573204e657720526f6d616e00006b040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320 aa004f32101000000520008000000320a48014c1401000000520008000000320aa004561 401000000610008000000320a2902561001000000410008000000320a6003d0090100000 0410008000000320a6003840101000000410010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010 000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320 a0003d02901000000770008000000320a0003291c01000000770008000000320a00036d0 401000000700010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6 c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a1b03532901000000f700080 00000320a5f04532901000000f80008000000320a2502532901000000f60008000000320 a1b03a32601000000e70008000000320a5f04a32601000000e80008000000320a2502a32 601000000e60008000000320a0003b120010000002b0008000000320a1b03ac1b0100000 0f70008000000320a5f04ac1b01000000f80008000000320a2502ac1b01000000f600080 00000320a1b03fc1801000000e70008000000320a5f04fc1801000000e80008000000320 a2502fc1801000000e60008000000320ada03a01301000000f70008000000320aaa02a01 301000000f70008000000320ad004a01301000000f80008000000320ab401a0130100000 0f60008000000320ada03ed0c01000000e70008000000320aaa02ed0c01000000e700080 00000320ad004ed0c01000000e80008000000320ab401ed0c01000000e60008000000320 ac901f80e01000000440008000000320a0003ad0d010000002d0008000000320a0003bd0 501000000d70008000000320a00039a02010000003d0010000000fb02c0fd00000000000 09001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010200080 00000320a8a03e82101000000f20008000000320a8a03411401000000f20010000000fb0 220ff0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010200040 00000f001010008000000320a4801e42101000000a50008000000320a2902a7120100000 02d0008000000320a29021912010000002b0015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000 000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00006b040000002d0101000400000 0f001020008000000320a0902832701000000320009000000320a00037b2403000000657 8700008000000320a0902dc1901000000320009000000320a0003d416030000006578700 009000000320a0003c50a030000006578700008000000320a00033a06020000003130080 00000320a0003c50301000000340015000000fb0220ff000000000000900100000000040 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00006b040000002d01020004000000f001010 008000000320a54029b2301000000320008000000320a5402f4150100000032000800000 0320a1d012c12010000002a0008000000320a5402d4070100000033000a00000026060f0 00a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022 253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000, (5) aea DAG*+- =NA*d+-. ?c aiae?co iaea?aeaieo aeaieo i?i DAG*+- a aeine?aeaeaieo ?ic/eiieeao (?en.2) anoaiiaeaii ne?aeoth/? caeiiii??iino?. 1. Aeey aeaeo?ie?o?a, ye? i?noyoue ?iie Li+ oa Na+, aaee/eia DAG*+- ia? iiceoeaia cia/aiiy (ca aeeeth/aiiyi AI), a aeey nieae oao?aaooeeaiii?th ? eae?th – iaaaoeaia. 2. A ?yae? aeaeo?ie?o?a c? ni?eueiei ai?iiii aaee/eia DAG*+- ciaioo?oueny c ?inoii e?enoaeia?ao?/iiai ?aae?ona eao?iia. Ci?ie DAG*+- c ?inoii ?aae?ona ai?iia a ?yaeo aeaeo?ie?o?a c? ni?eueiei eao?iiii iaiaeiicia/i?. 3. A ai?ioiiieo ?ic/eiieeao (AA, Aoe, AI, AeINI) iie?oa?ie DAG*+- iathoue a?ae’?iiee oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io. Aeeeth/aiiyi ?c caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae ci?i DAG*+- c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e ? NaBPh4 a Aoe oa AI. 4. O i?ioiiieo ?ic/eiieeao (noi?o AI, i?iiaiie) aeey aeaeo?ie?o?a c eao?iiaie iaeiai ?ici??o DAG*+- ia? iiceoeaiee oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io, a aeey ?iio Bu4N+ - iaaaoeaiee. 5. A ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI DAG*+- aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith a?eueo?, i?ae a ?ic/eiieeao c na?aaeiueith AeI. Iiceoeaia cia/aiiy DAG*+- na?ae/eoue i?i a?aeooiaooaaiiy a iaeano? ia?ae?eaaiiy nieueaaoieo iaieiiie ?ii?a a i?ioeeaaei?noue eoeii?anueeiio i?eoyaaiith. Iaaaoeaia cia/aiiy DAG*+- aeaco? ia aeiaeaoeiaa aei eoeii?anueeiai i?eoyaaiiy i?ioeeaaeii ca?yaeaeaieo ?ii?a ca ?aooiie iaeoeii?anueeeo aca?iiae?e. Ciaioaiiy aia?a?? A?aana iaeoeii?anueei? aca?iiae?? a ?yae? aeaeo?ie?o?a c? ni?eueiei ai?iiii i?e ca?eueoaii? ?aae?ona eao?iia na?ae/eoue i?i iineaaeaiiy ?ii-iieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae??, ?, ye iane?aeie, i?i ciaioaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo cao?ao ia aeo?niaiiy iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea ?c nieueaaoii? iaieiiee ?iia i?e ooai?aii? ?iiii? ia?e. Aiae?c aeanieo oa e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?i DAG*+- iieacaa, ui iie?oa?ie NaBPh4 a Aoe ? AI ? aeeeth/aiiyi ?c caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae. I?iaaaeai? iaie ca iaoiaeii AI1 eaaioiai-o?i?