1

AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO «EUeA?ANUeEA IIE?OAOI?EA»

Aaaecaiai ?aai Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 537.312 : 621.315.592.4

621.316.825.4

OA?II?ACENOI?I? AEAIAIOE NO?OIIAIAI CAOENOO

IA INIIA? EA?AI?*IEO IAI?AI?IA?AeIEEIAEO EIIIICEO?A

CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yI4

01.04.01 – o?ceea i?eeaae?a, aeaiaio?a ? nenoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ae?iaiaeoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie oa
Iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iio i?aei?e?inoa? «Ea?ao» I?i?noa?noaa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiaaeuenueeee Iaaei Ieeieaeiae/;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oiiothe Ieaa Eineiiae/,

canooiiee aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a IAI «Ea?ao».

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeio Ieaenaiae? Ai?eniae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eao Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,

aaia?aeueiee aee?aeoi? IAI «Oa?iii?eeaae».

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
?aaia O?aiea,

eaoaae?a ?aae?iaeaeo?iiiiai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «29» aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 16 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.14 i?e Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» (79013, i. Euea?a-13, aoe. N.Aaiaea?e, 12).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» (aoe. I?ioani?nueea, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «27» aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee _______________
?.?. Aaeoea?

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith no/aniiai aeaeo?iiiiai
i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ? caoeno ?aae?ioaoi?/ieo aeie?a, aoce?a, aia?aoo?e
a?ae no?oiiaeo ia?aaaioaaeaiue, ui aeieeathoue a oiiaao ia?ao?aeieo
?aaeei?a ?o aenieoaoaoe??; iai?eeeaae, a ii/aoeiaee iiiaio aeeth/aiiy, a
oiiaao ianoaa?eueii? ?iaioe aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy oiui. Ooieoe?iiaeueii
i?iaeaia no?oiiaiai caoenoo ae??oo?oueny oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy a
aeaeo?e/ieo noaiao ao?aeieo e?e aeaieo i?eno?i?a oa?ii?acenoi?ieo
aeaiaio?a (O?A) c a?ae?iiei oaiia?aoo?iei eiao?oe??ioii iii?o (OEI),
?iaioa yeeo aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? oae caaiiai oa?ii?acenoi?iiai
aoaeoo a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao, oiaoi oeiiai? aeey oeeo iaoa??ae?a
caeaaeiino? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e .

Aiae?c aeinyaiaiue i?ia?aeieo ca?oa?aeieo o??i, ui aeoeaii caeiathoueny
aeaiith i?iaeaiaoeeith (Philips, Siamens, Iiceo?ii) na?ae/eoue i?i
oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aeey aeaioiaeaiiy O?A ea?ai?/ieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
eiiiiceo?a (EIE) ia iniia? iane/aieo eoa?/ieo oi?iaeae ia?aaioeth,
eiaaeueoo, i?eaeth oa i?ae? (Mn,Ni,Co,Cu)3I4, ye? aieiae?thoue yne?aai
ae?aaeaiei oa?ii?acenoi?iei aoaeoii. A cia/i?e i??? oea noaei iiaeeeaei
caaaeyee ?ic?iaoe? iaa?oioiaaieo i?iieneiaeo iaoiae?a ?o iaea?aeaiiy (ye
i?aaeei, oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy ieneaeiiai iaoiaeo ea?ai?/ii? oaoiieia??),
a oaeiae eiiieaeno oni?oieo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iniiaieo
i?e?ino?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a, ui aecia/athoue ?o o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino?, aenieoaoaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e, niaoeeo?eo i?ioean?a
aeaeo?iia?aiino. Aaaeeeai a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? aeae?eeoe caneoae
?in?enueei? iaoeiai? oeiee ?.O.Oaooaey, i?aaenoaaieeaie yei? ?ic?iaeai?
O?A ??ciiiai?oiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aeaeo?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino? EIE iaaieo
neeaae?a oa aeayeeo ?o a?eueo neeaaeieo eiiiiceoe?e, cai?iiiiiaaieo aeey
oe?ieiianooaaiiai i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy, aea/ai? aeineoue aeaoaeueii,
i?iaeaia oe?eani?yiiaaiiai iaea?aeaiiy ea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a aeey noai?aiiy O?A oe?ieiai ?yaeo oeiiiii?iae?a, ye?
aieiae?ee a eiiieaenii iaia?aae aecia/aieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a,
caeeoa?oueny a cia/i?e i??? ia?icaycaiith.

Ianaiia?aae, aino?i a?ae/oaa?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee i?eioeeiiai
iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei a?aeai?o EIE (iniiaieo neeaaeiee?a ea?ai?/ii?
iao?eoe?, a oaeiae ??ciiiai?oieo iiaeeo?eoth/eo aeii?oie), ye?
caaacia/oaaee a iayai?noue /?oei ae?aaeaiiai oa?ii?acenoi?iiai aoaeoo c
oe?ieei ae?aiaciiii e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a. Oae, cie?aia, aeey
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy iaiao?aeii iaoe iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? iaoa??aee c
ieoiiei iii?ii a?ae 0.01 Iii aei 100 Iii ? aeineoue aenieith
oaiia?aoo?iith /ooeea?noth, yea aecia/a?oueny iino?eiith A (iieacieeii
aeniiiaioe a oaiia?aoo?i?e caeaaeiino? aeaeo?iiii?o O?A) ia ??ai? 2500 –
3500 E. Oae ye oe? aeiiae, acaaae? eaaeo/e, ? aca?iiaeeeth/ath/eie,
i?eiaeii? a iaaieo ae?aiaciiao ci?ie iii?iaeueiiai iii?o, ii?aeiaiiy ?o
a EIE iio?aao? a?eueo a?oioiaiiai aea/aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eiiiiceoe?eieo
caeaaeiinoae.

O?aaeeoe?eii aeey ae??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? aeei?enoiao?oueny i?aeo?ae,
nooue yeiai iieyaa? a iioeiaeueiiio aeai?? a yeino? iniiaieo neeaaeiee?a
EIE ieene?a 3d-ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a, ui aeicaiey? eeoa /anoeiai ?icaycaoe
aeaio i?iaeaio.

E??i oeueiai, a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy iio?aaothoue i?e?ino?oeoo?i?
i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia e?ioeaaeo oaoiieia?/ieo noaae?yo
io?eiaiiy EIE a oiiaao aeniei- oa iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo a?aeiae?a. sse
a?aeiii, oe? oa?ii?iaeoeiaai? i?ioeane nooo?ai aecia/athoue
aeaeo?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino? EIE ? O?A a oe?eiio, cie?aia, ia?aiao?e
oa?ii?acenoi?iiai aoaeoo. Aiie ? iaa?ae?iiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
iiaiiai oaoiieia?/iiai oeeeeo iaea?aeaiiy ea?ai?/ieo O?A no?oiiaiai
caoenoo ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e, aea ?o iniaeeaino? aeine?aeaeaii
eeoa a ie?aieo (a?aeiinii a?eueo i?inoeo ii nai?io o?i?/iiio neeaaeo)
eiiiiceoao.

Caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?ei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue ca oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie IAe? oa AeE?
Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? IAI «Ea?ao»
o ?aieao aea?aeathaeaeaoieo oai «Iaoeia? iniiae oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy
neeaaeieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a aeey aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee » (i?iaeo ?
4/303 c Oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue AeEIO Oe?a?ie, 1993-1994
??.); «?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? ea?ai?ee oa
?? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith noai?aiiy iiooaeieo oa?ii?acenoi??a» (?
aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 01.96U010307, iaeac ? 187 a?ae 23.12.1993?.
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie); «?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy
oa?ii?acenoi??a aeey ca?eueoaiiy /ano neoaeae ina?oethaaeueieo eaii
?icaea?aiiy ? ?aae?iaeaeo?iiieo noai» (? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe??
01.96U010323, iaeac ? 340 a?ae 02.12.1994?. I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie); «?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? oa iaeaaiaeaeaiiy na??eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
ooieoe?iiaeueii? oa?ii?acenoi?ii? ea?ai?ee c a?ae?iiei oaiia?aoo?iei
eiao?oe??ioii iii?o aeey oe?eae no?oiiaiai caoenoo na?oeioaoi?/ieo
i?eno?i?a» (i?iaeo 05.09/001480 c Aea?aeaaiiai Oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue I?i?noa?noaa Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoee ? oaoiieia?e, ?
aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 01.97 U015338, 1997-1998??.); aea?aeaaiiai eiio?aeoo
«?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy oa iaeaaiaeaeaiiy na??eiiai aeioneo
?aae?ioaoi?/ii? oa?ii?acenoi?ii? ea?ai?ee c iaia?aae caaeaieie
aeanoeainoyie aeey no?oiiaiai caoenoo ?aae?iaia?aoo?e» (? aea?ae.
?a?no?aoe?? 01.95U022878, caiiaiee – I?iiaoi?ii Oe?a?ie, 1995-1996??.)
oa noai?ae?yaeii? oaie «Eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy oaaeaoie aeey
oa?ii?acenoi??a» (? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 01.94U0320107, caiiaiee — IAI
«Ea?ao», 1994-1995??.).

