IAOeIIIAEUeIA AEAAeAIIss IAOE OE?A?IE

IINOEOOO AAIOICEEE ii. N.I.NOAAIOIIA

OAeE 550.36 551.2

Onaiei Ieueaa A?oae??aia

OAIEIAEE IIO?E OA AEEAEII? I?IOeANE A OAEOIIINOA?? AeIIAANO

(04.00.22 — Aaio?ceea)

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aaio?ceee ?i. N.?.Noaaio?ia Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoeAi?ae??iei Aaaeei
Ay/aneaaiae/?inoeooo aaio?ceee ?i. N.?.Noaaio?ia

IAI Oe?a?ie

Caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii oaeoiiinoa?eIo?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe

Inaae/ee A?oae?e A?eai?iae/Aeeiioth/ee iaia’ycee aieiaiiai iaoeiaiai
ni?a?ia?oieea?inoeooo aaieia?? oa aaio?i?? ai?th/eo eiiaeei IAI
Oe?a?ie, i. Euea?aAeieoi? aaieiai- i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe

Eooan ?iiai ?aaiiae/ Caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii aaioa?i?? oa no/anii?
aaiaeeiai?ee ?inoeooo aaio?ceee ?i. N.?.Noaaio?ia IAI Oe?a?ieI?ia?aeia
onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.A.Oaa/aieaAaieia?/iee oaeoeueoao
Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 27 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. ia 11.30 ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.200.01 i?e ?inoeoooi
aaio?ceee Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252680,
i.Ee?a, i?. Iaeeaae?ia 32.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aaio?ceee
IAIO.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 31 ”na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe A.N.Aaeei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oaieia? iiey aaineieeeiaeae, ye ? iiey ?eooiaeo
cii, aoee ia?oeie ia`?eoaie, ui i?eaa?ioee oaaao aeine?aeiee?a caaaeyee
i?eoaiaii?e ?i aiiiaeueiino?. Aea i?e?iaea ci?i oaieiaiai iiey aeoeaieo
?aa?ii?a ana ua ? i?aaeiaoii aeeneon??. Caaaeueiiaeciaia ?ieue
oaieiianiia?aiino a ??ciiiai?oieo aeeaeiieo i?ioeanao, a aaiethoe??
neeaaeo oaeoiiinoa?e oa noai? ?a/iaeie iaae?. Oiio caea?oueny iiaeeeaei,
ui aea/aiiy no/aniiai oaieiaiai iiey aeoeaiiai ?aa?iio oa oi/a a
i?eaeecia ioe?iea eiai ci?i ia i?ioyc? aeineoue o?eaaeiai /ano aoea a
ei?enia.

Aeey noai?aiiy aeaoaeueii? ea?oe no/aniiai oaieiaiai iioieo (OI) o?aaa
nii/aoeo cia/ii i?aeaeueoe u?euei?noue ia?aae? niinoa?aaeaiue
oaiia?aoo?e, aecia/eoeny ?c niiniaii anoaiiaeaiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino?
ii??ae a eiaeiiio ioieo? oa aianoe iii?aaee, ye? aeiiiiiaeooue onoiooe
aieea oi/a a iaecia/i?oeo iia?/ieo oaeoi??a. A Aeiiaoeueeiio aanaei?
i?enooi? oiiae aeey ?ica`ycaiiy oeeo caaea/, oiio noaea iiaeeeaith
iiaoaeiaa ea?oe OI Aeiiaano, yea aaco?oueny ia ?acoeueoaoao 4 300 iiaeo
aecia/aiue OI. Aei oe??? ?iaioe a iaaeao i?iieneiaiai Aeiiaano ?o
iae?/oaaeiny eeoa 350 (Eooan, Ai?ae??iei, 1971, Eooan, Aaacthe, 1992,
Ai?ae??iei, Caaai?iaeiy, 1993). Noaei iiaeeeaei aeyaeoe oa ?icaeyiooe
?ai?o iaa?aeii? iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e oaieiaiai iiey ?aa?iio,
noaoenoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii aeae?eeoe oiiia? oa aiiiaeuei? cia/aiiy OI,
ia?aa??eoe iayai?noue a?iioaoe/ieo aeaea?ae oaiea oeyoii ii??aiyiiy ?o
aoaeo?a c oi?iith oa ?ioaineai?noth aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeaieo aiiiae?e.