/i? ?ic?aooiee iioeiaeueii? aaiiao??? no?oeoo?e eiiieaen?a ai?iia BPh4- c iieaeoeaie AA, Aoe ? AI iieacaee, ui iaaaeee? ca ?ici??aie iieaeoee Aoe ? AI i?iieeathoue i?ae oai?eueieie ?aaeeeaeaie ai?iio. ?enoiie 2 Iie?oa?ie AG*+- aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a i?aai?/ieo ?ic/eiieeao Aeey iieaeoe AA oaeeo aoaeo?a ia niinoa??aa?oueny. Ca aeaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue II?, ssI?, ?*-niaeo?ineii?? oa ?i. oaeiae aoei aeyaeaii niaoeeo?/i?noue iiaaae?iee BPh4- - ?iia a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie ai?iiaie a iaaiaeieo ?ic/eiieeao. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? nie?oiaeo ?ic/ei?a aeaeo?ie?o?a aoei aeyaeaii oa?aeoa?iee S-iiae?aiee aeaeyae iie?oa?i AG*+- c i?i?ioiii oa iaeneioiii, c? c?inoath/eie a?eeaie a iaeano? iecueeeo oa aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. Aoei iieacaii, ui aeey nieae oao?aaooeeaiii?th oa?aeoa?iee iaaaoeaiee oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io AG*+-, coiiaeaiee a?eueo i?enei?aiei ?oeioaaiiyi i?ae ae??th aeaeo?ie?oo e?eueoeaaeo anioe?ao?a nie?oo a ii??aiyii? c eaioethaiaeie. ?c aiae?co aaee/ei AG*+-, ?ic?aoiaaieo ?c aeanieo oa e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?i eiinoaioe anioe?aoe?? 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a aeeiaoeeea?aiiao? (=3.1), oei?aaicie? (=5.6), iaoeeaoeaoao? (=6.7), aeeiaoieneaoai? (=7.2), iaoeeoi?i?ao? (=8.9) oa ieoaiie? (=9.9), aoei aeyaeaii, ui a na?aaeiaeuao c iecueeith AeI AG*+- ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith aeu?, a ?o oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie a?eueo cia/i? a ii??aiyii? c ?ic/eiieeaie c na?aaeiueith AeI. ?ai?oa ia eaoaae?? iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? OAeO aoei iieacaii, ui a i?ioiiieo ? ai?ioiiieo ?ic/eiieeao c na?aaeiueith AeI ciae oa oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io DAG*+- aecia/athoueny iaeoeii?anueeith neeaaeiaith a?eueii? aia?a?? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? (dF*). Aeey ia?aa??ee oeeo aeniiae?a oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae o ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI aeei?enoiaoaaee iiaeaeue ?iiii? anioe?aoe?? ca ?aooiie iaeoeii?anueeeo aca?iiae?e: d+-NA=AG*+-=-i-sG*+s-sG* , (6) aea a?aoiao? ci?io i?aeiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e i?ae ae??th ci?ithaaiiai i?e anioe?aoe?? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ?ii?a; aeeaae -i-sG* - a?aeia?aaea? aia?aaoe/iee aoaeo a?ae?eao iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea, ye? ?icoaoiaai? iiaeeco ?ii?a; neeaaeiaa - s-sG* iia’ycaia c? ci?iith aia?a?? aca?iiae?? iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue iiaeeco ?iia, c? nai?ie non?aeaie i?e a?aeaeaeaii? ia?oeo ia aeayeo a?aenoaiue a?ae ?iia. Aeeaae i-sG* - caaeia?eueii iieno?oueny a ?aieao i?inoi? aeaeo?inoaoe/ii? ?ii-iieaeoey?ii? iiaeae?. Oeae aeeaae caaaeaee iiceoeaiee ? ia aeoaea aaeeeee, oiio ui eeoa iaaaeeea e?euee?noue iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea ci?uo?oueny c nieueaaoii? iaieiiee ?ii?a a i?ioean? anioe?aoe??. C iaoith e?euee?nii? ioe?iee i?aeiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e (s-sG*) a ?ii-iieaeoey?ieo nenoaiao aeei?enoiaoaaee oai??th ae?aeaeo?ee?a A?ieaeueiaiia, i?e oeueiio a?aee aei oaaae, ui PV=0 ? dF*=dG*. I?e ?ic?aooieao no?oeoo?iiai oaeoi?a E??eaoaea (gK) oa aia?a?? aeeiieue-aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? ? ?? eoeii?anueei? (dFa) oa iaeoeii?anueei? (dF*) neeaaeiaeo (?en.3) aeei?enoiaoaaee aei??yi? cia/aiiy aonoeie oa ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? AA oa noi?o? AI. ?c aiae?co iaea?aeaieo aeaieo ne?aeo?, ui a AA ? Aoe (?en.3) cia/iee aianie o noia?io a?eueio aia?a?th aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? oa ?? oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io aiineoue eoeii?anueea neeaaeiaa. A noi?o? AI aei oaiia?aoo?e 338.15 E ia?aaaaea? iaeoeii?anueea neeaaeiaa, aeua 338.15 E aianee iaio neeaaeiaeo aei noia?ii? aia?a?? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? ae??aiththoueny. Iaeoeii?anueea neeaaeiaa a?eueii? aia?a?? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? a AA ? Aoe ia? iaaaoeaiee oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io, a a noi?o? AI - iiceoeaiee. Aaee/eia, ciae oa oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io dF* a cia/i?e i??? aecia/athoueny oaeoi?ii ei?aeyoe?? E??eaoaea (gK) (?en.3), yeee oa?aeoa?eco? i???ioaoe?ei? ei?aeyoe?? aeeiie?a ca ?aooiie iaeoeii?anueei? aca?iiae??. A AA gK1 oa iacia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny i?e c?inoaii? oaiia?aoo?e, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aaaaeii aioeia?aeaeueio i???ioaoe?th aeeiie?a o ?ic/eiieeo. Oaeoi? E??eaoaea a noi?o? AI a?eueoa iaeeieoe? ? ciaioo?oueny c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e. Oaea ci?ia (gK)? iaoiiaeaia iineaaeaiiyi aiaeiaaiai ca’yceo, ?oeioaaiiyi eaioethaiaeo anioe?ao?a nie?oo c ooai?aiiyi anioe?ao?a c aioeia?aeaeueiith i???ioaoe??th ? a?eueieo iieaeoe. O nie?oao a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? oae? ci?ie anioe?ao?a iieaeoe i?ecaiaeyoue aei S-iiae?aiiai aeaeo iie?oa?i dF* oa (gK)?. A aoeaoii? gK aeecueeee aei iaeeieoe? ? neaai ci?ith?oueny c oaiia?aoo?ith a ?ioa?aae? 223.15-318.15E, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii ??cieo oei?a i???ioaoe?? iieaeoe: i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao ia?aaaaea? oaiaeaioe?y aei aioeia?aeaeueii? i???ioaoe??, a c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ca?eueoo?oueny /anoea aeeiie?a c ia?aeaeueiith i???ioaoe??th. A aeine?aeaeaieo ?ic/eiieeao io?eiai? i???ioaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee iieaeoe ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeaieie ssI?, ?E- oa E?-niaeo?ineii??, aeine?aeaie noaei? Ea??a oa ?i. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaeoeii?anueeeo neeaaeiaeo i?ae?iiii? oa i?aeiieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae?e (AG*+- , dF*) (?en.2,3) iieacaa, ui aeey ?ic/ei?a aeaeo?ie?o?a a ?ic/eiieeao c na?aaeiueith AeI (AI, AeINI, i?iiaiie) ci?ie AG*+- ia 40 E iaaaeee? ? neeaaeathoue a caeaaeiino? a?ae nie? oa ?ic/eiieea 0.24.0 eAeae/iieue. Ii aaee/ei? oe? ci?ie a?aeiia?aeathoue oaiia?aoo?iei ci?iai iaeoeii?anueei? /anoeie aia?a?? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? ( dF*), yea neeaaea? 13 eAeae/iieue. Ioaea, a ?ic/eiieeao c na?aaeiueith AeI ci?ie AG*+- aecia/athoueny ci?iaie iaeoeii?anueei? neeaaeiai? i?aeiieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae?? a naiiio ?ic/eiieeo. Aeey ?ic/ei?a aeaeo?ie?o?a a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI (?en.2) ci?ie AG*+- i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e ia 40E neeaaeathoue (a eAeae/iieue) a AA aeey LiClO4 - 5.7, NaClO4 - 4.9, NaBPh4 - 2.8, Bu4NClO4 - 2.3, a?aeiia?aeii, a a noi?o? AI aeey NaClO4 - 7.9, NaBPh4 - 0.8, Bu4NClO4 - 10. A oeo aea oaiia?aoo?ieo ?ioa?aaeao dF* a AA oa noi?o? AI ci?ith?oueny ia 0.35 oa 1.0 eAeae/iieue. Oiaoi a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI aaee/eia AG*+-/T cia/ii a?eueoa ca dF*/T, oi/a aeey a?eueoino? aeaeo?ie?o?a ciae ?o oaiia?aoo?iiai eiao?oe??ioa ? ni?aiaaea?. Oaeei /eiii, a na?aaeiaeuao c iecueeith AeI ciae oa aaee/eia oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i AG*+- aecia/athoueny ia eeoa ci?iith ei?ioeiae?th/i? neeaaeiai? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? (s-sG*), aea e cia/iei aianeii a?ae aia?a?? ?ii-aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? i-sG* . Aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia anioe?aoe?th ?ii?a a ?iii? o??eieee. C iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?e, ?ici??o oa i?e?iaee aeaeo?ie?oo ? ?ic/eiieea ia ??aiiaaaei? aeanoeaino? ?ic/eio a ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo eiinoaio anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo o??eiee?a c oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaieie. Oai?aoe/i? ?ic?aooiee anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo o??eiee?a aoei i?iaaaeaii ca ??aiyiiyie aeaeo?inoaoe/ii? oai??? ?iiii? anioe?aoe?? Aeaeueneaii?a, yea a?oioo?oueny ia ?icaeyae? aeaeo?inoaoe/ii? aca?iiae?? aeeiiey ?iiii? ia?e oa a?eueiiai ?iia picscalex100010009000003b4010000020015000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c02600220101200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffb7ffffffe00f0000170200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000600015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e6 57720526f6d616e000090040000002d01000008000000320af4006b0f010000003200080 00000320af400ff0e010000002f0008000000320af400710e01000000330008000000320 af400070c01000000330008000000320a0002f10b01000000330008000000320af400440 701000000330015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d65732 04e657720526f6d616e000090040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa00 12f0502000000313008000000320aa001c70301000000320015000000fb0280fe0000000 000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000090040000002d0 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2d01010004000000f001000008000000320a00023d0701000000420015000000fb0220ff 0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00003c0400 00002d01000004000000f001010008000000320af400bd0801000000320015000000fb02 80fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00003c 040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa001be04010000002f0010000000 fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010000 04000000f001010008000000320aa001600501000000650008000000320aa001a8020100 00006d0010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa0017a01010000003d000a000000 26060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc 0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000, a3 - a?aenoaiue i?ae oeaio?ii ?iia oa aeeiiey ?iiii? ia?e. A oai??? i?eionea?oueny, ui ?iie - oea noa?e iaeiaeiaiai ?ici??o, a ?iiiee o??eiee ia? e?i?eio no?oeoo?o. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? cia/aiiy eiinoaio anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo o??eiee?a aeey LiClO4, NaClO4 a AA ? NaClO4 a noi?o? AI (i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeua 338.15 E) ieae/?, i?ae ?ic?aoiaai? ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?inoaoe/ii? iiaeae?. Aeey NaBPh4 ? Bu4NClO4 ?ic?aoiaai? eiinoaioe anioe?aoe?? ieae/?, i?ae aenia?eiaioaeuei? (oaae.1). Aiaeia?/i? a?aeoeeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii i?e ii??aiyii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo eiinoaio anioe?aoe?? aeey LiClO4, NaClO4 ? Bu4NClO4 c oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaieie aeey ?iiieo ia?, ui iia’ycaii c i?iyaii iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae??. Ioaea, aaee/eio lgKT=lgKTaeni.-lgKToai?. a ?iaio? aeei?enoaii ye e?euee?nio i??o iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? (G*T=-2.303RTlgKT) a i?ioean? ooai?aiiy ?iiieo o??eiee?a. Iiceoeaia cia/aiiy G*T iiaea aooe iia’ycaia, ye ? o aeiaaeeo ooai?aiiy ?iiieo ia?, c? niaoeeo?/iei a?aeooiaooaaiiyi a iaeano? ia?ae?eaaiiy nieueaaoieo iaieiiie ?ii?a, yea ia a?aoiao?oueny eoeii?anueeith oai???th. Iaaaoeaia cia/aiiy G*T iiynith?oueny iayai?noth iaeoeii?anueeiai ei?ioeiae?th/iai i?eoyaaiiy i?ae ?iiaie. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aaee/eie G*T ? dF* (?en.3) a AA ciaioothoueny, a a noi?o? AI - ca?eueoothoueny. Oae? ei?aeyoe?? oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i G*T ? dF* iiyniththoueny cia/iei aieeaii no?oeoo?iiai noaio ?ic/eiieea ia i?ioeane i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? ia ei?ioeeo a?aenoaiyo. ?c aiae?co aaee/ei G*T ? AG*+- oa ?o oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?iii? o??eieee iane?aeothoue aeanoeaino? ?iiieo ia?. E?i?eia caeaaei?noue G*T - AG*+- iaaea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe ?ioaineai?noue oa ci?io iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aaee/ei lgKT ca aeaieie AG*+-. Aeiaeaoie i?noeoue aeaye? oi?ioee oa ?ic?aooieia? aeai?. AENIIAEE 1. ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaiaaii iaoiaeeeo ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo aeaieo aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI, yea a?aoiao? ooai?aiiy ?iiieo ia? oa ?iiieo o??eiee?a. 2. Onoaiiaeaii, ui a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI (=67) aenia?eiaioaeueia caeaaei?noue aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? aeey 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e 110-4110-2 iieue/aei3 aaeaeaaoii iieno?oueny o?eueee iiaeaeeth ??aiiaaa, yea a?aoiao? ooai?aiiy ye ?iiieo ia?, oae ? ?iiieo o??eiee?a, a oie /an ye o ?ic/eiieeao c na?aaeiueith AeI aeinoaoiuei a?aoiaoaaoe eeoa ??aiiaaao ?iie-?iii? ia?e. 3. Iieacaii, ui a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ic/eiiee?a c na?aaeiueith AeI, oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie aia?a?? A?aana iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? aecia/athoueny ye ei?ioeiae?th/ith neeaaeiaith aia?a?? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae??, oae ? cia/iei aianeii aia?a?? a?ae ?ii-aeeiieueii? aca?iiae??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI aia?a?y A?aana iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith aeua, i?ae o ?ic/eiieeao c na?aaeiueith AeI, ui iiynith?oueny a?eueoith nieueaaoaoe??th ?ii?a a ii??aiyii? c ?iiieie ia?aie. 4. Ia iniia? caeiiii??iinoae aieeao oaiia?aoo?e oa i?e?iaee ?iia ia aeeiai?eo iaeaeeae/eo aei iueiai iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea iieacaii, ui iineaaeaiiy nieueaaoaoe?? iaeiica?yaeieo eao?ii?a a aoeeaoeaoao?, noi?o? aooai-1-ieo c i-ieoaiii oa aoeaoii? c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e oa ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?aae?ona ?iia iaoiiaeaii i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ooiiino? iieaeoe ?ic/eiieea, ui, a naith /a?ao, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy aeeiai?/ieo ei?aeyoe?e i?ae iieaeoey?ieie aeeiieyie oa ?iiii. Onoaiiaeaii, ui a i?ioiiieo ? ai?ioiiieo ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth aeey eao?ii?a eoaeieo iaoae?a cia/aiiy ao?aeoe?eiiai eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy aeu? a ii??aiyii? c ?ic/eiieeaie c na?aaeiueith AeI. 5. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii ??cieoeth i?ae aenia?eiaioaeueieie oa oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaieie eiinoaioaie anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo o??eiee?a lgKT ye e?euee?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo i??e iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae??, iaoiiaeaii? niaoeeo?/iei a?aeooiaooaaiiyi aai i?eoyaaiiyi o i?ioean? ia?ae?eaaiiy nieueaaoieo iaieiiie ?ii?a i?e ooai?aii? ?iiieo o??eiee?a. Onoaiiaeaii, ui ciae lgKT aecia/a?oueny i?e?iaeith ?ii?a. Iieacaii, ui ?iii? o??eieee iane?aeothoue aeanoeaino? ?iiieo ia?. 6. Aia?oa a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e aeaeo?ie?oo 110-4 - 110-2 iieue/aei3 aei??yia aeaeo?e/ia i?ia?aei?noue ?ic/ei?a: LiClO4, NaClO4, NaBPh4 oa Bu4NClO4 a aoeeaoeaoao? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 278.15-318.15 E; NaClO4, NaBPh4 ? Bu4NClO4 a noi?o? aooai-1-ieo c ieoaiii (c ianiaith /anoeith i-aooai-1-ieo 50%) i?e 298.15-368.15 E ? NaBPh4, Bu4NBr ? Bu4NBPh4 a aoeaoii? i?e 278.15-318.15 E, a oaeiae aonoeia, a’yce?noue oa ae?aeaeo?e/ia i?ia?aei?noue ci?oaiiai ?ic/eiieea aooai-1-ie-i-ieoai a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 298.15-368.15 E. 7. ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii ye c?aceia? caniae iia??ee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo aiae?caoi??a ??aeeiieo na?aaeiaeu ?ic/eie NaClO4 a noi?o? aooai-1-ie - i-ieoai (ianiaa /anoea aooai-1-ieo 50 %) aeey ae?aiaciio ieoiii? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? ieae/a, i?ae 10-3 Ni/i. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo: 1. Eaeoaei I.I., Iai/aiei A.A., Auethiiee E.I. Yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue e iaaeeiiiua iaeoeiiianeea iioaioeeaeu 1-1 yeaeo?ieeoia a aoeaoiia: aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u // AE. iauae oeiee.- 1997.-O.67.-Aui.9.-N.1455-1464. 2. Iai/aiei A.A., Eaeoaei I.I., Auethiiee E.I. Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u ia yeaeo?e/aneoth i?iaiaeeiinoue e annioeeaoeeth 1-1 yeaeo?ieeoia a niane aooaiie-ieoai // Aanoi. Oa?ueeianeiai oi-oa.