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy – eiiieaenia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-o-yCo2yMn2-yO4, oa?iiiiaeeo?eiaaieo i?e
aecia/aieo ia?aiao?ao a?aeiaeo, aeey noai?aiiy oe?iei? iiiaieeaoo?e O?A
no?oiiaiai caoenoo ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaaeaiiy:

a?aei?aoethaaoe oeiiaee oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean io?eiaiiy EIE ia iniia?
iane/aieo eoa?/ieo oi?iaeae CuxNi1-o-yCo2yMn2-yO4, aecia/eoe aeiionoei?
iaae? aa??aoe?? oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia a?aeiaeo aeey ??cieo neeaae?a
ea?ai?ee, io?eiaoe a?aeiia?aei? aenia?eiaioaeuei? c?acee O?A;

i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiieaeno oa?aeoa?enoee oa?ii?acenoi?iiai
aoaeoo a EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-o-yCo2yMn2-yO4, iiaoaeoaaoe eiioeaio?aoe?ei?
o?eeooieee ?o ci?ie, anoaiiaeoe iniiai? e?eoa??? a?aeai?o aeaieo
iaoa??ae?a c iaia?aae aecia/aieie aenieoaoaoe?eieie ia?aiao?aie;

aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/eoe o?ce/i? caeiiii??iino? oa i?e?ino?oeoo?i?
iaoai?cie aeniei- ? iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue a aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iaoa??aeao, anoaiiaeoe ?o aieea ia aeaeo?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino? noai?aieo
ia ?o iniia? O?A;

aeoiaey/e c io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a, a?ae?a?aoe
c?acee O?A c iaee?aueie aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao?aie (ii
/ania?e noaa?eueiino? ? no?eeino? aei ae?? ?aae?aoe?? oa aaaio?a
i?eiaeano?oeoe??).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Ae?iaeaii eiiieaeniee nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei a?aeai?o EIE c caaeaieie
aeanoeainoyie ia iniia? ieneaeieo niieoe ?c no?oeoo?ith oi?iae?. Nooue
i?aeoiaeo iieyaa? a ii?aeiaii? oi?eaeueieo aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
(aeinoaoiuei aenie? cia/aiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?, oa?ii/ooeeaino?,
oa?i?/ii? no?eeino?) eoa?/ieo oi?iaeae MnCo2O4, CuMn2O4, NiMn2O4, ye?
?icaeyaeathoueny a yeino? iniiaieo oi?ioth/eo aeaiaio?a ea?ai?/ii?
iao?eoe? iiooaeieo O?A.

2. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea ?aaeei?a aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo ia
no?oeoo?o, aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue oa AAO EIE nenoaie
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaoaeiaaii ae?aa?aie eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino?
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a noai?aieo O?A a iaeano? ?nioaaiiy aiiiaaiieo
oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a EIE.

3. Iaoiaeaie iaea-aeaeo?iiii? niaeo?ineii?? aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino?
aaiethoe?? aoiiii? no?oeoo?e i?aeca?aiieo a?aieoeue (ICA) a EIE nenoaie
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 i?ae ae??th iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo a?aeiae?a.
Aeyaeaii aieea oeueiai oeio oaoiieia?/ii? ia?iaee ia oi?ioaaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo aeanoeainoae O?A. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiiiaeueia iiaaae?iea
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a iaeano? e?eoe/ieo oaiia?aoo? (700-820 E)
aecia/a?oueny i?ioeanaie ?iceeaaeo oi?iae? ii ICA, aeeooc??th ia oeeo
ae?eyieao n??aea c iaeano? eiioaeoo c ianooiiei /anoeiaei ooai?aiiyi
eiiieaenieo ieneaeieo niieoe ia iniia? Ag2O, AgMn2O4, AgMnO4.

4. Aeyaeaii cai?ioi?e oa?aeoa? oa?ii?iaeoeiaaieo i?ioean?a a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo O?A i?e oa?iia?aeiaeao i?e 1070, 700-820, 670 ? 1070 E.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui niinoa?aaeoaaiee aoaeo oa?iia?aeiiaeaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae O?A coiiaeaiee aeo?niaiiyi iaoa??aeo eiioaeoo (Ag) c
ea?ai?/ii? iao?eoe? ca ?aooiie ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oa?iiaeeiai?/ii
iac??aiiaaaeaieo oac a iaeano? ICA oa ?iceeaaeo oa?i?/iiiano?eeeo
iaiaaiao?a n??aea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? oiiae i?ioeano
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4, ye?
aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe iaiao?aeio aeey noai?aiiy iiooaeieo O?A aiiiaaiio
ea?ai?eo ?c noaoenoe/ii iaeii??aeiei ?iciiae?eii e?enoae?oieo ca?ai.

2. Aeyaeaii, ui iecueeioaiia?aoo?i? a?aeiaee, i?iaaaeai? ca iaaieo
?aaeei?a, aeicaieythoue iie?aueoe oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue noai?aieo O?A
oa cae?enieoe o?i?oio i?aeaiieo ?o iniiaieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a
(iii?iaeueiiai iii?o R298, iino?eii? A).

3. Aecia/aii iaeano? ?nioaaiiy neeaae?a EIE a nenoai?
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4, ui aieiae?thoue iaiao?aeiei eiiieaenii
oa?aeoa?enoee oa?ii?acenoi?iiai aoaeoo, aenieith /aniaith noaa?euei?noth
ia?aiao??a, oa?i?/iith, ?aae?aoe?eiith oa a?iei?ic?eiith no?ee?noth.

