I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

I?BTOPAK Aieiaeeie? ?cyneaaiae/

OAeE 616-003.96 (083.3):616.33-089.001.6

OIIIA?AOIAIAOII?*I?, CTPOEOO?II-OOIEOe?OHAEUeI?

OCOAEEAINO? OA IAOAIAOE*IA IIAeAETHAAIIss OIA?IAAIIAI OEOIEA

14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii?
o??o?a?? A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?.
Ie?iaiaa, IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Einothe A?eai??e
sseiae/, A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiaaeuenueeee Ieoaeei Iaaeiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a
oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ao?eo Ieoaeei I?ieiiiae/, Oa?e?anueeee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii?
o??o?a??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie Oooea Aiaaeai Aaneeueiae/, ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia
iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y, eaoaae?a aiaoii?? ethaeeie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Eoaainueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a??, IIC Oe?a?ie, i.
Eoaainuee.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «_16_»_aa?aniy_1999 ?ieo i _1330_
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.003.04 i?e
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey (252057,
Oe?a?ia, i.Ee?a-57, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae 34, ii?oieia?/iee ei?ion,
aoaeeoi??y ? 3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (252057, i. Ee?a-57, aoe. Ciieia?/ia, 3).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «_22_»_/a?aiy__1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.A. *a?eania

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?coue i?iaeaie. I?iaeaia ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?iceaae?a a i?aai?ci?
oai?iai, yeee ia?ai?n iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy ia oeoieo, i?eaa?oa? oaaao ia
o?eueee o??o?a?a oa oa?aiaao?a-aano?iaioa?ieia?a, aea e i?aaenoaaiee?a
oai?aoe/ii? iaaeeoeeie.

A o??o?a?? oeoiea, a iniiaiiio, aeiaiaeeoueny cono??/aoeny c
oneeaaeiaiiyie, ui aeieeathoue a i?ceyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? a 12,8- 27%
aeiaaee?a (?.A.Ceaaiueoei ? ni?aaao., 1995; Pezzole F., 1993). Tae,
i?ney o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ae?aceiai? oai?iae o 10-40% iaoe??io?a
aeieeathoue ?iceaaee nae?aoipii? oa iioi?ii? ooieoe?? oeoiea
(E.I.Oi?iineee oa ni?aaao., 1988, 1990, 1996; A.N.Ieeiiaiei oa ni?aaao.,
1997; Nguyen B. et al., 1990; Fekete F. et al., 1997), ye? iio?aaothoue
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo (Bragelmann R. et al., 1999). I?e oeueiio
caa??aa?oueny aeniea (3,5 — 7,7%) i?neyiia?aoe?eia nia?oi?noue (Jarczyk
G., 1996; Tenderenda M., 1997). O a?aeaeaeai? oa?i?ie (5-31 ??e)
iinoaano?i?acaeoe?ei? oai?iae ?icaeaathoueny a 78,3% iia?iaaieo: o
eaae?e oi?i? — 32,9%, na?aaeiuei? aaaeeino? — o 27,4%, aaaee?e — 16,9%,
? a aeoaea aaaee?e — a 1,1% oai?eo (I.I.Aa?aaaiiae/ ? ni?aaao., 1995).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e/eiith ?iaae?aeiino? oa nia?oiino? o o?aoeie
iia?iaaieo a ca’yceo c iooeeiaie oeoiea ? i?ney?acaeoe?ei? ?iceaaee,
iaoiiaeai? ia ?icaeoeii iniiaiiai caoai?thaaiiy, a iaaeineiiae?noth
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy (I.I.Eocei ? ni?aaao., 1996). Oiio i?iaeaia
iiia?aaeaeaiiy iineyiia?aoeieieo oneeaaeiaiue aenooia? ia ia?oee ieai ?
? ia nueiaiaei? aeineoue aeooaeueiith (A.E. Iaiiianueeee, 1994;
A.N.Iiiaeia, A.A.Niaaei, 1999).

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeaieo Oeaio?o iaaee/ii? noaoenoeee IIC Oe?a?ie
(C.I.Aaeaiei oa ni?aaao., 1989; TH.I.O?e?iia, C.I.Aaeaiei, 1995)
iieacaa, ui ca inoaii?e /an ca?eueoeeanue iioe?ai?noue oai?ia i?aai?a
o?aaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? (aanue eean oai?ia noaiiaeoue 8,7%). C?inea ia 23,7%
e?euee?noue iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo ae?aceiai? oai?iae. I?iaeiaaeo?
c?inoaoe ??aaiue ia?aeiii? ?iaae?aeiino? oa nia?oiino? a?ae
caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy (O.A.Aieo/ae oa ni?aaao., 1995). I?ney
iiaoi?ieo iia?aoe?e ia oeoieo, i?iaaaeaieo a ca’yceo c
i?ney?acaeoe?eieie neiae?iiaie, /enei oneeaaeiaiue aeinyaa? 6,1%
(A.E.Aiiaea?aa oa ni?aaao., 1994).

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aeieeiaiiy caoai?thaaiue oeoiea iino?eii
c?inoa?, iniaeeai a ca’yceo c ?icoe?aiiyi iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue i?i
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? aeaiiai i?aaio ? aca?iicaeaaei?noue
eiai c ?ioeie i?aaiaie ? nenoaiaie. A oie aea /an iiyaa ?yaeo i?aoeue,
i?enay/aieo aiaoii?? ? o?c?ieia?? ??cieo a?aeae?e?a oeoiea,
ao?iiaoiaaiaco ?aoethen-acioaa?oo, ?aoethen-aano?eoo; ii?aeiaiith
aano?i-acioaaaaeueiiai ?aoethena, aeoiaeaii-aano?aeueiiai ?aoetheno c
ae?aceith oeoiea; ii?aeiaiith ?o c caoai?thaaiiyie aeia/iiai i?oo?a,
aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee, i?aeoeoieiai? caeice; ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiio
noaio oeoiea i?ney aaaioii??; iiaoi?iei iia?aoe?yi i?ney ia?aeiieo ?
?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia oeoieo na?ae/aoue, ui ooieoe?y
eiai ??cieo a?aeae?e?a ci?ith?oueny i?aeoe/ii i?e an?o
aano?iaioa?ieia?/ieo caoai?thaaiiyo: acioaa?oao, aano?eoao, ae?aceia?e
oai?ia? oeoiea oa aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee, iaie?aaoeoao, oieaoeenoeoao,
aano?iaeoiaeai?oao (Avger?nos A.et al., 1990; Ch?a-S?n Wang et al.,
1990; G?ner M. et al., 1990; Harju E., 1990)

A e?oa?aoo?? ie ia ciaeoee ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i caeaaei?noue ooieoe?? oeoiea
a?ae ci?i eiai oi?ie aiane?aeie iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano aai i?ney eiai
?acaeoe??. ?acii c oei oe?iei aaeeaai? niiniae ?aeiino?oeoeaieo
iia?aoe?e ia oeoieo ia noai?ththoue oiia aeey caiia?aaiiy
aano?i-acioaaaaeueiiio oa aeoiaeaii-aano?aeueiiio ?aoetheno, i?aai?/iei
oa ooieoe?iiaeueiei oneeaaeiaiiyi. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue
a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie oa ?ic?iaee iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue, ye? a?aoiaothoue oi?io oeoiea, a oaeiae iiaeo niinia?a
a?aeiiaeaiiy eeaiaiii? aioe?aoethenii? ooieoe?? oeoiea.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
a?aeiia?aea? iniiaiiio iaoeiaiio iai?yieo oa ieaiai IAe? A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa uiaei
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ? o?aaiaioii eiiieaenii? oaie
eaoaae?e iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??
“Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo niinia?a o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie a aenia?eiaio?“.
Iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0196 V 004913.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia iniia? ii?oieia?/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co
anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i iia?iaaiiai
oeoiea, ?ic?iaeoe oa ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii iaa?oiooaaoe iiaee niin?a
?acaeoe?? oeoiea.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

1) anoaiiaeoe ia?aiao?e oi?ie oa ?ici???a oeoiea, ?o caeaaei?noue a?ae
oeio aoaeiae o?ea, oi?ie aeeaioa ia o?oiao ethaeae (i?aaiiiao?e/ii) ?
aeeaeo ethaeyo (c aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao??), ye? ia iaee
iaoieia?/ieo ci?i oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo oa ye? iaee oae? ci?ie i?cey
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia oeoieo;

aeine?aeeoe aeeiai?eo no?oeoo?ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i oeoiea i?cey
??cieo niinia?a ?acaeoe??, aeaoe ioe?ieo oeei ci?iai;

3) aea/eoe iniaeeaino? oa’?iii? oi?ie oeoiea a ii?i? oa i?ney
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ? iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aecia/eoe
iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e oa a?iiaoai?eo eiai neeaaeiaeo /anoei;

4) i?iaiae?coaaoe aca?iicaeaaei?coue ci?i ia’?iii? oi?ie, no?oeoo?e oa
ooieoe??, i?ioean?a ia?ai?uaiiy ai?noo, ye?niiai oa e?euee?niiai neeaaeo
i?e?ioei?e iia?iaaiiai oeoiea; c’ynoaaoe ?ioi?iaoeai?noue aecia/aieo
iieaciee?a;

5) ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ?ic?iaeoe iiaee
iioeiaeueiee aa??aio ?acaeoe?? oeoiea oa ai?iaoaaoe eiai a aenia?eiaio?
ia oaa?eiao c iiaeaeeth aeoiaeaii-aano?aeueiiai ?aoethena.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa i?eaaaeai?
oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/i? ia?aiao?e ?ici?uaiiy oeoiea na?aae i?aai?a /a?aaii?
ii?iaeieie a ii?i? oa i?cey iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia iniia? aiae?co a
nenoai? oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao (eiaa?aioii? nenoaie ioe?iee iieiaeaiiy
aiaoii?/ieo no?oeoo? a i?inoi??), ui ? iniiaith i?inoi?iai? oiiia?ao??
o?ea ethaeeie.

Aia?oa ii??aiyi? aeai? oi?ie, ?ici???a, ?ici?uaiiy oeoiea na?aae i?aai?a
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie ia o?oiao oa c aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao??
o aeeaeo ethaeae iieacaee iaeiaeiao iai?aaeai?noue ci?i ?acoeueoao?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aoaeiae o?ea. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeei aeinoia??io
caeaaei?noue e?i?eieo, ieiueiieo oa ia’?iieo iieaciee?a oeoiea a?ae
niiaoioeio ethaeeie, oi?ie aeeaioa. Aecia/ai? ia?aiao?e a?aeoeeaiiy in?
i?ei?e/iiai a?aeae?eo oeoiea oa aa?oiuei? /anoeie aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei?
eeoee a?ae aeiaaeieea o?ea oeoiea oa aeinoia??ia ?o caeaaei?noue a?ae
eiinoeoooe?? ethaeeie.

Ciaeaeai? ?iaeaene i?ae aaee/eiith ia’?io oa iaea?eueoith ieiuath
ia?a??co oeoiea (ia ??ai? ea?ae?aeueiiai a?aeae?eo), ui eaaei
aecia/a?oueny c aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao??, aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe a??ia?aeiee ia’?i oeoiea.

Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? iia?iaaiiai oeoiea (iaeee ia’?i, i?yiiaenia
iai?aaeai?noue iiacaeiaaeiuei? in?, caeaaei?noue ?ici???a, oi?ie,
iai?aaeaiino? i?ea?aeii? oa a?aea?aeii? eeoie a?ae niiniao ?acaeoe??
oeoiea), ui ia caeaaeaee a?ae niiaoioeio.

Ca aeiiiiiaith e?euee?nieo a?noieia?/ieo iaoiae?a iieacaii, ui i?ioean
?aaaia?aoe??, yeee i?ioiaeeoue o eoen? oeoiea, ia cae?i/o?oueny iiyaith
iiaiioe?iieo caeic. Ci?ith?oueny ye?niee neeaae caeicenoeo ee?oei,
iia’ycaiee c ii?ooaiiyi ae?oai? oace ?aaaia?aoe?? — aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy.

Aiae?oe/ii aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue ciaeaeaiiy oi?ie o?enaoe?? oiiei?
eeoee aei oeoiea, yea aoaea caaeiaieueiyoe aeaaee?noth coeoeo iiaa?oiiue
? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe a iiaeaeueoiio iioeiaeuei?noue caaaioaaeaiiy oeoiea,
a?aenooi?noue cano?eieo cii oa aeno?aiaeueieo oi/ie a cii?
aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaiee i?ea?iaeueiee niin?a ?acaeoe?? oeoiea, c o?aooaaiiyi
iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a i?inoi?iai? oi?ie oeoiea, caaacia/o? ieaaia
ia?aiiuaiiy oeoieiaiai aiinoo i?e eiai aaaeoaoei?, aeeeth/a?
aiae?iaeeiaii/ii oaea?e.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaiee i?ea?iaeueiee niin?a oi?ioaaiiy
aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico i?ae eoenith oeoiea oa oiieith eeoeith niiniaii
e?iaoeue a e?iaoeue-a?e, ui aeeiio?oueny oeyoii iioa?iaiai c’?aeiaiiy
no?iie oeoiea oa eeoee, noai?th? iaoai?ci ii?oe?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy ai?noo
oeoiea /a?ac aano?iaioa?iaianoiiic, caaacia/o? a?aenooi?noue
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue (ii?ooaiiy aaaeoaoe?? oeoieiaiai ai?noo,
neiae?iio i?ea?aeii? iaoe? oa ?i.).

Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? ci?i e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai neeaaeo
i?e?ioei?e acepeaeei? iia?iaaieo i?aai?a i?e ?acaeoe?? oeoiea oa ?o
caeaaei?noue a?ae ciiaonoai?aii? oi?ie i?aaia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny ?ic?iaeith
eiie?aoieo oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy aano?iaioa?iaianoiiic?a c noai?aiiyi
iioeiaeueii? i?neyiia?aoe?eii? oi?ie oeoiea. ?acoeueoaoe iaoaiaoe/ieo oa
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeathoue ciiao ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaio
i?io?eaeoeee oa o??o?a?/ii? ei?aeoe?? iane?aee?a i?ney?acaeoe?eieo
oneeaaeiaiue.

?ic?iaeai? ?yae i?ea?iaeueieo iia?aoeaieo niinia?a, i?eno?i?a oa
?ino?oiaio?a, ui caoeuai? 4 iaoaioaie ia aeiaoiaee, 2 iiceoeaieie
??oaiiyie ia aeaea/o iaoaio?a, 4 iina?ae/aiiyie ia ?aoe?iiae?caoi?nuee?
i?iiiceoe??, caaacia/othoue iaoiaee/i? iiaeeeaino? iiaeo iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue. Iioae?eiaai? 2 ?ioi?iaoe?ei? eenoee. Iaea?aeai? aiaoii?/i?
aeai? i?i ia’?iio no?oeoo?o oeoiea oa eiai ooieoe?oioaaiiy i?e ??cieo
iaoieia?/ieo i?ioeanao, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy
ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean eaoaae? iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa
oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??, iaoieia?/ii? o?c?ieia?? A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa, eaoaae?
iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Eoaainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa, Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??,
?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??.

