1

I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao

?i. Aaneey Noaoaieea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 883E

Ee?eethe

Na?oeaia Aeieo??aia

O?ainoi?iaoe?y iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e o oai?/ino? Ieueae
Eiaeeyinueei?

10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeueie/oe
Aiaaeai ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
Aieiia E?ae?y A?eai??aia

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e
Ae?iai-aeoeueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea Oeiei
Ieaenaiae?a Oaaei??aia.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.O?aiea,
eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo-?e ?i. aeaaeai?ea I.Aiciyea.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 27 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E. 09.03.02 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?e
I?eea?iaonueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.Noaoaieea (284001,
i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe.Oaa/aiea, 57).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? I?eea?iaonueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.Noaoaieea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 26 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio I.ss.Oeoe?anueea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? iai?oeany
ye?nii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei yaeu e?oa?aoo?e. A?i coiiaeaiee ci?iaie a
noni?eueiiio aeeoo?, c?inoaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ia?iaeo,
iio?aaith ia?ainieneeoe eoeueoo?i? iaaeaaiiy ieioeiai. C oeueiai
iiaeyaeo iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiao? e?oa?aoo?ia aiioa e?ioey XIX —
ii/aoeo XX no., yea na?aae ?ioeo aaaeeeaeo iiiaio?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
i?aai?/iei canai?iiyi oai?/iai aeina?aeo ?a?iiaenueeeo e?oa?aoo?,
?ioaineaiei inieneaiiyi iioea?a oa ia?ac?a A?ae??, nthaeao?a aioe/iino?.

Aeooaeueiith o iao /an caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia aca?iiae??
caaaeueiieoeueoo?ii? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? o?aaeeoe?e. C’yniao?oueny
aaaeeea?noue ia eeoa eiioaeoii-aaiaoe/ieo ca’yce?a oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e c? na?oiaei e?oa?aoo?iei i?ioeanii, a e aeyaeythoueny
oeiieia?/i? iiiaioe ni?eueiino? oeueiai i?ioeano, a oaeiae a?aei?iiino?,
coiiaeai? iaoe?iiaeueiith nai???aei?noth e?oa?aoo?e.

Oai?/a inyaiaiiy “noa?i?” nenoaie oe?iiinoae ? aeeth/aiiy ?? aei
no/anii? na?oiaeyaeii? iiaeae? na?oo ia?aaeaa/a? aeyaeaiiy oeo
caaaeueiieoeueoo?ieo oi?aa?nae?e, ye? iieeeeai? caaaaoeoe iaoe?iiaeueio
o?aaeeoe?th, iaaeaoe ie?aiei neooaoe?yi aen?ieia?/ii? aiioeaiaaiino?,
cia/ouino?, aeiyoeiaino?. Cia/eieie a ?ice?eoo? iacaaieo i?iaeai noaee
i?aoe? a/aieo Ae.Iaeeaaeea, I.Ia?iea, O.Iia?aaaiieea, O.Aoiaei?iai?,
A.Iyioeo, A.Iaeueie/oea, I.Oo?aai oa ?ioeo.

ssne?aaei iieacieeii, ui iioaa?aeaeo? aacia?a/iee ca’ycie oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e c? na?oiaei e?oa?aoo?iei i?ioeanii, ? oai?/?noue Ieueae
Eiaeeyinueei? (1863-1942). Neioacoaaaoe aeina?ae na?oiai? anoaoe/ii? oa
o?einionueei? aeoiee, iaaeaaiiy ca?oa?aeieo e?oa?aoo? ? iaoe?iiaeueio
eoeueoo?io o?aaeeoe?th, ienueiaiieoey aeoai?eea i?ea?iaeueiee na?o
ia?ac?a. O oai?ao I.Eiaeeyinueei? niinoa??aa?oueny i?aai?/ia ii?aeiaiiy
??cii/aniaeo eoeueoo?ieo ieano?a, aeaea?aea yeeo — o oieueeei??,
i?oieia?? oa a ?aae?yo no/aniiai ?e aeeooy.

Ia?aaeeaoe aaiethoe?th iiceoea?cio, ienueiaiieoey i/ieeea, ca neiaaie
?.O?aiea, “a?oio oaeaiiaeoeo ?ai?acaioaio?a […] iiai? aaeao?enoeee”.
Caaaaaeeaoe, ui I.Eiaeeyinueea “aeoiaaia ia i?iaoeueeeo ienueiaiieeao
iiai? oeiee ? neaiaeeiaaoeyo”, ?.O?aiei aoa iaaai, ui “?? iaaecae/aeiee
oaeaio ?icaeioa e?eea ? ciaeoia naith aeanio aei?iao” O?aiei ?.
C?a?.oai??a: O 50 o. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1984. — O. 41. — N. 526..

C’ynoaaoe a?aeiia?aei? “oi/ee aeioeeo” I.Eiaeeyinueei? c? na?oiaith
e?oa?aoo?iith o?aaeeoe??th iaiaaaeiny /eiaei aeine?aeiee?a ?? oai?/ino?,
ii/eiath/e c /ano ?? aenooio ia iea? oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa (a?ae
eieaa ii ia?o — I.Iaeiaay, Ean? Oe?a?iee, ?.O?aiea, a oaeiae N.?o?aiiaa,
E.Eooe?aa, I.A?eoeay, I.Oeeeiiae/a aei I.Aaaeoe?ia, I.Oiiaooea,
O.Iia?aaaiieea, ?.Aecthae oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo). Aea, ia aeaeue, /eiaei
aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei? ? aei nueiaiaei? iaeaaeii
ia inieneai?. Iaei??th c ?noioieo i?e/ei ?o iaaeinoaoiueiai aena?oeaiiy
noaa aoeueaa?ii-nioe?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae a ioe?ioe? e?oa?aoo?ieo yaeu.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? ia?aaeon?i o iio?aa? iiaiai
i?i/eoaiiy oai??a ienueiaiieoe?, c’ynoaaiiy ?ie? oa i?noey
I.Eiaeeyinueei? a caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? e?ioey
O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. Oea c iaeiiai aieo. A c ae?oaiai — aiia
i?iaeeeoiaaia a?aenooi?noth iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? noinoaaeeny a
i?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e o
oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei?.

Iae??oioiai?oith ni?iaith ie?aneaiiy ca’yce?a oe?a?inueei? aaoi?ee c
oai?/?noth ?a?iiaenueeeo ienueiaiiee?a ? aei nueiaiaei? caeeoa?oueny
i?aoey I.Oeeeiiae/a “I.Eiaeeyinueea a e?oa?aoo?iiio ioi/aii?”. Oi/a
i?eiaa?aei? caoaaae i?i ca’ycee I.Eiaeeyinueei? ?c ca?oa?aeieie
e?oa?aoo?aie aeneiaethaaeeny A.Iaoa??oeiei, I.Iaa??iei, I.Aaaeoe?iei,
I.Aoeath, C.Aoca?ai oa ?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie, ana ae /eiaei iiiaio?a
caeeoeeiny iica oaaaith e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a.

Caeaaaeiny, ui caiiaieoe oae caai? “a?e? ieyie” caaaeaii? i?iaeaie iaee
a aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/ai? ieoaiiyi ?a?iiaenueeeie iaeno?aie. Oa, ia
aeaeue, aiie, ia i?aoaiaeoth/e ia oe?o? ocaaaeueiaiiy, eeoa ie?aneeee
e?oa?aoo?ieo eiioaeo?a I.Eiaeeyinueei? c ?ioeie i?noea e ?ieue ie?aieo
aaoi??a o eaeoo?? ienueiaiieoe?.