4. ?ic?iaeaii iia? oeie iiooaeieo aeeneiaeo oa?ii?acenoi??a c
iii?iaeueieie iii?aie 9.1, 16, 330, 470, 680 Ii (OO.O 02125438.001-95,
OO.O 23273999.021-99) aeey no?oiiaiai caoenoo aoi?eiieo aeaea?ae
aeeaeaiiy ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e (aeie?a aeeaeaiiy oaeaa?c?eieo
i?eeia/?a «Aeaeo?ii» 4-6 iieie?iue ae?iaieoeoaa AO «Eiioea?i-Aeaeo?ii»
(i.Euea?a); iaa/aeueieo ia?niiaeueiio eiiithoa??a “Iiooe” ? eaniaeo
aia?ao?a ae?iaieoeoaa caaiaeo «Aeaeo?iiiao» (i.Ee?a); ionei?aaoethth/eo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a ina?oethaaeueieo cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa AO «Aao?a»
(i.Oa?iii?eue), iiaooiaeo eaii ?icaea?aiiy iiooaei?noth 60-150 Ao, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny a ina?oethaaeuei?e ia?aae?, na?oeiaeo cania?a
?aaoethaaiiy aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo oa cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo),
oe?ieiianooaaia ae?iaieoeoai yeeo iaeaaiaeaeaii a IAI «Ea?ao»
(i.Euea?a).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a iaea?aeaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a,
aeeeaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??, iieyaa? a i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae oa iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy EIE 4,6,7,
?ic?iaoe? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? eiioeaio?aoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae
aeaeo?e/ieo ? no?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a aeey iaia?a?aiiai ?yaeo oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 5,8,10, o aeine?aeaeaii?
oa?iiaeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a a nenoai? Ag-CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 1,2,9.
?ic?iaea o?ceei-oaoiieia?/ieo iniia io?eiaiiy EIE aeey iiooaeieo O?A,
aiae?c ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o i?e?ino?oeoo?e, /aniai? noaa?eueiino?,
no?eeino? aei ae?? aaaio?a i?eiaeano?oeoe?? oa ?aae?aoe?? aeeiiai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa? ca?aeii c iaaaaeaiei nieneii ioae?eaoe?e. Aeniiaee ?
iieiaeaiiy, ui neeaaeathoue nooue aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaai? aaoi?ii
iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia: ?-?e I?aeia?iae. eiio.
«Eiino?oeoe?ei? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoa??aee» (Euea?a, Oe?a?ia, 1993);
Iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. «Euea?anuee? o?i?/i? /eoaiiy» (Euea?a, Oe?a?ia,
1995); 6-th Intern. Conf. on Crystals of Intermetallic Compouds (Lviv,
Ukraine, 1995); I?aeia?iae. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. «Na?oeioaoi?ea – 95»
(Oa?iii?eue, Oe?a?ia, 1995); 9-th Intern. Conf. on Rapidly Quenched and
Metastable Materials (Bratislava, Slovakia, 1996); 12-th Intern.Conf. on
Glass and Ceramics (Varna, Bulgaria, 1996); 11-th Intern. Conf. on
Ternary & Multinary Compounds (Salford, UK, 1997); XXI ISHM-Poland
Chapter Annual Conf. and Exhibition (Ustron, Poland, 1997); VI Konf.
Nauk. «Technologia Elektronowa» (Krakow, Polska, 1997); 2-nd Intern.
Sympos. on Microelectronics Technologies and Microsystems (Lviv,
Ukraine, 1998); XXII ISHM-Poland Chapter Annual Conf. and Exhibition
(Zakopane, Poland, 1998); Intern. Conf. on Electroceramics and their
Application » Electroceramics VI 98″ (Montereux, Switzerland, 1998); VI
iaoe. eiio. «Euea?anuee? o?i?/i? /eoaiiy» (Euea?a, Oe?a?ia, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? o 22
i?aoeyo, c ieo 5 — o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 17 – o iaoa??aeao ? oacao
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, a
oaeiae aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 150 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ?ethno?iaaiiai 54 ?enoieaie oa 13 oaaeeoeyie.
Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 136 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe,
iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa, iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
aena?oeai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, a?aecia/aii
iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a, e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e oa no?oeoo?o ? ianya
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?iaaaeaii
aiae?c noaio i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoea iiiaieeaoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy
aeaiaioii? aace oa?ii?acenoi??a no?oiiaiai caoenoo ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii?
aia?aoo?e, ?icaeyiooi o?ce/i? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy oa?ii?acenoi?iiai
aoaeoo a EIE ia iniia? ia?aaioeaaeo eoa?/ieo oi?iaeae, e?enoaeia?ao?/io
aoaeiao EIE, oacia? ae?aa?aie noaio ia?aaioeaaeo ieneaeieo nenoai,
niaoeeo?eo iaoai?ci?a ia?aiino ca?yaeo a ieo, oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue,
oiui.

A?aecia/aii, ui o?aaeeoe?eiei niiniaii ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
iiiaieeaoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy O?A aeey no?oiiaiai caoenoo ? aeei?enoaiiy a
yeino? iniiaieo neeaaeiee?a EIE ieene?a ia?ao?aeieo 3d-iaoae?a. Oeae
i?aeo?ae ? aeii?ioth/ei a no/anieo ?ic?iaeao ia?aaeiaeo ca?oa?aeieo
o??i, aea a?i ia aeicaiey? io?eiaoe O?A oe?ieiai ?yaeo oeiiiii?iae?a.
sse iaeia ?c aeueoa?iaoeaieo ?icaycaiue aeaii? i?iaeaie i?iiiio?oueny
oaoiieia?y o?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? O?A oeyoii aaaaeaiiy iaaieo aeii?oie,
ui aeoaea /anoi iiaycaii ?c cia/iei oneeaaeiaiiyi i?ioeano ?o
aeaioiaeaiiy. Oiio c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui c iaoith noai?aiiy O?A
??ciiiai?oiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy aeioe?eueii aeaoaeueii
i?iaiae?coaaoe iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ioeo neeaaeiee?a EIE, ye?
caaacia/oaaee a iayai?noue yne?aai ae?aaeaiiai oa?ii?acenoi?iiai aoaeoo
i?e oe?ie?e aa??aoe?? eiai e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino?
aeai?o ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiue, a naia EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4.
Aeai? eiiiiceoe iaeaaeaoue aei iaeano? aiiiaaiieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a
nenoaie oi?iaeae MnCo2O4-CuMn2O4-NiMn2O4, eiaeiee ?c neeaaeiee?a yei?
aieiae?? yne?aai ae?aaeaiei oa?ii?acenoi?iei aoaeoii ? ? a aeinoaoi?e
i??? oaoiieia?/ii a?aeoai?thaaiei. ?iciiae?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo neeaae?a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo eiiiiceo?a nenoaie CuoNi1-o-oNi2oMn2-oI4 iieacaii ia
?en.1.

?en.1.

I?inoi?iaa ae?aa?aia neeaae?a EIE nenoaie Mn3O4-CuO-NiO-CoO-O2.

E?i?yie ia a?aiyo oao?aaae?a aeae?eaii iaeano? ?nioaaiiy aiiiaaiieo
oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a (Cu,Ni)Mn2O4 (1), (Ni,Mn,Co)3O4 (2) oa (Cu,Mn,Co)3O4
(3).

?iciiae?e neeaae?a neioaciaaieo EIE cia?aaeaii ia eiioeaio?aoe?eiiio
o?eeooieeo MnCo2O4-CuMn2O4-NiMn2O4 (4).

Neioac aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a cae?enithaaany iaoiaeii oaa?aeioaciaeo
?aaeoe?e, yeee oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny a ea?ai?/i?e oaoiieia??, a o./.
? a i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? oa?ii?acenoi??a ?c a?ae’?iiei OEI.

Aeo?aeieie eiiiiiaioaie aeey i?eaiooaaiiy oeooe neoaeeee aoaeaeene? nie?
eeaneo?eaoe?? /.ae.a.: MnCO3mMn(OH)2nH2O, CoCO3mCo(OH)2nH2O,
NiCO3mNi(OH)2nH2O, a oaeiae CuCO3mCu(OH)2nH2O.

?aaeei aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo aoa ?ic?iaeaiee ?c a?aooaaiiyi oiia
neioaco iiaea?eieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a eoa?/ieo oi?iaeae. Aeiaeaoeiao
oa?i?/io ia?iaeo EIE i?iaiaeeee a ii?iaeuei?e aoiinoa?? a oaiia?aoo?iiio
?ioa?aae? 670–1070 E ia c?aceao aeaio oei?a, ye? io?eioaaee a
?acoeueoao? caaa?ooaaiiy ia e?ioeaa?e noaae?? aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
a?aeiaeo (oei ?) oa ai?eaiiy n??aieo eiioaeo?a (oei ??). Oaeei /eiii,
aeine?aeaeoaai? c?acee O?A io?eioaaee ia iniia? EIE, oa?iiia?iaeaieo i?e
??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Aeaeo?e/io i?ia?aei?noue O?A ia iniia? EIE nenoaie
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 aei??thaaee ii aeaioeiioaeoi?e iaoiaeeoe? i?e
no?iai eiio?ieueiaai?e oaiia?aoo?? ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua (0.1 E).
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia c?aceao oeio ?? a ii?iaeuei?e aoiinoa??.
Noaoe/i? AAO c?ace?a iaea?aeai? iaoiaeii aiia?iao?-aieueoiao?a. C?acee
i?ae /an aei???a ciaoiaeeeenue a ?cieueiaaiiio ia’?i? i?e o?eniaaieo
cia/aiiyo oaiia?aoo?e.

?aioaaiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee o Fe K-aei?ii?ithaaii? ia
aeeo?aeoiiao?? Ae?II-0.5. I?e?ino?oeoo?o EIE aea/aee a?coaeueii ?
iaoiaeii oioia?aooaaiiy ia iioe/iiio iaoaeia?ao?/iiio i?e?ineii?
“Neophot” (I?ia//eia). Ia?aa??eo i?ioeaioiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eao?ii?a o
neioaciaaieo c?aceao (aei oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaiiai) oa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th
eao?iiiiai neeaaeo ie?aieo oac cae?enithaaee ia ?aioaai?anueeiio
i?e?iaiae?caoi?? “Camebax” (O?aioe?y). Aeaiaioiee neeaae iiaa?oiaaeo
oa??a anoaiiaethaaee iaoiaeii iaea-aeaeo?iiii? niaeo?ineii?? ia
iaea-neaioth/iio aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? “Jamp-10S” (ssiii?y).
Aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/ii? oai??? ieaioaaiiy ? iioei?caoe?? aenia?eiaioo
(iaoiae neiieaenieo a?aoie, D-iioeiaeueiee ieai IV ii?yaeeo).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae, oaciaiai neeaaeo,
i?e?ino?oeoo?e EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4, i?iaiae?ciaai?
iaoai?cie aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue a ea?ai?/i?e
iao?eoe?.

Aeey an?o neioaciaaieo c?ace?a aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue a oaiia?aoo?iiio
ae?aiacii? 290-440 E ci?ith?oueny ii aeniiiaioe?aeueiiio caeiio. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae EIE ia iniia? a?ia?ieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a oi?iaeae MnCo2O4,
CuMn2O4, NiMn2O4, aeey iaoa??ae?a nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 aia?a?y
aeoeaaoe?? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e ae?eyioe? (290-340
K) caeaaeiino? (T) a?eueoa, i?ae o aenieioaiia?aoo?i?e (390-440 E).

Cia/iee aieea ia aaee/eio aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? aia?a?th aeoeaaoe?? EIE
aiineoue oaiia?aoo?a aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo
aeaieo iiaeia aeae?eeoe aea? iniiai? a?oie neeaae?a ?c ??ciei oa?aeoa?ii
ci?ie aaee/eie aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? 298 a?ae oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaeo Taa..
Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ia?oi? a?oie c?ace?a ? iiiioiiia caeaaei?noue
(Taa.), ae?oai? – iayai?noue aeno?aiaeueieo cia/aiue i?ia?aeiino?. Aeey
?ioa?i?eoaoe?? io?eiaieo aeaieo aeei?enoaii iiaeaeue aeeooc?? aoii?a a
AOeE a?aooe? ii ieoaaae?e/ieo oa oao?aaae?e/ieo i?aeaoceao i?e
aoaeue-ye?e noaiai? ?o caiiaiaiiy c a?aooaaiiyi aia?a?? noaa?e?caoe??
eao?ii?a a ieoaaae?e/ieo oa oao?aaae?e/ieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iiceoe?yo.
Ia i?eeeaae? neeaae?a Cu0.1Ni0.8Co0.2Mn1.9O4, Cu0.4Ni0.4Co0.4Mn1.8O4,
Cu0.2Ni0.4Co0.4Mn1.6O4 iieacaii, ui caeaaei?noue (Taa.) iiaeia
aaeaeaaoii iiynieoe iniaeeainoyie oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo
eao?ii?a a e?enoae?/i?e a?aooe? oi?iae?.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a ?aioaaiioaciaiai ? i?e?ino?oeoo?iiai aiae?c?a,
a?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaino? iaoai?ci?a ianiia?aiino oa ??aaiue no?oeoo?ii?
iaiaeii??aeiino? c?ace?a, aeae?eaii o?e ?aaeeie aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
a?aeiaeo:

Aenieioaiia?aoo?iee a?aeiae ? (iaeanoue iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? – 0.4-0.75
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy oi?iae?). E?enoae?oe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iaeeie cia/aiiyie iiia?a/iiai ae?aiao?o, ii?e a ?o ia’?i? a?aenooi? ?
?iciiae?eai? iiaeeco oi/ie aeioeeo e?enoae?o?a. I?ioeane
oi?iaeaooai?aiiy i?ioiaeyoue ia iiai?noth, ?niothoue iacia/i? aeeth/aiiy
aeii?oeiaeo oac o aeaeyae? ne?ae?a ieneae?a Ni, Mn, Co, Cu.

Aenieioaiia?aoo?iee a?aeiae ?? (iaeanoue i?ii?aeieo oaiia?aoo? –
0.75-0.85 a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy oi?iae?). I?ioeane ?ae?enoae?caoe??
ia aeai?e noaae?? i?ioiaeyoue ii?yae c ou?eueiaiiyi iaoa??aeo.
Iniaeea?noth ?ae?enoae?caoe?? ? a?aenooi?noue e?enoae?o?a, ye? a
aieiae?ee ia?aaaaeath/eie oiiaaie ?inoo, a ?acoeueoao? /iai i?ioiaeeoue
noaoenoe/ii iaeii??aeia ?o oe?oiiaiiy. EIE i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith
iiiioaciaee oaa?aeee ?ic/ei ?c no?oeoo?ith eoa?/ii? oi?iae?. C oi/ee
ci?o i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy, eiiiiceoe io?eiai? ca aeaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo oiia, aieiae?thoue iaea?eueo aeineiiaeeie ia?aiao?aie.

Aenieioaiia?aoo?iee a?aeiae ??I (iaeanoue aenieeo oaiia?aoo? -. 0.85
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy oi?iae?). E?enoae?oe ia aeai?e noaae??
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iei ae?aiao?ii. Aaeee? ii?e ciaoiaeyoueny ye a
ia’?i? ie?aieo e?enoae?o?a, oae ? i?ae ieie. Niinoa??aa?oueny
noa?iaeecaoe?y ii?, ui iia’ycaii ?c aeoeaaoe??th
ieenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaethaaeueieo i?ioean?a. A aeaieo oiiaao ?aeeieie
a?aieoeyie e?enoae?o?a, ui caeaoi? ?ooaoenue, ? o?, e?eaecia yeeo ?
iaeneiaeueiith, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey i?ioean?a iiaoi?ii? ?ae?enoae?caoe??.
Io?eiai? ca oeeo oiia EIE iathoue iie?oacio no?oeoo?o.

Iaoiaeaie oaciaiai aiae?co oaeiae aeyaeaii aieea eao?ii?a eiaaeueoo ?
ia?aaioeth ia i?e?ino?oeoo?i? iaiaeii??aeiino? EIE
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4, ye? iia’ycai? c eeanoa?ecaoe??th iao?e/ii?
oi?iaeueii? no?oeoo?e, i?i ui na?ae/eoue neeaaeiee ia?a?iciiae?e
?ioaineaiinoae i?ae ?ioa?oa?aioe?eieie iaeneioiaie oa oiiiaei
?icn?thaaiiyi ia aeeo?aeoia?aiao.

Eeanoa?e oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iacia/ieie e?enoaeia?ao?/ieie a?aei?iiinoyie
iao?e/ii? (oi?iaeueii?) ? aei/??ii? (eeanoa?ii?) no?oeoo?.

Ioaea, anoaiiaeaii, ui aeanoeaino? EIE nenoaie CuoNi1-o-oNi2oMn2-oI4
aecia/athoueny ?o o?i?/iei oa oaciaei neeaaeii, i?e?ino?oeoo?ith, a
oaeiae niaoeeo?eith oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo eao?ii?a ii
e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iiceoe?yo. Iaeiae i?e iaaieo oiiaao
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo a iio??ei?e nenoai? eoa?/ieo oi?iaiae
MnCo2O4 – CuMn2O4 – NiMn2O4 ?nio? iaia?a?aiee ?yae oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a
CuoNi1-o-oNi2oMn2-oI4 (i?. a?. Fd3m), aeaeo?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino? yeeo a
cia/i?e i??? aecia/athoueny eeoa ?o eao?iiiei neeaaeii.