?ic?iaeaiee iiaee niin?a ?acaeoe?? oeoiea oa oeoieiai-eeoeiaee
aeanoe/iee caoenea/ ai?iaaaeaeaiee a i?aeoeeo o??o?a?/ii? ee?i?ee
A?iieoeueei? iaeanii? e?ea?i? ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa oa 1 i?nueei? e?ea?i?
i.A?iieoe?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaioii naiino?eii aecia/aia iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaiae?ciaaia iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a c
aea/aii? i?iaeaie. Aaoi? naiino?eii i?iaiaeea aio?iiiiao?e/i? aei??e,
ii?oiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie o?oi?a,
iaoaiaoe/iee aiae?c oiiia?ai, ?aioaaiia?ai, ia?aeiio ia?iaeo
?acoeueoao?a ii?oieia?/ieo, a?io?i?/ieo oa o?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

C o/anoth anenoaio?a oa eaai?aio?a eaoaae?e, i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a,
i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueia oa iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue. ?acii c? ni?aaaoi?aie ?ic?iaeaii aea? iaoiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?eno??e, ?ino?oiaio, iiaeaeue oai?iae, o?e niiniae
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia oeoieo.

Iniaenoi aeena?oaioii i?iaaaeaiee noaoenoe/iee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaienai? an? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaai?
aeniiaee oa cai?iiiiiaai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iaaiai?ai? ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
aano?iaioa?ieia?a (Aeiiaoeuee, 1992); O, O?? ia’?aeiaieo iaoeiaeo
iaaeeei-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (c i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth) (A?iieoey —
Ee?a, 1992; 1994); ia?o?e Iiae?euenuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
aano?iaioa?ieia?a (A?iieoey, 1993); ? Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
ca o/anoth e?a?i NIAe «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ee?i?/ii? oa?iaeieia??»
(A?iieoey, 1993); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «?iaeea?aeoaeueia
aiaoii?/ia i?ieea?noue i?aai?a, nenoai, oeaiei ethaeeie ? ?? cia/aiiy
aeey i?aeoeee» (Iieoaaa, 1994); ??? oa V ?ecioae?eainueeeo
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo oa iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo caa. eaoaae?aie
caaaeueii? o??o?a?? iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie (A?iieoey, 1994; Oa?iii?eue,
1996); ? Iaoe?oiaeueiiio eiia?an? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??oeia?a ?
oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1994); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Iiaia a aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aiee caaieaaaiee i?aaiia
ieuaaa?aiey» (Oa?e?a, 1994); iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
ii?oiaaiaco» (*a?i?aoe?, 1994; 1996); ? i?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? c
?ioaa?aoeaii? aio?iiieia?? (Oa?iii?eue, 1995); Ie?iaianueeeo /eoaiiyo
(A?iieoey, 1995); i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
?aaa?e?oaoe?? aano?iaioa?ieia?/ieo oai?eo» (*a?i?aoe?, 1996);
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??» (Oa?iii?eue,
1996); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oai?aoe/ii? oa
ee?i?/ii? iaaeeoeeie ia no/aniiio ??ai?» (Iieoaaa, 1996); 2 iaoeiaiio
i?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? “O?aaeeoeeiiiay iaaeeoeeia: oai?aoe/aneea e
i?aeoe/aneea aniaeou:” (*aaiena?u, 1996); i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi?
“I?eioeeie i?iii?oe??, neiao???, no?oeoo?ii? aa?iii?? oa iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy a ii?oieia??” (A?iieoey, 1997); ?? Iaoe?oiaeueiiio
eiia?an? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??oeia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie
(Eoaainuee, 1998).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaai? ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?
iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??, ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??,
a?coieia?? oa aia??ieia??, iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??, caaaeueii? o??o?a??,
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai oeaio?o A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa, can?aeaii? A?iieoeueeiai iaeaniiai
a?aeae?eaiiy Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??oeia?a
? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a (ea?oaiue, 1999) oa can?aeaii? ai?iaaoe?eii? ?aaee
i?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. aeaae. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey
(ea?oaiue, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii
51 ae?oeiaaia i?aoey, a oiio /ene?: o i?io?eueieo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao
Oe?a?ie — 19, iiene aei iaoaio?a ia aeiaoiaee Oe?a?ie (Aea?aeaaia
iaoaioia a?aeiinoai Oe?a?ie) — 4, aeo?iaeao ?ioeo e?a?i — 4, iaoa??aeao
i?aeia?iaeieo c’?cae?a -7, iaoa??aeao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e —
17. Aeaaaeoeyoue ?ia?o iaienaii iniaenoi (c ieo 7 — o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo
Oe?a?ie), 31 — o ni?aaaoi?noa?.

E??i oiai, iaea?aeaii 4 iaoaioe ia aeiao?ae, 2 iiceoeaieo ??oaiiy ia
aeaea/o iaoaioo, 2 i??i?eoaoieo aeia?aeee ia aeiao?ae, 5 iina?ae/aiue ia
?aoe?iiae?caoi?nuee? i?iiiceoe??. Iioae?eiaaii 2 ?ioi?iaoe?ei? eenoee.

A ioae?eaoe?yo, i?aaenoaaeaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? c iaoeiaeie
eiinoeueoaioaie, eieaaaie oa o/iyie aianie aaoi?a aoa iniiaiei a oeo
ieoaiiyo, ye? noinoaaeeny no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i iia?iaaiiai
oeoiea oa iieaciee?a aiiainoaco i?aai?cio a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?
(io?eiaiiy oa aeeeaae ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?o iaaiai?aiiy,
e?oa?aoo?ia ii?aoethaaiiy iaoa??aeo).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 376
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. ?oaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, oieno iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, o?ueio pocae?e?a
?acoeueoao?a aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue ? aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy,
i?aenoie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e.

Aeena?oaoe?y ?ethno?iaaia 40 oaaeeoeyie oa 78 ?enoieaie, ye? caeiathoue
38 noi??iie iaoeiiieno. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e iae?/o?
535 iaca ?ia?o, c yeeo 311 ?in?enueei- oa oe?a?iiiiaieo aaoi??a ? 224
iaienaii ?ioeie iiaaie, caeia? 69 noi??iie iaoeiiieno.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?iaioa aeeiiaia c aeei?enoaiiyi aenia?eiaioaeueiiai, iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, ii?oieia?/ieo (aio?iiiiao?e/ieo, i?aaiiiao?e/ieo,
caaaeueiia?noieia?/ieo, ii?oiiao?e/ieo, a?noio?i?/ieo,
aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiai), ?aioaaiieia?/ieo (?aioaaiia?ao?/iiai,
eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao??), i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo, o?ce/iiai (iiaaiii?an??),
a?io?i?/ieo, o?c?ieia?/ieo, ee?i?/ieo (aioo??oiueioeoieiai?
oiiia?ao?/ii? ?I-iao???, iiaoaiii? iaiiiao??? aa?oi?o a?aeae?e?a
o?aaiiai o?aeoo) iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a
ia?iaee iaea?aeaieo aeaieo.

Iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeaany c aio?iiiiao?e/iiai oa
i?aaiiiao?e/iiai ianoaaeaiiy 197 o?oi?a ethaeae, ye? ia iaee
iaoieia?/ieo ci?i oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo oa 47 o?oi?a, ye? iaee ci?ie
i?ney o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue ia oeoieo. I?iaaaeaii ieai?iao?e/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo oiiia?ai /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie 137 iaoe??io?a
aac iaoieia?? oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo oa 51 iaoe??ioa i?ney ?acaeoe??
oeoiea, a oaeiae 38 ?aioaaiia?ai iaiia?iaaieo ? 35 ?aioaaiia?ai
iia?iaaieo oeoie?a. Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?acaeoiaaiiai
oeoiea aea/ai? ia iaoa??ae? aano?ia?iin?e, acyoeo o 54 oai?eo i?e
o?a?iaano?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii?, oa iia?aoe?eiiio iaoa??ae? 12
oai?eo i?ney ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e ia oeoieo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?oi?a i?iaiaeeeiny /a?ac 12 — 24 aiaeeie i?ney
a?ieia?/ii? nia?o?. Oeoiie ? aa?oiy /anoeia aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee
aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ii?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiaeeny ?aeeiei
eiiieaenii. I?e oeueiio niaoe?aeueiei i?ea?iaeueiei aei??thaaeueiei
i?eno?i?i i?iaiaeeee aei??e ?ici???a oeoiea oa ioi/oth/eo eiai i?aai?a
ca ?ic?iaeaiith i?ia?aiith. Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy i’yciai? iaieiiee
aeeth/aea iae?i- oa i?e?ineii?/ia i?aia?oaaiiy, a?noioiiia?ao?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa oioiiao??th i?aia?ao?a oeoiea c /anoeiith no?aaioiaeo,
ae?ao?aaie, aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee.

Ia?aae eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaiaeeee aecia/aiiy
eiinoeoooe?eieo oei?a c o?aooaaiiyi noao? oa aoaeiae o?ea ethaeeie.

Ia’?eoaie a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo neoaeeee 45 aacii??aeieo
niaae-naioe?a ianith a?ae 10 aei 20 ea. Oaa?eie io?eioaaee cae/aeiee
oa?/iaee ?aoe?ii, oo?eioaaeenue a iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao. Naiie ia a?aee a
aeine?ae c iaoith aeeeth/aiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo c?ooaiue a o?aai?e
nenoai? i?e aeno?aeueiiio oeeee?.

Oaa?ei iiae?eeee ia eiio?ieueio (6 niaae) oa aeine?aeio (39 niaae)
a?oie.

Iia?aoe?? i?iaiaeeee i?ae o?iiaioaeiaei ia?eicii:
aioo??oiuei-ieaa?aeueii a iaeano? caaeiueiai eooa i?aai? eiiaoee
aaiaeeee na?aei-i?eaioiaeaiee 2% ?ic/ei o?iiaioaeo iao??th c ?ic?aooieo
1,5 ie ia 1 ea iane oaa?eie (30-40 ia/ea) (A.A.Ea?iaiei, 1985).

A aeine?aei?e a?oi? aacii?iaeiei niaaeai na??e ?,??,?V, ui oo?eioaaeany
a oiiaao a?aa??th, ia ia?oiio aoai? noai?thaaeany iiaeaeue
aeoiaeaiiaano?aeueiiai ?aoethena oeyoii aeainoi?iiiuei? i?ei?ii?ioii??.
( Aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaeue aeoiaeaiiaano?aeueiiai ?aoethena. Iaoaio ia
aeiao?ae N 20815 A aiae 07.10.97).

Niaaeai ia?oi? na??? aeeiioaaee ?acaeoe?th oeoiea ca iaea?eueo
?iciianthaeaeaiith iiaeeo?eaoe??th niiniao A?eue?io-?? ca
Aioiaenoa?ii-O?inoa?a?ii. I?e iiya? ai?eii-caiaeueieo i?ioean?a oe??e
oaa?ei aeei?enoiaoaaee i?ea?iaeueiee niin?a e?eoaaiiy ai?eieo ?ai
eiia?iaoe??th aenieiaeenia?niiai e?aiiacaio c i?ioaie?oe/ieie
oa?iaioaie. (Niinia eieoaaiiy aiieii-caiaeueieo i?ioeania. Iaoaio ia
aeiao?ae N 20765 A aiae 07.10.97).

Oaa?eiai ae?oai? na??? aeeiioaaee ?acaeoe?th oeoiea, a?aoiaoth/e aeai?
iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaoiaeii aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo aiaeia?e,
c canoinoaaiiyi ?ic?iaeaiiai iiaiai niiniao oi?ioaaiiy
aano?iaioa?aeueiiai aianoiiico, eiee a?ae??cie ii?iaeiuei? eeoee
?ici?uoaaee a?ae aaeeei? e?eaeie i?ae aino?ei eooii aei iaei?. (Niin?a
?acaeoe?? oeoiea. Aeia?aeea i?i i??i?eoao N 97115669 a?ae 26.11.1997;
Iiceoeaia ??oaiiy ia aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae a?ae 25 eenoiiaaea
1998).

Iaoiaeeea aeei?enoaiiy iiaiai niiniao ?acaeoe?? oeoiea ia?aaeaa/a?
aeei?enoaiiy aia?aoo aeey iaeeaaeaiiy oeoieiai-eeoeiaeo aianoiiic?a
(IAEEA-60) oa niaoe?aeueiiai cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaie oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai
aeanoe/iiai caoenea/a c o?ueiia aeanoe/ieie aoaeaie. (Oeoieiai-eeoeiaee
aeanoe/iee caoenea/. Aeia?aeea i?i i??i?eoao N 97104980 aiae 10.10.1997;
Iiceoeaia ??oaiiy ia aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae a?ae 20 eenoiiaaea
1998).

Oaa?eiai o?aouei? na??? (12 niaae) aeeiioaaee ?acaeoe?th oeoiea,
oi?ioth/e i?ea?iaeueiee aano?iaioa?iaianoiiic c ii?oe?eiei iaoai?ciii
ia?ai?uaiiy ai?noo oeoiea i?ae eoenith oeoiea oa oiieith eeoeith
niiniaii e?iaoeue a e?iaoeue-a?e, ui aeeiio?oueny oeyoii iioa?iaiai
c’?aeiaiiy no?iie oeoiea oa eeoee. I?ae /an ?icn?/aiiy oeoiea
?icoa?iaoaaee eiai no?ieo i?ae i’yciaith iaieiieith oa i?aeneeciaei
oa?ii, c’?aeioaaee i?ioea?eaeiaee e?ae eeoee ? i?aeneeciaee oa? oeoiea
ia iaiao?aeiiio i?ii?aeeo, a i’ycia? iaieiiee oeoiea ? eeoee c
aeana?iciaaieie aieiaeie iiaa?oiyie inoaiiuei?, ia aeioiaey/e aei
a?eaeiaiai e?ath. (Niin?a oi?ioaaiiy aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico i?e
?acaeoe?? oeoiea. Aeia?aeea i?i i??i?eoao ia aeiao?ae N 99031620 a?ae
23.03.1999).

Oaa?eiai /aoaa?oi? na??? aeeiioaaee i?ea?iaeueio eeaiaiio
?aeiino?oeoeaio iiapaoe?th a cii? aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai ia?aoiaeo, yea
noai?thaaea aeecuee? aei ii?iaeueieo no?oeoo?ii-i?inoi?ia?
ni?aa?aeiineie a i?noe? ia?aoiaeo oeoiie — aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea eeoea oa
i?eaiaeeea aei cieaeaiiy /anoioe oa ae?aaeaiiino? oneeaaeiaiue, ui
iaoiiaeai? caeeaeii ai?noo aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee a oeoiie. (Niinia
eeaiaiii? ?aeiino?oeoeaii? iia?aoei? a ciii aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai
ia?aoiaeo. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae N 21993 A aiae 30.04.98).

A eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? oaa?ei o?ueii aacii?iaeiei niaaeai (eiio?ieue 1)
i?yeeo ao?o/aiue ia i?iaiaeeee; o?ueii oaa?eiai (eiio?ieue 2)
noai?thaaee iiaeaeue aeoiaeaiiaano?aeueiiai ?aoethena.

Oaa?ei aeaiaeeee c aenia?eiaioo oeyoii aioo??oiueiieaa?aeueiiai
aaaaeaiiy eaoaeueii? aeice o?iiaioaeo iao??th.

Oiaoi/ee ??cieo a?aeae?e?a oeoiea, aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee, ii?iaeiuei?
eeoee, ?ici??aie 6o4o2 ii, oa?i?iiai caio?thaaee a o?enoth/? ?ic/eie:
10% ?ic/ei iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io, ?ic/ei Ea?ioa, 70% ?ic/ei nie?oo.

