I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AIAAEUeII-AEIIIII*IEE OIIAA?NEOAO

OAeE 664.8.039.7:635.35

O?EA?AO AEaiia Ieeiea?aia

OIAA?ICIAA*A OA?AEOA?ENOEEA

OA?IAIOIAAII? OeAIOII? EAIONOE

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 05.18.15 —

oiaa?iciaanoai oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoia

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, I?eia Ieeiea
Iaaeiae/, Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii- aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
i?ioani?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: caneoaeaiee aeiy/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, AEOE TH?ie Oeiioieiae/, Iieoaanueeee
eiiia?aoeaiee iinoeooo, i?ioani? eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
Iiiiii?ueia Iao?i Oiiiae/, Eueaianueea eiia?oeieia aeaaeaiiy,
i?ioani?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?eianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeaiiy oaoiieiai? oa
i?aaiicaoei? oa?/oaaiiy I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a oiaa?iciaanoaa
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, i. Oa?eia

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 4 » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.055.02 Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 253156, i. Ee?a,
aoe. E?ioi, 19.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
253156, i. Ee?a, aoe. E?ioi, 19.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 28 » ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oeuaiei ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue ? nooiiiue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie. A ?icaeoeo naioiaiai
?eieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoia niinoa?iaa?oueny oaiaeaioeiy caieueoaiiy
niiaeeaaiiy iai/ia oa ieiae?a ye iini?a aiieiai/ii aeoeaieo niieoe,
caaaeyee yeei aiie c oniioii aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aei?oe/iiio
oa?/oaaiii, aeey eieoaaiiy ? i?ioieaeoeee ?yaeo caoai?thaaiue.
Aeiaeaoeiaei iiooaeiei ?aca?aii caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy ieiaeaie ?
iai/aie ? ciaioaiiy ?o ao?ao i?e caa?iaaiii ? ia?a?iaoei, ui
neeaaeathoue ia Oe?a?ii aieueoa 30% a?iaeath. Iniiaiith oiiaith
caa?aaeaiiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoei? ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
i?ia?aneaieo iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo oaoiieiaie ia?a?iaee naiaeeo ieiaeia
oa iai/ia, iniaeeai a iinoeyo ?o ae?iuoaaiiy.

Iaeiei c iaeiioe?aiioeo oa aoaeoeaieo niiniaia ia?a?iaee iai/ia ?
ieiaeia ? oa?iaioaoeiy, yeo a ia?iaei iaceaathoue nieiiiyi aai
eaan?iiyi. Oe?a?ia aoea e caeeoa?oueny a /enei iniiaieo ae?iaieeia
oa?iaioiaaii? ieiaeiiai/aai? i?iaeoeoei? a naioi, aea ?? ani?oeiaio
aei oeueiai /ano iaiaaeaiee 5-6 aeaeaie, ui ia caaeiaieueiy? iiieo
ianaeaiiy. Aeieea? iaiaoiaeiinoue a ?ic?iaoei iiaeo aeaeia oa?iaioiaaieo
iai/ia.

Oeaioio eaionoo aiaeiinyoue aei iaeaieueo oeiiieo iai/ia ye a
oa?/iniaeiaiio aiaeiioaiii, oae ? ii aiieiai/iie oeiiiinoi. ?acii c oei,
ia Oe?a?ii eoeueoo?i oeaioii? eaionoe iiee ui ia iaaea?oueny iaeaaeii?
oaaae, oi/ ? iayaii ani oiiae aeey ?? oniioiiai ae?iuoaaiiy. A oaeeo
?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, ye Aaeueaiy, Iiaea?eaiaee, O?aioeiy, Iiia//eia oa
Aiaeiy oeaioiie eaionoi aiaeaeathoue ia?aaaao ia?aae iioeie iai/aie. Ia
Oe?a?ii oey eoeueoo?a caeia? eeoa 0,7-0,8% iiniaii? ieiui, caeiyoi?
eaionoyieie eoeueoo?aie, oiaei ye a Iiia//eii ia ?? aeieth i?eiaaea?
15%, a O?aioei? — 42%, a a ?oaei? — 47%.

Oeaioia eaionoa aiae?iciy?oueny aenieei aiinoii ?ineeiiiai aieeo,
eaaeicanaithaaieo aoaeaaiaeia, iaeoeiiaeo ?a/iaei, iiia?aeueieo nieae oa
aioaiiiia. Oeaioia eaionoa a naiaeiio oa ia?a?iaeaiiio aeaeyaei i?ioyaii
anueiai ?ieo ei?enoo?oueny iiaeaeuaiei iiieoii ianaeaiiy ye
aeaeieaoaniee i?iaeoeo oa?/oaaiiy, ae?iaieoeoai ?? c eiaeiei ?ieii
caieueoo?oueny.

Ia nueiaiaeii caa?aaoe oeaioio eaionoo a naiaeiio aeaeyaei aei iiaiai
a?iaeath i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. C iaoith caieueoaiiy no?ieia niiaeeaaiiy
ianaeaiiyi oei?? iai/aai? eoeueoo?e a naioiaie i?aeoeoei iioe?aii
?iciiiaiioii niiniae ?? eiina?aoaaiiy. Caaaeueiiaaeeaaii iaoiaee
(oaieiaa noa?eeicaoeiy, aoiinoa?ia nooea) ia aeathoue aaaeaiiai
?acoeueoaoo, ai i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy aiieiai/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei
oeaioii? eaionoe. Aieueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia Oe?a?ii oa ca ei?aeiiii
io?eiaa iaoiae eiina?aoaaiiy oeaioii? eaionoe caii?iaeoaaiiyi, aea aii
iio?aao? niaoeiaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa aaeeeeo aia?aiaeo?ao ia
ae?iaieoeoai.

Niinia eiina?aoaaiiy oeaioii? eaionoe oa?iaioaoei?th a naioiaie
i?aeoeoei ia ?ic?iaeaiee. sse aiaeiii, oa?iaioaoeiy iai/ia caaacia/o?
iaeneiaeueia caa?aaeaiiy ?o oa?/iai? oa aioaiiiii? oeiiiinoi, aiia ?
aeaoaaith ? aeinooiiith aeey canoinoaaiiy aaniina?aaeiuei a iinoeyo ?o
ae?iuoaaiiy, iaaioue a aeiiaoiio oiiaao. Aea oeae niinia eiina?aoaaiiy
oeaioii? eaionoe aei oeueiai /ano ia aoa aea/aiee ? ia ?ic?iaeaiee, ui ?
noaei i?aaeiaoii iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiue.

Ia?a?iaea oeaioii? eaionoe oa?iaioaoei?th aeicaieeoue cia/ii caieueoeoe
ia’?i niiaeeaaiiy aeaii? eoeueoo?e aiaeiiaiaeii ?aoeiiiaeueieo ii?i,
?icoe?eoe ani?oeiaio oa?iaioiaaieo iai/ia oa nei?ioeoe ao?aoe oeaioii?
eaionoe i?e caa?iaaiii a naiaeiio aeaeyaei.

Iaoa ? caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy niiaeeaieo
aeanoeainoae iiaiai i?iaeoeoo oa?/oaaiiy — oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii?
eaionoe, oa oaeoi?ia, ui ?o oi?iothoue ? i?iaiicoaaiiy ia ?o iniiai
iioeiaeueii? oaoiieiai? ?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa caa?iaaiiy.

O aiaeiiaiaeiinoi aei oeueiai a ?iaioi aoee iinoaaeaii oaei iniiaii
caaaeaiiy:

— aea/eoe aieea ne?iaeie oa ae?iaie/eo iia?aoeie ia oi?ioaaiiy yeinoi
aioiaiai i?iaeoeoo c iaoith ?ic?iaee iioeiaeueieo ?aoeaioo?, ii?i aeo?ao
ne?iaeie ? oaoiieiai? ae?iaieoeoaa oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe;

— aeineiaeeoe oa?aeoa? ? iai?aaeaiinoue oiceei-oiii/ieo oa
iie?iaiieiai/ieo i?ioeania i?e oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii? eaionoe a
caeaaeiinoi aiae ainiiaea?nueei-aioaii/iiai ni?oo eaionoe, oaiia?aoo?e
oa?iaioaoei?, eiioeaio?aoei? eooiiii? niei a caeeaoei, ?ieinoi oa?e;
anoaiiaeoe oaeoi?e, ui caaacia/othoue iaeneiaeueia caa?aaeaiiy aeoiaeieo
niiaeeaieo aeanoeainoae i?iaeoeoei?;

— anoaiiaeoe ciiie oa?/iai? oa aiieiai/ii? oeiiiinoi, oice/ieo ?
i?aaiieaioe/ieo aeanoeainoae i?e o?eaaeiio caa?iaaiii c iaoith aeyaeaiiy
iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio caa?iaaiiy oa io?eiaiiy aenieiyeiniiai i?iaeoeoo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Aeey ia?a?iaee oeaioii?
eaionoe aoea aeei?enoaia oa?iaioaoeiy. Io?eiaii iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia
aeiaoiae ? 22872A.

Eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii o?i?/i?, o?ce/i?, i?aaiieaioe/i? oa
i?e?ia?ieia?/i? iieacieee yeino? oa?iaioiaaii? oea?oii? eaionoe i?e ??
ae?iaieoeoa? oa o?eaaeiio caa??aaii?. Ciaeaeaii ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie
i?ae ?ioaineai?noth oa?iaioaoeaiiai i?ioeano, coiiaeaiiai aeeiai?eith
iaeiie/aiiy eeneio, oa ii/aoeiaei ai?noii oeoe??a a ne?iaei?,
oaiia?aoo?ith oa?iaioaoe?? ? eiioeaio?aoe??th eooiiii? nie? a caeeaoe?;
ia iniia? ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co aecia/aii nooi?iue aieeao oeeo oaeoi??a
ia e?ioeaao ye?noue i?iaeoeoo.

I?e oa?iaioaoe?? a neeaaei a?eeiaeo ?a/iaei oea?oii? eaionoe aeyaeaii
ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo an?o iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio, ooai?aiiy ? iaeiie/aiiy
g-ai?iiianeyii? eeneioe.

Aecia/aii ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii iiaeaeue i?iaiicoaaiiy ??aiy yeino?
oa?iaioiaaii? oea?oii? eaionoe. ?ic?iaeaii ?aoeaioo?e ? iaeia?aeoiaeio
oaoiieia?th ae?iaieoeoaa iiaiai i?iaeoeoo.

Aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?icnieo, aaaaoiai ia iiei/io
eeneioo, a?oai?i N, iaeoeiia? oa a?eeia? ?a/iaeie, aeey i?eaiooaaiiy
no?aa a a?iiaaenueeiio oa?/oaaii?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Ia iniiai ?acoeueoaoia
i?iaaaeaieo aeineiaeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii 8 ?aoeaioo? oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii?
eaionoe, i?eaaaeaia oiaa?iciaa/a oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaiai i?iaeoeoo,
anoaiiaeaia iioeiaeueia oaoiieiaiy ? oa?iiie oa?iaioaoei? oa caa?iaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoei OO O 46.72.060-95
«Eaionoa oeaioia eaaoaia» oa oaoiieiai/ii? iino?oeoei? ii ae?iaieoeoao
oeaioii? eaaoaii? eaionoe.

Oaoiieiaith ia?a?iaee oeaioii? eaionoe oa?iaioaoei?th ai?iaaaeaeaii a
i?iieneiaeo oiiaao AAO «?i. Aaneeue?aa» Aeoai?iaenueeiai ?aeiio
Ee?anueei? iaeanoi.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a caaaeueiiio aecia/aiii caaaeaiue
aeineiaeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaiii aiaeioe/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe,
aiaeici oa ocaaaeueiaiii io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Aeena?oaio a?aa
aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a ?ic?iaoei IOAe. Aeniiaee aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe
iaea?aeaii aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoeieii?
?iaioe aeiiiaiaeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo (i. Ee?a, 1996-1999 ?iee);
iiaeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo — «No/anii i?iaeaie
?icaeoeo ?eieo, na?oeoieaoei? oa eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiinoi oiaa?ia oa
iineoa» (Eueaianueea eiia?oeieia aeaaeaiiy, 1996?.); «Iaoeiai oa
i?eeeaaeii i?iaeaie oiaa?iciaanoaa a ?eieiaeo oiiaao» (EAeOAO, 1996?.);
«Quality for Europen Integration» (Iiciainueeee aeiiiii/iee oiiaa?neoao,
Iieueua, 1996?.); «Iiaei?e?inoaa ? oeaoe iaei? iiooaeiinoi aeey
ia?a?iaee nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie: aoaeoeaiinoue ?
iniaeeainoi i?aaiicaoei?» (Iieoaanueeee eiiia?aoeaiee iinoeooo, 1997?.)

Ioaeieaoei?. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeineiaeaeaiue iioaeieiaaii 14 ?iaio, a
oiio /enei iien aei iaoaioo ia aeiaoiae, oaoii/ii oiiae ? oaoiieiai/ia
iino?oeoeiy.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy aeeeaaeaia ia 124
noi?iieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo; neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5 ?icaeieia,
aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui aeeth/a? 224 ia?oiaeaea?aea,
a oiio /enei 28 iiicaiieo, oa 15 aeiaeaoeia. ?iaioa iethno?iaaia 31
oaaeeoeath ? 15 ?enoieaie.

Ia’?eoe, iaoa?iaee, iaoiaee ? i?aaiicaoeiy aeineiaeaeaiue.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeineiaeaeaiiy caeieniaii a eaai?aoi?iyo eaoaae?e
oiaa?iciaanoaa i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa?ia Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo, ?inoeoooo iiaeo oaoiieiaie
caa?iaaiiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoei?, ?inoeoooo aiioiii? ?i.
I. A. Iaeeaaeiia AI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo caoenoo ?ineei Oe?a?inueei?
aeaaeaii? aa?a?ieo iaoe, ?inoeoooo oa?/oaaiiy IIC Oe?a?ie,
Ee?anueeiai IAeI neioaco oa aeieiai? «CIIOAEI».

Caaaeueia noaia iinoaiiaee aeineiaeia ii aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi
i?eaaaeaia ia ?en. 1.

A aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo aeei?enoiaoaaee naiaeo oeaioio
eaionoo ?aeiiiaaieo ia Oe?a?ii ainiiaea?nueei-aioaii/ieo ni?oia:
Aa?aioiy, Aio/eciyia, Niiaeeiea oa Iiai?-74, ae?iuaio ia Ee?anueeie
aeineiaeiie noaioei? iai/iaieoeoaa oa ENI Ee?anueei? iaeanoi.
Oa?iaioaoeith oeaioii? eaionoe caeienithaaee a neeyieo aaieao iinoeinoth
0,5, 1, 2 oa 3 e oa caeeaieo ai/eao iinoeinoth 100 e c iieiaoeeaiiaeie
aeeaaeeoaie i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 0-2, 8-10, 20-22 oa 30-32°N c aeei?enoaiiyi
?ic/eiia eooiiii? niei eiioeaio?aoei?th 2; 2,5; 3; 3,5 oa 4%.

Oa?iaioaoeith aeineiaeieo oa eiio?ieueieo ia?oie oeaioii? eaionoe
i?iaiaeeee aei iaeiie/aiiy a i?iaeoeoi 0,5-0,6% eeneio oa caa?iaaee a
ioieiaeaeoaaieo eaia?ao i?e oaiia?aoo?i aiae 0 aei iethn 2°N.

I?e aeeiiaiii aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe aoee aeei?enoaii ianooiii iaoiaee
aeineiaeaeaiue: i?aaiieaioe/io ioeiieo yeinoi oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii?
eaionoe (1) aecia/aee ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaie oaaeeoeath 5-aaeiai? ioeiiee;
ianiao /anoeo aieiae oa nooeo ?a/iaei (2) — aenoooaaiiyi iaaaaeee
i?iaeoeoo i?e oaiia?aoo?i 105°N aei iinoieii? iane ca AINO 87562-82;
cooi ?ic/eiii ?a/iaeie (3) — ia ?ao?aeoiiao?i O?E, iiaeaeue 1; ianiao
/anoeo oeoe?ia (caaaeueiiai, aetheice, o?oeoice, naoa?ice) (4) — ca
iaoiaeeeith Ii/eiea (1976); iaeoeiiai ?a/iaeie (5) —
eiiieaeniiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii (Ii/eiie O.I., 1976); eeioeiaeio (6) — ca
iaoiaeii ??iaeiaa A.I. (1972); oeo?iaaio eeneioiinoue (7) —
oeo?iiao?e/iei iaoiaeii a ia?a?aooieo ia iiei/io eeneioo ca AINO
25555.0-82; aeoeaio eeneioiinoue (8) — iioaioeiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ia
iioaioeiiiao?i EIO-01 ca AINO 26188-84; yeiniee neeaae i?aaii/ieo eeneio
(9) — iaoiaeii ?iciiaeieueii? o?iiaoia?aoi? ia iaia?i (Iao?ia E.I.,
1978); eaoeeo eeneio (a ia?a?aooieo ia ioeoiao eeneioo) (10) —
iaoiaeii aiaeaiio c aiaeyiith ia?ith ca AINO 25555.1-82; aoeeiaiai
nie?oo (11) — eiaeiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii (Iao?ia E.I., 1978); aieeiaiai
acioo (12) — iie?iiaoiaeii Eue?eueaeaey (Iao?ia E.I., 1978);
aiiiieeneioiee neeaae aieeia (13) — ia aaoiiaoe/iiio aiaeicaoi?i ia?ee
LKB 4101 (Oaaoeiy), eieueeiniee aiino ?ic?aoiaoaaee ii ieiui iieia,
io?eiaieo ia o?iiaoia?aii eiaeiiai aeineiaeiiai c?acea (Niiii A.I.,
1970); aiino o?eioioaio aecia/aee niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii
(??iaeia A.I. oa iioi, 1967); anei?aiiiai? eeneioe (14) — eiaeiiao?e/iei
iaoiaeii (Naiiaeiieiaa ?.A., 1966); eooiiii? niei (15) —
a?aaioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ca AINO 12230-66; iiia?aeueieo aeaiaioia (16)
— niaethaaiiyi iaaaaeee i?iaeoeoo c i?ii?eaiiyi iiia?aeueiiai caeeoeo
i?e oaiia?aoo?i 500…600°N aei iinoieii? iane (Ai?iaeiia C.A., 1970);
iae?i- oa iie?iaeaiaioe (17) aeineiaeaeoaaee iaoiaeii aoiiii —
aani?aoeieii? niaeo?ineiii? ia niaeo?ioioiiao?i Atomik Absorption
Spectrophotometer 403, Perkin-Elmer (NOA) (Oaaacia I., Oeae?a A.,
1983); aeoeaiinoue oa?iaioia (anei?aiiieneaeace, iiaa?oace, eaoaeace,
iieioaiieieneaeace) (18) — ca iaoiaeii Ii/eiea O.I. (1976); aeoeaiinoue
?aaeiiioeeiaeia (19) — ca iaoiaeeeith Iaeneiiaa I.O. (1989);
iie?iaiieiai/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy (20) — caaaeueia eieueeinoue
iie?ii?aaiiciia, eieueeinoue iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie, ieiniyaeo a?eaia oa
ae?iaeaeaeia a 1 a — ca AINO 10444.3-85, AINO 10444.11-89, AINO
10444.12-88; ia’?i eaionoe (21) — ca AINO 8756.1-79; ciiie iane (22)
aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeith, ?ic?iaeaiith niia?iaioieeaie EOAI niieueii c
AIIIEII (1986), caoaa?aeaeaiith Aea?aeaa?ii?iiii N?N?; aeiiiii/io
aoaeoeaiinoue (23) ae?iaieoeoaa oa caa?iaaiiy oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii?
eaionoe ?ic?aoiaoaaee a aiaeiiaiaeiinoi aei iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
ii aecia/aiith i?eaooeo a?ae aeei?enoaiiy ia’?eo?a i?iieneiai? aeaniino?
(1997).

Iiaoi?iinoue aeineiaeia aoea o?e — /ioe?e?aciaith. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aoei iiaeaeaii iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/iie ia?iaoei ii
Aeini?oiao A.A. (1972) ia AII ca i?ia?aiaie Microsoft Excel, Microsoft
Word.

Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe

Oi?ioaaiiy niiaeeaieo aeanoeainoae oeaioii? eaionoe iiae /an
oa?iaioaoei?. A ?acoeueoaoi oiceei-oiii/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui
aiaeaoaathoueny i?e oa?iaioaoei?, oeaioia eaionoa iaaoaa? iioeo,
aiaeiiiieo aiae naiaei? oeaioii? eaionoe, niiaeeaieo aeanoeainoae.