Uiaei ieoaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?? I.Eiaeeyinueeith i?oieia?/iiai
nthaeaoii-ia?aciiai iaoa??aeo, oi ooo iaea?eueoo oaaao aeine?aeiee?a
i?eaa?ioea iia?noue “I?iaa”, iiaoeoe? yei? i?enayoeee i?aoe? A.Aaaaiei,
A.Ii?aiaoeue, I.Oiiaooe, I.Oo?aai. I?iaeaia o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?ae?eieo
iioea?a oa ia?ac?a o oai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe? aeiiaaeaaia oaeoe/ii ia
?ic?iaeyeany, eeoa inoaii?ie ?ieaie ?? i?eiaa?aeii oi?eaeeny
O.Aoiaei?iaa, I.E?oia, A.Aioio?e/oe, TH.Eeei’the oa ?i.

Iaeiiaiei ?icaeyaeaeeny e ieoaiiy iiaoeee iia?no? “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey
eiiaea…” sse i?aaeei, iniiaia oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a cina?aaeaeoaaeany ia
oieueeei?i?e iniia? oai?o (noaoo? I.Oiiaooea, A.N?i/aiea ? A.Ei?aeoiiai?
oa ?i.), i?ae oei, ye aaoi?e aeaeaiiy “?noi??y oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e
OO noie?ooy” aaaaeathoue iia?noue I.Eiaeeyinueei? c?aceii
iaioieueeei?ii? i?oieia?ciaaii? i?ice.

Neacaia i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia’?eoii yeiai noaea ia?aaaaeia /anoeia i?iciai?
niaaeueie I.Eiaeeyinueei?, a oaeiae ?? uiaeaiieee, aaoia?ia?ao??, ana
oa, ui yaey? aaeeeee ?ioa?an aeey aeine?aeieea.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia a ?one? iaoeiai? i?iaeaiaoeee eaoaae?e
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a (“Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e e?ioey
O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. ? e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean ia Aoeiaei?”).

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a neioaoe/iiio aiae?c? iayaieo o oai?ao
I.Eiaeeyinueei? c?ace?a ?aoeaioe?? iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai?
e?oa?aoo?e, nthaeaoii-ia?aciiai iaoa??aeo i?oieia?/iiai ? e?oa?aoo?iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, o c’ynoaaii? iaaieo aaiaoe/ieo ei?ai?a ie?aieo iioea?a oa
ia?ac?a, a oaeiae o aeyaeaii? e ia??oiooaaii? oeiieia?/ieo ca?a?a, ye?
niinoa??aaeeny ia ceai? XIX — XX noie?oue o ?a?iiaenueeeo e?oa?aoo?ao ?
a oe?a?inuee?e cie?aia.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aei ae??oaiiy oaeeo eiie?aoieo
caaaeaiue:

1) c’ynoaaiiy ??aiy ?aoeaioe?? ienueiaiieoeath iioea?a oa ia?ac?a
na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e;

2) ia??oiooaaiiy ?ie? ? i?noey o oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei? oaeeo
?aoeaioeaieo oi?i, ye ?ai?i?noeaioe?y, aethc?y, noee?caoe?y;

3) aeyaeaiiy nai???aeiino? ? iiaaoi?noaa I.Eiaeeyinueei? a inai?ii?
aeina?aeo ?a?iiaenueeeo e?oa?aoo?;

4) aecia/aiiy oi?iaeueii-ci?noiaeo ??ai?a ia?ainieneaiiy ienueiaiieoeath
o?aaeeoe?eieo no?oeoo?;

5) ie?aneaiiy i??e aieeao ia I.Eiaeeyinueeo oai?/eo eiioeaioe?e
O.I?oeoa, ?.-I.sseianaia, I.Iaoa?e?iea, E.Oienoiai oa ?i.;

6) c’ynoaaiiy ?ie? iaaieo oi?aa?naeueieo neiaie?a o oaeeo oai?ao, ye
“Caiey”, “I?nyoeue”, “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…”, “I?ae aieei
iaaii” oa ?i.;

7) anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy o?ainoi?iaoe?? ienueiaiieoeath i?oieia?/iiai
nthaeaoii-ia?aciiai iaoa??aeo o oai?ao “Caiey”, “THaea”, “I?iaa”,
“Aiinoie /a?i?” oa ?i.;

8) aecia/aiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo aniaeo?a iaioieueeei?ii? i?oieia?ciaaii?
i?ice I.Eiaeeyinueei? (iia?noue “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…”).

Iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee i?aoe? ?.O?aiea,
I.Aanaeianueeiai, I.A?eaoeueeiai, I.Aooi?ia, Ae.Aeth?eoeia,
?.Iaeaoeinueeiai, A.Aieeiaa, A.Iyioeo, Ae.Iaeeaaeea, O.Aoiaei?iai? oa
?ioeo e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a.

Iniiaieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee,
anoaoeei-ooieoe?iiaeueiee ? oeiieia?/iee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa a
oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? eiiieaenii ia??oioiao?oueny
aeei?enoaiiy I.Eiaeeyinueeith iioea?a oa ia?ac?a A?ae??, aioe/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, aiae?co?oueny iaoai?ci neioaco iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?
caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiai o aeoai?aii? iaioieueeei?iiai i?oa,
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? oi?ie ? niiniae ?aoeaioe?? iioea?a oa ia?ac?a
na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e o oai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e /eoaii?
ii?iaoeaieo ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo eo?n?a, niaoeeo?n?a ?
niaoenai?ia??a c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa, i?e iaienaii?
aeeieiiieo oa eo?niaeo ?ia?o c i?iaeai ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e ?
eiiia?aoea?noeee, a oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iiaeo iiiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue
i?i oai?/?noue I.Eiaeeyinueei?.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?th iaaiai?aii ? noaaeaii ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a oa eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.Noaoaieea. Iniiai? ??
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, a oaeiae i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeeeaaeaii a
aeiiia?aeyo, aeaieioaieo ia III I?aeia?iaei?e ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 120-??//th canioaaiiy *a?i?aaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (*a?i?aoe?, ?995), ia Anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo “Eany Oe?a?iea ? iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay” (Ino?ia, 1996) oa
“Ieueaa Eiaeeyinueea: iiaeyae ia aeeooy ? oai?/?noue c e?ioey XX
noie?ooy”, i?enay/ai?e 135-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ienueiaiieoe?
(*a?i?aoe?, ?998). Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e (215 iiceoe?e);
aeeeaaeaia ia 164 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O Anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, c’yniaaii nooi?iue ??
ii?aoethaaiiy a iaoeiai-e?eoe/i?e e?oa?aoo??, aecia/aii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy
?iaioe, a oaeiae aena?oeaii o? iaoiaeieia?/i? e?eoa???, ia yeeo
aaco?oueny iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ooo aeaco?oueny ia aaaeeea?noue
?ice?eooy ia eeoa eiioaeoii-aaiaoe/ieo ca’yce?a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e
c? na?oiaei e?oa?aoo?iei i?ioeanii, a e aeyaeaiiy oeiieia?/ieo iiiaio?a
ni?eueiino? oeueiai i?ioeano, a oaeiae a?aei?iiinoae, ui coiiaeththoue
iaoe?iiaeueio nai???aei?noue e?oa?aoo?e.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — “?aoeaioe?y iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e”.

?icaeyaeath/e iniiai? oi?ie ? niiniae ?aoeaioe?? iioea?a oa ia?ac?a
na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e o oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei?, aeena?oaioea c’yniao?
ianaiia?aae nai???aei?noue ?o inieneaiiy oe?a?inueeith ienueiaiieoeath.
Aaeaea I.Eiaeeyinueea aeoeaii iineoaiaoaaeany ia eeoa e?oa?aoo?iei
aeina?aeii nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a oa no/aniee?a, a e o?aaeeoe?eiei
iaoa??aeii, cie?aia i?oieia?/ieie ? oieueeei?ieie iioeaaie oa ia?acaie.
Ioiae, ?? oai?/?noue ?icaeyaea?oueny o eiioaeno? ??ciianiaeoieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo yaeu e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX no.

I?ioean inyaiaiiy I.Eiaeeyinueeith o?aaeeoe?eieo no?oeoo? ?aae?co?oueny
ia e?eueeio oi?iaeueii-ci?noiaeo ??aiyo. Iaeiei c ieo ? caaieiaie oai?o.
Aaeaea naia caaieiaie i?noeoue o nia? nooo?aa ?ioi?iaoeaii-nieneiaa /e
aen?ieia?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy (i?ei??ii, “THaea”, “I?iaa”, “Iaoe Aiaea”,
“Aiinoie /a?i?”).