Iaoa??ae i?eoe?eueieo aano?iaeoiaeaiia?oin?e o?enoaaany a iaeo?aeueiiio
10% oi?iae?i? c iiaeaeueoei i?iieaaiiyi, iaacaiaeiaiiyi, caeeaeith a
ia?ao?i, i?eaiooaaiiyi c??c?a ? ?o oa?aoaaiiyi aaiaoieneeei-aiceiii oa
ca Aai-A?cii. C oe?eeth e?euee?nii? ioe?iee caeiciaiai aia?aoa neeciai?
iaieiiee i?iaaaeaii ii?oiiao?e/ia aea/aiiy aano?ia?iioao?a ca
A.A.Nainiiiaei (1973). I?iaiaeeeenue ii?oiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?noieia?/ieo i?aia?ao?a. Aei??thaaeany aenioa ai?oae?th, aeeaeia
oeoieiaeo yiie ? oiaueia neeciai? iaieiiee oeoiea.

A?coio?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue oeyoii oa?aoaaiiy c??c?a
eiei?aeiei ae?ae?ciaaiei cae?cii (Oaee-?aaeoe?y) oa ?aaeoeaii Oeooa
(OEE-?aaeoe?y a iiaeeo?eaoe?? Iio??) c iiaeeea?coth iaeii/anii?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? a iaeiiio c??c? eeneeo oa iaeo?aeueieo
ae?eiciai?iiae?eai?a.

Aeey aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oiaoi/ee oeoiea ?ici??ii
0,4o0,2o0,1ii caeeaaee na?aeii?eaioiaaiei 2,5% ?ic/eiii
aethoa?aeueaeaa?aeo a 0,1 N oinoaoiiio aooa?? 1-2 aiaeeie, i?iieaaee a
oinoaoiiio aooa?? 2-4 aiaeeie ? aeiaeaoeiai o?enoaaee 2% ?ic/eiii
oao?aieeno ini?th ia i?ioyc? 1,5-2 aiaeei ia oinoaoiiio aooa?? (?I-7,3).
I?ney iaacaiaeiaiiy iaoa??ae caeeaaee a aiieneaei? niiee. Iai?aoiie? oa
oeueo?aoiie? c??ce aiooaaee ia oeueo?aoii? LKB-8800. Iai?aoiie? c??ce
oa?aoaaee 1% ?ic/eiii iaoeeaiiaiai neiueiai. Oeueo?aoiie? c??ce
eiio?anooaaee a 2% o?ai?eaoeaoao? (I.G.Stempak, R.T. Wand, 1964) ?
oeeo?ao? naeioeth (E.S.Reynolds, 1963).

Nooi?iue ?io?eoaaiiy neeciai? iaieiiee oeoiea i?ei?e/iei oae?eiaaeoa?ii
aea/aany a iaceao-a?aeaeoeao a?oioaoo ia i?aaeiaoiiio nee? (oa?aoaaiiy
ca niiniaii A?ica) ca iai?ae?euee?ciith iaoiaeeeith (E.E.A?oei ?
ni?aaao., 1988).

Aeey aiae?co eiii’thoa?ieo oiiia?ai canoiniaaia nenoaia
oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/ieo eii?aeeiao o?ea ethaeeie (I.I.Ao?eo, 1991, 1995;
Bourych M.P. 1996), a iniia? yei? eaaeeoue iiaeaeue caiii? iiaa?oi? a
nenoai? i?yiieooieo eii?aeeiao.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ioe?iee niinia?a iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy
aac iinoaiiaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue e ?ic?iaee iioeiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a a iiooeao iiaiai aa??aioo ?acaeoe?? oeoiea ie aeei?enoaee
iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. Canoinoaaee iaoiae
aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo aiaeia?e (AAAeA), ?oc?oaeaiee a ?inoeooo?
iaoaiaoeee AI Oe?a?ie (A.I.Oeeue/aeia, A.E.Iai/eoei, 1961).

Ioe?iea aeaieo aioo??oiueioeoieiai? ?I-iao??? i?iaiaeeeanue a
a?aeiia?aeiino? c e?eoa??yie ii?ie (A.TH.Eeia?, 1968; TH.ss.Eay,
E.TH.Eeia?, Y.E.Ae?aaea, 1985; TH.ss.Eay, 1987; B.H.*a?iia?iaee, 1991),
eiee aaee/eie ?I ii i?ioyao oeoiea ?iciiae?eyeenue a a?aeiia?aeiino? c
o?noth ooieoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?aaeaie ?I.

Iioi?ii-aaaeoaoi?i? ii?ooaiiy aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ciie aea/aeenue ca
aeiiiiiaith iiaoaiii? iaiiiao??? aa?oi?o a?aeae?e?a o?aaiiai o?aeoo,
aeei?enoiaoth/e a?aee?eoee eaoaoa? ca iaoiaeeeith ss.Ae.A?oaanueeiai oa
A.I.Noao?ia (1985).

Ioe?iea a?aoethenii? iaae?eiino? aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai ia?aoiaeo oa
cai?iiiiiaaieo o??o?a?/ieo eiino?oeoe?e i?iaiaeeeany ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoiaeo ?io?aiia?aoe?eii? iiaaiii?an?? oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo ca
i?ea?iaeueiith iaoiaeeeith, ui aeicaiey? aea/aoe a?aoethenio
iaae?ei?noue inoaii?o a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai aenia?eiaioo. (Niinia
iiaaiii?anieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy eeaiaiieo aia?aoia oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai
o?aeoo. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae N 21992 A aiae 30.04.98).

I?i nooi?iue iaeiie/aiiy oiene/ieo i?iaeoeo?a a i?aai?ci? noaeeee ii
«oiene/iino?» ne?iaaoee e?ia? iia?iaaieo ethaeae oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oaa?ei, aecia/ath/e ?? aeni?an-iaoiaeii ca aeiiiiiaith Paramec?um
caudatum (A.A.Iaoiiia ? ni?aaao., 1980).

I?e?ia?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee c oe?eeth aecia/aiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a i?ina?o? iia?iaaiiai i?aaio, nooiaith
?io?eoaaiiy i/a?aaeie oa a?iioaoa ?aie, ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? i?e?ia?a.

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo oa ianooiiee ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c oeeo?iaeo aeaieo,
io?eiaieo o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
noaiaea?oieo iaeao?a “Statistica 5,0” ? “Statgraphics” aeey Windows 95
oa i?ia?aie “Microsoft Excel” ia ia?niiaeueiiio eiii’thoa?? Pentium-166
(TH.I.Oth?ei, A.A.Iaea?ia, 1998). Iaoiaeaie aa??aoe?eiiai aiae?co
i?iaaee ia?iaeo oeeo?iaeo iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo o i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aecia/aiiy neee aieeao e?eoaaeueieo oaeoi??a ia
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? iieacieee aeei?enoiaoaaee aeenia?n?eiee aiae?c.
Iaoiae ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai aiae?co aeei?enoiaoaaany aeey aecia/aiiy
?ioi?iaoeaiino? ??cieoe? na?aaei?o iieaciee?a (E.A. Eaeoo?nueeee, A.A.
Na?uea, 1982).

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o aiae?c.

I?iaaaeaia ii?oiiao?e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeei: 1) aeinoia??io
caeaaei?noue e?i?eieo, ieiueiieo oa ia’?iieo iieaciee?a oeoiea a?ae
niiaoioeio ethaeeie, oi?ie aeeaioa; 2) iaea?eueoo cia/ei?noue iieacieea
aenioe oeoiea aeey ii??aiyiiy c oi?iith aeeaioa oa oeiii aoaeiae o?ea;
3) aenieo ?ioi?iaoeai?noue iieaciee?a ia’?io oeoiea. Ciaeaeai? ?iaeaene
i?ae aaee/eiith ia’?io oa iaea?eueoith ieiuath ia?a??co oeoiea (ia ??ai?
ea?ae?aeueiiai a?aeae?eo), ui eaaei aecia/a?oueny c aeiiiiiaith
eiiithoa?iith oiiia?ao??, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe a??ia?aeiee
ia’?i.

Iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue aioo??oi?o ca’yce?a i?ae eiinoeoooe?eieie
iciaeaie oa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiei noaiii i?aai?cio (A.A. Ieeeothe,
A.I.Ii?ic, Ae.A.Ieeeothe, 1998) niiioea? aei ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao?? aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe
ii?oiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oiiia?ao?? oeoiea aeeaeo ethaeae.
Neaeaoioii?/ii oeoiie ?icoaoiaoaaany ia ??ai? O9 — L3, i?e/iio o in?a c
a?ao?ii?oiei oeiii noaoo?e oeoiie ?ici?uaiee ia ??ai? O9 — L?, c
aeie?oiii?oiei oeiii eiinoeoooe?? eiai ciaoiaeeee ia ??ai? O10 — L3.
Eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/i? eii?aeeiaoe oeoiea oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue
?ici?uaiiyi oeoiea i?ae e?aei ia?aaei?i eaoa?aeueiei ia?eae?aiii (I2) oa
i?aaei ia?aaei?i iaae?aeueiei ia?eae?aiii (I11), nineiaith oa ioieiaith
ia?aeaeyie ca?aeii nenoaie oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/ieo eii?aeeiao o?ea ethaeeie
ca I.I.Ao?eo (1991). Ia eiii’thoa?ieo oiiia?aiao /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie,
ii/eiath/e c O9, aecia/athoueny /?oe? eiioo?e aeia oeoiea, ui ia?
iaaeueio oi?io. Ia oiiia?aiao /?oei aeae?eyeenue eiioo?e neion?a ieaa?e,
ia/?iee, no?aaioiaeo, ieco?aeiiai a?aeae?eo ai?oe, i?aeie ae?ao?aaie,
aa?oiueiai e?ath naeac?iee. Oi?ia ia?a??co oeoiea caeaaeaea a?ae
aaee/eie, oi?ie oa ?ici?uaiiy ia/?iee, naeac?iee, ae?ao?aaie, ui
i?eeyaaee aei iueiai.

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiiy ieiu? oa ae?aiao?o ia?a??co
oeoiea, ?ici??e oeoiea c? cieaeaiiyi ??aiy eiii’thoa?iiai c??co
ca?eueoothoueny, iaaoaathoue a?eueo aeaeiaaeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ii/eiath/e
c ??aiy L? o ethaeae a?ao?ii?oiiai oeio noaoo?e oa L2 — L3 — c
aeie?oiii?oiei oeiii aoaeiae o?ea, aaee/eia ia?a??co oeoiea
ciaiooaaeanue.

Ia eiii’thoa?ieo oiiia?aiao ia oeeo ??aiyo ii/aee aecia/aoeny eiioo?e
i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, aeia/iiai i?oo?a, iaaeie?iee?a oa ie?ie. Oi?ia oa
?ici??e oeoiea cia/ii caeaaeaee a?ae aaee/eie oa ?ici?uaiiy i?aai?a
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, i?eeaaeeo aei iueiai: ia/?iee, naeac?iee,
i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, aeia/iiai i?oo?a, oianoi? oa oiiei? eeoie.