Ciiie oiii/iiai neeaaeo oeaioii? eaionoe a i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei?.
Oiii/iee neeaae naiaei? oeaioii? eaionoe a i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei?
iiaeaea?oueny inoioiei ciiiai: ca?iaeaeothoueny oeoe?e, caiinoue yeeo
c’yaey?oueny iiei/ia eeneioa oa ?yae iiai/ieo i?iaeoeoia iiei/iieeneiai
oa nie?oiaiai a?iaeiiiy, ciaioo?oueny aiino aioaiiio N, aieeo,
aiaeaoaa?oueny /anoeiaa aeaiieiia?ecaoeiy eeioeiaeie oa iaeoeiiaeo
?a/iaei, a oeaioio eaionoo i?iieea? nieue c caeeaee. Oiii/iee neeaae
oeaioii? eaionoe, oa?iaioiaaii? i?ioyaii 30 aeiia i?e oaiia?aoo?i
20-22°N, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaieie oaaeeoei 1.

Ciiie aiinoo ie?aieo oeoe?ia oeaioii? eaionoe ii ia?iiaeai oa?iaioaoei?
a?aeaoaathoueny ii ?iciiio. Iniaeeai oaeaeei ciaioo?oueny eieueeinoue
naoa?ice, yei? o anio aeineiaeaeoaaieo c?aceao iiney 10 aeiia
oa?iaioaoei? aeyaeaii ia aoei. Ao?aoe aetheice ca ia?oi 10 aeiia
oa?iaioaoei? neeaee a na?aaeiueiio 48,9%, o?oeoice — 46,6% aei
ii/aoeiaiai ?o aiinoo. Iiney 30 aeiia oa?iaioaoei? a i?iaeoeoi
caeeoeeinue 2,9% aetheice oa 1,9% o?oeoice. Oiaoi iniiaieie
aoaeaaiaeaie, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ia a?iaeiiiy, ? aetheica ? o?oeoica,
yei ia?aaaaeathoue a oeaioiie eaionoi, a oaeiae naoa?ica iiney ??
aiae?ieico, ui aeoeaii aiaeaoaa?oueny ia ii/aoeo i?ioeano oa?iaioaoei?.

Oaaeeoey 1

Oiii/iee neeaae oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe

Iieacieee Aiino ?a/iaei a % aei ne?i? iane ii ainiiaea?nueei-aioaii/iei
ni?oai oeaioii? eaionoe

Aio/eciyia Iiai?-74 Niiaeeiea Aa?aioiy

Caaaeueiee oeoei? 0,07 0,06 0,05 0,06

Aetheica 0,05 0,04 0,03 0,04

O?oeoica 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,02

Naoa?ica 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

Caaaeueia eeneioiinoue 0,63 0,60 0,58 0,61

Iaeoeiiai ?a/iaeie 0,39 0,42 0,38 0,41

Eeioeiaeia 0,60 0,83 0,78 1,25

Aoeeiaee nie?o 0,145 0,136 0,142 0,144

Eaoei eeneioe 0,042 0,039 0,038 0,042

Acioenoi ?a/iaeie 2,37 2,26 2,52 2,38

Aieie 1,76 1,64 1,96 1,80

Aioaiii N, ia ia 100 a 56,7 53,1 56,8 52,5

Iiia?aeueii ?a/iaeie 1,82 2,03 1,89 2,11

I?e aeineiaeaeaiii aeeiaiiee iaeiie/aiiy eeneio i?e oa?iaioaoei?
oeaioii? eaionoe aoei aeyaeaii, ui ca ia?oi 10 aeiia oeo?iaaia
eeneioiinoue i?iaeoeoo (a ia?a?aooieo ia iiei/io eeneioo) c?inea iaeaea
a 2,5 ?ac aei ii/aoeiaiai aiinoo, a iioii oeae i?ioean iinooiiai
niiaieueiyany.

Ia iioaineaiinoue ia?aoai?aiiy oeoe?ia a eeneioe aieeioea oaiia?aoo?a
oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii? eaionoe (?en. 2). C iiaeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aiae
0-2°N aei 30-32°N iioaineaiinoue oa?iaioaoeaiiai i?ioeano c?inoaea, ui
yaeeinue ?acoeueoaoii caieueoaiiy ianiai? /anoee eeneio a eaionoi a
2,5-3 ?ace. Ca oeae ia?iiae iioaineaii cieaeo?oueny aeoeaia
eeneioiinoue oeaioii? eaionoe. Iiney 30 aeiia oa?iaioaoei? ?I
neeaea ii ni?oai: Aio/eciyia — 4,1; Iiai?-74 — 4,2; Niiaeeiea — 4,2 oa
Aa?aioiy — 4,1. I?e aeineiaeaeaiii yeiniiai neeaaeo i?aaii/ieo eeneio a
oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie eaionoi iaoiaeii o?iiaoia?aoi? aeyaeaii iiei/io,
eeiiiio, yaeo/io, yioa?io, ii?iaeiia?aaeio oa ioeoiao eeneioe. A
i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii? eaionoe iaeiie/othoueny oaeiae oaei
i?iaeoeoe a?iaeiiiy, ye eaoei eeneioe oa aoeeiaee nie?o. Eieueeinoue
eaoeeo eeneio ca 30 aeiia oa?iaioaoei? c?inoa? a na?aaeiueiio a 3,5
?ace, a nie?oo — a 3,8 ?ace.

Iaeoeiiai ?a/iaeie oa eeioeiaeia oeaioii? eaionoe i?e oa?iaioaoei?
aeyaeee aiaeiinio noaaieueiinoue a ii?iaiyiii c iioeie ?a/iaeiaie
aoaeaaiaeii? i?e?iaee. Ao?aoe eeioeiaeie oeaioii? eaionoe ca oeae
ia?iiae noaiiaeee 12,4%, a iaeoeiiaeo ?a/iaei — 13% aei ii/aoeiaiai ?o
aiinoo a ne?iaeii.

A ia?iiae oa?iaioaoei? a oeaioiie eaionoi aiaeaoaathoueny i?ioeane
aiae?ieioe/iiai ?iceeaaeaiiy aieeiaeo ?a/iaei. Eieueeinoue caaaeueiiai
acioo a aeineiaeaeoaaieo ni?oao i?ioyaii ia?iiaeo oa?iaioaoei?
caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii iaciiiiith. Nooo?aei ciiiai iiaeaea?oueny
aieeiaee acio, aiino yeiai a oeaioiie eaionoi anio aeineiaeaeoaaieo
ni?oia ciaioeany ca ia?iiae oa?iaioaoei? ia 5,42% aiaeiinii ii/aoeiaiai
aiinoo a ne?iaeii.

I?e oa?iaioaoei? iaeaieueoeo ao?ao aiae ii/aoeiaiai aiinoo caciaee
a?aiiii (80,0%), aeooaiiiiaa eeneioa (62,8%), ainoeaeei (53,6%) oa na?ei
(45,5%). Cia/ii c?inea eieueeinoue ania?aaiiiai? eeneioe (74,0%) oa
oeenoeio (20,6%). Eieueeinoue anio iioeo aiiiieeneio a aiae?ieicaoi
nooeieueiiai i?iaeoeoo ciaioeeanue, aea iacia/ii. Iiney oa?iaioaoei? a
i?iaeoeoi c’yaeythoueny i?iioii oa g-aiiiiianeyia eeneioa (AAIE), yei
aoee a?aenooi? a naiaeie oeaioiie eaionoi, i?e/iio aeyaeaii aiie aoee
eeoa a o?aeoei? aieueieo aiiiieeneio oa iaioeaeia.

A i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei? iiaeaeueeanue /anoea aieueieo aiiiieeneio oa
iaioeaeia c 28% aei 38% aei caaaeueii? eieueeinoi aieeiaeo ?a/iaei
oeaioii? eaionoe.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeayei eieueeinii ao?aoe aieeiaeo ?a/iaei a i?ioeani
oa?iaioaoei?, ii?iaiyiiy aiinoo iacaiiiieo aiiiieeneio i?iaeoeoo ci
oeaeith OAI/AIC (oaae. 2) iiaeoaa?aeaeo? iiaeaeuaiiy eiai aiieiai/ii?
oeiiiinoi. Iiaeaeuo?oueny nei? oaeeo eiiiooth/eo aiiiieeneio, ye
iaoiiiii oa oeenoei, icieaeoeei ? eaeoeei. Ia 20,7% c?in aiino noie
iacaiiiieo aiiiieeneio ? noaiiaea 46,1a/100a aieeia, ui ia?aaeuo?
iiiiiaeueio ?aeiiaiaeiaaio ii?io ia 28,1%.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aiiiieeneioiee nei? aieeiaeo ?a/iaei oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe

/A-aiino IAE, a/100a aieea; N-nei? IAE,%/

Iacaiiiii ‘Iaeaaeue- Eaionoa oeaioia

aiiiieeneioe iee’ aieie naiaea oa?iaioi-aaia iiney caa?iaaiiy

A A N A N A N

Eicei 5,5 5,4 99,0 7,5 136,4 3,5 63,5

O?aiiii 4,0 5,0 124,5 5,5 138,2 3,1 77,7

Iaoiiiii + oeenoei 3,5 2,4 69,5 3,0 84,9 2,7 77,5

O?eioioai 1,0 1,2 118,8 1,4 136,9 1,8 177,0

Aaeii 5,0 5,8 116,2 6,5 130,9 8,1 162,8

Icieaeoeei 4,0 3,2 81,0 4,1 103,5 6,4 160,9

Eaeoeei 7,0 6,4 91,5 8,6 122,6 11,0 156,6

Oe?icei + oaiieaeaiii 6,0 8,8 146,0 9,5 157,5 8,5 141,8

Onueiai 36,0 38,2 46,1 45,1

Iaeiie/aiiy eeneio iiceoeaii aieeioei ia caa?aaeaiinoue aioaiiio N i?e
oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii? eaionoe, ao?aoe yeiai ca oeae ia?iiae neeaee a
na?aaeiueiio 26,4%.

Aeiaeaaaiiy eooiiii? niei aieeioei ia iiaeaeuaiiy caaaeueiiai aiinoo
ciee a oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie eaionoi, eieueeinoue yei? caieueoeeanue
a 2,3 ?ace a ii?iaiyiii c naiaeith oa neeaea 1,82%. I?e aeeeth/aiii
eieueeinoi eooiiii? niei c caaaeueiiai aiinoo iiia?aeueieo ?a/iaei
niinoa?iaa?oueny ciaioaiiy cieueieo aeaiaioia naii? eaionoe ia 7,5% a
ii?iaiyiii c naiaeith. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy ciii yeiniiai neeaaeo
cieueieo aeaiaioia i?e oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii? eaionoe iaaaaeaii a
oaaeeoei 3.