?ioee oi?iaeueii-ci?noiaee ??aaiue ?aoeaioe?? I.Eiaeeyinueeith
o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo iieyaa? o i?aaiaii? ienueiaiieoe? aeyaeoe ?
ooaeiaeiuei aeine?aeeoe aeeaeii? aeoiee no/anieo ?e i?ioean?a oa
eaoaee?ci?a /a?ac inieneaiiy oaea cao?eniaaieo ethaenoaii neooaoe?e ?
eie?c?e (a?ae?eiee nthaeao i?i Ea?ia ? Aaaey a iia?no? “Caiey”, ia?ac
no/aniiai ?e THaee, aioe/ii? I?iae a iaeiieiaiieo oai?ao).

Ia? i?noea o oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei? e oaea oi?ia ?aoeaioe??
o?aaeeoe?eiiai nthaeaoii-ia?aciiai iaoa??aeo, ye i?iaeiaaeaiiy aai
aeiienoaaiiy nthaeaoii? noaie (“Ca aioa?”). O o?ainoi?iiaaiiio aeaeyae?
aaoi?ea caa??aa? iniiai? ?ene o?aaeeoe?eii? neooaoe?? ? iioeaoaaiue, ui
aa?aioothoue iaaio ai?ciaaai?noue aeey /eoa/a (i?iia?acii ?aaeueii?
Iaaaeaeaie ii/aoeo XX no. iiaea aooe a?ae?eia Ia??y Iaaaeaeeia). Aaeaea
aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o ia?ainieneaiiy
eeane/iiai iaoa??aeo ? ye?ac ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai e
i?ea?iaeueii-aaoi?nueeiai, aei oiai ae nthaeaoii-eiiiiceoe?eia no?oeoo?a
oai?o aaco?oueny ia neioac? aaaaoueio aca?iiae?th/eo o?aaeeoe?e.

*eiaea ?ieue o oai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe? iaeaaeeoue ?aoeaioe?? oeo iioea?a
oa ia?ac?a, ye? aeoiaeyoue ca ?aiee o?aaeeoe?eieo no?oeoo?, aea ?
oa?aeoa?ieie aeey eoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.

Ia aeaeue, o no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? ia ?iaeeiny
ni?ia oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe oeae aaaeeeaee aniaeo oai?/ino?
I.Eiaeeyinueei?, oi/a i?eiaa?aei? caoaaae i?i ca’ycee ienueiaiieoe? c
?a?iiaenueeith eoeueoo?ith aeneiaethaaeeny ua ?? no/anieeaie I.Iaeiaa?i,
?.O?aieii, Eanath Oe?a?ieith, a i?ci?oa I.Oeeeiiae/ai.

Ea?oth/enue ia?aaeian?i ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iei i?aeoiaeii aei ie?aieo
oai??a I.Eiaeeyinueei?, aeyaey?ii aeei?enoaiiy ienueiaiieoeath
ia?aaaaeii ?ioaa?aeueieo oi?i ?aoeaioe?? (oiaoi ni?eeiyooy, inieneaiiy
“/oaeiai” iaoa??aeo cae?enith?oueny ca i?eioeeiii ioioiaeiaiiy).
C-iii?ae ieo aaaeeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue ?ai?i?noeaioe?? — a?ae/ooiiio a
e?oa?aoo?iiio oai?? a?aeaiiiio ?ioiai e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o. ?ioith
oi?iith ?aoeaioe??, yea aeineoue /anoi cono??/a?oueny o oai?ao
I.Eiaeeyinueei?, ? aethc?y — ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/iee i?eeii, iaoye,
a?aeneeaiiy aei iaaiiai e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o, nthaeaoo /e ia?aco.
Oa?aeoa?iei aeey oai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe? ? aeei?enoaiiy aethc?? a
caaieiaeia? oai?o (“THaea”, “Iaoe Aiaea”, “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey
eiiaea…”, “I?iaa” oa ?i.), a oaeiae o oi?i? ai?a?aoa. Ia iaio aaaeeeao
?ieue c-iii?ae ?aoeaioeaieo oi?i a?ae?a?a? noee?caoe?y (noee?ciaaia
iane?aeoaaiiy), c?aceii yei? o I.Eiaeeyinueei? ? iiac?y a i?ic? “?iae?”.

Iayai? o oai?ao ienueiaiieoe? e ??ciiiai?oi? aiaeia??, oeiieia?/i?
ca?ae. *anoi aiie noaaaee ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue e?oa?aoo?ieo e?eoee?a
— no/aniee?a I.Eiaeeyinueei?. C?icoi?ei, ui ia an? ca?ae oa aiaeia?? ?
iane?aeeii o??? /e ?ioi? e?oa?aoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??. Aaeaea ia?aaaaeii
iaoa??aeii aeey iaienaiiy oai?o noaaaea eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ia ae?eni?noue,
oaeoe ?aaeueiiai aeeooy. ? oi/a iia?noue I.Eiaeeyinueei? “Caiey” oe?eeii
“aieno?oueny” a e?oa?aoo?io o?aaeeoe?th XIX — ii/aoeo XX no., aea
iaeaaeia i?noea iin?ee oai?e I.Aaeuecaea, A.Ciey, A.?aeiiioa, A.I?ona,
A.*aoiaa, ?.Aoi?ia oa ?ioeo aaoi??a, ye? caa?oaeeny aei oaie caie?, ona
ae iiooiaoii aei iaienaiiy iia?no? iineoaeea oaeo a?aoiaaeanoaa ca
caieth. Aea I.Eiaeeyinueea coi?ea i?aeiyoeny cia/ii aeua naiiai oaeoo,
ocaaaeueithth/e ? ia?aiiny/e eiai ia ea?oo caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
oe?iiinoae, ? i?e oeueiio caeeoaeany iaiiaoi?iith o ciaethaaii? aeeooy ?
iiaooo, cae/a?a, o?aaeeoe?e nai?? “iaeaiueei? Aeai??” — Aoeiaeie.

Oiiaii iiaeia ie?aneeoe aeaa i?aeoiaee I.Eiaeeyinueei? aei aeei?enoaiiy
oae caaiiai “/oaeiai” iaoa??aeo. Ia?oee iia’yco?oueny c oai?aie, aea
aaoi?ea aeoeaii iineoaiaoaaeany oeeoaoaie oethaeaieo ienueiaiiee?a
(O.I?oeoa, E.-A.Aaoa, O.Oi?eueaaaai, ?.-I.sseianai, TH.E?, A.Aaeia oa
?i). ?ai?i?noeaioe??, aethc?? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo iathoue a?aee?eoee
oa?aeoa?, oiaoi aeei?enoaiiy iaaieo ia?acieo, eiiiiceoe?eieo i?eeii?a,
ie?aieo o?ac ? i/aaeaeiei, a aoaeue-ye? iaiaaaiiy i?eoiaaoe o? /e ?io?
aeaea?aea — a?aenooi?. ?ioee i?aeo?ae aei inai?iiy “/oaeiai” iaoa??aeo a
I.Eiaeeyinueei? iia’ycaiee c aeeaieei inieneaiiyi eoeueoo?ieo aa?oinoae,
ni?aa?aeianai?noth ?o c ?aaeueiei aeeooyi, aeoai?aiiyi aeanieo
iaii?oieia?/ieo na?o?a. Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith oaeiai i?aeoiaeo ?
a?aeiiaa aaoi?ee a?ae aeine?aieo oeeooaaiue. ?ai?i?noeaioe?yi, ye
i?aaeei, i?eoaiaiiee i?eoiaaiee oa?aeoa?, a “/oaeee” iaoa??ae
ni?eeia?oueny ia ?ioiio, ye?nii iiaiio ??ai?.

Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue ?aoeaioeaieo iiaeaeae (iioea naiioiuei? aeoo?,
iioeae ooae, aeaa?aoeoaa, iiei?e, iioea aa?o?a-aeieei oa ?i.) iia’ycaia
c oai?/?noth O.I?oeoa, aiie c?aae?coaaeeny ia?aaaaeii a ?aii?o oai?ao
I.Eiaeeyinueei? (“Ethaeeia”, “Oea??aia”, “I?e?iaea”, “A?i ? aiia” oa
?i.). Aea iniaeeaa i?noea o aeoai?aii? ooaeiaeiuei? eiioeaioe?? na?oo
ienueiaiieoe? iaeaaeeoue iioeao aa?o?a-aeieei, yeee o?nii iia’ycaiee c
aaaaoueia iioeaaie oa ia?acaie I.Eiaeeyinueei?. C? na?aeiiith
o?ainoi?iaoe??th o?einionueei? oa ooaeiaeiuei? eiioeaioe?? O.I?oeoa
noeea?iiny, cie?aia, a iiaae? “I?ae aieei iaaii” (i?iaeaio “nia?o? Aiaa”
aeiiiiiaea ienueiaiieoe? c?aae?coaaoe iaoa?e?ie?anueea eiioeaioe?y
o?aa?/iiai). Na?o ?aeae i?iaoeueeiai o?einioa aeaa iiooiao aei
inieneaiiy I.Eiaeeyinueeith ye ie?aieo aecenoaioe?eieo neooaoe?e, oae ?
yaeu eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy.

Niinoa??aa?oueny nai???aeiee i?aeo?ae o ni?eeiyoo? ienueiaiieoeath
oai?/ino? neaiaeeiaanueeeo aaoi??a, cie?aia ?.-I.sseianaia. *e ia
iae/ano?oa caaaeoaaiith “oi/eith aeioeeo” I.Eiaeeyinueei? oa
?.-I.sseianaia ? iiaaea “Ooo iiaeii? ae ?iae? noiyoe”, i?i ui
aeneiaeth?oueny ia eeoa aaoi?ea, a e ia?niiaae? ?? oai??a. Iniaeeai?
oaaae e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a, cie?aia I.Oeeeiiae/a, E.Eooe?aa, oaeinoi?eany
iiaaea “I?e?iaea”, yea, ia ?oith aeoieo, aoea iaienaia i?ae aieeaii
?iiaio ?.-I.sseianaia “Ia??y A?oaaa”. Aea iioeae iiaaee I.Eiaeeyinueei?
iathoue oe?eeii a?aei?iia ae??oaiiy, ai?ae o aeaonueeiai ienueiaiieea.

O ?icae?e? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ni?eeiyooy ? canai?iiy
I.Eiaeeyinueeith iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e a?aeaoaaeiny a
??/eu? iaeiia?oeo anoaoe/ieo oa o?einionueeeo a?yiue e?ioey XIX —
ii/aoeo OO no. Iineoaiaoth/enue o aeani?e oai?/ino? ??ciiiai?oieie
?aoeaioeaieie oi?iaie, ienueiaiieoey aaeaeany aei aeeaieiai neioaco
aeanieo aeeoo?aeo niinoa?aaeaiue oa oai?/iai aeina?aeo nai?o
e?oa?aoo?ieo iiia?aaeiee?a ? no/aniee?a. Na?o ia?ac?a oe?a?inueei?
aaoi?ee cana?ae/o? neeo oaeaioo I.Eiaeeyinueei?, ?ieue yei? a
e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. — ia?oi?yaeia.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “O?ainoi?iaoe?y i?oieia?/iiai nthaeaoii-ia?aciiai
iaoa??aeo” — ?icaeyaea?oueny oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaia o oai?ao
I.Eiaeeyinueei? aaiaoe/ia a?oia i?oieia?/ieo iioea?a oa ia?ac?a.

Nooo?aith ?enith i?oiiiaoe/iiai inieneaiiy ienueiaiieoeath iaeaeaai?oeo
eoeueoo?ieo ieano?a (A?ae?y, aioe/ia e?oa?aoo?a) ne?ae aaaaeaoe
oi?aa?naeuei?noue i?oieia?/iiai ieneaiiy. Iieaciai, ui e?oa?aoo?ia aiioa
e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo OO no. aaaaoa ia aa??aioe ia?ainieneaiiy
o?aaeeoe?eieo nthaeao?a oa ia?ac?a. I?e/eiith oiai aoea ia eeoa aeoeaia
aiinaieia?/ia ooieoe?y o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, a ianaiia?aae aeiyoeiaa
aio/e?noue ?o naiaioeee, ?iiae? iaeeaaeaiiy, aca?iii?iieeiaiiy e?eueeio
o?aaeeoe?eieo nthaeao?a ? iioea?a.

Uiaei inyaiaiiy I.Eiaeeyinueeith a?ae?eiiai nthaeaoii-ia?aciiai
iaoa??aeo, oi ooo aeae?eythoueny aeaa ??ciianiaeoi? i?aeoiaee. Ia?oee
?aae?co?oueny ia ??ai? iaaeeoaoeaieo ?icaeoi?a i?i ni?a/oooy, ethaia aei
aeeaeiueiai oa ?io? eaoaai??? o?enoeyinueeiai na?oiaa/aiiy, ae?oaee — ia
??ai? ia?ac?a ? nthaeaoo.

O ?aoa?iaai?e ?iaio? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui oae? oai?e, ye “Iaoe Aiaea”,
“A?uoie”, “O na. ?aaia”, “Aeoie noa?eea”, “Aiinoie /a?i?”, ? eeoa
iaaiith i??ith aeioe/ieie aei i?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?ae?eieo iioea?a
oa ia?ac?a i?oieia?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. ?o iiaeia iio?aeooaaoe ye e?ie
aei inieneaiiy I.Eiaeeyinueeith a?oaoeiieo eiiieaen?a Ea?ia oa Aaaey
(“Caiey”), THaee (“THaea”), I?iae (“I?iaa”), aea ca’ycie i?ae
i?ioiia?acii ? i?iointhaeaoii o?ni?oee. Caa?iaiiy ienueiaiieoe? aei
iinoao? Iaoa?? Aiaei?, ye ? aei ia?aco O?enoa, — oea, ianaiia?aae, iiooe
aeooiaieo i???ioe??a ia eeoa aa?i?a I.Eiaeeyinueei?, a e naii? aaoi?ee.
??ciiiai?oi? aethc??, ?ai?i?noeaioe?? c A?ae?? neoaeaoue yne?aaei
na?ae/aiiyi na?aeiiiai inai?iiy I.Eiaeeyinueeith i?oieia?/iiai
iaoa??aeo.

Iieaciaei o oeueiio ieai? ? iiia?aeaiiy “THaea”, aea iayaiee oaeo
ia?nii?o?eaoe?? o?aaeeoe?eiiai ia?aco. Caa?iaiiy I.Eiaeeyinueei? aei
ia?aco THaee aeo?eiaii a aeon? /ano, aaeaea ia ceai? XIX — XX no. a?i
iiaea?oueny ienueiaiieeaie a ?aae?noe/ii-iiaooiaiio eiioaeno?,
“cacaieth?oueny”. I?eeiaoii, ui a iiia?aeaii? “THaea” i?enooi?e iioea
a?ioae ye nai???aeiee eaoae?caoi? c?aaee. Iniaeea?noue o?ainoi?iaoe??
I.Eiaeeyinueeith a?ae?eii? eie?c?? i?i THaeo iieyaa? ianaiia?aae o
aeine?aeaeaii? iioieia?/ieo, iiaaae?ieiaeo ? aen?ieia?/ieo aniaeo?a
aeeooy eiie?aoii? ethaeeie, yea aieath ianoaaei noa? a?oaoeiiith
iiaeaeeth c?aaeieea.