?ici?uaiiy oa oi?ia oeoiea caeaaeaee a?ae oi?ie aeeaioa. Oae, i?e
a?ooiiiae?aiiio /ieia?/iio oei? oi?ie aeeaioa, yea ?icoe?th?oueny
aeiaa?oo (I?AE — iiia?a/iee ?iaeaen aeeaioa > 100+(), niinoa??aaeinue
a?eueo aeniea iieiaeaiiy oeoiea, iiia?a/iee ia?a??c ii?iaeieie aeia
oeoiea aoa a?eueoee, i?ae i?e ?ioeo oi?iao aeeaioa (P< 0,05); aenioa oeoiea iaaiaee aoea iaeiaioith. I?e a?ooiiiae?aiiio ae?ii/iio oei oi?ie aeeaioa, yea ?icoe?th?oueny aeiieco (I?AE < 100-() iaeaeua oi/ea aeia oeoiea ciaoiaeeeany ieae/a, iiia?a/iee ia?a??c aeia aoa aoae/ee, aenioa oeoiea aoea iaea?eueoith. I?e oeee?iae?e/iiio iaaeueiiio oei? (I?AE = 100(() aa?o?aea aeia oeoiea aeyaeyeanue ia ??ai? O9-O10, iiia?a/iee ia?a??c aeia eieeaaany a iaaeao 0,00698 ( 0,00074 i2, aenioa oeoiea ??aiyeanue 0,227 ( 0,007 i. Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c iieacaa neeuei? cai?ioi? ca’ycee i?ae iieacieeaie I?AE oa aenioith oeoiea (r = -0,72), i?yi? ca’ycee na?aaeiuei? neee i?ae I?AE oa iiia?a/iei ia?a??cii aeia oeoiea (r = 0,45). Ine?eueee iieacieee oi?ie oa ia’?io oeoiea iieacaee o?nio caeaaei?noue c oi?iith aoaeiae o?ea, c aeiiiiiaith ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aio?ii?eiiai aiae?co aecia/ai? iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeai? iieacieee, ui iaea?eueo aeinoia??ii iieacothoue iaeaaei?noue aei a?aeiia?aeiiai niiaoioeio. Iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie aoee: aaee/eia aenioe oeoiea, iieaciee ae?aiao?a ia?a??co ia ??ai? ea?ae?aeueiiai a?aeae?eo, iieaciee ieiu? ia?a??co ia ??ai? ea?ae?aeueiiai a?aeae?eo oa ?ic?aoiaaiee ia’?i oeoiea. Aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiee iieaciee oeoiea iaa cia/i? eieeaaiiy oa aeyaea /?oeo caeaaei?noue a?ae aoaeiae o?ea aeine?aeaeoaaieo: o in?a c a?ao?ii?oiei oeiii noaoo?e noaiiaea 2,57 - 3,21, c iaciii?oiei oeiii - 2,69 - 4,15, a c aeie?oiii?oiei - 3,24 - 4,38. Eiai ?ioi?iaoeai?noue aoea iaeaeuith (? - ?ioi?iaoeai?noue = 18,7 a?o). Cia/ii ci?ithaaeanue aaee/eia aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiiai iieacieea a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio aoaeiae aeeaioa. Oae, o in?a c I?AE > (100 + () aaee/eia iieacieea noaiiaeea 2,84 ( 0,14,
a a iaoe??io?a c I?AE < (100 - () iieaciee ??aiyany 3,54 ( 0,26. Neea ei?aeyoe?eieo ca’yce?a i?ae aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiei iieacieeii oa I?AE aoea cai?ioiith oa aenieith (r = - 0,74). ?acoeueoaoe ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co ca’yce?a i?ae iieacieeaie ieai?iao??? iaiia?iaaiiai oeoiea iieacaee ianooiio caeaaei?noue. Neeuei? i?yi? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee, ye ? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? o?oiiiai iaoa??aeo oa ?aioaaiia?ai, a?aei?/ai? i?ae iieacieeaie: ?ic?aoiaaiee ia’?i - ae?aiao? ia ??ai? ea?ae??, ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co oeoiea ia a?aeiia?aeieo ??aiyo; ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co oeoiea ia ??ai? ea?ae?? oa o?ea oeoiea - aaee/eie ae?aiao?a oeoiea ia ??ai? ea?ae?? oa o?ea oeoiea. Aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiee iieaciee oaae iieacaa neeueiee i?yiee ca’ycie c aenioith oeoiea. Ca aeaieie eiii’thoa?ieo oiiia?ai i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie i?iaaaeaia a?ao?/ia ?aeiino?oeoe?y ia’?iii? oi?ie iaiia?iaaiiai oeoiea. Ca ii/aoie nenoaie eii?aeeiao i?eeiyoa oi/ea a?aee?eo, ui ? aaiiao?e/iei oeaio?ii aeanyoiai a?oaeiiai o?aaoey (na?aaeeia o?ea o?aaoey). Aea/aiiy ia’?iii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? oeoiea aeyaeei aeineoue neeaaeio eiio?ao?aoe?th oi?ie, ui ia aieno?oueny a i?eeeaae aaiiao?e/ii? oeio oeee?iae?a /e c??caiiai eiiona. A?eueo aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy ia’?iii? oi?ie oeoiea iieacaei ??ciee nooi?iue a?aeoeeaiiy in? i?ei?e/iiai a?aeae?eo oeoiea oa aa?oiuei? /anoeie aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee a?ae aeiaaeieea o?ea oeoiea. O in?a aeie?oiii?oiiai oeio noaoo?e a?nue /ano?oa ciaoiaeeeanue i?ae 8 oa 9 ia?eae?aiaie, o iaciii?oiiai oeio - i?ae 7 oa 8, a o in?a a?ao?ii?oiiai oeio aoaeiae o?ea - i?ae 6 oa 7 ia?eae?aiaie ca I.I.Ao?eo (1991). A?aeoeeaiiy i?ei?e/iiai a?aeae?eo iaea?eueoa caeaaeaee a?ae ?ici???a oeoiea. Iaea?eueo ?ooeeaith aeyaeeanue ia/a?a i?ei?e/iiai a?aeae?eo, yea i?e iacia/iiio ca?eueoaii? aeiaaeieea oeoiea o aeie?oiii?oieo ci?ithaaea nai? i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c eiii'thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/ieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui aenioa ?ici?uaiiy oeoiea ei?aeth? c oeiii eiinoeoooe?? ethaeeie oa oi?iith aeeaioa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee ?noioio ei?aeyoe?eio caeaaei?noue ?ici???a oeoiea a?ae eiinoeoooe?eieo iciae. I?yiiaeni? ?ici??e ca aeaieie ?aa?aneaiiai aiae?co iathoue a?eueoo caeaaei?noue i?ae ai?eciioaeuei?. Aeineoue ?ioi?iaoeaiei aeey aecia/aiiy niiaoicaeaaeiino? aeyaeany aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiee iieaciee. Iniaeea?noth iaea?aeaieo ii?oiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iia?iaaiiai oeoiea aoei ciaioaiiy i?yiiaenieo ? ia’?iieo iieaciee?a. Caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio noaoo?e ethaeeie ia aeyaeaii. Iiia?a/i? ?ici??e (ae?aiao? ? ieiua ia?a??co) ia a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae aiaeia?/ieo iieaciee?a ia oeo aea ??aiyo iaiia?iaaiiai oeoiea. Eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/i? eii?aeeiaoe oeoiea ia ci?ieeenue ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue ?ici?uaiiyi oeoiea i?ae e?aei ia?aaei?i eaoa?aeueiei ia?eae?aiii (I2) oa i?aaei ia?aaei?i iaae?aeueiei ia?eae?aiii (I11), nineiaith oa ioieiaith ia?aeaeyie ca?aeii nenoaie oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/ieo eii?aeeiao o?ea ethaeeie. Oi?ia ia?a??co oeoiea ia caaaeaee iaea oa?aeoa?io ie?oaeo eiio?ao?aoe?th, ?iiae? iaaoaaea iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie, ui ca’ycoaaeinue iaie c ?icaeoeii niaeeiaiai i?ioeano, oi?iith oa ?ici?uaiiyi i?eeaaeeo aei iueiai i?aai?a: ia/?iee, naeac?iee, i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, aeia/iiai i?oo?a. Aaee/eia ia’?io a ii??aiyii? c iaiia?iaaiei oeoieii aoea ia 60-70% iaioith. ?ici?uaiiy oa oi?ia iia?iaaiiai oeoiea caa??aaea caeaaei?noue a?ae oi?ie aeeaioa. sse ? a iaiia?iaaieo, i?e a?ooiiiae?aiiio /ieia?/iio oei? oi?ie aeeaioa, yea ?icoe?th?oueny aeiaa?oo (I?AE > 100+(), niinoa??aaeinue
a?eueo aeniea iieiaeaiiy oeoiea, iiia?a/iee ia?a??c ii?iaeieie aeia
oeoiea aoa a?eueoee (P< 0,05), i?ae i?e ?ioeo oi?iao aeeaioa. I?ioa aenioa oeoiea aecia/aeanue ia oi?iith aeeaioa, a oaeaeoa aaee/eiith ?acaeoiaaii? /anoeie. I?e a?ooiiiae?aiiio ae?ii/iio oei? oi?ie aeeaioa, yea ?icoe?th?oueny aeiieco (I?AE < 100-() aa?o?aea aeia oeoiea ciaoiaeeeany ieae/a, iiia?a/iee ia?a??c aeia aoa aoae/ee (0,00475 ( 0,00124 i2). I?e oeee?iae?e/iiio iaaeueiiio oei? (I?AE = 100(() aa?o?aea aeia oeoiea aeyaeyeanue ye ia ??ai? O9-O10, iiia?a/iee ia?a??c aeia eieeaaany a iaaeao a?ae 0,00457 aei 0,00758 i2. Iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe iieacothoue, ui caeaaei?noue, a iniiaiiio, caa??aa?oueny ca ?aooiie oi?ie oa ?ici?uaiiy aeia oeoiea. Aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiee iieaciee oeoiea iaa cia/i? eieeaaiiy (2,48 - 4,38), ia caeaaeaa a?ae aoaeiae o?ea aeine?aeaeoaaieo, a caeaaeaa a?ae niiniao, aaee/eie ?acaeoe?? oeoiea oa no?ie?a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. I?e aeaeaeaii? iaei??? o?aoeie oeoiea iieaciee eieeaaany a?ae 2,14 aei 2,71, i?ney aeaeaeaiiy iieiaeie oeoiea aaee/eia iieacieea ??aiyeany 1,98 ( 0,36 , a i?ney aeaeaeaiiy aeaio o?aoei oeoiea aai noaoioaeueii? eiai ?acaeoe?? aaee/eia iieacieea aoea ua iaioith (1,43 ( 0,17). Ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie o iaoe??io?a c aaeeeei i?neyiia?aoe?eiei ia??iaeii (8-32 ?iee) iieaciee aoa a?eueoei ia 20 - 25%, i?ae a a?oi? oai?eo c no?ieaie i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo aei 3 ?ie?a ? noaiiaea a?aeiia?aeii 1,56 ( 0,25 oa 1,25 ( 0,15. A ii??aithaaeuei? a?oie aeeth/ai? eeoa iaoe??ioe, yeei aeaeaeaii aea? o?aoeie oeoiea. ?acoeueoaoe ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co ca’yce?a i?ae iieacieeaie ieai?iao??? iia?iaaiiai oeoiea iieacaee ianooiio caeaaei?noue. Neea ca’yce?a a?ae??ciyeanue a ii??aiyii? c aiae?cii ia?aiao??a iaiia?iaaieo oeoie?a. Neeuei? i?yi? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee a?aei?/ai? i?ae iieacieeaie: ?ic?aoiaaiee ia’?i - aenioa oeoiea, aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiee iieaciee; ae?aiao?e ia?a??co oeoiea ia ??ai? ea?ae?aeueiiai a?aeae?eo oa o?ea oeoiea - ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co oeoiea ia a?aeiia?aeieo ??aiyo; aenioa oeoiea - aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiee iieaciee. Ii??aiyiiy aeaieo eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?aaiiiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie iia?iaaiiai oeoiea, aei??yieie o o?oi?a, iieacaei iacia/io ??cieoeth a /eneiaeo aeaieo, iai?aaeai?noue oa i?iii?oe?ei?noue ci?i iieaciee?a iia?iaaiiai oeoiea a?ae iaiia?iaaiiai aoea iaeiaeiaa. Aenioa oeoiea ciaiooaaeanue a ii??aiyii? c iaiia?iaaieie oeoieaie ia 30,86 % i?e i?aaiiiao?e/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? oa ia 49,04% i?e eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii?. Aeinoia??ii? ??cieoe? i?ae ieiuaie iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co ia ??ai? ea?ae?? oa o?ea oeoiea ia a?aei?/aii. Ia’?i oeoiea ciaiooaaany ia 57,04 % oa 56,34 % a?aeiia?aeii. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iaiia?iaaiiai ?acaeoiaaiee oeoiie iaa i?yiiaenio iai?aaeai?noue iiacaeiaaeiuei? in?. ?ici??e, oi?ia, iai?aaeai?noue i?ea?aeii? oa a?aea?aeii? eeoie caeaaeaee a?ae iiaeeo?eaoe?? niiniao ?acaeoe?? oeoiea. O oai?eo i?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea ca niiniaii A?eue?io-2 a iiaeeo?eaoe?? Aioiaenoa?a-O?inoa?a?a a?nue i?ea?aeii? eeoee /ano?oa ciaoiaeeeanue i?ae ia?aaei?i na?aaeeiiei (I0) oa i?aaei ia?aaei?i iaae?aeueiei ia?eae?aiaie (I11) iacaeaaeii a?ae niiaoioeio. Aeuaaeacai? ii?oieia?/i? oa ia'?ii? iniaeeaino? iia?iaaiiai oeoiea eyaee a iniiao iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo niinia?a ?acaeoe?? oeoiea oa niiniao eeaiaiii? ?aeiino?oeoeaii? iia?aoe?? a cii? aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai ia?aoiaeo. Aiae?c ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i neeciai? iaieiiee oeoiea a caeaaeiino? a?ae no?ie?a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo iieacaa, ui a ?aii? no?iee (1-2 i?nyoe?) niinoa??aathoueny ina?aaeeia? ci?ie neeciai? iaieiiee, iacia/ia ciaioaiiy aenioe caeiciaiai oa?o, caaeeaeaiiy oa caea/ano?noue oeoieiaeo yiie, aieiai? caeice noaaaee a?eueo ei?ioeeie, aocueeeie, caiiaiai? ioei?aeiei nae?aoii. A a?eueo i?ci? no?iee (3-12 i?nyoe?a) a?aei?/a?oueny e?ioi?aeii-a?no?ioeeoa?ia ?io?eueo?aoe?y a no?ii? oa iaa?ye aeanii? ieanoeiee neeciai? iaieiiee. Ciaioaiiy /enea ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei a?aeaoaa?oueny a aieiaieo caeicao oaea /a?ac 1-2 i?nyoe?, a oeoieiaeo yieao ciaioaiiy ee?oei a oe? no?iee iaaeinoia??ia. Aea/aiiy ai?oae?aeueii? oi?ioee aieiaieo caeic ?acaeoiaaiiai oeoiea iieacaei, ui ciaioo?oueny a?aenioie aieiaieo oa ia???oaeueieo ee?oei i?e iaeii/aniiio ca?eueoaii? aeiaeaoeiaeo oa iecueeiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo, ui aeinoia??ii i?iyaey?oueny a no?iee /a?ac 3-12 i?nyoe?a ? a?eueoa. Ae?aaeai? aaeaioeai? ci?ie neeciai? iaieiiee oeoiea a?aei?/ai? i?e a?noio?i?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii?. Aiie aeyaeyeenue caaeiaai aei iiyae ii/aoeiaeo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i neeciai? iaieiiee oa o?aeooaaeenue ye ii/aoeia? iciaee ?icaeoeo ao?io?/ieo i?ioean?a a neecia?e iaieiioe?. Iaeiie/aiiy OEE - iiceoeaieo ?a/iaei a aeeaieeo a?aeae?eao caeic neeciai? iaieiiee eoeueo? oeoiea oa ee?oeiao ai?oae?th i?e ?? aioa?ie?caoe?? na?ae/eoue i?i cia/io ooieoe?iiaeueio ia?aaoaeiao neeciai?. I?e a?eueo cia/ieo no?ieao i?ney iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy aeyaeyeenue ina?aaeee o?a?ico, e?ioi?aei? oie?eoee. A ii?iaeuei?e neecia?e iaieiioe? iaeo?aeuei? ioeiiie?naoa?eaee ?ici?uoaaeenue a iiaa?oiaaiio ai?oae?? oa cii? aeiaeaoeiaeo ee?oei. C ?icaeoeii ao?io?/iiai aano?eoo iaeo?aeuei? ioeiiie?naoa?eaee ciaoiaeeee a cia/i?e e?eueeino? oaeiae a caeicao oeoiea. Eeoeiaa iaoaieac?y aeyaeaia a 23 oai?eo, ui ?, ia iaoo aeoieo, aaeaioeaiith ?aaeoe??th ia ae?th eeoeiaiai ai?noo oa aeia/?. I?e eeoeia?e iaoaieac?? neeciaa iaieiiea ci?ithaaeanue oaeei /eiii, ui oeoieia? aaeeee aeaeiaaeoaaeenue oa iaaaaeoaaee eeoeia? ai?neie, aieiai? caeice cai?ithaaeenue e?eioaie. Eeoeia? e?eioe ciaeaeai? a aeaeyae? aocueeeo ooaoey?ieo no?oeoo?, iiaoaeiaaieo ia?aaaaeii c eaeeoiiiae?aieo ee?oei oa eaeienoeo aioa?ioeeo?a. Ee?oeie Iaiaoa ?ici?uoaaeenue ia aei? eeoeiaeo e?eio. Aioa?ioeeoe a eeoeiaeo e?eioao neeaaeaee a?ae 65% aei 96%, eaeeoiiiae?ai? ee?oeie a?ae 5% aei 27%, ee?oeie Iaiaoa a?ae 0,5% aei 9%. A?aaioio?euei? ee?oeie aeyaeyeenue a aeeaieeo a?aeae?eao e?eio oa noaiiaeee 2-4%. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c noaio caeiciaiai aia?aoo oeoiea a ??ci? no?iee i?ney eiai ?acaeoe?? iieacaa, ui a a?eueoino? iaoe??io?a niinoa??aaeanue iii??ia ao?io?y i?ei?e/ieo caeic. ??cea ao?io?y (?IIC - ?iaeaen iane i?ei?e/ieo caeic <1,9) niinoa??aaeanue eeoa a 7 aeiaaeeao (12,9%), ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue cia/iith eeoeiaith iaoaieac??th. Oiaueia neeciai? iaieiiee o?ea oeoiea, oiaueia caeiciaiai oa?o, aeeaeia oeoieiaeo yiie ciaiooaaeanue c? c?inoaiiyi no?ie?a i?ney?acaeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co ci?i neeciai? iaieiiee oeoiea a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? iieacothoue c?inoaiiy ao?io?/ieo ci?i neeciai? iaieiiee aei ??cei ae?aaeaieo oi?i ao?io?/iiai aano?eoo. Iaea?eueo cia/i? ao?io?/i? ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny a i?ci? no?iee i?ney iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. O?ii?/iee ao?io?/iee aano?eo c ao?io??th caeic, inaaaeii?ei?e/iith oa eeoeiaith iaoaieac??th ??ciiai nooiaiy ? oiiiaei noaiii aeey ?icaeoeo aiaeie?eiiiee?oeiiiai ?aeo, aai ?ioeo oi?i ?aeo (E.N. Aea?eaeaiiaa, A.O. Naeii, 1996,1997). ssiiinuee? a/ai? (Nosaka T. et al., 1992) aenoioee aeoieo, ui a?iioaoe/ia iine?aeiai?noue ?icaeoeo iooeeie oeoiea: aiaoeeaei?noue /a?ac ao?io?/iee aano?eo - a?ia?aano?eiai?y - oaeaeea ca?eueoaiiy aioa?io?iiao?iieo ee?oei - aaaaoieiioaeoi? ea?oeeii?aee. I?ioa, iioae?eiaaii aeiaaeee ?icaeoeo ea?oeeii?ae?a oeoiea, ui ia aeeaaeathoueny a i?eaaaeaio a?iioaco (D'Adda T. et al., 1991; Farley D. et al., 1994; Modlin I. et al., 1995). Aeeneooo?oueny i?e/aoi?noue aei ?icaeoeo iooeeie Helicobacter pylori (Eidt S., 1995; Matsukura N., 1995). A?aei?/athoue (Skwarski L., 1998), ui ai?no ae?eiaaio a ee?oeiao neeciai? iia?iaaiiai oeoiea, aea ?icaeaa?oueny iooeeia, a?eueoee, i?ae iaiia?iaaieo oeoieao. Oea ii?iaeaeo? a?iioaco, ui eaioea?iaaiac ca’ycaiee ?c caa??aaiiyi a ee?oeiao ae?eiaaio. ?icaeyaeath/e caeiiii??iino? i?aeee?oeiieo oa i?aeoeaieiieo aca?iia?aeiinei i?e ??cieo oi?iao iioeiaeaeaiiy neeciai? iaieiiee oeoiea, ?yae aaoi??a (I.I.Iioaoei, A.N.Iaoeia, 1997) aaaaeathoue, ui caiaeaiiy, ?aaaia?aoe?y, o?a?ic - ia?ic?eai? eiiiiiaioe aaeaioeaii? ?aaeoe?? ia iioeiaeaeaiiy. Aeacaia ?aaeoe?y, ia aeoieo aaoi??a, ?aae?co?oueny ia iniia? aca?iiae?? ee?oei niieo/ii? oeaieie oa e?ia? (iaeo?io?eueieo a?aioeioeeo?a, oeaieiieo aacio?e?a, o?iiaioeeo?a, iae?ioaa?a, e?ioioeeo?a, o?a?iaeano?a) i?ae niaith, c i?aeee?oeiiei iao?eenii (eieaaaiii, o?a?iiaeoeiii, i?ioaiae?eaiaie) oa ia?aio?iith i?aai?a ia iniia? cai?ioieo ca’yce?a. ?aaoeyoe?y ?aaaia?aoe?? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii-ii?oieia?/iiai noaio ai?oae?th neeciai? iaieiiee oeoiea aeeth/a? (A.I.Oniaineee, 1986; I.?.*a?aye, 1988; Sampiero G. et al., 1990), ye oeaio?aeuei? iaoai?cie, ui ?aae?cothoue na?e aieea /a?ac aeoeath/ee ia?a, oae ? /a?ac neiiaoe/i? ia?ae, aiaeie?eiio nenoaio, aaaaoi/enaeuei? i?noeaa? iaioeaei? aano?i?ioano?iaeuei? ai?iiie oa ??ciiiai?oi? a?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ?a/iaeie. A i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? i?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea aeyaeai? ci?ie a neecia?e iaieiioe? oeoiea ia oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio ??ai? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue ii?ooaiiyi aia?aineioacoth/eo oa nae?aooi?ioth/eo no?oeoo?. Nae?aoi?i? ee?oeie caciaaaee naeaeoeaii? aeano?oeoe?? i?aaiae, ui cae?i/oaaeanue ia e?cenii ai?noo i?aaiae, a i??e?iiiiae?aiith ia?aaoaeiaoth ?o eiiiiiaio?a. A aieiaieo oa ia???oaeueieo ee?oeiao ia?aaaaeaee aeaaaia?aoeai? oa aeano?oeoeai? i?ioeane i?oioiiae??e, a?aioey?iiai ?aoeeoeoia, yaea?, nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe. Ii?ooaiiy a nae?aoi?ieo ee?oeiao i?ioiaeeee ia oii? i?ioean?a o?c?ieia?/ii? ?aaaia?aoe??. Noai aiaeie?eiieo ee?oei oeoiea /a?ac 90-180 ae?a i?ney ?acaeoe?? ca Aioiaenoa?ii-O?inoa?a?ii oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ??ceei ciaioaiiyi G oa D ee?oei. Aiie cono??/aeenue /ano?oa a ina?aaeeao i?ei?e/ii? iaoaieac?? oa ia aeyaeyeenue a i?noeyo eeoeiai? iaoaieac??. A iaiaoaieaciaaiiio ai?oae?? o?ea oeoiea aeyaey?oueny a?ia?ieac?y aioa?io?iiao?iiiiae?aieo ee?oei. I?e aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? neeciai? iaieiiee oeoiea na?aae ee?oei aeenioe?eiaaii? aiaeie?eiii? nenoaie aeineoue /anoi cono??/aeenue A-iiae?ai? (aetheaaiii?iaeoeoth/?) ee?oeie. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth oeeoiieacie oaeeo ee?oei ? iayai?noue aaaaoi/enaeueieo nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe, ui yaeythoue niaith ie?oae? aeaeo?iiiiu?euei? o?eueoey, ioi/ai? /?oeith aeaaeaiueeith iaia?aiith. I?ae oeaio?aeueii ?ici?uaiei ai?noii a?aioee oa ?? ioi/oth/ith iaia?aiith ?a?no?o?oueny aocueeee aeaeo?iiiii?ici?ee i?ino??, a?eueo-iaio ??aiii??ii ioi/oth/e ai?no a?aioee. Oe? no?oeoo?e iaee i?aaeeueio ie?oaeo aai ceaaea iaaeueio oi?io oa ae??aiica?ienoo aoaeiao. Iaia?aie a?aioe, ye i?aaeei, iaee caeaenoo eiio?ao?aoe?th. A iaeieo A-iiae?aieo ee?oeiao nae?aoi?i? a?aioee ??aiii??ii ?ici?uoaaeenue a oeeoiieaci?, a ?ioeo eieae?coaaeenue ia?aaaaeii a?ey eai?ey?iiai iiethna. A aeayeeo ee?oeiao niinoa??aa?oueny o?niee eiioaeo a?aioe c ieaciaoe/iith iaia?aiith, aai ?ioeie i?aaiaeaie ee?oeie. Oae? “eiioaeooth/?” a?aioee iaee cieaeaio aeaeo?iiio u?euei?noue oa ca?eueoai? ?ici??e. Ae??ai? a?aioee aoee iaio u?euei? i?ae e?oii?. sse ? a aioa?io?iiao?iieo ee?oeiao a?ey a?aioe ?ici?uoaaeenue na?oe? ii?iaeieno? ooai?aiiy c i??e?iiaeie o?ao?aie. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o ?ie?a iieacaee ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? a ieaci? e?ia? aioa?iaetheaaiio oa iaioeaeo YY i?ney ianeaieo ?acaeoe?e oiiei? eeoee (Fuller P. et al., 1993; Adrian T. et al., 1993, 1996) a oie /an, eiee i?yeeo nooo?aeo ci?i eiioeaio?aoe?? nae?aoeio, iioee?io, iae?ioaic?io, niiaoinoao?io aai aetheaaiio i?aeoeoieiai? caeice ia aoei a?aei?/aii. A ca’yceo c oeei aioa?iaetheaaii oa iaioeae YY aaaaeathoue iiaeeeaeie o?io?/ieie ai?iiiaie, ye? aoyaioo? a iaoiaaiac aaeaioeaiiai i?ioeano (Taylor R. et al., 1990, 1991; Gomez G. et al., 1995). Iauiaeaaii oaaoeuee? a/ai? (Salehi A. et al., 1999) aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaee, ui ?acaeoe?y oeoiea noeioeth? nae?aoe?th ?inoe?io oa aaeueio? nae?aoe?th aetheaaiio a ca’yceo c aeae?eaiiyi niaoeeo?/iiai iaioeaeo /anoeiith eeneioii?iaeoeoth/i? neeciai? iaieiiee. Oaeaeea ca?eueoaiiy A-iiae?aieo ee?oei oeoieiaiai aianoiiico a uo??a i?ney ?acaeoe?? ?icaeyaeathoue (Meyer J. et al., 1985) ye ni?eyth/ee oaeoi? ?icaeoeo ?aeo eoene. Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? ci?i aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ia/?ieiai-oeoieiai? ca’ycee, a?eae? ii?iaeiuei? eeoee, ui ooai?th? aianoiiic c? oeoieii, caeeth/aeeny a iiya? niaci?a oa ?icoe?aiue, caeaenoino? a?oa??ie ia ia?oo aeiao i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. A iiaeaeueoiio i?ney eiiiainaoi?ieo ?icoe?aiue a?oa??ieiaaioey?ieo aianoiiic?a, ?aaeoeoe?? iaooieoe?iioth/eo eai?ey??a niinoa??aaeinue iinooiiaa ?icoe?aiiy a?oa??ie, ia?aaoaeiaa eai?ey?ii? n?oee noana?iciiai oa ?ioeo aaiii?e?ioeeeoeyoi?ieo nieaoaiue. ?icaeoie ciai?oiuei- oa aioo??oiueii?aaiiiai eieaoa?aeueiiai e?iaiia?ao ?acaeoiaaiiai oeoiea, ui ?icaeaa?oueny ia i?ioyc? anueiai ia??iaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy, iai?aaeaiee ia ii?iae?caoe?th ii?oieia?/ieo oa ?aieia?/ieo ci?i, ui aeieeaee a ca’yceo c iiaeie oiiaaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aaia. Aea/aia iioa?iaa aoaeiaa oeoiea iaoiaeii iioa?iaiai i?aia?oaaiiy. Aeyaeaii, ui iiacaeiaaei? oa oee?eoey?i? i'yce iaea?eueo ?icaeiai? a i?ei?e/i?e /anoei? oeoiea. Iicaeiaaei? i'yce iaea?eueo ?icaeiai? a?ey iaei? oa aaeeei? e?eaeie oeoiea. Ia ia?aaei?e oa caaei?e no?ioe? aiie iaioa ae?aaeai?. Ia ia?aaei?e ? caaei?e ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? oeoiea /anoeia aieieii ci?iththoue na?e iai?yi, iiaa?oath/e a a?e aaeeei? e?eaeie, aie?oathoueny a aieieia oee?eoey?iiai oa?o. Oee?eoey?iee oa? i'yc?a cia/ii oiioee ia ae?eyioe? aeia oa o?ea oeoiea, iioiauaiiy aieieii niinoa??aa?oueny a?ey sulcus angular?s oeoiea. Cia/ia iioiauaiiy a?aei?/aii ia ae?eyioe? i?ei?ona. Ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? oeoiea a?ae oee?eoey?iiai i’yciaiai oa?o ii/eiathoue a?aeoiaeeoe aeiai?e a iai?yieo aeia ein? i’ycia? aieieia. Iaea?eueo aeiaa? ein? aieieia aioo??oiueiai oa?o i’yc?a i?ae?eiathoueny ii aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? oeoiea aeeae/a aei iaei? e?eaeie, aeinyaathoue ea?ae?aeueii? ae??cee oeoiea, i?ney /iai nioneathoueny ii aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie oa aie?oathoueny a oee?eoey?iee oa? ia oiio ae ??ai?, aea aiie a?aeae?eeeenue. Ci?ia aaiiao?e/ii? oi?ie oeoiea caeaaeeoue a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oee?eoey?iiai, iicaeiaaeiueiai oa einiai i’yciaeo oa??a oeoiea, ?ieue yeeo a oi?iiooai?aii? ??cia. Iaoaiaoe/ia caeaaei?noue aeaoi?ioth/i? ooieoe?? a?ae nei?i/aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? a?oie i’yc?a aeicaiey? a?aeoai?eoe oi?io oeoiea ia ethaiio aoai? aeaoi?iaoe?? no?iee oeoiea, ui iieno?oueny a?aeiia?aeieie oi?ioeaie. Aiae?oe/ii aeiaaaeaii, ui iiaeia ciaeoe oi?io c’?aeiaiiy oiiei? eeoee c? oeoieii, yea aoaea caaeiaieueiyoe aeaaee?noth coeoeo iiaa?oiiue ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe a iiaeaeueoiio iioeiaeuei?noue caaaioaaeaiiy oeoiea, a?aenooi?noue cano?eieo cii oa aeno?aiaeueieo oi/ie a cii? aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico. C aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? i?ia?aie iaie aecia/aii ia o?eueee i?i?iaeueio a?aenoaiue i?ae no?ieaie ia ??ai? eooiai? ae??cee, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaii oo oi?io, yeo iaaoaea oeoiie i?e iiaeo oiiaao. Na?aae i?e/ei iineyaano?i?acaeoeieieo neiae?iiia aaaeo/eie ? ciiia ?aaeeio ia?anoaaiiy no?aae a ca’yceo c iiaeie aiaoiii-oiciieiaiai/ieie aca?iiaiaeiioaiiyie i?aaiia, ao?aoa iaoaiicio ai?ioa?y oa ?aca?aoa?ii? ooieoei? oeoiea. Aeineiaeieee, yei i?iiiioaaee nai? niiniae ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoeie ia oeoieo, ia i?eaeaaaee cia/aiiy ?ice?eooth caeiiiii?iinoae ia?aiiuaiiy o?iono, nooiaiy eiai aca?iiaei? ci noiieith i?aaia, nooi aiiiaoaii/ieo i?ioeania, ca'ycaieo c oi?iith i?aaia ye oeieiai. Oiio aaaeei aoei ieaioaaoe iaeaeeae/i ianeiaeee oaeeo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, a oei aieueoa a?aeaeaeaieo, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a i?yiie caeaaeiinoi aiae iniiaieo caeiiia aiae?iaeeiaiiee. Aea/aiiy aiiiaoaiicio ia?aiiuaiiy aiinoo oeoiea, ?ice?eooy i?ioe??//y oa caeiiiii?iinoae aiae?iaeeiaii/ieo i?ioeania a caeaaeiinoi aiae oi?ie i?aaia aea? iiaeeeainoue ia eeoa i?iaanoe ?aoeiiiaeueiee iiooe iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao?ia i aa?iaioia iia?aoei?, aea e aeicaiey? a ei?ioei no?iee aeaoe ?o ii?iaiyeueio ioeiieo. Aeei?enoiaoth/e i?eioeeie iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia nooeieueieo aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo na?aaeiaeuao, iiaeeeai aecia/eoe nooue aiiiaoaiicio ?iaioe ethaiai ii?iaeienoiai i?aaio, iniaeeainoi oa caeiiiii?iinoi ia?aiiuaiiy aiinoo a iiaeo oiiaao, eiai aca?iiaeith ci noiieith caeaaeii aiae noi?iiaaii? ia'?iii? no?oeoo?ii? oi?ie (N.I.AEo/aiei oa ni?aaao., 1996). Oaeee iiaeoiae aeaiaeii aiae?iciy?oueny iaaeyaei?noth, iiaeeea?noth eaaei ciiithaaoe ii/aoeia? ia?aiao?e, oaeaeei aecia/aoe ciie "i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo" a iiaeo oiiaao ia iiaeaeyo, yei aeeth/athoue ia oieueee oi?io i?aaia, aea e aiiiaoaiieo eiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy. C aeei?enoaiiyi i?eioeei?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia nooeieueieo aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo na?aaeiaeuao, i?iaiaeiciaaii ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoeie iiney ?acaeoei? oeoiea ca Aieue?io-II. Iioeiaeueiei ? niin?a, ca yeei iicaeiaaeith ainue oiiei? eeoee ?iciiuothoue iiae aino?ei eooii aei /anoeie iaei? e?eaeie, ui ni?ey? cieaeaiith oeneo a ae?eyioe? c'?aeiaiiy oeoiea c eeoeith, caiia?aa? aeieeiaiith aiae?iaeeiaii/iiai oaea?o, caaacia/o? ieaaia ia?aiiuaiiy oeoieiaiai aiinoo i?ae /an eiai aaaeoaoei?. Aeey noai?aiiy iaoai?cio ii?oe?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy o?aaii? a?oaeee /a?ac aano?iaioa?iaianoiiic i?