Aeei?enoaiiy iiaiai aa??aioo aaeaaeoe?eii-iie?ii?oii? a?iioace (AIA)
aeeaeiieo i?ioean?a (Ai?ae??iei,1998) aeicaieeei cae?enieoe
?aeiino?oeoe?th i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny a cia/iiio ?ioa?aae? aeeaei
ai?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano (a?ae na?aaeiueiai aeaaiio aei no/aniino?) ia
eiie?aoiiio, a cia/i?e /anoei? — e?euee?niiio, ??ai?. Iayai?noue
aeaoaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aaieia?/io aoaeiao ?aa?iio c?iaeea iiaeeeaei
i?i??aiyiiy iiae?e, ia?aaeaa/oaaieo ca?aeii AIA oa oeo, ye? ae?enii
a?aeaoaaeeny ia iiaa?oi? ? cao?eniaai? a neeaae? iaaiaoe/ieo ooai?aiue,
iiooaeiino? inaaeiaiai oa?o, nooi?i? eaoaaaiaoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, oiui.
Ia iaiueo oe?eaaeie caeathoueny i?ioeane aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?a/iaeie
oaeoiiinoa?e, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny a iaaeao onueai i?ioeano aa?oeeinueei?
oaeoii?/ii? aeoeaiino? oa i?ney iueiai.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeeny a iaaeao ?iaio ca ieaiiaeie oaiaie a?aeae?eo oaeoiiinoa?e
?AO IAIO “Aea/aiiy oaeoiiinoa?e cii iieiaei? aeoea?caoe?? Oe?a?ie“
(1992-1996?.?.) oa “Aaio?ce/i? oa aaiaeeiai?/i? iiaeae? oaeoiiinoa?e
Oe?a?ie“ (c 1997?.), a oaeiae a iaaeao ?ia?o ii a?aioo U 59000
I?aeia?iaeiiai iaoeiaiai oiiaeo “Aeae?eaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy cii
iieiaei? aeoea?caoe?? Oe?a?ie”, a?aioai 6.3/21 (“Aea/aiiy oaeoiiinoa?e
cii aeoea?caoe?? Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa oa Aeiiaano”) oa 6.4/6
(“Aaioa?i?/iee Aoean Oe?a?ie”) Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue Oe?a?ie, i?iaeoai 1/96 (“Aaio?ce/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
aaio?ce/i? iiaeae? cieioi?oaeieo ae?eueieoeue ia Oe?a?inueeiio ueo? oa a
Aeiiaan?”) oa 3/97 (“?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? aeae?eaiiy ii aaio?ce/iei
aeaiei ae?eueieoeue, ui ia?niaeoeai? ia cieioa c?oaeaiiiiy, a iaaeao
?oaeieo iie?a Aeiiaano”) Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie “Cieioi Oe?a?ie”.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aecia/aiiy ci?i
oaieiaiai iiey Aeiiaoeueeiai aanaeio ai?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano oa
anoaiiaeaiiy aeeaeiieo /eiiee?a oeeo ci?i. Aeey oeueiai ae??ooaaeeny
iaai? caaea/?:

noai?aiiy aeaoaeueii? ea?oe OI Aeiiaano oa noi?aeieo oa?eoi??e;

aea/aiiy ?iciiae?eo no/aniiai OI Aeiiaano, eiai aiae?c oa aeyaeaiiy
oiiiaeo ? aiiiaeueieo cia/aiue;

anoaiiaeaiiy i?e?iaee aiiiae?e oa iiooe a?aeiia?aeieo aeeaeiieo
i?ioean?a;

iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? aeeaeiiiai ?icaeoeo Aeiiaano, ii/eiath/e c /ano
aa?oeeinueeiai aaineiee?iaeueiiai aoaio aei no/aniino? ia i?aenoaa? AIA;

ii??aiyiiy iane?aee?a i?iaiiciaaieo iiae?e c ?aaeueieie, ye? cao?eniaai?
a aaieia?/i?e aoaeia? Aeiiaano;

?icaeyae neeaaeo iaio?eiiai noano?aoo Aeiiaano oa ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a
iaia?aaeiaei? aeoeaieo iiae?e;

aieea ci?i ieia?aeia?/iiai neeaaeo iaio?? ia i?io?eaiiy aeoeaieo
i?ioean?a a iaaeao oaeoiiinoa?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1.?ic?iaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy oaiia?aoo?, ui
aei??ththoueny ia caaiyo naa?aeeiaei, aenoieea yeeo ia ia?aaeuo? iaei???
aeiae. Anoaiiaeaia oaieii?ia?aei?noue no?aoea?ao?/ieo ?ic??c?a, ye?
cono??/athoueny a iaaeao Aeiiaano. Iaa?oioiaaia iaio?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy
iaeaiee?iaoe/ii? oa no?oeoo?ii? iii?aaie. Ia i?aenoaa? oeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeaii ia/eneaiiy OI.

2.Aia?oa ia cia/i?e oa??oi??? (oe?a?inueea /anoeia i?iieneiaiai
Aeiiaano) aeinyaiooa aeniea u?euei?noue ia?aae? aecia/aiue OI, ui
aeicaieeei aea/aoe aein? iaa?aeii? iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e oaieiaiai iiey.

3.I?iaaaeaii ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th aiiiae?e OI aeey no/anii? oa eeia??enueeiai
a?eo a?ae?ioa?iaeueii? eiiaaeoe?? oeth?aeo a cii? iaae aeeaeiiei
?iceiiii ii aaea ?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe? (Ieaenaiae?ia, Ai?ae??iei,
Aea?aanueea oa ?i.,1996). I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?c
aaieia?/ieie aeaieie.