I?iaeaio oa?iieiiiiceoe?eii? iioei?caoe?? aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a O?A
aeey aeaii? iaeano? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye oeiiao caaea/o oai???
aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo. Iioei?caoe?y aenia?eiaioo i?iaiaeeeanue
ca?aeii c D-iioeiaeueiei ieaiii ?V ii?yaeeo. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aenia?eiaio?a a oi/eao ieaio ia/eneaii eiao?oe??ioe ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??.
Ia?aa??ea aaeaeaaoiino? iaea?aeaii? iiaeae? ca aeiiiiiaith t-e?eoa??th
Nouethaeaioa iieacaea, ui iaea?aeai? iie?iiie c aeia??/ith eiia??i?noth
98% aaeaeaaoii iienothoue iniiai? ia?aiao?e (298, 0, A, a) oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4. Aeei?enoiaoth/e io?eiai? ??aiyiiy
?aa?an??, iiaoaeiaaii ae?aa?aie eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino?
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? 298 (Ii-1i-1), ?? aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? A290-340 (aA),
iino?eii? a?aoee a (A) oa anoaiiaeaii iaeano? ?nioaaiiy oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a, ui aieiae?thoue iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie c oi/ee ci?o i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy aeanoeainoyie (aeea. ?en.2).

?en. 2. Eiioeaio?aoe?ei? ae?aa?aie aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? 298 (a), aia?a??
?? aeoeaaoe?? A290-340 (a) oa iino?eii? a?aoee a (a) aeine?aeaeoaaieo
oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny o?ce/i? iniaeeaino?
oa?iinooeoo?ieo i?ioean?a o O?A ia iniia? EIE nenoaie
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4, ?iaeoeiaaieo iecueeioaiia?aoo?iei a?aeiaeii.
I?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy «o?i?oii? i?aeaiiee»
aenieoaoaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a O?A.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iecueeioaiia?aoo?i? a?aeiaee a ae?aiacii? 670-1070 E
nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia aaee/eio aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? EIE aeine?aeaeoaaii?
nenoaie (?en. 3.).

?en. 3. Caeaaei?noue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? 298 EIE nenoaie
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 a?ae oaiia?aoo?e iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo.
Aa?oi? ?iaeaene a?aeiia?aeathoue cia/aiiyi oaiia?aoo?e iiia?aaeiueiai
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo:

1 – 1100E, 2 – 1200E, 3 – 1300E, 4 – 1400E 5 – 1500E.

sse aeaeii c ?en.3, aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue 298 c?ace?a O?A a?eueoino?
neeaae?a a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 700-820 E aeinyaa? /?oei ie?aneaiiai
iaeneioio i?e aeaye?e oa?aeoa?i?e e?eoe/i?e oaiia?aoo?? Ok.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? c?ace?a
oeio ? ? ??, oa?iia?aeiaeaieo i?e 1070, 800 ? 670 E, iieacaee, ui
aiiiaeueia iiaaae?iea aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? 298 a iaeano? e?eoe/ieo
oaiia?aoo? coiiaeaia oa?ii?iaeoeiaaieie i?ioeanaie aeaio oei?a:

— «aeanieie» ia?aoai?aiiyie a nai?e ea?ai?/i?e iao?eoe? O?A;

— aeeooc?eieie i?ioeanaie ia iaae? ea?ai?/ii? iao?eoe? ? iaoa??aeo
eiioaeoo O?A, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue nenoaio Ag-CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 a
oe?eiio.

Iaoiaeaie iioa?iaiai aiae?co (aeaeo?iiia iaea-niaeo?ineii?y,
?aioaai?anueeee i?e?iaiae?c) c’yniaaii i?e?iaeo i?e?ino?oeoo?ieo
iaoai?ci?a aeaieo i?ioean?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eiiaa?oiaa? oa?e ICA
iiaeia ooioiaeieoe ye oaco ci?iiiai neeaaeo ?c neeaaeiei eao?iiiei
ia?a?iciiae?eii. I?e oaiia?aoo?? 1070 E o c?aceao oeio ? oi?io?oueny
oeiiaa no?oeoo?a ea?ai?/iiai iaoa??aeo c yne?aai ae?aaeaieie ie?aieie
e?enoae?oaie, ?oi?ie aeieaie, ICA, ii?aie oiui.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth an?o neeaae?a O?A ? ciaioaiiy (a ?acoeueoao?
ca?eueoaiiy /ano ?iiiiai o?aaeaiiy) ?ioaineaiinoae i?e?a ?c aia?a??th
848 ? 920 aA, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue a iaea-niaeo?ao ?aoeaenai eao?ii?a
i?eaeth ? i?ae?.

I?e a?eueo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao a?aeiaeo (800 E) i?e?ino?oeoo?a
a?eueoino? neeaae?a EIE nooo?ai ci?ith?oueny, ei?aethth/e a oe?eiio ?c
aiiiaeueiith iiaaae?ieith ?o aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?. ICA ?oeiothoueny,
caieaathoueny ? /anoeiai ceeaathoueny c naieie e?enoae?oaie. Aeyaeoe
ie?ai? e?enoae?oi? aeiee aeineoue aaaeei. Niinoa??aa?oueny ?ioaineaia
?icuaieaiiy iaea-i?e?a ?c aia?a?yie, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue eao?iiai
i?ae?, i?eaeth ? eiaaeueoo. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeecueeeo aei Ok o EIE
iathoue i?noea aca?iiiia’ycai? i?ae niaith ianooii? o?ceei-o?i?/i?
i?ioeane:

— aaeni?aoe?y eenith ?c ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua ii ICA;

— ?iceeaae oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio, yeee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?a?aoe??th
eao?ii?a oa ci?iith ?o aaeaioiiai noaio;

— naa?aaaoe?y i?iaeoeo?a ?iceeaaeo ia ICA.

Oa?iia?aeiae i?e 670 E i?eaiaeeoue aei /anoeiai? oa?ii?aeiia?iaoe??
i?e?ino?oeoo?ieo iaiaeii??aeiinoae iaeano? ICA ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
aeani?aoe??th eenith. No?oeoo?a iaea-?aoeaen?a iaaeeaea?oueny aei
ii/aoeiaiai aeaeyaeo, iaeiae iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy aoiiii? no?oeoo?e ICA oa
ea?ai?/ii? iao?eoe? a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa i?e ianooii?e oa?iiia?iaoe? i?e
1070 E.

Oa?ii?iaeoeiaai? aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane ia iaae? «iaoae?/iee eiioaeo –
ea?ai?/ia iao?eoey» iathoue i?noea eeoa i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeecueeeo aei
Tk. Aiae?c eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? ?iciiae?eo Ag, yeee i?iaiaeeany
iaoiaeii iaea-aeaeo?iiii? niaeo?ineii??, iieacaa, ui iaoae?/ia n??aei
aeeooiaeo? ii oa?iic?oeiiaaieo ae?eyieao ICA ? i?aeoe/ii ia i?iieea? a
ia’?iio /anoeio aiiioaciaiai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? DAg i?e oaiia?aoo?? 800 E ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ioa?aae?
2.710-9 – 5.810-16 in. Oae? aenie? cia/aiiy DAg a EIE nenoaie
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 aeeeeeai? oaeaeeith i?a?aoe??th aeii?oee (Ag) ii
iiaa?oi? ii? ? ICA, a cia/ia a?aei?ii?noue o cia/aiiyo DAg coiiaeaia
??aiai no?oeoo?iiai ?icoii?yaeeoaaiiy iaeanoae ICA aeey ??cieo neeaae?a
EIE.

Iaoiaeii ?aioaaiioaciaiai aiae?co anoaiiaeaii iayai?noue a ea?ai?/i?e
iao?eoe? (i?e Tk) ye iaoae?/iiai Ag, oae ? ne?ae?a Ag2O, AgMn2O4 ?
AgMnO4, i?e/iio eiioeaio?aoe?y inoaii?o nooo?ai c?inoa? i?ae /an
a?aeiaeo i?e oaiia?aoo?? 670 E. Ianooiiee a?aeiae i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1070 E
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cieaeaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? Ag a ea?ai?/i?e iao?eoe?
(aeea. ?en.4.).