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea iaie cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a oi?ioaaiiy aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico, ui aeeiio?oueny oeyoii iioa?iaiai c’?aeiaiiy no?iie oeoiea oa eeoee. C’?aeiaiiy aeeiio?oueny oaeei /eiii, uia ?aae?coaaoe ooieoe?th iicaeiaaeiueiai oa?o i’yc?a, yea i?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea ii?ooo?oueny. Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? iiooee ??cieo aeine?aeiee?a iieacaee, ui iioa?iaa ooeaaiiy c aaeaioaoe??th iaeiieiaiieo oa??a ? iaea?eueo o?c?ieia?/iei oa aeioe?eueiei (*eaen I.A., Aieaeei A.A., 1988). Iinoaaeaia caaea/a aeeiio?oueny oaeei /eiii: i?ae /an ?icn?/aiiy oeoiea ?icoa?iaothoue eiai no?ieo i?ae i’yciaith iaieiieith oa i?aeneeciaei oa?ii, c’?aeiothoue i?ioea?eaeiaee e?ae eeoee ? i?aeneeciaee oa? oeoiea ia iaiao?aeiiio i?ii?aeeo, a i’ycia? iaieiiee oeoiea ? eeoee c aeana?iciaaieie aieiaeie iiaa?oiyie inoaiiuei?, ia aeioiaey/e aei a?eaeiaiai e?ath. sse iieacaei aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiceoeaieie ?enaie noai?aiiai iaie iaoai?cio ii?oe?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy ai?noo oeoiea /a?ac aano?iaoa?iaianoiiic ? aeeeth/aiiy ?aiiueiai oa oaeaeeiai aeoiaeo o?aaii? a?oaeee c eoene oeoiea, caaacia/aiiy iia?eueiiai ii?oe?eiiai aeii?iaeiaiiy eoene oeoiea. Iioa?iaa c’?aeiaiiy no?iie oeoiea oa eeoee i?enei?th? ?aaaia?aoe?th c’?aeiaieo oa??a, ciaioo? caiaeuei? oa iae?ioe/i? oneeaaeiaiiy ia ae?eyioe? aianoiiico, ?io?eoaaiiy ii?iaeieie i/a?aaeie. Iiaee niin?a ?acaeoe?? oeoiea ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ee?i?/io i?aeoeeo, ye oaeee, ui iiia?aaeaeo? i?ney?acaeoe?ei? aaaeiiioi?i? oneeaaeiaiiy. Ia iniia? ciiaeaeueiaaii? ia’?iii? oi?ie ?acaeoiaaiiai oeoiea, ui caaacia/o? iaeiiiai?aaeai?noue, oeeee?/i?noue oa ii?oe?ei?noue ia?ai?uaiiy ai?noo oeoiea a oiieo eeoeo, a oaeiae ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaie ?ic?iaeai? aa??aioe ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e ia oeoieo. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? ai?iaaoe?? ia niaaeao aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe aenieo iaae?ei?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue, a oaeiae nooo?a? ia?aaaae cai?iiiiiaaieo niinia?a a ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/eie. Oaeei /eiii, aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea iaoaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiiai niiniao ?acaeoe?? oeoiea oa niiniao oi?ioaaiiy aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico c ii?oe?eiei ia?ai?uaiiyi ai?noo oeoiea ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaie oaoiieia??th iieacaea aenieo aoaeoeai?noue, iaae?ei?noue a eiiiainaoe?? i?ioean?a o?aaeaiiy, ui aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe eiai aei oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo o??o?a?/ieo ee?i?e. Aeniiaee I?eioeeiiai iiaee iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy oiiia?ao?? i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie aea? iiaeeea?noue i?eaeeoo?ai neiino?othaaoe ia’?iio oi?io oeoiea oai?iai, yaey?oueny iniiaith aeey noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? iaiia?iaaiiai oeoiea, aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae “ooieoe?iioaaiiy” yei? aeicaiey? cai?iiiioaaoe iiaee iioeiaeueiee aa??aio niiniao ?acaeoe?? oeoiea oa oi?ioaaiiy aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico. ?ic?iaea iiai? eiino?oeoe?? i?ney?acaeoe?eii? ia’?iii? oi?ie aeeth/a? ianooii? aoaie: ia iniia? anoaiiaeaii? ia’?iii? oi?ie iiaoaeiaa iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? oeoiea c aea/aiiyi a?iiaoai?cio ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeae? ?acaeoiaaiiai oeoiea, aea?? iaea?eueo i?eeiyoii? iiaeae?, ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea ?ic?iaee, aecia/aiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aei ee?i?/iiai aei?iaoaaiiy. Ii??aiyiiyi aeaieo i?aaiiiao??? oeoiea o?oi?a ethaeae oa ieai?iao??? eiii’thoa?ieo oiiia?ai aeeaeo ethaeae anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eaeeoo?ai niinoa??aa?oueny a?eueo aeniea ?ici?uaiiy oeoiea oa aeinoia??ii a?eueo? iieacieee aenioe oa i?ina?oo oeoiea. O aeine?aeaeaieo aeyaey?oueny caeaaei?noue e?i?eieo, ieiueiieo oa ia’?iieo i?aaiiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a a?ae oi?ie aeeaioa (neeuei? cai?ioi? ca’ycee i?ae iiia?a/iei ?iaeaenii aeeaioa oa aenioith oeoiea, i?yi? ca’ycee na?aaeiuei? neee i?ae iiia?a/iei ?iaeaenii aeeaioa oa iiia?a/iei ia?a??cii aeia oeoiea). Iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie iieacieeaie, ui aeinoia??ii iieacothoue iaeaaei?noue oeoiea aei a?aeiia?aeiiai niiaoioeio, ?: aaee/eia eiai aenioe, iieaciee ae?aiao?a ia?a??co ia ??ai? ea?ae??, iieaciee ieiu? ia?a??co ia ??ai? ea?ae??, ?ic?aoiaaiee ia’?i oa aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiee iieaciee oeoiea. I?yiiaeni? ?ici??e oeoiea ca aeaieie ?aa?aneaiiai aiae?co iathoue a?eueoo caeaaei?noue a?ae niiaoioeio i?ae ai?eciioaeuei?. Ii?oiiao?e/iee aiae?c i?eaeeoo?ai? ?aeiino?oeoe?? oeoiea ia iniia? eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao?? aeyaey? aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae e?i?eieie, ieiueiieie, ia’?iieie ?ici??aie oeoiea oa niiaoiiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie. Nooi?iue a?aeoeeaiiy in? i?ei?e/iiai a?aeae?eo oeoiea oa aa?oiuei? /anoeie aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee a?ae in? o?ea oeoiea aeinoia??ii caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio noaoo?e ethaeeie. ?ici??e oa oi?ia iia?iaaiiai oeoiea ia caeaaeaoue a?ae oeio eiinoeoooe?? ethaeeie. Iia?iaaiee oeoiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iai?aaeeueiith oi?iith, iaoiiaeaiith ooai?aiiyi niaeie, ciaioaiiyi aeiaaeeie, aenioe, ia’?io oeoiea a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie aeaeaeaii? /anoeie i?aaia. O iaeaeeae/ee i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae /ano?oa niinoa??aa?oueny i?oeiiiae?aia oi?ia oeoiea, a a a?aeaeaeai? no?iee i?ney ?acaeoe?? - e?eeiiiae?aia oa oeee?iae?e/ia. I?ina?o oa ieiua oeoiea ia ??ai? o?ea caeaaeaoue a?ae ieiu? oa i?ina?oo oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai aianoiiico, iiia?a/ieo ?ici???a i?ea?aeii? oa a?aea?aeii? eeoee aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico. Iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie iieacieeaie ci?ie oi?ie oeoiea i?ney iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ? iieacieee aenioe oeoiea, ia’?io oeoiea oa aeiaaeeiii-oe?ioiee iieaciee. No?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa no?iee oeoiea i?ney iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue i?iyaey?oueny ciaioaiiyi oiaueie neeciai? iaieiiee o?ea oeoiea, oiaueie aeanii? ieanoeiee, aeeaeie oeoieiaeo yiie. C? c?inoaiiyi oa?i?i?a i?ney?acaeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo a neeaae? ooiaeaeueieo caeic ciaioo?oueny e?eueeinoue aieiaieo oa ia???oaeueieo ee?oei, ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaith eeoeiai? iaoaieac??. I?ioean ?aaaia?aoe??, ui i?ioiaeeoue a eoen?, ia cae?i/o?oueny iiyaith iiaiioe?iieo caeic, ui ca’ycaii c ii?ooaiiyi aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy caeicenoeo ee?oei. Noai aiaeie?eiiiai aia?aoo iia?iaaiiai oeoiea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ciaioaiiyi e?eueeino? G oa D ee?oei, a?ia?ieac??th aioa?io?iiao?iiiiae?aieo ee?oei, ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? ooieoe?iiaeueii aeoeaieo A-iiae?aieo ee?oei. A ??ci? oa?i?ie i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo i?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea A-iiae?ai? ee?oeie ciaoiaeyoueny a ??ciiio ooieoe?iiaeueiiio noai?, aea e?euee?nii ia?aaaaeathoue ee?oeie c aenieith ooieoe?iiaeueiith aeoeai?noth. O a?aeaeaeai? no?iee i?ioiaeeoue a?ia?ieac?y ?o c ianooiiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th a a?ia?o?io?/i? oi?ie. C?inoa? /enei aeaiaio?a a?aioey?ii? aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee, ieaciaoe/iiai eiiieaeno, cieaeo?oueny aeaeo?iiia u?euei?noue oeeoiieacie, ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe, a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioaineaia aeae?eaiiy ai?noo oeeo a?aioe a ia?eeai?ey?iee i?ino??. I?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea niinoa??aa?oueny oacia?noue ci?i aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na?icii? iaieiiee, ca’ycie oeoiea, a?eae? aianoiiico?ii? eeoee, ye? iieyaathoue a iiya? niaci?a oa ?icoe?aiue, caeaenoino? a?oa??ie ia ii/aoeo i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. A iiaeaeueoiio, i?ney ?icoe?aiue a?oa??ieiaaioey?ieo aianoiiic?a, ?aaeoeoe?? iaooieoe?iioth/eo eai?ey??a aeieea? iinooiiaa ?icoe?aiiy a?oa??ie, ia?aaoaeiaa eai?ey?ii? n?oee noana?iciiai aaiii?e?ioeeeoeyoi?iiai ?onea. Ci?ia aaiiao?e/ii? oi?ie oeoiea caeaaeeoue a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oee?eoey?iiai, iicaeiaaeiueiai oa einiai i’yciaeo oa??a oeoiea, ?ieue yeeo a oi?iiooai?aii? ??cia. Iaoaiaoe/ia caeaaei?noue aeaoi?ioth/i? ooieoe?? a?ae nei?i/aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? a?oie i’yc?a aeicaiey? a?aeoai?eoe oi?io oeoiea ia ethaiio aoai? aeaoi?iaoe?? no?iee oeoiea. Anoaiiaeaia iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy oaeiai oeio c’?aeiaiiy oiiei? eeoee c? oeoieii, yea aoaea caaeiaieueiyoe ieaai?noth ia?aoiaeo coeoeo iiaa?oiiue ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe a iiaeaeueoiio iioeiaeuei?noue caaaioaaeaiiy oeoiea, a?aenooi?noue cano?eieo cii oa aeno?aiaeueieo oi/ie a cii? aano?iaioa?iaianoiiico. ?aoeiiiaeueiee iiooe iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao?ia ? aa?iaioia ?acaeoei? oeoiea c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaoiaeii aeaeo?iaiae?iaeeiaii/ieo aiaeiaie iieaco?, ui ?iciiuaiiy iicaeiaaeiuei? ini oiiei? eeoee iiae aino?ei eooii (450 ( 50) aei /anoeie iaei? e?eaeie, yea caeeoa?oueny iiney ?acaeoei? /anoeie oeoiea, ni?ey? ia oieueee cieaeaiith oeneo ia ae?eyioe? c'?aeiaiiy oeoiea c eeoeith, onoiaiith aeaio ? aieueoa i?ioeeaaeieo cii iiaeaeuaiiai oeneo, aea e caaacia/o? ieaaia ia?aiiuaiiy oeoieiaiai aiinoo i?ae /an eiai aaaeoaoei? (a?aeiia?aeii aei eiiie ieeio ?iaeeie), aeeeth/a? aiae?iaeeiaii/ii oaea?e. O??o?a?/ia ei?aeoe?y oeoiea, ?ic?iaeaia ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy eiai oi?ie, ni?ey? a?eueo iiai?e ?aae?caoe?? ?aaaia?aoeaieo aeanoeainoae oeaiei ia ae?eyioe? aianoiiico, ciaioo? caiaeuei? i?ioeane neeciai? oeoiea, caaacia/o? a?aenooi?noue ae?aceiaeo ooai?aiue eoene oeoiea, caiia?aa? aeoiaeaii-aano?aeueiiio ?aoetheno. Oaoiieia?y c’?aeiaiiy no?iie oeoiea oa eeoee c iaoith ii?oe?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy ai?noo oeoiea ca aeaniith iaoiaeeeith i?enei?th? ?aaaia?aoe?th c’?aeiaieo oa??a, ciaioo? caiaeuei? oa iae?ioe/i? oneeaaeiaiiy, ?io?eoaaiiy ii?iaeieie i/a?aaeie. I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? Ciaioaiiy ae?? oeneo ai?noo oeoiea ia ae?eyieo oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai aianoiiico i?e ?acaeoe?? oeoiea (onoiaiiy oneeaaeiaiue: iaaeinoaoi?noue oa?a aianoiiico, ii?ooaiiy aaaeoaoe?? oeoieiaiai ai?noo, ooai?aiiy ne?iiai i?oea iaoe? oiiei? eeoee, ui aianoiiico?oueny, aeieeiaiiy neiae?iio i?ea?aeii? iaoe?) aeinyaa?oueny oei, ui i?iaiaeyoue ?ciia?enoaeueoe/ia c'?aeiaiiy oiiei? eeoee c eoenith oeoiea c? noi?iie aaeeei? e?eaeie ca niiniaii e?iaoeue-e?iaoeue-a?e oaeei /eiii, uia iicaeiaaeiy a?nue eeoee ?icoaoiaoaaeany i?ae eooii 450 ( 50 aei i?ia?aeii? in? eoene oeoiea. Iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy aeeiio?oueny a ianooii?e iine?aeiaiino?: iaeeaaeaiiy IAEEA-60 i?ae oeoieii oa eeoeith; ?icoei no?iie oeoiea ? eeoee oa oi?ioaaiiy caaeiuei? aoae aianoiiico; iaeeaaeaiiy oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai aeanoe/iiai caoenea/a; a?aen?/aiiy o?aaeaii? /anoeie oeoiea i?ae aeiiii oa oeoieiai-eeoeiaei aeanoe/iei caoenea/ai; iaeeaaeaiiy IAEEA-60 aeey oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaeiuei? aoae aianoiiico; oi?ioaaiiy Y-iiae?aiiai aioa?i-aioa?iaianoiiico ia a?aenoai? 45 ni a?ae oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai aianoiiico. Aeei?enoaiiy oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai aeanoe/iiai caoenea/a nei?i/o? /an aeeiiaiiy ?acaeoe?? oeoiea, ni?iuo? oaoi?eo iaeeaaeaiiy oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai aianoiiico ?o/iei aai aia?aoiei, c aeei?enoaiiyi IAEEA-60, niiniaii i?e a?eueo oi/iiio ni?anoaaeaii? a?aeae?e?a oeoiea oa oiiei? eeoee, ui aoiaeyoue a aianoiiic, oeyoii iaeii/anii? ?o o?enaoe??. C iaoith noai?aiiy iaoai?cio aeey ii?oe?