- 1997.-?395.- Oeie/aneea iaoee ?1.- N.221-228. 3. Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u ia annioeeaoeeth ia?oei?aoia eeoey e iao?ey a aoeaoiieo?eea / E.I. Auethiiee, N.I. Aoaneee, I.I. Eaeoaei, A.A. Iai/aiei, A.I. AEieiiaa/ // Oe?. oei. aeo?iae.- 1991.- O.57.- ?12.- N.1259-1263. 4. Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u ia aeeiaieeo eiiiie nieueaaoaoeee a aoeaoiia / E.I. Auethiiee, I.I. Eaeoaei, A.A. Iai/aiei, A.I. Naeae // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai oi-oa.- 1998.- ? 396.- N.158-164. 5. Auethiiee E.I., Eaeoaei I.I., Iai/aiei A.A. Oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa e iaaeiieaeoey?iua acaeiiaeaenoaey niaoaiiiai ?anoai?eoaey aooai-1-ie - i-ieoai a eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? 298.15-368.15E // AE. iauae oeiee.- 1999.- O.69.- Aui.2.-N.213-216. 6. Aeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee nieueaaoaoeee iaeiica?yaeiuo eiiia e eiiiuo o?ieieeia LiClO4, NaClO4, NaBPh4 Bu4NClO4 a yoeeaoeaoaoa i?e 278.15-318.15E / E.I. Auethiiee, I.I. Eaeoaei, A.A. Iai/aiei, ?aae I.I. Aeaeaeeao // Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee.- 1999.- ?1.-N.70-71. 7. ?ac?aaioea ia?acoeiauo n?aaenoa (IN) aeey iao?ieiae/aneiai iaania/aiey eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo aiaeecaoi?ia aeeaeeeo n?aae / E.I. Auethiiee, I.I. Eaeoaei, A.A. Iai/aiei, ?.A. Oaaoeiaa // Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey “I?iiuoeaiiinoue no?ieiaoa?eaeia e no?ieeiaeono?ey, yia?ai- e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. *anoue 9. XIV iao/iua /oaiey “Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann a iaeanoe i?iiyeieiaee e yeieiae/aneee iiieoi?eia”. - Aaeai?iae. -1997. -N.173-176. 8. Ia?acoeiaua n?aaenoaa (IN) aeey iao?ieiae/aneiai iaania/aiey eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo aiaeecaoi?ia aeeaeeeo n?aae / A.A. Iai/aiei, I.I. Eaeoaei, E.I. Auethiiee, ?.A. Oaaoeiaa // Oacenu aeieeaaeia.- XI Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey iieiaeuo o/aiuo ii oeiee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee “IEOO-97”.- Iineaa.- 1997.- N.174. 9. Kalugin O.N., Panchenko V.G., Vjunnik I.N. Triple Ion Formation in 1-1 Electrolyte Solution in Ethylacetate (5-45 oC) and Butan-1-ol - n-Octan (25-65 oC) from Conductometric Measurements // Abstract of - VII International Conference “The Problems of Solvatation and Complex Formation in Solutions”. -Ivanovo, Russia.- 1998.- P.212. Iai/aiei A.A. O?ainii?oi? oa ??aiiaaaei? aeanoeaino? a 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeeie cia/aiiyie ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino?. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.04 – o?ce/ia o?i?y.- Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oe?a?ia, Oa?e?a, 1999. Caoeuathoueny ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: 1) aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? LiClI4, NaClO4, NaBPh4 ? Bu4NClO4 a aoeeaoeaoao? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 278.15-318.15E; NaClO4, NaBPh4, Bu4NClO4 a noi?o? aooai-1-ieo c i-ieoaiii (c ianiaith /anoeith i-ieoaio 50%) a eioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 298.15-368.15E; NaBPh4, Bu4NBr, Bu4NBPh4 a aoeaoii? i?e 278.15-318.15E; 2) o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?ic/eiiee?a o oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?. Anoaiiaeaii iiaeaeue anioe?aoe?eieo ??aiiaaa aeey iieno eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? 1-1 aeaeo?ie?o?a o ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueio iaoiaeeeo ia?iaee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo aeaieo c o?aooaaiiyi ?iiieo ia? oa o??eiee?a. Iaea?aeaii cia/aiiy a?aie/ieo iiey?ieo aeaeo?e/ieo i?ia?aeiinoae ? eiinoaio anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a aei ?iiieo ia? oa ?iiieo o??eiee?a. ?ic?aoiaaii aia?a?th A?aana iaeoeii?anueei? i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae??, ao?aeoe?eiee eiao?oe??io oa?oy, a?eueio aia?a?th aeeiieueii? aca?iiae?? oa ?? neeaaeia? a aoeeaoeaoao?, noi?o? aooai-1-ieo c ieoaiii oa aoeaoii?