?en. 4. I?e?ioioia?ao?? iiaa?oi? neie?a a ieiuei? aioe?oo O?A ia
iniia? EIE

neeaaeo Cu0..2Ni0.2Co0.8Mn1.8O4, iine?aeiaii oa?iiia?iaeaieo i?e 1070 E
(a),

800 E (a) ? 1070 E (a).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeo?niaiiy (a noi?iio i?aeaeuaieo eiioeaio?aoe?e) aoii?a
Ag a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? eiioaeoo oa?iiaeeiai?/ii
iac??aiiaaaeaieo oac. I?e oeueiio aoiie Ag aeooiaoothoueny ii ii?ao ?
ICA a iaio iai?oaeaio iaeanoue. Aeaiee i?ioean noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
?iceeaaeii oa?i?/ii iano?eeeo iaiaaiao?a n??aea.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c /aniai? noaa?eueiino?, no?eeino?
aei ae?? -ii?ii?iaiiy oa aaaio?a i?eiaeano?oeoe?? O?A ia iniia?
neeaae?a, iaea?eueo iioeiaeueieo c oi/ee ci?o i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy.

A ?acoeueoao? ii?ii?iaiiy -eaaioaie ?aae?i?cioiia Co60 c na?aaeiueith
aia?a??th 1.25 IaA (iiooaei?noue aeice 1.85104 A?n) aei ??aiy
iiaeeiooi? aeice 106 A? a?aeiinia ci?ia aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? 298 c?ace?a
O?A ia ia?aaeuoaaea 5 %.

I?ioean i?eiaeano?oeoe?? EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 aea/aee
iaoiaeii i?e?iaeiueiai ? ooo/iiai ?io?eoaaiiy. Ia c?aceao, ui
ciaoiaeeeenue o aieia?e eaia??, ??no a?ea?a ia niinoa??aaany. O an?o
aa??aioao aeine?aeo i?e aeae?eaii? a?ea?a ia noaiaea?oia na?aaeiaeua
i?ioiaeeei cia/ia caoi?iiaeaiiy ?o ?inoo. Ca?aeii c AINO 9.048-89
??aaiue o?aaeaiiy i?eiaeano?oeoi?aie O?A ia iniia? EIE nenoaie
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 noaiiaeoue 0 aae?a.

I?ioean noa??iiy O?A i?iyaey?oueny a iinooiia?e ci?i? aeaio iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a — iii?iaeueiiai iii?o ? iino?eii? oa?ii/ooeeaino? A.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey O?A ia iniia? EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4
iniiaia ci?ia ia?aiao??a a?aeaoaa?oueny ia i?ioyc? ia?oeo aeaio oeaei?a.
Ooo/ia noa??iiy (i?e iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiiio no?oi? aai i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 42510 E) aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe noaa?euei?noue aaee/eie
iii?iaeueiiai iii?o i?ioyaii ianooiieo 6 i?nyoe?a a iaaeao 0.1 %.

Oaeei /eiii, ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 ye aaciaiai
iaoa??aeo aeey noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? O?A no?oiiaiai caoenoo
?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE OA AENIIAEE

1. Ia iniia? aeaoaeueiiai ?icaeyaeo aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae oa
iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy EIE c? no?oeoo?ith iane/aii? eoa?/ii? oi?iae?, a
oaeiae oaciaeo ??aiiaaa a nenoaiao ieneae?a ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a i?eaeth,
eiaaeueoo, ia?aaioeth oa i?ae? cai?iiiiiaaii eiiieaeniee nenoaiiee
i?aeo?ae aei a?aeai?o ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a c iaia?aae caaeaieie
ia?aiao?aie oa?ii?acenoi?iiai aoaeoo – aeei?enoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai
o?eeooieea nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4 a ae?aiacii? 0.1 o 0.8; 0.1
y 0.9-o.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aaeei aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo cia/ii aieeaa?
ia aaee/eio aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? 298 ? aia?a?th ?? aeoeaaoe?? A290-440
c?ace?a EIE. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeae?eaii
aea? iniiai? a?oie neeaae?a EIE aeey noai?aiiy O?A ?c ??ciei oa?aeoa?ii
ci?ie 298 a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo
OAA. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ia?oi? a?oie ? iiiioiiia c?inoaiiy (OAA),
ae?oai? – iayai?noue aeno?aiaeueieo cia/aiue.

3. Ia iniia? iiaeaeueieo oyaeaiue i?i aeeooc?th aoii?a a AOeE a?aooe?
EIE, c a?aooaaiiyi aia?a?? noaa?e?caoe?? eao?ii?a a ieoa- ?
oao?aaae?e/ieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iiceoe?yo ia i?eeeaae? neeaae?a
Cu0.1Ni0.8Co0.2Mn1.9O4, Cu0.4Ni0.4Co0.4Mn1.8O4, Cu0.2Ni0.4Co0.4Mn1.6O4
iieacaii, ui caeaaei?noue (OAA) iiaeia aaeaeaaoii iiynieoe
oa?iiaeoeaiaaiei ia?a?iciiae?eii eao?ii?a a oao?a- oa ieoaaae?e/ieo
iiceoe?yo. Anoaiiaeaii aieea eao?ii?a Ni ? Mn ia iiaeeea?noue
ca?iaeaeaiiy a EIE anioe?ao?a (eeanoa??a), ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iacia/ieie e?enoaeia?ao?/ieie a?aei?iiinoyie iao?e/ii? (oi?iaeueii?) ?
aei/??ii? (eeanoa?ii?) no?oeoo?.

4. Iieacaii, ui iioeiaeueieie c oi/ee ci?o i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy a
O?A no?oiiaiai caoenoo ? iaeiioacia? oaa?ae? ?ic/eie EIE
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4 ?c noaoenoe/ii iaeii??aeiei ?iciiae?eii
e?enoae?/ieo ca?ai, io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo
i?e aeaye?e iioeiaeuei?e oaiia?aoo??, ui aecia/a?oueny ?o eao?iiiei
neeaaeii.

5. Iaoiaeii ania?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co iiaoaeiaaii ae?aa?aie
eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? aeaeo?e/ieo (aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue 298,
aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? A290-340) oa no?oeoo?ieo
(iino?eia a?aoee a) ia?aiao??a aeey iaia?a?aiiai ?yaeo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4 a ae?aiacii? 0.1 o 0.8; 0.1 y 0.9-o.

6. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo a?aeiae?a ia aeaeo?e/i?
aeanoeaino? O?A ia iniia? EIE nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4. Iieacaii,
ui aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue 298 c?ace?a O?A, a?aeiaeaieo a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? 700-820 E, aeinyaa? /?oei ie?aneaiiai iaeneioio i?e aeaye?e
oa?aeoa?i?e e?eoe/i?e oaiia?aoo?? O. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiiiaeueia
iiaaae?iea aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a aeaiiio oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae?
coiiaeaia oa?ii?iaeoeiaaieie i?ioeanaie aeaio oei?a — aeanieie
ia?aoai?aiiyie a ea?ai?oe? oa oa?iiaeeooc?eieie i?ioeanaie ia a?aieoe?
iaoa??aeo eiioaeoo (Ag) ? ea?ai?/ii? iao?eoe?.

7. Aeani? iecueeioaiia?aoo?i? i?e?ino?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo EIE ia noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ci?iith ?o e?enoae?/ii?
no?oeoo?e. I?e iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiio a?aeiae? a iaeano? e?eoe/ieo
oaiia?aoo? aeey neeaae?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aiiiaeueii aaeeeei
cia/aiiyi i?ia?aeiino?, iathoue i?noea ianooii? aca?iiiiaycai?
o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane:

-aaeni?aoe?y eenith c ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua ii ICA;

-?iceeaae oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ia?a?iciiae?eii
eao?ii?a oa ci?iith ?o aaeaioiiai noaio;

-naa?aaaoe?y i?iaeoeo?a ?iceeaaeo ii ICA.

Oa?iia?aeiae i?e 670 E i?eaiaeeoue aei /anoeiai? oa?ii?aeiia?iaoe??
i?e?ino?oeoo?ieo iaiaeii??aeiinoae a ea?ai?/i?e iao?eoe?, iiaia
oa?ii?aeiia?iaoe?y i?e?ino?ooo?e EIE niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa i?e
oa?iia?aeiae? aei 1070 E.