Iiaeaeuaiiy aiinoo iao?ith iaoiiaeth?oueny aianaiiyi eooiiii? niei, a
c?inoaiiy eieueeinoi eaeueoeith oa iaaiith, i/aaeaeii, iia’ycaii c
i?enooiinoth ?o nieae a ?icniei oa ? ianeiaeeii oaa?aeinoi aiaee oa
aeiiioie a eooiiii? niei. I?e oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii? eaionoe ciaioeany
aiino eaeith, yeiio aeanoeaa ooieoeiy ii?iaeicaoei? oeneo e?iai, ia
8,8%, oinoi?o, yeee aa?a o/anoue a iiaoaeiai einoeiai? oeaieie oa
iaiiii aia?ai? — ia 3%, e?iaioai?iiai i?ioeaiaii/iiai aeaiaioa
caeica — ia 27,3%. Eieueeinoue aaaeeeo iaoaeia (Cu, Zn, Pb) ia ia?aaeuo?
ii?i, aeiionoeieo aeey i?iaeoeoia ia?a?iaee iai/ia.Ca iani?eyoeeaeo
aeieiai/ieo oiia aianeiaeie aaa??? ia *i?iiaeeuenueeie AAN aeey
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie aeooaeueiith ? i?iaeaia aacia/iinoi niiaeeaaiiy
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoia, iaoiiaeaia aiinoii ?aaeiiioeeiaeia. A oeaioiie
eaionoi i?e oa?iaioaoei? ciaioeeanue aeoeaiinoue ?aaeiiaeoeaieo icioiiia
— Oeacith-137 ia 30%, Eaeith-40 ia 21% oa noaiiaeea aiaeiiaiaeii 8,3 oa
340 Ae/ea.

Oaaeeoey 3

Ciiia iiia?aeueiiai neeaaeo oeaioii? eaionoe i?e oa?iaioaoei?

Iiia?aeueii Ianiaa /anoea, ia ia 100 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie

aeaiaioe Aei oa?iaioaoei? iiney oa?iaioaoei? iiney 8 iinyoeia caa?iaaiiy

Iao?ie 26,32 586,24 604,58

Eaeie 328,95 302,22 295,77

Iaaiie 17,47 26,86 26,05

Eaeueoeie 24,56 54,37 54,40

Oinoi? 54,24 52,64 51,66

Caeici 0,33 0,24 0,22

Eiaaeueo 0,07 0,07 0,06

Iiaeue 0,03 0,02 0,02

Oeeie 0,18 0,15 0,12

Naeiaoeue 0,01 0,01 0,01

Aiioiii/ii i?ioeane a oeaioiie eaionoi aiaeaoaathoueny iiae aei?th
oa?iaioia: ca 30 aeiia oa?iaioaoei? aeoeaiinoue anei?aiiieneaeace
cieceeanue a ii?iaiyiii aei ?? aeoeaiinoi a naiaeie ne?iaeii a
na?aaeiueiio ia 53,5%, iieioaiieieniaeace ia 76%, iiaa?oace — ia 19,4%,
a eaoaeace — ia 18,2%, ui coiiaeth? noaaieueiinoue neeaaeieo aoaeaaiaeia
oa aioaiiio N a i?iaeoeoi.

Ciiie oice/ieo aeanoeainoae oeaioii? eaionoe a i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei?. C
naiiai ii/aoeo oa?iaioaoei? a oeaioiie eaionoi aeoeaii aiaeaoaathoueny
i?ioeane, ui inoioii ciiiththoue ?? oice/ii aeanoeainoi. Ca ia?oi 10
aeiia oa?iaioaoei? caieueoo?oueny ia 3,2% ia’?i oa ia 2,9% iana oeaioii?
eaionoe (?en.3).

Caieueoaiiy iane oeaioii? eaionoe — i?ioean caeiiiii?iee. Ineieueee
eaionoa iinoeoue aieueoa nooeo ?a/iaei, iiae ?ic/ei eooiiii? niei, aiia
iiaeeiaea /anoeio ?iaeeie c caeeaee, caieueooth/e oaeei /eiii naith
iano, oiaoi iniioe/ii i?ioeane ia?aaaaeaee iaae aeeoocieieie. Oaeaeeiio
i?eaooeo iane ni?eyea oaeiae aoaeiaa nooeaiooy eoeueoo?e, ui ia? aaeeeo
ieiuo iiaa?oii, a cia/eoue ? aieueoo iiaeeeainoue aeey
ia?a?iciiaeieo eiiiiiaioia ?o eeioei oa caeeaee. Aianeiaeie /iai i?e
oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii? eaionoe ia?aaaaea? iniin, iiaeeiaiiy oa
ca’ycoaaiiy aiaee caeeaee oeaieiaie eoeueoo?e aiaeaoaa?oueny
iioaineaiioa ca iaiii nooeie ?a/iaeiaie.

Ia ciiio iane oeaioii? eaionoe a i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei? oaeiae aieeioea
iayaiinoue a ne?iaeii aieeiaeo oa iaeoeiiaeo ?a/iaei, ia yei aiia
aaaaoa. Aianeiaeie aeniei? aiae?ioieueiinoi aiie oo?eiothoue aieiao a
oeaieiao ? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ?? ia?aoiaeo aei caeeaee.

Iiney ia?oi? aeaeaaee oa?iaioaoei? iioaineaiinoue c?inoaiiy iane iaaea?:
ia 20-e aeaiue iana caieueoo?oueny ia 2,6% aei iiia?aaeiuei?, ia 30-e —
1,7%, a ia 40-e — eeoa 0,3%.

Caieueoaiiy ia’?io a?iaey/i? iane ? ianeiaeeii ciiie aiinoo aacia.
I?ioyaii ia?oeo 10 aeiia c ii/aoeo oa?iaioaoei? aianeiaeie ao?iiai
aeaeieaiiy aoaeaeeneiai ? iioeo aacia a i?ioeani a?iaeiiiy oa ooai?aiiai
ieie aioo?ioiueiai oeneo ia’?i i?iaeoeoo caieueooaaany. Ca ianooiii
ia?iiaee oa?iaioaoei? ia’?i oeaioii? eaionoe ciaiooaaany: ca ae?oao
aeaeaaeo — ia 4,9% aei iiia?aaeiueiai ia’?io, ca o?aoth — ia 1,6%, a ca
/aoaa?oo — ia 0,2%. Ciaioaiiy ia’?io iiynith?oueny oei, ui iiney aeoiaeo
aacia c a?iaey/i? iane iaciaii ? iiieaeaiiy aioo?ioiueiai oeneo /anoeia
caeeaee oa aeaeieaiiai nieo caiiiththoue aeaeieaii aace. Iiai/iei
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? iiaeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae oeaioii? eaionoe,
yea ia 20-e aeaiue neeaaea? 12,2% aei iiia?aaeiuei?, ia 30-e — 5,2%, a
ia 40-e — 1,0%. Ieoiia aaaa caieueoo?oueny aianeiaeie ouieueiaiiy
ieiaeiai? oeaieie, oa a aeayeie ii?i ca ?aooiie iaeiie/aiiy iath
iiaeeiooi? c caeeaee niei.

Ciiia iie?ioei?e oeaioii? eaionoe a i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei?. I?ioean
ae?iaieoeoaa oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe iniiaaiee ia ?icaeoeo
iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie, aea ca iaaieo oiia aeieea? iiaeeeainoue ?icaeoeo
iioeo iie?ii?aaiiciia, yei iiai?oothoue yeinoue i?iaeoeoo. Ia yeiniee oa
eieueeiniee neeaae iie?ioei?e oeaioii? eaionoe iaenooo?aioa aieeaaee
oaiia?aoo?ii ?aaeeie oa?iaioaoei? (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4

Aieea oaiia?aoo?e oa?iaioaoei? ia ciiie iie?ioei?e

oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe

Oaiia?aoo?a Eieueeinoue iie?ii?aaiiciia a 1 a eaionoe, oen. oo.

oa?iaioaoei?, °N Caaaeueia eieueeinoue Iiei/ii-eenei Ae?iaeaeaei
Ieiniyai a?eae

Naiaea oeaioia eaionoa

1.5*102 10 0.2 1,2

Iiney 10 aeiia oa?iaioaoei?

0-2 9.1*107 102 0.4 3,4

8-10 3.4*107 104 1.1 1,9

20-22 7.6*106 106 1.8 0

30-32 2.7*106 106 2.1 0

Iiney 30 aeiia oa?iaioaoei?

0-2 8.4*108 105 0.2 2,3

8-10 1.7*108 106 0.9 1,1

20-22 7.2*107 107 1.4 0

30-32 4.1*107 107 1.9 0

C iaaaaeaieo aeaieo aeaeii, ui a naiaeie oeaioiie eaionoi iayaii
iiei/iieenei aaeoa?i? a eieueeinoi 104 eeioei i?e caaaeueiie
iaianiiaiinoi 1,5*105 , iioi ae aeineiaeaeoaaii aeaee iie?ii?aaiiciia
(ae?iaeaeaei oa ieiniyai a?eae) aoee iayaii a iacia/iie eieueeinoi.

Iaeaieueo ni?eyoeeaeie aeey ?icaeoeo iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie c ii/aoeo
oa?iaioaoei? aoee oaiia?aoo?e 20-22 oa 30-32°N, i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 8-10°N
oa 0-2°N ?icaeoie iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie inoioii aaeueioaaany. Oaea ae
oaiaeaioeiy niinoa?iaaeanue aei eiioey ia?iiaeo aeoeaii? oa?iaioaoei?.
Ia ?icaeoie ae?iaeaeaeia oaeiae iaeaieueo iiceoeaii aieeioee oaiia?aoo?e
20-22°N oa 30-32°N. A c?aceao eaionoe, oa?iaioiaaieo i?e oaiia?aoo?i
0-2°N, eieueeinoue ae?iaeaeaeia caeeoeeanue iaeaea iaciiiiith. A
oeaioiie eaionoi, oa?iaioiaaiie i?e 20-22°N oa 30-32°N i?ioyaii
aeineiaeiiai ia?iiaeo ieiniyaeo a?eaia aeyaeaii ia aoei. Aeey
oeaioii? eaionoe, oa?iaioiaaii? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 0-2°N oa 8-10°N
i?ioyaii 10 aeiia aoei oa?aeoa?ia c?inoaiiy eieueeinoi ieiniyaeo a?eaia,
a iiney 30 aeiia oa?iaioaoei? ?o eieueeinoue a c?aceao cia/ii
ciaioeeanue.