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy ai?noo oeoiea /a?ac aano?iaioa?iaianoiiic oi?ioaaiiy inoaiiueiai aeeiio?oueny oeyoii iioa?iaiai c’?aeiaiiy no?iie oeoiea oa eeoee. I?ae /an ?icn?/aiiy oeoiea ?icoa?iaothoue eiai no?ieo i?ae i’yciaith iaieiieith oa i?aeneeciaei oa?ii, c’?aeiothoue i?ioea?eaeiaee e?ae eeoee ? i?aeneeciaee oa? oeoiea ia iaiao?aeiiio i?ii?aeeo, a i’ycia? iaieiiee oeoiea c’?aeiothoue c aeana?iciaaieie aieiaei iiaa?oiyie eeoee, ia aeioiaey/e aei a?eaeiaiai e?ath. Aeey noai?aiiy a aenia?eiaio? aaeaeaaoii? iiaeae? aeoiaeaiiaano?aeueiiai ?aoetheno, yea a aeicaieeea a oiae? o?ii?/iiai aenia?eiaioo aea/aoe ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie aeeeeeai? aeaiei neiae?iiii oa aei?iaiaoaaoe niiniae eiai i?io?eaeoeee, i?iiiio?oueny ii ia?aaei?e ? caaei?e iiaa?oi? oeoiea ia ae?eyioe? no?ieoa?a ai?ioa?y aeeiiaoe i?ei?ii?ioii?th aei aeaooaiiy neeciai? iaieiiee. Aeinooi aei caaeiuei? iiaa?oi? cae?eniththoue /a?ac ?ic??c a aacnoaeeii?e cii? oeoieiaiiaiaeiai? ca'ycee, yeee iio?i caoeaathoue aoceiaeie oaaie. Nienie i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? I?aoi?ae A.?., Aiae I.I. Iniaeeaino? ia'?iii? no?oeoo?e eeaiaiiiai aia?aoo aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai ia?aoiaeo// I?aeia?iaeiee aeo?iae. A?niee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. - 1995. - N 5. - 4 n. Ieaoi?ae A.E., Aiae I.I. Ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea eeaiaiiuo iaoaieciia aeaeoaeea i?e ?aeiino?oeoeaiuo iia?aoeeyo // Aanoiee i?iaeai nia?aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. - 1995. - N. 9. - N. 52 - 64. I?aoi?ae A.?., Aeiaaaiue ?.I., I?eyoaeue/oe A.I. Iaoaiaoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaethaaiiy oi?ie ? ooieoe?? no?aaio?aeii-oeoieiaiai ia?aoiaeo // Aanoiee i?iaeai nia?aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. - 1995. - N 9. - N.9-14. Kostyuk G.Y., Pivtorak V.I., Saurabh Jain Forming of Gastroenterostomosis Depending on the Stomach Form ?n Different Types of Human Constitution // SDMH Journal (India).- 1996. - V 20, N. 3 . - P. 136-142. Pivtorak V.I., Zagn?boroda P.K. Medvetsk? E.B. B?oenerget?cal evaluation of cardiac muscle cells ?n depending on the endotoxicosis level while operating on the organs of abdominal cavity. // Reports of Morphology (A?niee ii?oieia??). 1996, Vol.2, N 1. - 55-59. AEo/aiei N.I., I?aoi?ae A.?. Canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e ia oeoieo // Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y. - 1997, - N 2. - C.21-24. I?aoi?ae A.?. Eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/ia ?aeiino?oeoe?y oeoiea // A?niee ii?oieia??. - 1997, - N 1. - N. 36-37. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oi?iiooai?thth/i? ooieoe?? einiai oa?o i’yc?a oeoiea / I?aoi?ae A.?., Aiaa/oe N.A., ?eiaethe A.?., I?eyoaeue/oe A.I. // A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - 1997, - O.1, N 2. - N. 18-19. I?aoi?ae A.?., Caaieai?iaea I.E., Ieueoiiye A.A. Iniaaiiinoe eiiiainaoi?ii-i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee iinea iia?aoeaiuo aiaoaoaeuenoa ia aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iii o?aeoa. // A?niee ii?oieia??. 1997. - O.3, N 2. - N. 99-101. Ii?oiaaiac neiae?iio aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? i?e aino??e o??o?a?/i?e iaoieia?? /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie (aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy). / Ieueoiiye I.I., I?aoi?ae A.?., Aiaa/oe N.A., Einothe A.ss., AEo/aiei N.I., sse?iaiei. I.A. // A?niee ii?oieia??. 1997. - O.3, N 2. - N. 120-122. Pivtorak V.I. Topographo-Anatom?cal Invest?gat?on of the Gastro-Duodenal Transfer. // Karnataka Medical Journal.- 1997. - V 66, N.1. - P. 13-15. I?aoi?ae A.?., Eiaaeue A.I. Oiiia?ao?y eeneioiooai?thth/eo cii neeciai? iaieiiee ?acaeoiaaiiai oeoiea // A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo 1998, - O.2, N 1. - N. 202-204. I?aoi?ae A.?. Aeeiai?ea no?oeoo?ieo ci?i neeciai? iaieiiee ?acaeoiaaiiai oeoiea. // A?niee ii?oieia??. 1998. O. 4, N 1. - N. 114-116. I?aoi?ae A.?., Ieueoiiye A.A., Caaieai?iaea I.E. Aca?iica'ycie ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oeoiea, aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee oa no?oeoo?ii-i?inoi?iai? aoaeiae aeia/iiai aea?aaa // A?niee ii?oieia??. 1998. O. 4, N 1. - N. 118-119. Pivtorak V.I. Experimental study of dynamics of the growth m?croorgan?sms and their influence on the structure and function of internal organs after operations on organs of the d?gest?ve system // Yuvsatta. .- 1998 . - V 8, N.1 . - P.37-40. I?aoi?ae A.?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea A-iiae?aieo aiaeie?eiieo ee?oei a iia?iaaiiio oeoieo // A?oea eeeie/aneie e yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaaeeoeeiu. - 1998.- O.7, ? 2. I?eeiaeaiea. - N.95-97. I?aoi?ae A.?. I?enoinoaaeueii-eiiiainaoi?i? ?aaeoe?? a iia?iaaiiio oeoieo ye ?acoeueoao caaacia/aiiy aiiainoaco // Oe?a?inueeee iaaee/iee aeueiaiao. - 1998. ? 3. N.47-49. I?aoi?ae A.?., Aiae I.I. Iniaeeaino? aoaeiae aio?aeueiiai a?aeae?eo oeoiea oa aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai ia?aoiaeo // Aoeiaeinueeee iaaee/iee a?niee. - 1998. - O. 2, ? 1. N. 130-137. Iaoaiaoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaethaaiiy niiniao oi?ioaaiiy eoene aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee / Einothe A.ss., I?aoi?ae A.?., ?icia?eoey TH.I., Oeeaaeei A.O. // A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo 1998, - O.2, N 2. N. 490-493. I?aoi?ae A.?. Ooieoe?iiaeueii-ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?acaeoiaaiiai oeoiea oa i?e?ioei?a // A?niee ii?oieia??. 1998. - O. 4, N 2. - N. 168-171. I?aoi?ae A.?. Ooiia?aoiaiaoii?/ia oa i?aaiiiao?e/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?acaeoiaaiiai oeoiea ca aeaieie eiii'thoa?ii? oiiia?ao?? /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie // Ainiee ii?oieiai?. 1999. - O.5, N 1. - N. 32-34. I?aoi?ae A.?. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie oeoiea oa iaoai?cie noaa?e?caoe?? aiiainoaco i?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea // Ainiee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo. - 1999. - O.3, N 1. - N. 179-183. Niin?a e?eoaaiiy ai?eii-caiaeueieo i?ioean?a. Iien aei iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae. - 5 n. Iao. UA ? 20765A Oe?a?ia MIK A 61 B17/00 Cayae. 14.01.94; Iioae. 27.02.98, , io?oe?eiee athe. I?iieneiaa aeani?noue ? 1. (Ni?aaao. Aa?auaiei ?.?,, A?eueoeaithe I.I., AEae?aa I.Ae., *oeei I.I.). Aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaeue aeoiaeaiiaano?aeueiiai ?aoethena. Iien aei iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae. - 3 n. Iao. UA ? 20815A Oe?a?ia MIK A 61 B17/00 Cayae. 23.11.95; Iioae. 27.02.98, io?oe?eiee athe. I?iieneiaa aeani?noue ? 1. (Ni?aaao. Aiae I.I., AEo/aiei N.I., Einothe A.ss., Aeiaaaiue ?.I., Eiiiie?oeueeee A.N., Neeaea I.ss., Neeaea A.I.) Niin?a iiaaiii?anieiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eeaiaiieo aia?ao?a oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo. Iien aei iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae. - 3 n. Iao. UA ? 21992A Oe?a?ia MIK A 61 B17/00 Cayae. 23.11.95; Iioae. 30.04.98, io?oe?eiee athe. I?iieneiaa aeani?noue ? 2. (Ni?aaao. Aiae I.I., Aeiaaaiue ?.I., Eiiiie?oeueeee A.N.) Niin?a eeaiaiii? ?aeiino?oeoeaii? iia?aoe?? a cii? aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai ia?aoiaeo. Iien aei iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae. - 5 n. Iao. UA ? 21993A Oe?a?ia MIK A 61 B17/00 Cayae. 23.11.95; Iioae. 30.04.98, io?oe?eiee athe. I?iieneiaa aeani?noue - ? 2. (Ni?aaao. Aiae I.I., Eiiiie?oeueeee A.N., Aeiaaaiue ?.I.) I?aoi?ae A.?., AEo/aiei N.I., Einothe A.ss. Caaeneiinoue iioi?ii-yaaeoaoi?iie ooieoeee aeaeoaeea io aiiaue nicaeaiiie aai iauaiiie oi?iu // Caaieaaaiey i?aaiia ieuaaa?aiey n oi/ee c?aiey oa?aiaaoa e oe?o?aa: ?anioae?eainueea iaoeiai-i?aeo. eiio. aano?iaioa?ieia?a: Oace aeiiia?aeae. 8-9 aa?aniy 1992 ?. Aeiiaoeuee.-1992. N.173. AEo/aiei N.I., Einothe A.ss. I?aoi?ae A.?. I?aenoiee aea/aiiy ia'?iii? oi?ie oeoiea oa ooieoe?e oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo a aenia?eiaio?. // O ia'?aeiaia iaoeiaa iaaeeei-oaoi?/ia eiio. (c i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth): Oac. aeii. 25 aa?aniy 1992 ?. - A?iieoey-Ee?a, 1992. - N. 21-22. Ieaoi?ae A.E. Ii?oieiae/aneea iniiau iioi?ii- yaaeoaoi?iie ooieoeee aeaeoaeea // Ioaa o ae?aaiinoeoe? caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy. Ia?oa Iiae?euenueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y aano?iaioa?ieia?a (22-24 aa?aniy 1993): Oac. aeiiia.- A?iieoey, 1993. - C. 166. I?eiaiaiea eiiaeiaoeee aunieiaeenia?niiai e?aiiacaia n i?aieeoe/aneeie oa?iaioaie aeey ea/aiey aiieiuo ?ai / Aa?auaiei ?.?., A?eueoeaithe A.A., AEae?aa M.Ae., I?aoi?ae A.?. // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ee?i?/ii? oa?iaeieia?? (ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iaoee ? aeeeaaeaiiy). ? Oe?a?inueea iaoeiaa eiio. Ca o/anoth e?a?i NIAe: Tec. aeiiia. - B?iieoey, 1993. - C. 221-222. Ieaoi?ae A.E. Aa?eaiou iauaiiie oi?iu aeaeoaeea e acaeiiioiioaiea i?aaiia a?thoiie iieinoe aei e iinea ?aeiino?oeoeaiuo iia?aoeee // ?iaeea?aeoaeueia aiaoii?/ia i?ieea?noue i?aai?a, nenoai, oeaiei ethaeeie ? ?? cia/aiiy aeey i?aeoeee: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 80-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy i?ioani?a O.A. Cieioa?ueiai?. - Iieoaaa, 1994. - N. 187. I?aoi?ae A.?. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?oiaeuei? ci?ie oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo i?cey iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia oeoieo // Iaoa??aee ??? ?ecioae?eainueei? o/aiai-iaoiaee/ii? oa iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? caa. eaoaae?aie caaaeueii? o??o?a?? iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie (11-12 o?aaiy 1994?.). A?iieoey, 1994. - N. 59-60. I?aoi?ae A.?. Eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? ci?ie i?aai?a eeoeiai-oeoieiaiai o?aeoo i?cey iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia oeoieo // O?? ia'?aeiaia iaoeiaa iaaeeei-oaoi?/ia eiio. (c i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth): Oac. aeii. 16-17 /a?aiy 1994 ?.- Ee?a - A?iieoey, 1994.- N. 36. Caaieai?iaea I.E., Ieaoi?ae A.E. Noaiaiue eioeoee?iaaiey iieinoe a?thoeiu iinea iia?aoeaiuo aiaoaoaeuenoa // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. ? Iaoe?oiaeueiee eiia?an aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??oeia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie: Oac. aeiiia. (8-10 aa?aniy 1994) - ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1994. - N. 65-66. I?aoi?ae A.?. Mopoiooieoe?oiaeuei? ocoaeeaino? oeoiea aei- oa i?cey iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. ? Iaoe?oiaeueiee eiia?an aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??oeia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie: Oac. aeiiia. (8-10 aa?aniy 1994) - ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1994. - N. 141. I?aoi?ae A.?. Iniaeeaino? oi?ie oa no?oeoo?e oeoiea a ii?i?, i?e iaoieia?? oa i?cey iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia oeoieo // A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. M.?. Ie?iaiaa. Iaoa??aee c iaoeiai? ?iaioe ni?a?ia?oiee?a. I?ae ?aae. i?io. A.I. Ii?ica. - A?iieoey, 1994 - N. 270-271. Ieaoi?ae A.E. Oe?o?ae/aneay oaeoeea e auai? iaoiaea iia?aoeee ia aeaeoaeea n o/aoii aai iauaiiie oi?iu // Iiaia a aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aiee caaieaaaiee i?aaiia ieuaaa?aiey. Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiio. (14-15 a?oaeiy 1994). Oa?e?a, 1994. - N. 194. Ieaoi?ae A.E., AEo/aiei N.I., Einothe A.ss. Iniaaiiinoe ia?ooaiee nenoaiu ieuaaa?aiey i?e ?acaeoeee aeaeoaeea // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco: Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 100-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy I.A.Oo?eaie/a. *a?i?aoe?, 1994. - C. 139-140. I?aoi?ae A.?., Aiae I.I. No?oeoo?a oa ooieoe?y aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai ia?aoiaeo // ? I?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an c ?ioaa?aoeaii? aio?iiieia??. Iaoa??aee eiia?ano. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo ?ia?o. Oa?iii?eue, 1995. - N. 268-269. Einothe A.ss., I?aoi?ae A.?. Caeiiii??iino? ci?i oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/ieo oa ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a oeoiea i?ney iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue // ? I?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an c ?ioaa?aoeaii? aio?iiieia??. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo ?ia?o. Oa?iii?eue, 1995. - N. 194-195. Einothe A.ss., I?aoi?ae A.?., Iia??/ee ?.N. Oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy I.?. Ie?iaiaa oa no/ania eiii'thoa?ia oiiia?ao?y // Ie?iaianuee? /eoaiiy. Iaoa??aee. A?iieoey, 1995. - N. 34-35. I?aoi?ae A.?. Ia'?iia oi?ia oa neiioiiieiiieaene iia?iaaiiai oeoiea. // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aano?iaioa?ieia?/ieo oai?eo: Iaoa??aee neiiic?oio. *a?i?aoe?, 1996. - N. 249-252. I?aoi?ae A.?. Oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ie, ?ici???a iia?iaaiiai oa iaiia?iaaiiai oeoiea. // Iaoa??aee V Pecioa. o/aiai-iaoiaee/ii? oa iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? caa. eaoaae?aie caaaeueii? o??o?a?? iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie (25-26 ea?oiy 1996?.). Oa?iii?eue , 1996. - N. 112-113. I?aoi?ae A.?., Aiaa/oe N.A. Aeaeo?e/ia oa ?ooiaa aeoeai?noue oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo i?ae ae??th aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? a aenia?eiaio?. // Iaoa??aee V Pecioa o/aiai-iaoiaee/ii? oa iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? caa. eaoaae?aie caaaeueii? o??o?a?? iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie (25-26 ea?oiy 1996?.). Oa?iii?eue , 1996. - N. 113-114. Einothe A.ss., I?aoi?ae A.?. Iaoaiaoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaethaaiiy iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia oeoieo // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco : iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. *a?i?aoe?, 1996. - N.165. I?aoi?ae A.?. Aaeaioeai? ?aaeoe?? iia?iaaiiai oeoiea. // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo ?ia?o. - Oa?iii?eue, 1996. - O. 2. - N.510-513. Einothe A.ss., I?aoi?ae A.?., Caaieai?iaea I.E. Aieea ?ioieneeaoe?? ia na?oeaai-noaeeiio nenoaio i?e iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiiyo ia i?aaiao /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oai?aoe/ii? oa ee?i?/ii? iaaeeoeeie ia no/aniiio ??ai?: iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. Iieoaaa, 1996. - N.195-196. Ieaoi?ae A.E. Iino?acaeoeeiiiua ineiaeiaiey iinea iia?aoeee ia aeaeoaeea e eo i?ioeeaeoeea. // O?aaeeoeeiiiay iaaeeoeeia: oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea aniaeou: 2 iao/iue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiia?ann (*aaiena?u, 21-23 iay 1996) *aaiena?u, 1996. - N. 165. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue a iaaee/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo / Einothe A.ss., AEo/aiei N.I., I?aoi?ae A.?., Eiinueeee E.E., ?icia??oea TH.I., AEo/aiei I.N., Ieueoiiye I.I. // I?eioeeie i?iii?oe??, neiao???, no?oeoo?ii? aa?iii?? oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a ii?oieia??. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio. - A?iieoey, 1997. - N. 99-100 Iaoaiaoe/i? caeiiii??iino? oi?iiooai?thth/i? ooieoe?? iicaeiaaei?o oa oee?eoey?ieo i’yciaeo oa??a o?ea oeoiea / I?aoi?ae A.?., Aiaa/oe N.A., ?eiaethe A.?., I?eyoaeue/oe A.I. // I?eioeeie i?iii?oe??, neiao???, no?oeoo?ii? aa?iii?? oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a ii?oieia??. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio. - A?iieoey, 1997. - N. 151-153. Pivtorak V.I. Computer tomographical studies on the voluminal form of the stomach for optimal formation of gastroenteroanastomosis. // Annals of anatomy. - 1999. - Bd. 181, Supl. - H. Anatomische Geselschaft: Verhandlungen der Anatomische Geselschaft 94. In Hamburg vom 26. Bis 29. Marz 1999. - S. 153. AIIOAOe?ss I?aoi?ae A.?. Oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/i?, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? oa iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy iia?iaaiiai oeoiea. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01 - ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. - Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, Ee?a, 1999. A ?iaio? ?icaeiooee iiaee iai?yiie a aiaoii?? oeoiea, a iniiao yeiai iieeaaeaii aaioiiia?ao?/iee i?eioeei ?aeiino?oeoe?? oi?ie i?aaia ca eiii’thoa?iioiiia?ao?/ieie c??caie. Anoaiiaeai? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ci?i a iia?iaaiiio oeoieo. Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy ia nooe?eueieo aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo na?aaeiaeuao, i?iaiae?ciaai? iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai? noi?iie ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e i?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea. A aenia?eiaio? ia oaa?eiao aeiaaaeaia aca?iicaeaaei?noue ci?i ia’?iii? oi?ie oeoiea, i?ioean?a ia?ai?uaiiy ai?noo, ye?niiai oa e?euee?niiai neeaaeo i?e?ioei?e. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ci?i neeciai? iaieiiee i?ney ?acaeoe?? oeoiea, iniiaai? ia e?euee?nieo iaoiaeao. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiee aa??aio iia?aoe??, ui ciaeoia canoinoaaiiy a ee?i?oe?. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeoiie, aiaoii?y, iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy, ?acaeoe?y, oiiia?ao?y, ?aeiino?oeoe?y. AIIIOAOeEss Ieaoi?ae A.E. Oiiia?aoi-aiaoiie/aneea, no?oeoo?ii- ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe e iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea iia?e?iaaiiiai aeaeoaeea. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 - ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. - Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao ei. A.A. Aiaiiieueoea, Eeaa, 1999. A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea a aiaoiiee aeaeoaeea, iniiaaiiia ia aaioiiia?aoe/aneii i?eioeeia ?aeiino?oeoeee aai oi?iu ii eiiiuethoa?iioiiia?aoe/aneei n?acai. Enneaaeiaaiea ninoiyei ec aio?iiiiao?e/aneiai e i?aaiiiao?e/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey 197 o?oiia ethaeae, eioi?ua ia eiaee iaoieiae/aneeo eciaiaiee aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa e 47 o?oiia, eioi?ua eiaee eciaiaiey iinea oe?o?ae/aneeo aiaoaoaeuenoa ia aeaeoaeea. I?iaaaeaii ieaieiao?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea eiiiuethoa?iuo oiiia?aii a?thoiie iieinoe 137 iaoeeaioia, aac iaoieiaee aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa e 51 iaoeeaioa iinea ?acaeoeee aeaeoaeea, a oaeaea 38 ?aioaaiia?aii iaiia?e?iaaiiuo e 35 ?aioaaiia?aii iia?e?iaaiiuo aeaeoaeeia. Ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe ?acaoee?iaaiiiai aeaeoaeea eco/aiu ia iaoa?eaea aano?iaeiinee, acyouo o 54 aieueiuo i?e oea?iaano?ineiie/aneii ianeaaeiaaiee, e iia?aoeeiiiii iaoa?eaea 12 aieueiuo iinea ?aeiino?oeoeaiuo iia?aoeee ia aeaeoaeea. Onoaiiaeaiu no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiee a iia?e?iaaiiii aeaeoaeea. Auyaeaiu iaeaieaa eioi?iaoeaiua iieacaoaee, eioi?ua aeinoiaa?ii iieacuaatho i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aeaeoaeea e niioaaonoaothuaio niiaoioeio. Yoi aaee/eia auniou aeaeoaeea, iieacaoaeue aeeaiao?a na/aiey aeaeoaeea ia o?iaia ea?aeeaeueiiai ioaeaea, iieacaoaeue ieiuaaee na/aiey aeaeoaeea ia o?iaia ea?aeeaeueiiai ioaeaea, ?ann/eoaiiue iauai e aeieaioii-oe?ioiue iieacaoaeue aeaeoaeea. Aa?oeeaeueiua ?acia?u aeaeoaeea ca aeaiiuie ?aa?anneaiiai aiaeeca eiatho aieueooth caaeneiinoue io niiaoioeia /ai ai?eciioaeueiua. I?eioeeieaeueii iiaue iaoiaee/aneee iiaeoiae e eco/aieth oiiia?aoee oaea /aeiaaea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?eaeeciaiii neiino?oe?iaaoue oi?io aeaeoaeea aieueiiai e i?aaeeiaeeoue iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiia iia?aoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae no?iaiey aeaeoaeea. Eniieuecoy iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea ia nieioiuo yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiuo n?aaeao, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu ?aeiino?oeoeaiuo iia?aoeee iinea ?acaeoeee aeaeoaeea. Aeieacaii, /oi ?aniieiaeaiea i?iaeieueiie ine oiieie eeoee iiae ino?ui oaeii (450 ( 50) e oie /anoe iaeie e?eaeciu, eioi?ay inoaaony iinea ?acaeoeee /anoe aeaeoaeea, niinianoaoao ia oieueei nieaeaieth aeaaeaiey a iaeanoe niaaeeiaiey aeaeoaeea n eeoeie, eneeth/aieth aeaoo e aieaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo cii iiauoaiiiai aeaaeaiey, ii e iaania/eaaao ieaaiia ia?aiauaiea aeaeoaei/iiai niaea?aeeiiai i?e aai yaaeoaoeee (niaeanii eeieyi oa/aiey aeeaeeinoe), eneeth/aao aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea oaea?u. A yenia?eiaioa ia aeeaioiuo (45 aanii?iaeiuo niaae) aeieacaia acaeiicaaeneiinoue eciaiaiee iauaiiie oi?iu aeaeoaeea, i?ioeannia ia?aiauaiey niaea?aeeiiai, ea/anoaaiiiai e eiee/anoaaiiiai ninoaaa iee?ioei?u. Oe?o?ae/aneay ei??aeoeey aeaeoaeea, eioi?ay ?ac?aaioaia ia iniiaa iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey aai oi?iu, iieacuaaao aunieoth ?aaaia?aoeaioth niiniaiinoue aianoiiica, ionoonoaea ainiaeeoaeueiuo e ycaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee eoeueoe aeaeoaeea, aeoiaeaii-aano?aeueiiai ?aoethena. Auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe eciaiaiee neecenoie iaiei/ee iinea ?acaeoeee aeaeoaeea, iniiaaiiua ia eiee/anoaaiiuo iaoiaeao. Caeiiiia?iinoe no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee aeaeoaeea iinea ?acaeoeee i?iyaeyeenue n aic?anoaieai n?ieia iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea oiaiueoaieai oieueiu neecenoie iaiei/ee oaea aeaeoaeea, oieueiu aeaeacenoiai neiy, aeoaeiu aeaeoaei/iuo yiie, oiaiueoaieai eiee/anoaa aeaaiuo e ia?eaoaeueiuo eeaoie, oaaee/aieai noaiaie ?ani?ino?aiaiey eeoa/iie iaoaieacee, nii?iaiaeaeaeenue nieaeaieai eeneioii?iaeoeoeee aeaeoaeea, oaaee/aieai iee?ioei?u aeaeoaeea. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiua aa?eaiou iia?aoeee, iaoaaeoea i?eiaiaiea a eeeieea. Aeey nicaeaiey iaoaiecia ii?oeeiiiiai ia?aiauaiey niaea?aeeiiai aeaeoaeea /a?ac aano?iyioa?iaianoiiic iinea ?acaeoeee aeaeoaeea, i?ioeeaeoeee iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo ineiaeiaiee (iaaeinoaoi/iinoe oaia aianoiiica, ia?ooaiey yaaeoaoeee aeaeoaei/iiai niaea?aeeiiai, iiyaeaiey neaiiai iaoea iaoee oiieie eeoee, eioi?ay aianoiiice?oao, neiae?iia i?eaiaeyuae iaoee), ?ac?aaioai i?eaeiaeueiue niinia oi?ie?iaaiey aano?iyioa?iaianoiiica iaaeaeo eoeueoae aeaeoaeea e oiieie eeoeie niiniaii eiiaoe a eiiaoe-aie, /oi auiieiyaony iooai iineieiiai niaaeeiaiey noaiie aeaeoaeea e eeoee. Ai a?aiy ?anna/aiey aeaeoaeea ?anneaeaatho aai noaieo iaaeaeo iuoa/iie e iiaeneecenoie iaiei/eaie, niaaeeiytho i?ioeaia?uaeaa/iue e?ae eeoee e iiaeneecenoue neie aeaeoaeea ia iaiaoiaeeiii i?iiaaeooea, a iuoa/iua iaiei/ee aeaeoaeea n aeana?ice?iaaiiuie aieiauie iiaa?oiinoyie aianoiiice?oaiie eeoee (iaiaaeaiiie iuoa/iie iaiei/eie eeoee), ia aeioiaey aei a?uaeaeee eeoee. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aiaae?aiu a o/aaiue i?ioeann. ?ac?aaioaiiua niiniau ?acaeoeee aeaeoaeea e aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iue yeanoe/aneee caaeei aiaae?aiu a i?aeoeeo oe?o?ae/aneie eeeieee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaeoaeie, aiaoiiey, iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, ?acaeoeey, oiiia?aoey, ?aeiino?oeoeey. ANNOTATION Pivtorak V.I. Topographo-anatomical, structure-functional features and mathematical modelling of operated stomach - Manuscript. Thesis for the scientific degree of doctor of medical sciences in the speciality 14.03.01 – normal anatomy. - National Medical University named after O.O. Bogomolets, Kyiv, 1999. In this study a new concept in the anatomy of stomach based on the geotopographical principal of reconstruction of its form with computer tomographical layers is developed. Patterns of structure-functional changes in the operated stomach were determined. Using mathematical modelling in complete electroconductive surroundings, all the positive and negative aspects of reconstructive operations after resection of stomach were analysed. In the experiments on animals, interdependence of the changes in volumetric form of stomach, process of mixing of its contents, qualitative and quantitative nature of its microflora has already been proved. The special changes in the mucous membrane of stomach after its resection were determined based on quantitative methods. The most optimal types of operations were suggested which are now used in clinical practice. The main results of this study have been incorporated in the educational process. Key words: stomach, anatomy, mathematical modelling, resection, tomography, reconstruction. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 15.06.99?. Caiiaeaiiy ? 315 Oi?iao 60o90/16 . Iai?? ionaoiee. Oiiai. ae?oea?. a?e. 2,0. Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. A?iieoey. Ae?oea?iy AAeIO ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa, Ie?iaiaa 56. PAGE 1 PAGE 1 PAGE 22

Похожие записи