8. Oa?iiaeeooc?ei? i?ioeane ia iaae? iaoa??aeo eiioaeoo (Ag) ?
ea?ai?/ii? iao?eoe? iathoue i?noea i?e oaiia?aoo?ao a?aeiaeo, aeecueeeo
aei e?eoe/ieo. N??aei aeeooiaeo? a ea?ai?/io iao?eoeth ii
oa?iic?oeiiaaieo ae?eyieao ICA c /anoeiaei ooai?aiiyi (?c i?iaeoeoaie
?iciaaeo) neeaaeieo ieneaeieo niieoe ia iniia? iaiaaiao?a n??aea,
i?aeoe/ii ia i?iieeath/e a ia’?i ca?ai, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith
aiiiaaiiee oaa?aeee ?ic/ei ?c no?oeoo?ith oi?iae?.

9. Cai?ioi?e aei aeeooc?? i?ioean aeo?niaiiy aoii?a n??aea c ia’?io
ea?ai?/ii? iao?eoe? i?e ?aaa?neaiiio oa?iia?aeiae? aei 1070 E ?
iane?aeeii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ICA oa oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai ?iceeaaeo niieoe
ia iniia? iaiaaiao?a n??aea. I?e oeueiio aoiie Ag aeooiaoothoueny ii
ii?ao ? ICA a iaio iai?oaeaio iaeanoue EIE a ?acoeueoao? eiioaeoo
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii iac??aiiaaaeaieo oac.

10. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue /aniai? noaa?eueiino? O?A, ?o
no?eeino? aei ae?? ?aae?aoe?? oa aaaio?a i?eiaeano?oeoe?? aeicaieythoue
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe EIE ia iniia? nenoaie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4 ye aaciaee
iaoa??ae aeey noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? iiooaeieo O?A no?oiiaiai caoenoo
?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e ??ciiiai?oiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao:

1. Hadzaman I.V., Kovalsky A.P., Mrooz O.Ya., Shpotyuk O.I. Thermal
modification of ceramic composites based on manganese-containing cube
spinels // Materials Letters. –1996.-V. 29. — P. 195-198.

2. Aaaecaiai ?., Eiaaeuenueeee I., I?oc I., Oiiothe I. Oa?i?/ia
iiaeeo?eaoe?y ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a ia iniia? ia?aaioeaaeo eoa?/ieo
oi?iaeae // AEo?iae o?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.- 1996.- O. 1.- ?1.- N.
104-107.

3. Oiiothe I.E., Neaei?aiei E.I., Eiaaeue Y.C., Iaaeiae/ O.I., Aaaecaiai
E.A., Noaae Ae.TH., Oaecneee N. A. Ieeiaeano?oeoeey iaoa?eaeeia
yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee ia iniiaa neiaeiuo ieneaeiuo niaaeeiaiee //
Ieeieiaey e oeoiiaoaeiaey.- 1994.- O. 28, -Aui.6. -N. 45-51.

4. Aiaeae I.?, Aae?a I.I., Aa?aiae/oe I.N., Aaaecaiai ?.A.,
Eiaaeuenueeee A.I., I?oc I.ss., Oiiothe I.E. Aeaeo?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino?
oa i?e?ino?oeoo?a iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? ieneaeii? ea?ai?ee nenoaie
MnCo2O4-CuMn2O4-NiMn2O4 // Ieoaiiy e?enoaeio?i?? ?ioa?iaoae?/ieo niieoe
? o?i?/iee aiae?c iaoae?a. A?niee Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, na?. o?i.
— 1994.- Aei. 33.- N. 8-11.

5. Aae?a I.I., Oiiothe I.E., I?oc I.ss., Aaaecaiai ?.A., Eiaaeuenueeee
A.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oaiia?aoo?ii/ooeeaeo iaoa??ae?a
ia iniia? Mn, Co, Ni, oa Cu-ai?noeeo eoa?/ieo oi?iaeae // O?ceea ? o?i?y
iaoa??ae?a aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee. A?niee Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, na?.
o?c. — 1998. — A. 31. — N. 142-144.

6. Vakiv M.M., Kovalsky A.P., Mrooz O.Ya., Hadzaman I.V., Shpotyuk O.I.
Selection guidelines of oxide ceramic materials based on Ni, Co, Mn, Cu
– contained cubic spinels for thermistor applications // Proc. of 12th
Nonf. on Glass and Ceramics.- Varna: 1996. — P. 380-383

7. Hadzaman I., Mroz O., Szpotiuk O., Wakiw M. Zasady naukowe
wytwarzania termistorow z zadanymi parametrami eksploatacyinymi // Mat.
VI Konf. Nauk. «Technologia elektronowa» — Krakow: 1997.- T. 2.- S.
661-664.

8. Hadzaman I., Mrooz O., Shpotyuk O. Complex manganese spinels for NTC
thermistors application // Proc. of the 21-st Conf. of ISHM. Poland.
Ustron, October 5-8, 1997. Wroclaw: 1998. — P. 217-220.

9. Hadzaman I.V., Mrooz O.Ya., Shpotyuk O.I., Vakiv M.M., Kovalski P.M.
Thermostimulated phase changes in (Cu, Mn, Co, Ni)(3)O(4) ceramic
composites // Book of Abst. of Ninth Intern. Conf. on Rapidly Quenched
and Metastable Materials. – Bratislava: 1996. — P. L.11.

10. Hadzaman I., Kravtsiv M., Shpotyuk O. The features of synthesis and
microstructural investigations of semiconducting ceramics
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 // Abst. Book. of Intern. Conf.
«Electroceramics VI ‘ 98».- Montreoux: 1998. — P. N 498.

Aaaecaiai ?. A. Oa?ii?acenoi?i? aeaiaioe no?oiiaiai caoenoo ia iniia?
ea?ai?/ieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo eiiiiceo?a CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yI4. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.01 – o?ceea
i?eeaae?a, aeaiaio?a ? nenoai — Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea». Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? oa?ii?acenoi?ieo aeaiaio?a
no?oiiaiai caoenoo ?aae?iaeaeo?iii? aia?aoo?e ia iniia? ea?ai?/ieo
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo eiiiiceo?a oi?iaeueii? a?oie CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4
(0.1 o 0.8; 0.1 y 0.9-o), a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiith oa?iieiiiiceoe?eieo
iniaeeainoae ?o io?eiaiiy.

Iieacaii, ui aeaeo?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino? noai?aieo oa?ii?acenoi??a
aecia/athoueny oaoiieia?/ieie oiiaaie ?o aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo,
??aiai i?e?ino?oeoo?ii? iaiaeii??aeiino? oa oa?iiaeoeaiaaiei
ia?a?iciiae?eii aeaiaio?a a eao?iii?e i?aenenoai? ea?ai?/ii? iao?eoe?.
Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaii noaoenoe/io iiaeaeue
eiioeaio?aoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a
oa?ii?acenoi??a a iaeano? aiiiaaiieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? ea?ai?ee CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4, iiaoaeiaaii
eiioeaio?aoe?ei? o?eeooieee ?o ci?ie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiiiaeueia
c?inoaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oa?ii?acenoi?ieo aeaiaio?a ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo eiiiiceo?a a ?acoeueoao? ?o iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai
a?aeiaeo i?e 700-820 E aecia/a?oueny aeanieie i?e?ino?oeoo?ieie
ia?aoai?aiiyie a ea?ai?/i?e iao?eoe? oa oa?iiaeeooc?eieie i?ioeanaie ca
o/anoth iaoa??aeo eiioaeoo (n??aea). Aeyaeaii ?aaa?neaiee oa?aeoa?
niinoa?aaeoaaieo iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo i?ioean?a, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?o
iaoai?cie.