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?ic/eiieeao c iecueeith AeI, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ic/eiiee?a c na?aaeiueith AeI, oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie iaeoeii?anueei? aia?a?? A?aana i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae?? aecia/athoueny ye iaeoeii?anueeith neeaaeiaith aia?a?? aeeiieueii? aca?iiae??, oae ? cia/iei aianeii aia?a?? ?ii-iieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae??. Iieacaii, ui ?iii? o??eieee iane?aeothoue aeanoeaino? ?iiieo ia?. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?e/ia i?ia?aei?noue, anioe?aoe?y, ?iii? o??eieee, aoeeaoeaoao, noi?o aooai-1-ieo c i-ieoaiii, aoeaoii, aeaeo?ie?oi? ?ic/eie, i?ae?iii? aca?iiae??. Iai/aiei A.A. O?ainii?oiua e ?aaiiaaniua naienoaa 1-1 yeaeo?ieeoia a ?anoai?eoaeyo n ieceeie cia/aieyie aeeyeaeo?e/aneie i?iieoeaaiinoe.- ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.04 - oece/aneay oeiey, Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oe?aeia, Oa?ueeia, 1999. Caueuathony ?acoeueoaou eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey LiClI4, NaClO4, NaBPh4 e Bu4NClO4 a yoeeaoeaoaoa i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 278.15-318.15E; NaClO4, NaBPh4, Bu4NClO4 a niane aooai-1-iea n i-ieoaiii (n ianniaie aeieae i-aooai-1-iea 50%) a eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? 298.15-365.15E; NaBPh4, Bu4NBr, Bu4NBPh4 a aoeaoiia a eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? 278.15-318.15E; aeaineiao?e/aneiai, aeneiceiao?e/aneiai e aeeyeueeiiao?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiee niaoaiiiai ?anoai?eoaey aooai-1-ie-i-ieoai i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 298.15-368.15E. I?iaaaeai aiaeec iiaeaeueiuo ?aaiiaanee (eiiu-eiiiua ia?u e eiiu-eiiiua ia?u-eiiiua o?ieieee) aeey 1-1 yeaeo?ieeoia a enneaaeiaaiiuo ?anoai?eoaeyo. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yenia?eiaioaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeeiiiay caaeneiinoue yeaeo?e/aneie i?iaiaeeiinoe (a eioa?aaea eiioeaio?aoeee 110-4110-2 iieue/aei3) a ?anoai?eoaeyo n ieceie aeeyeaeo?e/aneie i?iieoeaaiinoueth (67) aaeaeaaoii iienuaaaony oieueei iiaeaeueth ?aaiiaanee, eioi?ay o/eouaaao ia?aciaaiea eae eiiiuo ia?, oae e eiiiuo o?ieieeia, a oi a?aiy eae a aoeaoiia a oeacaiiii eiioeaio?aoeeiiiii eioa?aaea aeinoaoi/ii o/eouaaoue annioeeaoeeth eiiia oieueei aei eiiiuo ia?. I?aaeeiaeaia iiaay i?eaeiaeueiay iaoiaeeea ia?aaioee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo aeaiiuo aeey 1-1 yeaeo?ieeoia a ?anoai?eoaeyo n ieceie aeeyeaeo?e/aneie i?iieoeaaiinoueth n o/aoii eiiiuo ia? e o?ieieeia. I?e ia?aaioea yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo eniieueciaai niaieoiiue iaoiae, nooue eioi?iai ninoieo a ?aoaiee nenoaiu iaeeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee aeey eiioeaio?aoeeiiiie caaeneiinoe yeaeo?e/aneie i?iaiaeeiinoe, eiyooeoeeaioia aeoeaiinoe, iaoa?eaeueiiai aaeaina e caeiia aeaenoaothueo iann aeey anae niaieoiiinoe ?aaiiaanee. ?aaioiniiniaiinoue iaoiaeeee i?ieeethno?e?iaaia ia i?eia?a 1-1 yeaeo?ieeoia a iaoeeaoeaoaoa, iaoeeoi?ieaoa, yoeeaoeaoaoa e niane aooai-1-iea n i-ieoaiii. Aia?aua iieo/aiu cia/aiey i?aaeaeueiuo iiey?iuo yeaeo?e/aneeo i?iaiaeeiinoae e eiinoaio annioeeaoeee eiiia aei eiiiuo ia? e eiiiuo o?ieieeia aeey 1-1 yeaeo?ieeoia a yoeeaoeaoaoa (i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 278.15-318.15E) e niane aooai-1-iea n i-ieoaiii (i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 298.15-368.15E). Aia?aua aeey 1-1 yeaeo?ieeoia a yoeeaoeaoaoa, niane aooai-1-iea n i-ieoaiii e aoeaoiia ?ann/eoaia yia?aey Aeaana iaeoeiiianeeo iaaeeiiiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee (AG*+-). Onoaiiaeaii /oi, a) iaeoeiiianeea iaaeeiiiua acaeiiaeaenoaey oiaiueoathony n ?inoii ?aaeeona eaoeiia, /oi naycuaaaony n oiaiueoaieai nieueaaoaoeee e oneeaieai annioeeaoeee yeaeo?ieeoa; a) oaiia?aoo?iua eciaiaiey AG*+- a yoeeaoeaoaoa e niane aooai-1-iea n ieoaiii ii?aaeaeythony eae i?ioeannaie, naycaiiuie n ?ac?ooaieai annioeeaoia n aioeia?aeeaeueiie i?eaioaoeeae aeeiieae a yoeeaoeaoaoa e oeaii/a/iuo a niane aooai-1-iea n i-ieoaiii, oae e cia/eoaeueiui aeeaaeii io oaiia?aoo?iiai eciaiaiey