Oaeei /eiii, na?aae aea/aieo oaiia?aoo?ieo ?aaeeiia oa?iaioaoei?
iaeaieueo ni?eyoeeaeie aeey ?icaeoeo iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie ?
oaiia?aoo?e 20-22 oa 30-32°N. ?acii c oei, oa?iaioiaaia i?e oaiia?aoo?i
30-32°N oeaioia eaionoa iaea iai?e?iiee ai?eee niae, iaoiiaeaiee
iaeiie/aiiyi i?iaeoeoia aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi ianeyiieeneeo aaeoa?ie, a ??
ae?iaieoeoai aeiaaaei cia/ieo aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao aia?ai? aeey
iiaeo?eiaiiy oaei? oaiia?aoo?e. Oaiia?aoo?e 0-2°N oa 8-10°N ni?eythoue
?icaeoeo oeiaeeeaeo iie?ii?aaiiciia, a naia aaoa?ioa?iaioaoeaieo aeaeia
iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie, yei ii?yae c iiei/iith eeneioith ooai?ththoue
i?iaeoeoe, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia i?aaiieaioe/ii aeanoeainoi
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe. Ae?iaieoeoao iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaia
oaiia?aoo?a 20-22°N.

Oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiieaioe/ieo aeanoeainoae oeaioii? eaionoe a i?ioeani
oa?iaioaoei?. Aiioiii/ii ciiie, yei aiaeaoaathoueny i?e oa?iaioaoei?
oeaioii? eaionoe, iaoiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy ?? i?aaiieaioe/ieo aeanoeainoae.

Aenieo aeaaonoaoeieio ioeiieo io?eiaea oa?iaioiaaia oeaioia eaionoa
ainiiaea?nueei-aioaii/ieo ni?oia Aio/eciyia oa Iiai?-74 (aiaeiiaiaeii
4,58 ? 4,55 aaee), yeo oa?iaiooaaee a ?ic/eii eooiiii? niei
eiioeaio?aoei?th 2,5% (4,77 aaea) oa i?e oaiia?aoo?i 20-22°N (4,61
aaea). Oa?iaioiaaia oeaioia eaionoa iaea i?eaaaeeaee ciaiioiie aeaeyae,
ooao, i?oaeenoo oa nieiaeoo eiinenoaioeith, i?e?iiee
nieiioaaoi-eeneoaaoee niae c a?iiaoii oa i?eniaeii i?yiiuia, i?ei?aa ?
aeiaaaeaieo ca ?aoeaioo?ith iai/ia, aeanoeaee naiaeie oeaioiie eaionoi
eiei?.

Oeaioia eaionoa, oa?iaioiaaia i?e 30-32°N, oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue iai?e?iiei
cai?eeei niaeii oa ?iceei caiaoii. Oeae oaeo oa cia/ia oneeaaeiaiiy
oaoiieiai/iiai i?ioeano a ae?iaie/eo oiiaao cioneee ian aiaeiiaeoenue
aiae iiaeaeueoi? ?iaioe c c?aceaie oeaioii? eaionoe, oa?iaioiaaii? i?e
oaiia?aoo?i 30-32°N.

Aecia/aiiy oaeoi?ia oi?ioaaiiy yeinoi oa iioeiaeueia iiaeaeue
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?iaiy yeinoi oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe. ?ic?iaea
iioeiaeueii? oaoiieiai? oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii? eaionoe aenieeo niiaeeaieo
aeanoeainoae aacoaaeinue ia aecia/aiii aieeao ia eiiieaeniee iieaciee
yeinoi ie?aieo aaaiieo oaeoi?ia, cie?aia ainiiaea?nueei-aioaii/iiai
ni?oo eaionoe, eiioeaio?aoei? eooiiii? niei a caeeaoei, oaiia?aoo?ieo
?aaeeiia oa?iaioaoei? oa ?ieinoi oa?e. Ineieueee ?iaaiue yeinoi
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe cia/ii eieeaaany i?e ciiii oeeo oaeoi?ia
(?en. 4), aeey aecia/aiiy nooiaith aieeao eiaeiiai c oeeo oaeoi?ia ia
eiioeaao yeinoue i?iaeoeoo iaie aeei?enoiaoaaany ei?aeyoeieiee aiaeic.

Ia iniiai io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia iaie aoei ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io
iiaeaeue i?iaiicoaaiiy ?iaiy yeinoi oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe a
caeaaeiinoi aiae ne?iaeiieo oa oaoiieiai/ieo oaeoi?ia.

Aeey ioeiiee yeinoi oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe canoinoaaany
iiiaeeiiee ?aa?anieiee aiaeic ia iniiai oaeeo ciiiieo:

y — iioaa?aeueiee iieaciee yeinoi i?iaeoeoo;

x1 — aiino nooeo ?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei a naiaeie oeaioiie eaionoi, %;

x2 — oaiia?aoo?a oa?iaioaoei?, °N;

x3 — eiioeaio?aoeiy eooiiii? niei a caeeaoei.

Aeey aecia/aiiy yeinoi oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe ?iaiyiiy ?aa?anie
i?eeiaei aeaeyae:

y = 0,39466×1 + 0,02005×2 — 0,17770×3 — 1,49927.

Ineieueee ?ic?aooieiaa cia/aiiy e?eoa?ith Oioa?a F?ic? aieueoa ca
e?eoe/ia aeiaiaeieeiaa cia/aiiy Fe?eo aeey ? = 0,95, oi c
iaaeieiinoth ? = 0,95 aaaaeaee, ui i?eeiyoa iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
aaeaeaaoia aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeaiei ? ia ?? iniiai i?iaiicoaaee
oaoiieiaith ae?iaieoeoaa oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe aenieeo
niiaeeaieo aeanoeainoae.

?ic?iaea iaeia?aeoiaeii? oaoiieiai? ae?iaieoeoaa oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii?
eaionoe. Aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe
aeei?enoiaoaaee ooai, oeieeii noi?iiaaii nooeaiooy naiaei? oeaioii?
eaionoe, aac o?aaeaiue nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oeiaeieeaie oa
iaoaii/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue, oa i?yiiui ? iai/aai iaiiaithaa/i caiaeii aei
?ic?iaeaieo iaie ?aoeaioo? (oaae.5).

Oaaeeoey 5

?aoeaioo?a ? ii?ie aeo?ao iiaeaioiaeaii? ne?iaeie

i?e ae?iaieoeoai oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe

Ne?iaeia ?aoeaioo?a, ea ia 1 o aioiai? i?iaeoeoei?

?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5 ?6 ?7 ?8

Oeaioia eaionoa 931,1 931,1 931,1 791,4 838,0 838,0 865,9 372,4

E?ii naiaeee 23,3 19,6 12,1 14,0 16,8 14,0 14,0 18,6

aai nooaiee 4,7 3,9 24,2 2,8 3,4 2,8 2,8 3,7

Naea?a naiaea 9,3 4,7 9,3 9,3 4,7

Iao?ooea naiaea 14,0 4,7 9,3 11,2 4,7 9,3 9,3

*aniee 1,9 12,1 1,9 1,9

Ia?aoeue aino?ee no?o/eiaee naiaeee 9,8 2,8 2,8 2,8

aai nooaiee 2,0 0,6 0,6 0,6

Ei?iiue o?iio 2,8 2,8 1,9 1,9 1,9 1,9

Ao?ye noieiaee 93,1 139,7

Ii?eaa 93,1 139,7

Ia?aoeue nieiaeeee 65,2 139,7

Oeeaoey 139,7 139,7

Aaicaeeea 0,7

Nieue eooiiia 28,9 28,9 28,9 28,9 28,9 28,9 28,9 28,9

Ae?iaieoeoai oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe i?iaiaeeee caiaeii c
oaoiieiai/iei i?ioeanii, yeee neeaaeaany c oaeeo iia?aoeie: iiaeaioiaea
oeaioii? eaionoe (ni?ooaaiiy ii yeinoi, aeaeaeaiiy eenoy oa o?aaeaieo
/anoei, ieooy a /enoie i?ioi/iie aiaei), iiaeaioiaea oa?e oa
aeiiiiiaeii? ne?iaeie; oeeaaeaiiy ne?iaeie a oa?o; i?eaiooaaiiy ?ic/eio
eooiiii? niei eiioeaio?aoei?th 2,5%; caeeaaiiy oeaioii? eaionoe
?icnieii; aa?iaoecaoeiy oa?e oa oa?iaioaoeiy i?e 20-22°N aei
iaeiie/aiiy a ?icniei 0,5-0,6% eeneio.

Caa?iaaiiy oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe. A ia?iiae caa?iaaiiy a
oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie eaionoi aacia?a?aii, aea aieueo iiaieueieie
oaiiaie i?iaeiaaeothoueny ani i?ioeane, yei iaee iinoea a ia?iiae
aeoeaii? oa?iaioaoei?.

Ciiie oiii/iiai neeaaeo oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe i?e caa?iaaiii.
sse iieacothoue ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue, i?ioyaii anueiai
ia?iiaeo caa?iaaiiy oiii/iee neeaae oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe ia
aoa noaaieueiei (oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6

Ciiie oiii/iiai neeaaeo oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe i?e caa?iaaiii

Iieacieee Aiino ?a/iaei a % aei ne?i? iane ii ia?iiaeai caa?iaaiiy,
aeii

30 60 90 120 180 240

Caaaeueia eeneioiinoue 0,63 0,89 1,07 1,14 1,20 1,16

Eaoei eeneioe 0,042 0,052 0,065 0,071 0,076 0,088

Iaeoeiiai ?a/iaeie 0,32 0,29 0,27 0,25 0,24 0,23

Eeioeiaeia 0,60 0,55 0,54 0,52 0,52 0,52

Aoeeiaee nie?o 0,15 0,26 0,33 0,36 0,32 0,26

Acioenoi ?a/iaeie 2,37 2,35 2,33 2,32 2,31 2,29

Aieie 1,76 1,70 1,64 1,58 1,54 1,52

Aioaiii N, ia ia 100 a 56,7 52,5 46,0 41,8 32,1 26,0

Iiia?aeueii ?a/iaeie 1,82 1,83 1,83 1,83 1,83 1,82

Iiney oaeaeeiai c?inoaiiy eeneioiino? oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe ca
ia?oi 3 iinyoei caa?iaaiiy oeae i?ioean aaeueioaaany, a iiney 6 iinyoeia
oeo?iaaia eeneioiinoue ciaiooaaeanue, ineieueee aeniea eeneioiinoue ?
iecueea oaiia?aoo?a caa?iaaiiy i?iaeoeoo iaoiiaeththoue i?eaii/aiiy
iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie oa aeoeaicaoeith aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi ae?iaeaeaeia.
Aaee/eia ?I i?iaeoeoo iiney 90 aeiia caa?iaaiiy cieceeanue aei 3,8. Ca
ianooiii ia?iiaee ciii aaee/eie aeoeaii? eeneioiinoi ia niinoa?iaaeinue.