Iieacaii, ui ea?ai?/i? eiiiiceoe oi?iaeueii? a?oie
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4 iiaeooue aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaai? ye aaciaee iaoa??ae
aeey noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? iiooaeieo oa?ii?acenoi??a no?oiiaiai caoenoo
?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e ??ciiiai?oiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oa?ii?acenoi?iee aeaiaio, no?oiiaee caoeno, ea?ai?ea,
eiiiiceo, a?aeiae, oi?iaeue, i?e?ino?oeoo?a, aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue,
oa?iinoeioeueiaai? i?ioeane.

Hadzaman I.V. Thermistor elements for in-rush current limiting based on
the CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 ceramic semiconducting composites. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 01.04.01 — physics of
devices, elements and systems. — State University “Lviv Polytechnic”.
Lviv, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to development of thermistor elements for in-rush
current limiting of radioelectronic technique based on ceramic
semiconducting composites of CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 (0.1 x 0.8; 0.1 y
0.9-x) spinel group and to investigation of thermocompositional features
of their manufacturing.

It is shown that the technological features of high-temperature
sintering, the level of microstructural inhomogeneity and the thermally
activated redistribution of chemical elements in the cationic subsystem
of ceramic matrix determine electrophysical properties of the prepared
thermistors. The statistical model for the concentration dependences of
electrophysical parameters of thermistors in the region of homogeneous
solid solutions of semiconducting ceramics is developed on the basis of
obtained data. The concentration triangles for variation of these
parameters are built. It is established that the anomalous increasing of
electrical conductivity due to additional low-temperature heat treatment
at 700-820 K is determined for thermistor elements based on the
investigated composites by the native microstructural transformations in
ceramic matrix and the thermal diffusion processes caused by contact
material (silver). The reversible character of the observed
low-temperature processes is revealed. The mechanism of these processes
is analyzed.

It is shown that the ceramic composites of CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 spinel
group can be proposed as the basic material for the creation of power
thermistors for in-rush current limiting in radioelectronic technique of
various functional application.

Key words: termistors elements, in-rush current limiting, ceramics,
composite, sintering, spinel, mikrostructure, electrical conductivity,
thermally stimulated processes.

Aaaecaiai E.A. Oa?ii?acenoi?iua yeaiaiou oieiaie caueou ia iniiaa
ea?aie/aneeo iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo eiiiiceoia CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4 –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.01 – oeceea
i?eai?ia, yeaiaioia e nenoai. – Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oa?ii?acenoi?iuo yeaiaioia oieiaie
caueou ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie aia?aoo?u ia iniiaa ea?aie/aneeo
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo eiiiiceoia oieiaeueiie a?oiiu CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4
(0.1 o 0.8; 0.1 y 0.9-o), a oaeaea enneaaeiaaieth
oa?iieiiiiceoeeiiiuo iniaaiiinoae eo iieo/aiey.

Ia iniiaaiee aeaoaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey yeaeo?ioece/aneeo naienoa e
iniaaiiinae oi?ie?iaaiey ea?aie/aneeo iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo eiiiiceoia ni
no?oeoo?ie ianuuaiie eoae/aneie oieiaee, a oaeaea oaciauo ?aaiiaanee a
nenoaiao ia?aoiaeiuo iaoaeeia ieeaey, eiaaeueoa, ia?aaioea e iaaee
i?aaeeaaaaony eiiieaeniue nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e auai?o ea?aie/aneeo
iaoa?eaeia n ca?aiea caaeaiiuie ia?aiao?aie oa?ii?acenoi?iiai yooaeoa –
eniieueciaaiea eiio?aoeeiiiiai o?aoaieueieea nenoaiu
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4 a aeeaiaciia (0.1 o 0.8; 0.1 y 0.9-o).

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yeaeo?ioece/aneea naienoaa nicaeaiuo oa?ii?acenoi?ia
ii?aaeaeythony oaoiieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie eo aunieioaiia?aoo?iiai
ioaeeaa, o?iaiai iee?ino?oeoo?iie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe e oa?iiaeoeae?iaaiui
ia?a?ani?aaeeeaieai yeaiaioia a eaoeiiiie iiaenenoaia ea?aie/aneie
iao?eoeu; iioeiaeueiuie n oi/ee c?aiey i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey a
oa?ii?acenoi?iuo yeaiaioao oieiaie caueou yaeythony iaeiioaciua oaa?aeua
?anoai?u CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4 ni noaoenoe/anee iaeii?iaeiui
?ani?aaeaeaieai e?enoaee/aneeo ca?ai, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa
aunieioaiia?aoo?iiai ioaeeaa i?e ii?aaeaeaiiie iioeiaeueiie
oaiia?aoo?a, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony eo eaoeiiiui ninoaaii. N iiiiuueth
iaoiaea yenia?eiaioaeueii noaoenoe/aneiai aiaeeca iino?iaiu aeeaa?aiiu
eiio?aoeeiiiie caaeneiinoe yeaeo?e/aneeo e no?oeoo?iuo ia?aiao?ia aeey
iai?a?uaiiai ?yaea oaa?aeuo ?anoai?ia CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea ieceioaiia?aoo?iuo ioaeeaia ia yeaeo?e/aneea
naienoaa oa?ii?acenoi?iuo yeaiaioia. Iieacaii, /oi aiiiaeueiia
iiaaaeaiea yeaeo?ii?iaiaeeiinoe oa?ii?acenoi?iuo yeaiaioia, ioiaeaeaiiuo
a eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? 700-820 E, iaoneiaeaii oa?iieiaeooee?iaaiiuie
i?ioeannaie aeaoo oeiia – nianoaaiiuie i?aia?aciaaieyie a ea?aie/aneie
iao?eoea e oa?iiaeeoooceiiiuie i?ioeannaie i?e o/anoee iaoa?eaea
eiioaeoa (Ag). Oa?iiaeeoooceiiiua i?ioeannu a nenoaia Ag —
CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-oO4 iaaethaeathony oieueei i?e ioaeeaa a eioa?aaea
oaiia?aoo? 700-820 E. Na?aa?i aeeoooiaee?oao a iauai ea?aie/aneie
iao?eoeu ii oa?ii?ac?ooaiiuo o/anoeao iaaeca?aiiuo a?aieoe n /anoe/iui
ia?aciaaieai (n i?iaeoeoaie ?aceiaeaiey) neiaeiuo ieneaeiuo niaaeeiaiee
ia iniiaa iaiaaiaoia na?aa?a, i?aeoe/anee ia i?iieeay a iauai ca?ai,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaa?aeue ?anoai? ni no?oeoo?ie oieiaee.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?ioeaiiieiaeiue aeeooocee i?ioeann auoaniaiey aoiiia
na?aa?a ec iauaia ea?aie/aneie iao?eoeu i?e ?aaa?neiiiii oa?iiioaeeaa
1070, 700-820, 1070 E yaeyaony neaaenoaeai ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee
iaaeca?aiiuo a?aieoe e oa?iiaeoeae?iaaiiiai ?aceiaeaiey niaaeeiaiee ia
iniiaa iaiaaiaoia na?aa?a.

Iieacaii, /oi ieceioaiia?aoo?iue ioaeea, i?iaaaeaiiue ca ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaee, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oeoooeoue oa?ie/aneoth noaaeeueiinoue
nicaeaiuo oa?ii?acenoi?iuo yeaiaioia e i?iecaanoe «oeieoioth» iiaeaiieo
eo iniiaiuo yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia (iiieiaeueiiai nii?ioeaeaiey,
iinoiyiiie A).

Ia iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee ii a?aiaiiie
noaaeeueiinoe, noieeinoe aei -iaeo/aiey e aaaioia ieeiaeano?oeoeee
ii?aaeaeaiu iaeanoe nouanoaiaaiey iioeiaeueiuo ninoaaia
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo ea?aie/aneeo eiiiiceoia CuxNi1-x-yCo2yMn2-yO4,
eioi?ua ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey nicaeaiey oa?ii?acenoi?iuo yeaiaioia oieiaie
caueou ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie aia?aoo?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oa?ii?acenoi?iue yeaiaio, oieiaay caueoa, ea?aieea,
eiiiiceo, ioaeea, oieiaeue, iee?ino?oeoo?a, yeaeo?ii?iaiaeeiinoue,
oa?iinoeioee?iaaiiua i?ioeannu.

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