Aeiyoeiaei oai?ii o aeaiiio eiioaeno? ? iiia?aeaiiy I.Eiaeeyinueei? “Ca
aioa?”, iiaeyae ia yea c /ano eiai iaienaiiy ? aei nueiaiaei? aoa
iaeiicia/iee. Ooo a?aenooi? o?aaeeoe?ei? eaiii?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, aea
anioe?aoeaii-neiaie?/iee i?aeoaeno ia oe? aeeoo?ai? neooaoe??, iienaii?
I.Eiaeeyinueeith, aea? iaai? i?aenoaae i?iaiaeeoe ia?aeaeue i?ae
aa?i?iath iiia?aeaiiy “Ca aioa?” oa ia?acii ?aaiaaeuenueei? Ia???
Iaaaeaeeie. Uiaei oaeoo iaa?aeiiai a/eieo nayuaieea, oi o oai?? a?i
a?aenooia? ia ae?oaee ieai, oi/a ? ? a?aei?aaiei ioieoii o ?icaeoeia?
iiae?e.

C oi/ee ci?o ia?ainieneaiiy a?ae?eii? oaiaoeee aeeeeea? caeiiii??iee
?ioa?an (oaea iacaith), ?iiai I.Eiaeeyinueei? “Aiinoie /a?i?”. Aei
i?iaeaie aiinoieuenoaa aaoi?ea caa?oaeany ua a “Aeoiao noa?eea” (1903),
oai??, ui ni?eeia?oueny ye a?ae?eia ianoaiiaa. Naia caiia?oii-iineaiiyi,
nai???aeiei i?i?ioeoaii ? iiaaea “Aeoie noa?eea”, yea ?iiae? aeiaaeaea c
iiey ci?o aeine?aeiee?a oai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe? aai oaeinoithaaeany
iaioi? oaaae, aeania, /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy aaoi?eith a?ae?eii? neiaie?ee.
Oiio ? nain, caa?oath/enue aei ia?aco-iioeao aiinoiea o oai?/ino?
I.Eiaeeyinueei?, ?icaeyaeaoe iiaaeo “Aeoie noa?eea” a eiioaeno? ?iiaio
“Aiinoie /a?i?”.

I?i neeo ienueiaiieoeueeiai oaeaioo I.Eiaeeyinueei? na?ae/eoue iia?noue
“Caiey”, a ye?e aaoi?ea (ye ? a iiia?aeaii? “Ca aioa?”) a?aeiiaey?oueny
a?ae a?ae?eii? “oii?ee”. Aeeth/ath/e o no?oeoo?o nioe?aeueiiai i?oa
aeaiaioe o?enoeyinueei? neiaie?ee, I.Eiaeeyinueea iinoa? ye ieoaoeue,
caeaoiee a?ae/oaaoe a?oaoeie e ?aae?ciaoaaoe ?o o aeani?e oai?/ino?. Ia
oaeo ?eno aeacoaaa naiai /ano E.-A.THia, caoaaaeoth/e, ui “oie, ooi
iiaeoue a?oaoeiaie, aeaaieeoue i?ae oeny/ath aiein?a, […] a?i i?ae?eia?
cia?aaeoaaia iei c? na?oo iaeiie?aoiiai e ia?ao?aeiiai o noa?o a?/iiai:
i?e oiio ? naith iniaenoo aeieth a?i i?aeiineoue aei
caaaeueiiethaenueei? aeie?”11 THia E.-A. A?oaoeie eieaeoeaiiai
iana?aeiiiai. Ineoieia?/i? oeie: Aea?ai? i?aoe? c aiae?oe/ii? ineoieia??
// Ca?oa?aeia o?einio?y OO noie?ooy. — E.: Aeia??a, 1993. — N. 75..

O?ainoi?ioth/e o?aaeeoe?eiee i?oieia?/iee nthaeao i?i Ea?ia ? Aaaey,
I.Eiaeeyinueea caeeoeeany a??iith aeeoo?aei oaeoai, ye? eyaee a iniiao
iia?no? “Caiey”, aea iinoaiiaeith a i?e aoeei-o?einionueeeo i?iaeai ?e
aaeaeiny i?aeianoeny iaae ?aae?yie aeeooy. Oa?aeoa?iei o oeueiio ieai? ?
aeei?enoaiiy ua iaeiiai o?aaeeoe?eiiai iioeao — iioeao a?/iiai neeoaiiy,
yeee ? ?ai?i?noeaioe??th noa?icaa?oiiai iioeao i?ieeyooy Ea?ia. Naaa
aiaeii/an ? iin??i ? “aaanoa??anueeiai eiiieaeno” (A.Iyioeo). Naia o
ae?oa?e (iacaaa?oai?e) /anoei? iia?no? niinoa??aa?ii aca?iii?iieeiaiiy
“ea?i?anueeiai” oa “aaanoa??anueeiai” a?oaoeiieo eiiieaen?a o
a?aeoai?aii? iiaaae?iee Naae. “Aaanoa??anueeee eiiieaen” aeyaey?oueny ia
eeoa o i?e?a/aiino? aacia?anoaieo aeoeaoe na?oii, a ianaiia?aae o oiio,
ui Naaa ia ?iaeoue iaeiaioiai e?ieo aei eayooy /e niieooe “ia/oaaiiai
a??oa”. A?i, ye ? ia?niiaae o?enoeyinueei? eaaaiaee i?ciueiai
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai na?aaeiueia?//y Aaanoa?, iiaae i/?eo? ae?oaiai
i?eoanoy O?enoa, yeee ciiaea ciyoe c iueiai no?aoia oaa?i.

Aiaeia?/iee i?aeo?ae aaoi?ee a inieneaii? i?oieia?/ieo no?oeoo?
niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae o iia?no? “I?iaa”. A ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
aeaaiueia?aoeueeiai nthaeaoo i?i I?iao aaaeeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue
oiiaii-anioe?aoeaiiio i?aeoiaeo, ui aeicaieea cina?aaeeoe oaaao ia oae
ia ciai?oi?o /eiieeao aeie? I?iae, ye ia ?? aioo??oiueiio na?o?.
Iiaeaeue aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e aeyaeeany aeey I.Eiaeeyinueei? naia oei
a?oaoeiii, yeee caeaoai ioiieoe aioo??oi?e ae?aiaoeci, o?aa?ci,
noia?a/eea?noue ? aeeiai?eo ie?aieo ia?ac?a o ?aieao
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ii? aiioe e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX no. Oiio
ienueiaiieoey ia iaiaaeeeany “/enoith” iiaeaeeth i?oa, aiia “i?ea’ycaea”
eiai aei ?aae?e nai?? aeiae.

? oi/a o oai?/iio aei?iaeo I.Eiaeeyinueei? iia?noue “I?iaa” — ?aeeiee
oa??, aea aiia o?ainoi?io? aioe/iee i?oieia?/iee nthaeao, ? i?aenoaae
aiai?eoe i?i aeoai?aiiy ienueiaiieoeath aeaniiai “cacaieaiiai” i?oa, a
yeiio aaeaeiny i?aai?/ii ii?aeiaoe iaea?oa?/i?o? ieanoe eoeueoo?e c
aioo??oi?i na?oii no/anii? ?e ethaeeie. Aeey aaoi?ee “I?iae” aioe/iee
i?o ? iniiaith “oai?/i? eaai?aoi???” (Aeae. Eaiiaaee). Nai?i
oi?aa?naeueiei ci?noii i?o iiaeeaeth? o?einionueeo iniiao oai?o.
Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii o oeueiio ieai? ? aeei?enoaiiy o?enoeyinueei?
i?oieia?/ii? nenoaie (aeaaiaaeoeyoue ae?oae — /enei aiinoie?a, a?ae?eia
ae?iea ?oo, iineeaiiy Cii? ia XIII eeno Na. aiinoiea Iaaea aei
ei??io?eoe?a oa e, aeania, ai?a?ao aei oai?o).