eii-iieaeoey?iiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. Aia?aua iieo/aiu a oe?ieii eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? aaee/eiu aoo?aeoeeiiiiai eiyooeoeeaioa o?aiey (*) aeey iaeiica?yaeiuo eiiia a yoeeaoeaoaoa, niane aooai-1-iea n i-ieoaiii e aoeaoiia. Ec aiaeeca caeiiiia?iinoae aeeyiey oaiia?aoo?u e i?e?iaeu eiia ia aeeiaieeo aeeaeaeoeo e eiio iieaeoe ?anoai?eoaey onoaiiaeaii, /oi ineaaeaiea iieiaeeoaeueiie nieueaaoaoeee eiiia n iiauoaieai oaiia?aoo?u e oaaee/aieai ?aaeeona eaoeiia iaoneiaeaii oaaee/aieai iiaeaeaeiinoe iieaeoe ?anoai?eoaey, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth aeeiaie/aneeo ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo iieaeoey?iuie aeeiieyie e eiiii. Iieacaii, /oi aeey eaoeiiia uaei/iuo iaoaeeia a ?anoai?eoaeyo n ieceie aeeyeaeo?e/aneie i?iieoeaaiinoueth cia/aiey aoo?aeoeeiiiiai eiyooeoeeaioa auoa, ii n?aaiaieth n ?anoai?eoaeyie ni n?aaeiae aeeyeaeo?e/aneie i?iieoeaaiinoueth. Iieacaii, /oi yeaeo?inoaoe/aneay oai?ey ia a ninoiyiee iienaoue annioeeaoeeth eiiia aei eiiiuo o?ieieeia a yoeeaoeaoaoa e niane aooai-1-iea n i-ieoaiii. Aia?aua ioeeiiaiey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo eiinoaio annioeeaoeee eiiia aei eiiiuo o?ieieeia io ?ann/eoaiiuo ii yeaeo?inoaoe/aneie oai?ee eniieueciaaiu a ea/anoaa eiee/anoaaiiie ia?u iaeoeiiianeiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eiiiua o?ieieee ianeaaeotho naienoaa eiiiuo ia?. Iieacaii, /oi oaeaeueiay yeaeo?e/aneay i?iaiaeeiinoue ?anoai?ia NaClO4 a niaoaiiii ?anoai?eoaea aooai-1-ie-i-ieoai /a?ac 1, 3, 6 e 12 ianyoeaa ia iaiyaony. Noaaeeueiinoue e aini?iecaiaeeiinoue cia/aiee oaeaeueiie yeaeo?e/aneie i?iaiaeeiinoe aeaee iniiaaiea i?aaeeiaeeoue e aiaae?eoue yoe ?anoai?u a ea/anoaa noaiaea?oiuo n?aaenoa aeey a?aaeoe?iaee aeeaeeinoiuo eiiaeoeoiiao?ia a aeeaiaciia ecia?aiee oaeaeueiie yeaeo?e/aneie i?iaiaeeiinoe ieaea 10-3 Ni/i, eioi?ue ia iaania/ai iaaeaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie iiaa?ee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?e/aneay i?iaiaeeiinoue, annioeeaoeey, eiiiua o?ieieee, yoeeaoeaoao, nianue aooai-1-ie-i-ieoai, aoeaoii, yeaeo?ieeoiua ?anoai?u, iaaeeiiiua acaeiiaeaenoaey. Panchenko V.G. Transport and equilibrium properties of the 1-1 electrolyte solutions in the solvents with low dielectric constant. - Manuscript. The dissertation on manuscript rights is submitted for a Candidate (Philosophy) Degree in Chemical Science on the speciality 02.00.04 - physical chemistry. - Kharkiv State University, Ukraine, Kharkiv, 1999. The results of the experimental investigation of the (1) conductivity of LiClI4, NaClO4, NaBPh4 and Bu4NClO4 solutions in ethyl acetate (278.15-318.15 K); NaClO4, NaBPh4 and Bu4NClO4 solutions in the butane-1-ol - n-octane mixture (50 mass %) (298.15-368.15K); NaBPh4, Bu4NBr and Bu4NBPh4 solutions in acetone (278.15-318.15K) and (2) physico-chemical properties of the solvents on a wide temperature range are presented. A model of ion association equilibria for description of the concentration dependence of conductance of 1-1 electrolyte solutions in solvents with low dielectric constant has been established. An original method of conductometric data processing taking into account formation of ion pairs and ion triples has been proposed. The values of limiting ion molar conductivities and association constants of the ion pairs and ion triples have been obtained. Gibbs free energies of non-Coulomb interactions, attractive friction coefficients and free energies of dipole interactions and their contributions have been calculated. It has been established that in the solvents with low dielectric constant contrary to those with middle value of dielectric constant the temperature change of the non-Coulomb Gibbs free energy of inter-ion interactions is defined by (i) the non-Coulomb part of the free energy of dipole interactions and, (ii) the significant contribution of the ion-molecule interaction energy. It has been shown that ion triples inherit properties of the ion pairs. Key words: electrical conductivity, association, ion pairs, ion triples, ethyl acetate, butane-1-ol - n-octane mixture, acetone, electrolyte solutions, inter-ion interactions.

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