Aiino eaoeeo eeneio caieueooaaany i?e caa?iaaiii o anio aeineiaeaeoaaieo
ni?oao oeaioii? eaionoe a na?aaeiueiio a 2,25 ?ac ? aoa a eiioei oeueiai
oa?i?io a iaaeao 0,083-0,095%. Iaeneiaeueia iaeiie/aiiy eaoeeo eeneio
niinoa?iaaeinue iiney 6-oe iinyoeia caa?iaaiiy. A neeaaei eeneio
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe iiney 8 iinyoeia caa?iaaiiy aeyaeaii
caieueoaiiy /anoee ioeoiai? eeneioe, ui iaoiiaeei aieueo eeneee niae
i?iaeoeoo.

Aiino nie?oo aeinya iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy /a?ac 4 iinyoei caa?iaaiiy
caieueoeaoenue ia 140,0% aei ii/aoeiaiai cia/aiiy. Iiney cacia/aiiai
oa?iiio eieueeinoue nie?oo a oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie eaionoi
ciaiooaaeanue. I/aaeaeii, oea iiynith?oueny eiai aeei?enoaiiyi ia
ooai?aiiy eaoeeo eeneio, iioaineaiinoue ooai?aiiy yeeo c?inea naia a
inoaiii iinyoei caa?iaaiiy.

Iaeoeiiai ?a/iaeie oa eeioeiaeia oeaioii? eaionoe i?e caa?iaaiii aeyaeee
aiaeiinio noaaieueiinoue. Caaaeueii ao?aoe iaeoeiiaeo ?a/iaei a
oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie eaionoi ca aanue ia?iiae caa?iaaiiy neeaee a
na?aaeiueiio 11,5% aei ii/aoeiaiai aiinoo. Aiino eeioeiaeie o anio
c?aceao oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe cia/ii ciaiooaaany i?ioyaii
ia?oeo iinyoeia caa?iaaiiy, iioii oeae i?ioean caaaeueioaaany, ? c 5-ai
ii 8-e iinyoei caa?iaaiiy ciii caaaeueii? eieueeinoi eeioeiaeie ia
niinoa?iaaeinue.

Iaaieo ciii i?e caa?iaaiii oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe caciaee ?
acioenoi ?a/iaeie. O i?iaeoeoi aiaeaoaaeinue aeayea ciaioaiiy
caaaeueiiai acioo, aeeeeeaia, a iniiaiiio, i?iaeiaaeaiiyi i?ioeano
aeeooci? acioenoeo ?a/iaei a caeeaeo oa oae?aiiyi aiaee oeaieiaie
i?iaeoeoo. Oei ciiie iacia/ii ? ia ia?aaeuothoue ca aanue ia?iiae
aeineiaeiiai caa?iaaiiy 2,5-3,6% a ii?iaiyiii c aaee/eiith ?o iiney
oa?iaioaoei?. Ciaiooaaany i?e caa?iaaiii ? aiino aieeiaiai acioo,
i?e/iio cieaeaiiy eiai eieueeinoi aiaeaoaa?oueny ia 9,4-13,6%.

I?eaaaeaii aeaii aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a ia?iiae caa?iaaiiy a
oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie eaionoi i?iaeiaaeoaaany i?ioean iiaieueiiai
?icuaieaiiy aieeiaeo ?a/iaei. Oea iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ? ciiiith aeiei
aieeiaiai acioo a caaaeueiiio acioi. Cie?aia, ca 8 iinyoeia aeineiaeiiai
caa?iaaiiy /anoea aieeiaiai acioo cieceeanue o ni?oo Aio/eciyia c 74,3%
aei 66,4%, Iiai?-74 — c 72,6% aei 67,7%, Niiaeeiea — c 77,8% aei 67,9%,
Aa?aioiy — c 75,6% aei 70,3%, aai a na?aaeiueiio ia 7,0%.

Ciiieany yeiniee neeaae aieeiaeo ?a/iaei eaionoe. Oae, eieueeinoue
ooai?aieo i?e oa?iaioaoei? aiiiieeneio inoioii iiaeaeueeanue: i?iioiio —
a 2,8 ?acia, a g-aiiiiianeyii? eeneioe — 34,3 ?ace. I?e/iio yeui
inoaiiy ye ? ?aiioa aoea aeyaeaia eeoa a neeaaei aieueieo aiiiieeneio oa
iaioeaeia, oi iiney aeineiaeiiai caa?iaaiiy iaaaeeea eieueeinoue
i?iioiio aeyaeaia ? a neeaaei aieeia.

Ui ae aei iioeo aiiiieeneio, oi ciiie a ?o neeaaei ca 8 iinyoeia
caa?iaaiiy aoee iaio nooo?ai, iiae ca ia?iiae aeoeaii? oa?iaioaoei?. A
aieeiaie o?aeoei? aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy anio aiiiieeneio. Iaeaieueoeo ao?ao
ca ia?iiae caa?iaaiiy caciaee oeenoei (72,8%), oe?icei (71,7%), eicei
(46,1%) oa iaoiiiii (42,2%), a iaeiaioeo — ainoeaeei (0,6%). Ao?aoe
?aooe aiiiieeneio aieea aoei a iaaeao 15,1-37,0%. Cacia/aii ciiie aiinoo
aiiiieeneio a i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei? oa caa?iaaiiy iiaeia iiynieoe
?iceeaaeaiiyi aieea oa i?ioeanaie aiiiieeneioiiai iaiiio, ui
aiaeaoaathoueny a oeae ia?iiae ye ca ?aooiie aeoeaii? aeiyeueiinoi
iie?ioei?e, oae ? ca ?aooiie oeaieiieo oa?iaioia naii? oeaioii? eaionoe.

A oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie eaionoi iiney o?eaaeiai caa?iaaiiy, ye ? a
naiaeie, iinoeeenue ani iacaiiiii aiiiieeneioe. Iiae /an caa?iaaiiy aiaa
nei? eiceio, o?aiiiio, iaoiiiiio oa oeenoeio. Aea nei? noie aeaio
inoaiiio eeneio ia?aaeuoaaa oeae iieaciee a naiaeie ne?iaeii. Nei? iioeo
aiiiieeneio aoa aenieei, a caaaeueiee aiino iacaiiiieo aiiiieeneio
noaiiaea 45,1 a/100a aieeia, aai ia 25,3% aieueoa ca ?aeiiaiaeiaaiee
iiiiioi.

I?e caa?iaaiii oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe anio aeineiaeaeoaaieo
ainiiaea?nueei-aioaii/ieo ni?oia aiaeaoaa?oueny iinoieia ciaioaiiy
aiinoo a iie aioaiiio N. Ca 8 iinyoeia caa?iaaiiy eieueeinoue
anei?aiiiai? eeneioe o anio c?aceao eaionoe ciaioeeanue a na?aaeiueiio
ia 52,7%. Aea iaaioue a eiioei cacia/aiiai oa?iiio oa?iaioiaaia
oeaioia eaionoa iinoeea aiey 26 ia ia 100 a aioaiiio N. Oiaoi a
ia?iiae ianiaiai aaioaiiiico, ui i?eiaaea? ia eaioaiue-o?aaaiue, 100
a?ai oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe caaeiaieueiy? aeiaiao iio?aao
i?aaiicio aei?inei? ethaeeie a aioaiiii N ia 34,5%.

I?e aeineiaeaeaiii eieueeiniiai neeaaeo iiia?aeueieo ?a/iaei a
oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie eaionoi aeyaeaii, ui iiney 8 iinyoeia eaionoa
iinoeea 1,82% ciee, c ieo ia NaCl i?eiaaeaei 1,17%. Aecia/aii, ui ca 7
iinyoeia c ii/aoeo caa?iaaiiy aiino caeica a oa?iaioiaaiie oeaioiie
eaionoi ciaioeany ia 8,3%, eiaaeueoo — ia 14,3%, oeeieo — ia 20%. Ciiie
?aooe aeineiaeaeoaaieo iiia?aeueieo aeaiaioia aoee iacia/ieie ?
ciaoiaeeeenue a iaaeao 0,1-3,1%. Ca oeae ia?iiae ciaioeeanue aeoeaiinoue
aeineiaeaeoaaieo ?aaeiiioeeiaeia: Ns-40 ia 31,3%, E-40 ia 26,5%, ?
noaiiaeea 5,7 Ae/ea oa 250 Ae/ea aiaeiiaiaeii.

Ciiie oice/ieo iieacieeia i?e caa?iaaiii oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe
oa aeoiae noaiaea?oii? i?iaeoeoei?. A i?ioeani caa?iaaiiy i?ioyaii
ia?oeo aeaio iinyoeia aiaeaoaa?oueny iiaieueia caieueoaiiy iane (oaae.
7), ui ? ianeiaeeii o?eaath/iai i?ioeano oae?aiiy oeaieiaie oeaioii?
eaionoe ?icnieo oa aeaeieaiiai nieo ? iaa?yeaiiyi eiei?aeieo ?a/iaei.

Oaaeeoey 7

Ciiie iane oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe i?e caa?iaaiii

Oa?iii caa?iaaiiy, aeii I?e?ino iane, a % aei iane ne?iaeie

30 7,39 ± 0,21

60 7,82 ± 0,33

90 8,00 ± 0,33

120 7,61 ± 0,29

180 6,60 ± 0,39

240 4,11 ± 0,31

C o?aoueiai iinyoey ? aei eiioey caa?iaaiiy, a iniaeeai iioaineaii ca
nueiiee oa ainueiee iinyoei, i?e?ino iane i?iaeoeoei? cieaeo?oueny, ui ?
ianeiaeeii noa?iiiy eiei?aeia oa ao?aoe oeaieiaie eaionoe aieeiaeo oa
iaeoeiiaeo ?a/iaei.