Aeioe/iei aei i?iaeaie ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aioe/ieo i?oieia?/ieo iioea?a oa
ia?ac?a ? iiia?aeaiiy I.Eiaeeyinueei? “I?nyoeue”. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
a?aeaiaeeoueny c’ynoaaiith ?ie? ia?aco i?nyoey, yeee o aaaaoueio oai?ao
ienueiaiieoe? noa? neiaieii-na?aeeii (“Caiey”, “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey
eiiaea…”, “Ia??aae, niioea…”, “I?ae aieei iaaii” oa ?i.). Ie??i
oiai, ooo c’yniaothoueny ?aaeueii iiaeeea? oeyoe inai?iiy
I.Eiaeeyinueeith aioe/iiai nthaeaoo i?i ?a?eiaeo aeo?aae?a, yeee ia
ciaeoia oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a ?a?iiaenueeeo e?oa?aoo?ao e?ioey
XIX — ii/aoeo XX no.

Iniaeea?noue oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei? a oiio, ui aiia coi?ea iaaeaoe
oai?/i ia?ainieneaiei no?oeoo?ai (ia?acai oa iioeaai a?ae?eii?, aioe/ii?
i?oieia??) ni?acao/iiai aiin? ci?noiaiai iaiiaiaiiy oa
?aeaeii-naiaioe/iiai cao/aiiy. Aaeaea eiie?aoi? aecenoaioe?ei?
neooaoe??, noaie iniaenoino?, ?aae?? aeeooy iaaoee o oai?ao
I.Eiaeeyinueei? oi?aa?naeueiiai iioieia?/iiai cao/aiiy.

Ienueiaiieoey na?aeiii aaeaaaeany aei naiaioe/ii? oi?aa?nae?caoe??
iiae?e ? a/eie?a ia?niiaae?a, oiio iioeae oa ia?ace i?oieia?/ii? aaiace
a ?? e?oa?aoo?iiio o?aeooaaii? iaae?eai? iaaiith ai?ciaaai?noth.
Aaaeeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue caaieiaeia? oai?o, yeee ? “i?i?iaeueiei
oaenoii, ui aeeiio? niaoe?aeuei? i?aaiaoe/i? ooieoe??, ?aaoeth?
a?aeiioaiiy ienueiiaiai oaenoo aei a?aenooiueiai eiioaenoo”11 Iaeca?neee
A.I. Oeeinioey e iai?eoi?eea. — E.: Euaeaeue, 1991. — N. 342..

Oaaaa aaoi?ee ia?aaeon?i cina?aaeaeoaaeany ia iaoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/ieo
oa i?aaeiaoii-iiaooiaeo ?aae?yo, aea a ie?aieo oai?ao I.Eiaeeyinueei?
(“Caiey”, “Aeoie noa?eea”, “THaea”, “Ca aioa?”, “I?iaa”) i?oieia?/ia oei
iaaoaa? cia/aiiy nai???aeii? iao?eoe? (aeac?aee ia aeiyoeia?noue,
iai?aeeia?i?noue ie?aii? aecenoaioe?eii? neooaoe??, a/eieo, a?ae/ooia
?ieue oaooio, ui oyae?? iaae aeieyie ia?niiaae?a, oiui). Iaeaea an?
aa?i? caaaeaieo oai??a a?ae/oaathoue ? ?icoi?thoue aeanio i?e?a/ai?noue,
aea ia ?iaeyoue aeiaeiiai e?ieo (ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?niiaae?a ?aii?o
oai??a I.Eiaeeyinueei?), uia iiai?ioe ??. O oeueiio iieyaa? iniaeeaa
?ena oai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe?, yea coi?ea i?aai?/ii ii?aeiaoe o i?iciaeo
iieioiao aaaaoee aeina?ae na?oiai? eoeueoo?e c ?aae?yie oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX no., aeoai?eaoe oeei
naiei “aeaniee ??ae ai?eo?a?cio” (E.A?eiaae/aaa).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Neioac iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiai o
iaioieueeei?i?e i?oieia?ciaai?e i?ic? (ia iaoa??ae? iia?no?
I.Eiaeeyinueei? “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…”)” — c’yniaothoueny
iaoai?cie neioaco aaaaoueio aca?iiae?th/eo o?aaeeoe?e.

Iioya ienueiaiiee?a aei iaae/a?iieo ieano?a iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
iiynith?oueny ia eeoa i?aaiaiiyi ua ?ac cao?enoaaoe ?o o na?oia?e
eoeueoo?i?e o?aaeeoe??, a ianaiia?aae iiaeeea?noth iaaeaoe oei /e ?ioei
ia?acai, nthaeaoai caaaeueiiethaenueei? cia/ouino?, oi?aa?naeueiino?.
Aaeaea “eiaeai ienueiaiiee, a iniaeeai aaeeeee, ia o?eueee canoa? aioia?
iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? ? i?iaeiaaeo? ?o, aea e ?icaeaa?, noai?th? ?o
iia? aeaiaioe”11 Aa?eia I.I. I?iaeaiu enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey eeoa?aoo?u:
Noaouee. — E.: Ooae. eeoa?aoo?a, 1981. — N. 55. .

O iia?no? I.Eiaeeyinueei? “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…”
niinoa??aa?oueny ??ciiieaiiaa eiioai?iaoe?y oieueeei?ieo aeaea?ae,
a?ae?eiiai iioeao (eaaaiaea i?i Ia??th oa Eineoa) ? o?aaeeoe?eiiai
iaoa??aeo e?oa?aoo?iiai iioiaeaeaiiy, yeee aa?a na?e ii/aoie (ca
I.Oeeeiiae/ai) a?ae aa?n?? na?aaeiueia?/iiai ?iiaio i?i O??noaia oa
?cieueaeo.

Aeena?oaioea aaaaea?, ui oa?? I.Eiaeeyinueei? — oea iaenoa?ii
aeaoaeoaaia nenoaia ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo, aea i?oieia?/ia oei ? iniiaith
iaioieueeei?iiai i?oa, yeee iieeeeaiee ?icoe?eoe iaae? iaoe?iiaeueii?
e?oa?aoo?e. Aaeaea naia o iia?no? “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…”
iaaoee nai???aeiiai ocaaaeueiaiiy aeei?enoai? I.Eiaeeyinueeith a
iiia?aaei?o oai?ao i?oieiaaie a??oa, aeie?, i?iaeaia aioo??oiueiai
?icaeai?iiy ethaeeie.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o oai?? I.Eiaeeyinueei? a?ae?a?a? neiaie?ea eieuei??a
(a?eee, /a?aiiee, /i?iee), ii/a?aiaa ci?ia i?? ?ieo, neiaie c?eey c-i?ae
“a?eiai eaiaiy”, aeei?enoaiiy eaceiaeo i?eeii?a, cie?aia i?eioeeio
o?ee?aoiiai iiaoi?aiiy. O iia?no? “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…”
caaaeaiee i?eioeei iaaoa iaaiiai ocaaaeueiaiiy, aaeaea aaoi?ea
caa?oaeany aei iueiai ? a ?ioeo oai?ao. A?aeiii, ui /enea — oea iaeei ?c
iaea?eueo iioe?aieo eean?a ciae?a, ui ci???ioiaai? ia ye?nii-e?euee?nio
ioe?ieo, oea aeaiaioe iniaeeaiai /eneiaiai eiaeo, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai
iieno?oueny na?o, ethaeeia ? naia nenoaia iaoaiieno. I?eioeei
o?ee?aoiiai iiaoi?aiiy aeei?enoiaoaaany I.Eiaeeyinueeith o neooaoe?yo,
yeei aiia i?aaioea iaaeaoe nae?aeueiiai, “eini?coth/iai” cia/aiiy. C
oeei i?eeiiii (o oai?? a?i no?iai eieae?ciaaiee) cono??/a?iiny ? a
iiia?aeaii? I.Eiaeeyinueei? “Noa?? aaoueee” (1910), aea aieiaiee aa?ie
ioneoue ?icaaaeaoe o?e caaaaeee. Ie?ai? ai?ciaee, aeaoae? iia?no? “A
iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…” oaeiae iia’ycai? c oe?a?inueeith eaceiaith
o?aaeeoe??th, aaeaea a aaiac? eacee ?noioia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue
aeai?oieia?caoe?? /ano ? i?noey ae??, ia?aoiaeo a?ae no?iai?
eieae?caoe?? (oai, aea aiia iaea i?noea) iiae?e aei iaaecia/aiino?
eaceiaiai /ano ? i?noey ae??.

O iia?no? iiaae a iaei?e /ania?e ieiuei? ni?a?niothoue ieioea, oaia??oi?
? iaeaooi?. Aeania, ieioea i?iaeoo?oueny a iaeaooi?, ai aiii aecia/aia
iaia?aae oeie iiae?yie, ye? a?aeaoeeny ?ai?oa. Oaia??oi? a?ae?a?a? ?ieue
nai???aeiiai i?noea i?ae ieioeei ? iaeaooi?i.

Ienueiaiieoey caaaaoeea oei oai?o eaaaiaea?ii-i?oieia?/iei iaoa??aeii
(ie??i caaaeoaaii? eaaaiaee i?i Ia??th oa Eineoa, eaaaiaee i?i oea?o
iaii?io?, a??nueeo nia?aeo), ia?nii?o?eaoe??th yaeu i?e?iaee (a?o?o
oeeaaie aiyeeny a?eueoa, i?ae ai?ao Aiaeiai; niioea, canoaeaia iaeaiith
ooiaio, oa ?i.), aeaiaioaie i?noeee, ui aa?ooue ii/aoie o oai?/ino?
I.Eiaeeyinueei? c aooeoeuenueeeo iia??’?a oa a?ae I.Iaoa?e?iea.

Ioaea, aeaoaeoaaaoe nthaeao oai?o ia iniia? oieueeei?ieo aeaea?ae,
I.Eiaeeyinueea a iia?no? “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…” i?aai?/ii
neioacoaaea iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoa??ae, ie?ai? iiiaioe c aeeooy oeeaai?a
(?aaeueiee ? i?oieia?/iee ieanoe), o?enoeyinueeo, a oaeiae na?oiao
e?oa?aoo?io o?aaeeoe?th, a iniia? yei? — oeiiaoeue, ui iaeii/anii eioa?
aeaio ae?a/ao. ? oi/a ei?ai? ie?aieo ia?ac?a oai?o — a ia?iaei?e i?ni?,
aiie inieneai? aaoi?eith a?aeiia?aeii aei anoaoe/ieo iiaeyae?a ? aoe/ieo
canaae eoeueoo?e ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

O Aeniiaeao c?iaeaii caaaeuei? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
ni?eeiyooy oa inai?iiy I.Eiaeeyinueeith iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai?
e?oa?aoo?e a?aeaoaaeiny a ??/eu? iaeiia?oeo anoaoe/ieo oa o?einionueeeo
a?yiue e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. Ienueiaiieoey, ii?yae c ?ioeie nai?ie
no/anieeaie, ei?enooaaeany oaeeie oi?iaie e no?oeoo?aie ?a?iiaenueeiai
oai?/iai aeina?aeo, ye ?ioaeaeooae?ciaaia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia e eoeueoo?ia
?aoeaen?y, i?oieia?/i? oi?ie iaioieueeei?ecio ? neiaie?cio, aeaiaioe
ineoiaiae?co.

Iineoaiaoth/enue o aeani?e oai?/ino? ??ciiiai?oieie ?aoeaioeaieie
oi?iaie (?ai?i?noeaioe?y, aethc?y, noee?caoe?y), I.Eiaeeyinueea aaeaeany
aei na?aeiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aaaaoueio iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai?
e?oa?aoo?e, cie?aia i?oieia?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
?aoeaioeaieo iiaeaeae iia’ycaia ?c oai?/?noth O.I?oeoa, a oaeiae
I.Iaoa?e?iea, ?.-I.sseianaia oa ?i. Iniaeeaa i?noea a?aeaiaeeoueny
ai?a?aoo ye ??ciiaeaeo aethc??, ine?eueee a?i aeiiiiaaa? anoaiiaeaiith
??aiy ienueiaiieoeueei? ?aoeaioe??.

Aeae?eythoueny oae? oi?iaeueii-ci?noia? ??ai? inieneaiiy
I.Eiaeeyinueeith o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo i?oieia?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy: 1)
caaieiaie oai?o; 2) ooaeiaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeaeiieo aeoie?a no/anieo
i?ioean?a ? eaoaee?ci?a /a?ac inieneaiiy oaea cao?eniaaieo ethaenoaii
neooaoe?e ? eie?c?e; 3) i?iaeiaaeaiiy aai aeiienoaaiiy nthaeaoii?
noaie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui on? ia?ainieneai? aaoi?eith iioeae oa ia?ace A?ae??,
nthaeaoe aioe/ii? i?oieia?? oai?youe oe?e?nio iaii?oieia?/io iiaeaeue
aa/aiiy na?oo ? ethaeeie a iueiio. C-iii?ae ??ciiiai?oieo
niinia?a ino/aniaiiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo I.Eiaeeyinueea ia?aea oie,
ui iieyaa? o i?aeeeth/aii? o?aaeeoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aei
iaoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo.

C?aceii neioaco iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiai ? iia?noue “A
iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…”, aea iayaia ??ciiieaiiaa eiioai?iaoe?y
oieueeei?ieo aeaea?ae, a?ae?eiiai iioeao ? o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo
e?oa?aoo?iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iia?noue I.Eiaeeyinueei? ?
ia?aaeon?i yne?aaei iaii?oii, aeeaeii? ??ai? yeiai iaia naino
?icaeyaeaoe ye ?aoeaioeai? iiaeae?, ine?eueee ooo noeea?iiny c ye?nii
a?aei?iiei canai?iiyi o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, ai?ae oea ia?ii a ?ioeo
oai?ao ienueiaiieoe?.

O iia?no? “A iaae?eth ?aii c?eey eiiaea…” iaa?aee nai???aeiiai
ocaaaeueiaiiy i?oieiaaie aeie?, a??oa, ea?e, i?iaeaia aioo??oiueiai
?icaeai?iiy ethaeeie. Naia aiie ? nai???aeieie eaieaie, ye? iia’ycothoue
o ?aeeia oe?ea ie?ai? eoeueoo?i? na?oe I.Eiaeeyinueei?, caaacia/oth/e ?o
i?ea?iaeueia ae??oaiiy a ?aieao iiaea?i?nonueeiai inai?iiy o?aaeeoe?e.

Iniaeea?noue oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei? a oiio, ui aiia coi?ea iaaeaoe
oai?/i ia?ainieneaiei iioeaai oa ia?acai ni?acao/ia nai?e aiin? ci?noiaa
iaiiaiaiiy oa ?aeaeii-naiaioe/ia cao/aiiy. Eiie?aoi? aecenoaioe?ei?
neooaoe??, noaie iniaenoino?, ?aae?? aeeooy iaaoee o oai?ao
ienueiaiieoe? oi?aa?naeueiiai iioieia?/iiai cao/aiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii

o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. ?c niinoa?aaeaiue iaae o?ainoi?iaoe??th a?ae?eieo iioea?a oa ia?ac?a
o oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei? // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Neia’yinueea o?eieia?y. — *a?i?aoe?: ?ooa, 1997. — Aei.13.
— N. 42-48.

2. I?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueii? c?aaee oa aaeeai?iaeecio o oai?/ino? Ean?
Oe?a?iee oa Ieueae Eiaeeyinueei?// Eany Oe?a?iea ? iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E.: Aeae-ai ?i.I.Oae?ae, 1997. — N.108-114.

3. Iia?noue I.Eiaeeyinueei? “I?iaa”: nai???aei?noue ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
i?oieia?/iiai nthaeaoo// Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Neia’yinueea o?eieia?y. — *a?i?aoe?: ?ooa, 1998. — Aei. 34. — N. 9-14.

4. Eiioeaioe?y o?aa?/iiai o iiaae? I.Eiaeeyinueei? “I?ae aieei iaaii”//
I?iaeaie e?oa?aoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. — *a?i?aoe?:
?ooa, 1998. — N. 35-39.