Aea iacaaaeath/e ia oea, caaaeueia iana i?iaeoeoo iiney cacia/aiiai
oa?iiio caa?iaaiiy ia 4,11% aeua ca iano aeoiaeii? ne?iaeie.
Iaeneiaeueia caieueoaiiy iane niinoa?iaaeinue iiney 3 iinyoeia
aeineiaeiiai caa?iaaiiy, ? neeaaeaei 8,0% aei iane ne?iaeie.

sse naiae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiue, i?e caa?iaaiii
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe i?e oaiia?aoo?i 0-+2°N i?ioyaii 8
iinyoeia aeoiae noaiaea?oii? i?iaeoeoei? aoa noiaiaenioeiaei, oi i?e
iiaeaeueoiio caa?iaaiii aii ?icei ciaiooaaany ? iiney 12 iinyoeia
noaiiaea eeoa 61,7% (oaae. 8).

Oaaeeoey 8

Aieea oa?iiio caa?iaaiiy ia yeinoue oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe

O?aeoeiy Aeoiae i?iaeoeoei? a % ii oa?iiiai caa?iaaiiy, iinyoei

i?iaeoeoei? 1-8 9 10 11 12

Noaiaea?oia 100 98,2 91,6 82,4 61,7

A?ae 0 1,8 8,4 17,6 38,3

Ciiie iie?ioei?e oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe i?e caa?iaaiii. I?e
caa?iaaiii oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe a aiaa?iaieo oiiaao i?e
oaiia?aoo?i 0-2°N i?ioyaii 8 iinyoeia niinoa?iaa?oueny iinoieia
ciaioaiiy eieueeinoi iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie. Caieueiaiiyi iaeoieioe/ieo
oa?iaioia iiney caaeaaei iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa?ie iiyniththoueny ciiie
aieeiaeo ?a/iaei a oeae ia?iiae. Eieueeinoue ae?iaeaeaeia c?inoa?,
iniaeeai iioaineaii — iiney 4 iinyoeia caa?iaaiiy. I?ioyaii anueiai
ia?iiaeo caa?iaaiiy eaionoe ieiniyaeo a?eaia aeyaeaii ia aoei.

?acoeueoaoe ciii oiii/iiai neeaaeo, oice/ieo iieacieeia oa iie?ioei?e
i?iaeoeoo i?e caa?iaaiii eyaee a iniiao aecia/aiiy oa?i?io caa?iaaiiy
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe — 8 iinyoeia, ineieueee i?ioyaii oaeiai
oa?iiio i?iaeoeo oa?aeoa?ecoaaany aenieith yeinoth i?e 100%-io aeoiaei
noaiaea?oii? i?iaeoeoei?.

aeiiiii/ia aoaeoeaiinoue ae?iaieoeoaa i caa?iaaiiy oa?iaioiaaii?
oeaioii? eaionoe. Aeiiiii/iee aoaeo i?e ae?iaieoeoai oa caa?iaaiii 1 o
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe a ii?iaiyiii c aiaeiai/iei iieacieeii
aeey caii?iaeaii? oeaioii? eaionoe (oaae.9) neeaaeaa 278,68 a?i., a oiio
/enei i?e ae?iaieoeoai — 224,96 a?i., i?e caa?iaaiii — 53,72 a?i.

Aeiaeaoeiaee aeiiiii/iee aoaeo ca ?aooiie i?e?inoo iane oeaioii? eaionoe
i?e oa?iaioaoei? neeaaea? 20,62 a?i. Caaaeueia aeiiiii/ia aoaeoeaiinoue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? oaoiieiai? ae?iaieoeoaa oa caa?iaaiiy oa?iaioiaaii?
oeaioii? eaionoe a oeiiao ia 01.01.98 noaiiaeoue 299,30 a?i. ia 1 o
i?iaeoeoei?.

Oaaeeoey 9

Iniiaii aeiiiii/ii iieacieee ae?iaieoeoaa oa caa?iaaiiy 1 o oeaioii?
eaionoe, ia?a?iaeaii? oa?iaioaoei?th oa caii?iaeoaaiiyi, a?i.

? Aeiiiii/iee iieaciee Oeaioia eaionoa Aeiiiiiy (-)

i/i caii?i-aeaia oa?iaioi-aaia aai ia?aaeo?aoe (+)

1. Niaiaa?oinoue ae?iaieoeoaa (N1ae?) 1577,66 1394,70 -182,96

2. Niaiaa?oinoue caa?iaaiiy (N2caa?) 121,00 77,24 — 43,76

Anueiai iiaia niaiaa?oinoue (Ni) 1698,66 1471,94 -226,72

3. Eaiioaeiaeeaaeaiiy:

a) i?e ae?iaieoeoai 1840,00 1560,00 -280,00

a) i?e caa?iaaiii 161,00 94,60 — 66,40

Anueiai iiaii eaiioaeiaeeaaeaiiy (Ei) 2001,00 1654,60 -346,40

I?eaaaeaii aeo?aoe (A = Ni + AiEi) 1998,81 1720,13 -278,68

Aeiiiii/iee aoaeo 278,68

AENIIAEE OA I?IIICEOeI?

1. A ?acoeueoaoi eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue i?aaiieaioe/ieo,
oiceei-oiii/ieo, iie?iaiieiai/ieo oa aiioiii/ieo iieacieeia niiaeeaieo
aeanoeainoae oeaioii? eaionoe ?ic?iaeaii niinia ?? ia?a?iaee
oa?iaioaoei?th (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 22872 A aiae 05.05.98). Aeaia
oiaa?iciaa/a oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iaeoeoo ia?a?iaee oeaioii? eaionoe
oa?iaioaoei?th, yeee ia? aeniei aei?oe/ii aeanoeainoi, oa?/iao oa
aiieiai/io oeiiiinoue.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy niiaeeaieo aeanoeainoae oa?iaioiaaii?
oeaioii? eaionoe caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeeo oaeoi??a, ye
ainiiaea?nueei-aioaii/iee ni?o oeaioii? eaionoe, oaiia?aoo?a
oa?iaioaoei? oa eiioeaio?aoe?y eooiiii? nie? a caeeaoe?. I?e
aeine?aeaeaii? ?o aieeao ia ye?noue i?iaeoeoe?? e?aueie aeey
oa?iaioaoei? aecia/aii ni?oe oea?oii? eaionoe Aio/eciyia oa Iiai?-74,
iioeiaeueiith aeciaii oaiia?aoo?o 20-22°N oa eiioeaio?aoeith ?ic/eio
eooiiii? niei 2,5%. Iaaeioeieueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy aeaiooaaiiy i?e
ae?iaieoeoa? oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe. I?e oa?iaioaoei? oeaioii?
eaionoe i?e?ino ?? iane neeaaea? 7,4%.

3. Oeyoii iiiaeeiiiai ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co ca aeiiiiiaith AII ciaeaeaii
??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, yea iieno? caeaaei?noue yeino? oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii?
eaionoe a?ae ne?iaeiieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, ui aeicaieeei
aecia/eoe iioeiaeueio iiaeaeue i?iaiicoaaiiy ??aiy yeino? iiaiai
i?iaeoeoo, ia iniia? yei? ?ic?iaeaii iaeia?aeoiaeio oaoiieiaith
ae?iaieoeoaa oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe aenieeo i?aaiieaioe/ieo
iieacieeia oa aiieiai/ii? oeiiiinoi.

4. Aea/aii yeiniee neeaae iie?ioei?e oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe oa
eiai ?icaeoie i?e oa?iaioaoei? oa caa?iaaiii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e
?ic?iaeaieo iioeiaeueieo oiiaao ia?aaaaeathoue iiei/iieenei aaeoa?i? oa
ae?iaeaeaei, a iiney 8 iinyoeia caa?iaaiiy ?icaeoie iaaaaeaii?
iie?ioei?e i?e iiieaeaiii eeneioiinoi i?eaiaeea aei cieaeaiiy yeinoi
i?iaeoeoei?.

A ia?iiae caa?iaaiiy oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe aiaeaoaathoueny oi
ae i?ioeane, ui e i?e oa?iaioaoei?, aea iaio iioaineaii. Anoaiiaeaiee
aa?aioieiee oa?iii caa?iaaiiy oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe i?e
oaiia?aoo?i 0-2°N i?ioyaii 8 iinyoeia caaacia/o? 100%-aee aeoiae
aenieiyeinii? i?iaeoeoei?.

5. Aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a oeaioiie eaionoi caiaeii
?aoeiiiaeueieo ii?i ?? niiaeeaaiiy i?ioyaii anueiai ?ieo ?aeiiaiaeo?ii
caieueoeoe ae?iuoaaiiy oeaioii? eaionoe oa ai?iaaaeeoe a eieaeoeaieo
nieuenueeeo ainiiaea?noaao, ieiaeiiai/aaeo aacao, eiina?aieo caaiaeao,
oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao, a aeiiaoiio oiiaao oa iiaei?e?inoaao
a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy ?ic?iaeaio iaie oaoiieiaith ae?iaieoeoaa
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe.

6. Ii ?acoeueoaoai aeineiaeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia ii?iaoeaii-oaoii/ia
aeieoiaioaoeiy: Oaoiieiai/ia ea?oa ia?a?iaee oeaioii? eaionoe
oa?iaioaoei?th, Oaoii/ii oiiae Oe?a?ie OO O 46.72.060-95 «Eaionoa
oeaioia eaaoaia» oa Oaoiieiai/ia iino?oeoeiy ii ae?iaieoeoao oeaioii?
eaaoaii? eaionoe.

7. Aeiiiii/ia aoaeoeaiinoue aiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? oaoiieiai?
ae?iaieoeoaa oa caa?iaaiiy oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe noaiiaeoue
299,30 a?i. ia 1 o i?iaeoeoei?.

Nioeiaeueiee aoaeo aiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aiieiai/iiai niiniao ia?a?iaee
oeaioii? eaionoe iieyaa? a caieueoaiii no?ieia niiaeeaaiiy aeaii?
eoeueoo?e, nei?i/aiii ?? ao?ao i?e o?ainii?ooaaiii oa caa?iaaiii, a
oaeiae a ?icoe?aiii ani?oeiaioo oa?iaioiaaieo iai/ia.

Nienie ae?oeiaaieo ?iaio:

1. I?eia I.I., Ineea A.A, Oiea?ao AE.I. Iiaa oaoiieiaiy ae?iaieoeoaa
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe oa ?? niiaeea/i aeanoeainoi // Oeyoe
iiaeaeuaiiy yeinoi oa aaeineiiaeaiiy ani?oeiaioo oiaa?ia a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. -E.:EAeOAO, 1996. -N. 84-87.