5. Oi?ie ? niiniae ?aoeaioe?? iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e o
oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei?// Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? “Ieueaa Eiaeeyinueea: iiaeyae ia aeeooy ? oai?/?noue c
e?ioey OO no.” (aei 135-??//y a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ienueiaiieoe?. 8-9
aeiaoiy 1998 ?.). — *.?: E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. — *a?i?aoe?, 1999. —N.
166-172.

6. N.Ieoiaanueea a aeeoo? ? oai?/ino? I.Eiaeeyinueei?// Iaoa??aee ???
I?aeia?iaeii? ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii?
120-??//th canioaaiiy *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. 29 aa?aniy — 1
aeiaoiy 1995 ?. — *a?i?aoe?: ?ooa, 1995. — N. 122-124. (Ni?aaaoi? —
I.?aanthe. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeaoue ?aeay, oai?aoe/i? canaaee oa
aeniiaee).

Aiioaoe?y

Ee?eethe N.Ae. O?ainoi?iaoe?y iioea?a oa ia?ac?a na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e o
oai?/ino? Ieueae Eiaeeyinueei?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a. —
I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.Noaoaieea, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iioea?a oa ia?ac?a
na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e o oai?/ino? iaeno?a oe?a?inueei? i?ice e?ioey O?O —
ii/aoeo OO no. Ieueae Eiaeeyinueei? (1863- 1942). C’yniaaii ??aaiue
?aoeaioe?? ienueiaiieoeath oai?/iai aeina?aeo iiia?aaeiee?a ?
no/aniee?a, cie?aia O.I?oeoa, ?.-I.sseianaia, I.Iaoa?e?iea. Aecia/aii
oi?iaeueii-ci?noia? ??ai? ia?ainieneaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo no?oeoo?, oia?oa
a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? iaa?oioiaaii aeei?enoaiiy
I.Eiaeeyinueeith iioea?a oa ia?ac?a A?ae??, aioe/ii? e?oa?aoo?e,
anoaiiaeaii iaoai?ci neioaco iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiai o
aeoai?aii? iaioieueeei?iiai i?oa. Oai?/?noue I.Eiaeeyinueei? aaaiii
iioaa?aeaeo? aacia?a/iee ca’ycie oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa ?c
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeith e?oa?aoo?ith ia ceai? O?O ? OO noie?oue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aoeaioe?y, o?ainoi?iaoe?y, aiae?c, iaii?o, o?aaeeoe?y,
i?oieia?y, iioea, ia?ac, nthaeao.

Aiiioaoeey

Ee?eethe N.Ae. O?ainoi?iaoeey iioeaia e ia?acia ie?iaie eeoa?aoo?u a
oai?/anoaa Ieueae Eiaueyineie. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.01 — oe?aeineay eeoa?aoo?a. —
I?eea?iaoneee oieaa?neoao ei.A.Noaoaieea, Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth i?iaeaiu o?ainoi?iaoeee iioeaia e
ia?acia ie?iaie eeoa?aoo?u a oai?/anoaa ianoa?a oe?aeineie i?icu eiioea
O?O — ia/aea OO a. Ieueae Eiaueyineie (1863-1942). Auyniai o?iaaiue
?aoeaioeee ienaoaeueieoeae oai?/aneiai iiuoa i?aaeoanoaaiieeia e
nia?aiaiieeia, a /anoiinoe O.Ieoeoa, A.-I.sseianaia, I.Iaoa?eeiea.
Ii?aaeaeaiu oi?iaeueii-niuneiaua o?iaie ia?ainiuneaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
no?oeoo?, aia?aua a oe?aeineii eeoa?aoo?iaaaeaiee iainiiaaii
eniieueciaaiea I.Eiaueyineie iioeaia e ia?acia Aeaeee, aioe/iie
eeoa?aoo?u, ii?aaeaeaii iaoaieci neioaca iaoeeiiaeueiiai e
iauaeoeueoo?iiai a nicaeaiee iaioieueeei?iiai ieoa. Oai?/anoai
I.Eiaueyineie yaeyaony aaneei iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai ianiiiaiiie nayce
oe?aeineie eeoa?aoo?u n iauaaa?iiaeneie neiaaniinoueth ia ?oaaaea O?O e
OO aaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aoeaioeey, o?ainoi?iaoeey, aiaeec, iaiieo, o?aaeeoeey,
ieoieiaey, iioea, ia?ac, nthaeao.

Summary

Kyryliuk S.D. Transformation of Universal Literary Motifs and
Characterization in Olha Kobylianska’s Works. Manuscript. Kandidat Nauk
Degree Dissertation, Philology, major #10.01.01. — Ukrainian Literature
— Prykarpatsky University named after V.Stefanyk, Ivano-Frankivsk, 1999.

Under consideration is the issue of transformation of Universal Literary
motifs and characters in the works of a Ukrainian writer, late 19th —
early 20th centuries, Olha Kobylianska.

The literary legacy of influence of her predecessors and contemporary
writers is elaborated. It is demonstrated that the writer’s
transformation and accepting the motifs and characterization happened
concurrently with the development of the new trends in philosophy and
aesthetics of the late 19th – early 20th centuries. O.Kobylianska along
with other contemporaries used such forms and structures of European
literary legacy as complex individual, and cultural reflection,
mythological forms of neofolklorism and symbolism, and elements of
psychoanalysis.

Applying numerous receptive forms in her own works (reminiscence,
allusion, pastiche), O.Kobylianska transformed many Universal Literary
motifs and characters, of mythological nature in particular. The most
numerous influences are based on F.Nietzsche’s works, as well as
M.Maeterlinck, J.P.Jakobsen, and others.

Special attention is paid to epigraph as a type of allusion, as it
establishes the level of the writer’s influences.

The levels of form and content in O.Kobylianska’s realization of
traditional mythological elements are singled out:

1) title which is of informational, sense and axiological value (Maty
Bozha, Niobe, Jude, and others); 2) artistic analysis of modern trends
and tragedies by means of transforming established situations (The Land,
Jude, Niobe); 3) plot scheme extension and continuation (Across the
Border).

O.Kobylianska’s use of Biblical motifs and characters is substantiated
in the present dissertation for the first time in Ukrainian Literary
Studies. Two approaches under focus are: meditations about compassion,
love for one’s neighbour and other categories of Christian outlook; the
second – on her use of characters and plot.

All the motifs and characters derived from the Bible were transformed by
the writer and make up a complete neomythological outlook model and to
include mankind. The use of Biblical symbols is of great importance,
though this aspect of the writer’s works was not evaluated by Soviet
literary criticism. Various allusions, stories from the Bible prove to
be ample evidence of her conscious use of long-established mythological
layers.

Among various types of modern traditional elements, O.Kobylianska chose
traditional structures to be linked to national historical legacy. Such
approach is used in her novella Niobe. The associative approach to the
interpretation of ancient Greek plot about Niobe plays an important
role. This ancient cultural model turns out to be just the archetype for
O.Kobylianska capable of inner dramatic and tragic nature, controversy
and dynamics of certain characters in late 19th early 20th centuries.

The model of synthesis of national and universal values is the novel V
Nediliu Rano Zillia Kopala, where folklore sources, old Christian motifs
and traditional literary elements take place.

It is demonstrated in the present dissertation that O.Kobylianska’s
novella is a neomyth, deep levels of which should not be treated as
received models, as here we can see different traditional elements
applied in other works of the writer.

Mythologems of sin, punishment, fate, problem of being of two minds,
have been generalized in V Nediliu Rano Zillia Kopala. These links
combine into a single entity of separate worlds of O.Kobylianska,
ensuring an original solution within modernist treatment of traditions.

The peculiarity of O.Kobylianska’s works is that she managed to assign
new, contemporary meaning to remodel motifs and characters. Concrete
existential situations, states of personality, realia became universally
ontological. Olha Kobylianska’s works explicitly show ties between
Ukrainian and European writers in late 19th – early 20th centuries.

Key terms: influence, transformation, analysis, neomyth, tradition,
mythology, motif, character, plot.

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