2. Aa?aie A.I., Ineea A.A, Oiea?ao AE.I. Ciiia oiii/iiai neeaaeo
oeaioii? eaionoe o i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei? // Oeyoe iiaeaeuaiiy yeinoi oa
aaeineiiaeaiiy ani?oeiaioo oiaa?ia a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo: Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue. -E.:EAeOAO, 1996. -N. 81-84.

3. Orlov, N. P., Filaret, Zh. N., Yasinskaya, N. S. Containerization of
fermented vegetables and fruits production, storage and transportation
// Iaoa?iaee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei? «Quality for European
integration». — Iiciaiue. -1996. -N. 365 — 368.

4. I?eia I.I., Oiea?ao AE.I. Eiioaeia?ecaoeiy ae?iaieoeoaa
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe oa ?? aoaeoeaiinoue //Iaoa?iaee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei? «No/anii i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ?eieo,
na?oeoieaoei? oa eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiinoue oiaa?ia oa iineoa». -Eueaia:
Eueaianueea eiia?oeieia aeaaeaiiy. -1996. -N. 158-159.

5. Oaoii/ii oiiae OO O 46.72.060-95 «Eaionoa oeaioia eaaoaia». -10n.

6. Oaoiieiai/ia iino?oeoeiy ii ae?iaieoeoao oeaioii? eaaoaii? eaionoe,
caoaa?aeaeaia «Oe?ieiaeiiai/i?iiii» 16. 05. 1995 ?. -12n.

7. Iien aei iaoaioo Oe?a?ie ia aeiaoiae ? 22872 A «Niinia ae?iaieoeoaa
oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe». -Oaeai?iae: AAO «Iaoaio». -1998. -6n.

8. I?eia I.I., Oiea?ao AE.I. Ciiia iane eaionoe oeaioii? oa a?ieeiei
iiae /an oa?iaioaoei? // Iioeiicaoeiy ani?oeiaioo oa yeinoi oiaa?ia a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiiiiee: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. -E.:EAeOAO. -1997. -N.
82-85.

9. I?eia I.I., Oiea?ao AE.I. Iaeoeiiai ?a/iaeie oa?iaioiaaii? eaionoe
oeaioii? oa a?ieeiei // Iioeiicaoeiy ani?oeiaioo oa yeinoi oiaa?ia a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiiiiee: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. -E.:EAeOAO. -1997. -N.
85-87.

10. I?eia I.I., Oiea?ao AE.I. Ciiie oice/ieo aeanoeainoae oa?iaioiaaii?
oeaioii? eaionoe // Iaoa?iaee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei?
«Iiaei?e?inoaa ? oeaoe iaei? iiooaeiinoi aeey ia?a?iaee
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie». — Iieoaaa: Iieoaanueeee
eiiia?aoeaiee iinoeooo. -1997. -N. 363-368.

11. Oiea?ao AE.I. Oaoiieiaiy ae?iaieoeoaa oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe
oa ?? oiaa?iciaa/a oa?aeoa?enoeea // Iaoa?iaee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioei? «Iiaei?e?inoaa ? oeaoe iaei? iiooaeiinoi aeey ia?a?iaee
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie». -Iieoaaa: Iieoaanueeee
eiiia?aoeaiee iinoeooo. -1997. -N. 368-373.

12. I?eia I.I., Oiea?ao AE.I. Aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia ciiie oiii/iiai
neeaaeo oeaioii? eaionoe i?e oa?iaioaoei? // I?iaeaie oiaa?iciaanoaa a
?eieiaeo oiiaao: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. -E.:EAeOAO. -1998. -N. 131-134.

13. Oiea?ao AE.I. Ciiie aiiiieeneioiiai neeaaeo oeaioii? eaionoe o
i?ioeani oa?iaioaoei? oa caa?iaaiiy // I?iaeaie oiaa?iciaanoaa a
?eieiaeo oiiaao: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. -E.:EAeOAO. -1998. -N. 134-139.

14. Oiea?ao AE.I. Iiia?aeueiee neeaae oa?iaioiaaii? oeaioii? eaionoe //
Ainiee EAeOAO: iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeo?iae. -E.:EAeOAO. -1998. -? 3. -N.
123-127.

Eeth/ia? neiaa : oea?oia eaionoa, oa?iaioaoe?y, niiaeeai? aeanoeaino?,
ye?noue, caa??aaiiy, niin?a ia?a?iaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeaaoiay eaionoa, oa?iaioaoeey, iio?aaeoaeueneea
naienoaa, ea/anoai, o?aiaiea, niinia ia?a?aaioee.

Key words: cauliflower, fermentation, consumer properties, quality,
preservation, way of processing.

O?ea?ao AE.I. Oiaa?iciaa/a oa?aeoa?enoeea oa?iaioiaaii? oea?oii?
eaionoe. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.18.15 — oiaa?iciaanoai oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a. —
Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith niiaeeaieo aeanoeainoae oea?oii?
eaionoe i?e ia?a?iaoe? ?? oa?iaioaoe??th oa iiaeaeueoiio o?eaaeiio
caa??aaii?. Aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a i?e oa?iaioaoe?? oea?oii? eaionoe a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ainiiaea?nueei-aioai?/iiai ni?oo eaionoe, oaiia?aoo?e oa?iaioaoe??,
eiioeaio?aoe?? eooiiii? nie? oa ?ieino? oa?e. Aeey iiaiai i?iaeoeoo
?ic?iaeaii nenoaio aaeiai? ioe?iee i?aaiieaioe/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? oa
iioeiaeueio iiaeaeue i?iaiicoaaiiy ?iaiy eiai yeinoi. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy
oa?/iai? oa a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino?, o?ce/ieo ? i?aaiieaioe/ieo
aeanoeainoae oa?iaioiaaii? oea?oii? eaionoe ?ic?iaeaii iaeia?aeoiaeio
oaoiieia?th ?? ae?iaieoeoaa, iioeiaeuei? ?aoeaioo?e ? ii?ie aeo?ao
ne?iaeie. Anoaiiaeaii aeiiii?/io ? nioe?aeueio aoaeoeai?noue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai niiniao ia?a?iaee oea?oii? eaionoe
oa?iaioaoe??th.

Oeea?ao AE.I. Oiaa?iaaaeiay oa?aeoa?enoeea oa?iaioe?iaaiiie oeaaoiie
eaionou. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.18.15 — oiaa?iaaaeaiea ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia.
Eeaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa oeaaoiie
eaionou i?e ia?a?aaioea aa oa?iaioaoeeae e aeaeueiaeoai aeeeoaeueiii
o?aiaiee. Enneaaeiaaii noaiaiue aeeyiey nu?ueaauo e oaoiieiae/aneeo
oaeoi?ia ia oa?aeoa? oeceei-oeie/aneeo e iee?iaeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia
i?e oa?iaioaoeee oeaaoiie eaionou. Aeey iiaiai i?iaeoeoa ?ac?aaioaii
nenoaio aaeeueiie ioeaiee i?aaiieaioe/aneeo iieacaoaeae ea/anoaa,
?an/aoa eioaa?aeueiiai iieacaoaey ea/anoaa aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa oa?iaioe?iaaiiie oeaaoiie eaionou
aunieeo iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa. Ec /aou?ao eco/aiiuo
oicyenoaaiii-aioaie/aneeo ni?oia oeaaoiie eaionou iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiuie
aeey oa?iaioaoeee i?eciaii ni?oa Ioa/anoaaiiay e Iiae?-74. Aieaa aunieee
o?iaaiue ea/anoaa eiaao oeaaoiay eaionoa, oa?iaioe?iaaiiay i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 20-22°N n eniieueciaaieai aeey aa caeeaee ?anoai?a
iiaa?aiiie niee eiioeaio?aoeeae 2,5%. Ia iniiaa eco/aiey ieuaaie e
aeieiae/aneie oeaiiinoe, oece/aneeo e i?aaiieaioe/aneeo naienoa
i?iaeoeoa ?ac?aaioaii iaeiiooiaeioth oaoiieiaeth aai i?iecaiaenoaa,
iioeiaeueiua ?aoeaioo?u e ii?iu ?anoiaea nu?uey. Onoaiiaeaiiue
aa?aioeeiue n?ie o?aiaiey oa?iaioe?iaaiiie oeaaoiie eaionou i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 0-2°N ia i?ioyaeaiee 8 ianyoeaa iaania/eaaao 100%-iue auoiae
aunieiea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

N oeaeueth ?anoe?aiey anni?oeiaioa oa?iaioe?iaaiiuo iaiuae, oaaee/aiey
iauaiia e n?ieia iio?aaeaiey oeaaoiie eaionou, nie?auaiey iioa?ue i?e
o?aiaiee aa a naaaeai aeaea ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aiaae?eoue a eieeaeoeaiuo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, ieiaeiiaiuiuo aacao, eiina?aiuo
caaiaeao, oa?ia?neeo oicyenoaao, a aeiiaoieo oneiaeyo e i?aaei?eyoeyo
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey oaoiieiaeth i?iecaiaenoaa oa?iaioe?iaaiiie
oeaaoiie eaionou. Onoaiiaeaii yeiiiie/aneoth e nioeeaeueioth
yooaeoeaiinoue aiaae?aiey a i?iecaiaenoai niiniaa ia?a?aaioee oeaaoiie
eaionou oa?iaioaoeeae.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iaiauaiu a 11 noaoueyo, ooaa?aeaeaiu OO e OE
ii i?iecaiaenoao eaaoaiie oeaaoiie eaionou, iieo/aii iaoaio Oe?aeiu ?
22872 A ia niinia aa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Zh.Filaret. Commodity characteristic of fermented cauliflower. —
Manuscript.

The thesis is presented for a scientific degree of Candidate of Science
(Technology), speciality 05.18.15 — Science of Foodstuffs. — Kiev State
University of Trade and Economics, Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the study of cauliflower consumer properties in
the process of its processing by fermentation and further long-term
preservation. The character of physical, chemical and micro-biological
processes during its fermentation depending on a production botanical
kind of cauliflower, the temperature of fermentation, food salt
concentration and the tare volume were studied. A system of scores for
the evaluation of organoleptic quality indicators and the optimal model
of prediction of the level of its quality were worked out. On the basis
of the study of nutritious and biological value, physical and
organoleptic properties of fermented cauliflower a wasteless technology
of its production, optimal recipes and rates of raw material use were
elaborated. An economic and social effectiveness of introduction into
the production of the way of cauliflower processing by fermentation was
found.

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