4.Iiaoaeiaaii no/anio oaieiao iiaeaeue ei?e oa aa?oi?o ai?eciio?a iaio??
Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio ? aecia/aii a?aeiia?aei?noue iiaeae? an?i a?aeiiei
ia oeae /an aeaiei aeeaeiii? aaio?ceee.

5.?icaeyiooi ?noi??th aeeaeiieo i?ioean?a ? oaieiaiai iiey ?aa?iio a?ae
ii/aoeo aa?oeeinueei? aeoea?caoe?? aei no/aniino?, i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy
?? iane?aee?a c aaieia?/iith ?noi???th ?aa?iia.

6.Aenoiooi a?iioaco aieeao neeaaeo ?a/iaeie iaio?? ia iiaeeea?noue
i?ioeano aeoea?caoe?? ia i?eeeaae? Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio.

Aeinoiai?iinoue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia caaacia/o?oueny aaeeeei ianyaii
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ui aeicaiey? ?iaeoe noaoenoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii
aeniiaee; aeei?enoaiiyi onio aiaeiieo iaoiaeee ?aaeoeoei? OI;
eiiieaeniei iiaeoiaeii, yeee caaacia/o? ?iciiai/iee eiio?ieue oaieiaeo
iiaeaeae. Aeinoia??i?noue iaeai?aeiino?oeoe?e i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaaeeny a iaaeao oaeoiiinoa?e Aeiiaano, caaacia/o?oueny aaeeeei
ianyaii aeei?enoaieo aeaieo c aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aaea
aeei?enoiaaii i?e aecia/aiii ia?niaeoeaieo aeieyiie cieioiai
c?oaeaiiiiy. Aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o aeeaeiieo i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a iaaeao i?iieneiaiai Aeiiaano, iiaea ciaeoe
canoinoaaiiy aeey ioeiiee iinoeaai? naenii/iinoi. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, aaea aeei?enoiaothoueny
iaoeiaeie oa ae?iaie/eie i?aai?caoe?yie aaieia?/iiai iai?yeo a Oe?a?i?:
ia’?aeiaiiyi “I?ai?/oe?aaieia?y” Aea?aeaaieeiia Oe?a?ie, IAeI? O?ainaac,
?AI? IAIO, a oaeiae A?I ?AI.

Ioaeieaoei? oa ai?iaaoeiy. ?acoeueoaoe iioaeieiaaii o 8 noaooyo,
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo ia?aaeao:»Oaieiaa iiea Caie? oa iaoiaee
eiai aea/aiiy” (1997, 1998, Iineaa).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. ?ic?aooiee ?aae?iaaiii? neeaaeiai? OI, ui
aaia?o? ei?a ?aa?iio, ia?aiino oaiea aiane?aeie a?ae?ioa?iaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oa ia?a?iciiae?e oaiea a iaaeao oaeoiiinoa?e ia ??cieo
aoaiao aeoea?caoe?e c?iaeaii ii aaea ?nioth/ei iaoiae?eai (Ieaenaiae?ia,
Ai?ae??iei, Aea?aanueea oa ?i.,1996; Ai?ae??iei,1998). Ia?iaea aeaieo
aaioa?ii/ieo aei???a oa iiaoaeiaa ea?oe OI Aeiiaano; aeyaeaiiy aiiiae?e
oa ?o iaoiiaeaiiy ?ici?uaiiyi a iaaeao iaaieo aaieia?/ieo no?oeoo?;
ocaiaeaeaiiy ?o iioiaeaeaiiy c aaieiai-aaioice/iith iioi?iaoei?th;
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aaieia?/ieo aeaieo, ye? iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei
aa?oeeinueeiai oa eeia??enueeiai aoai?a ?icaeoeo ?aa?iia ? niaoeeo?/iiai
neeaaeo iaio?eiiai noano?aoo iaia?aaeiaei? aeoea?caoe??, a oaeiae
aeniiaee ?iaioe aoee aeeiiai? iniaenoi aaoi?ii.

?iaioa ia iiaea aooe aeeiiaia aac eiinoeueoaoe?e ea??aieea a?aeae?eo
?AI IAIO, aeieoi?a aaie.-i?i. iaoe A.ss.?aaec?a?eea oa niia?iaioieeia
aiaeaeieo oaeoiiinoa?e ?AO, yeei aaoi? aeneiaeth? naith ue?o iiaeyeo.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, caeeth/ii? /anoeie oa ia?ae?eo iineeaiue (68 iaeiaioaaiue ).
?iaioa i?noeoue 133 noi??iee oaenoo, 8 oaaeeoeue oa 20 iaethie?a.

EI?IOEEE CIINO ?IAIOE

Aeaaa 1. Ei?ioea aaieiai-aaio?ce/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aeiio
aeine?aeaeaiue.

?icae?yiooa no?aoea?ao?y inaaeiaeo a?aeeeaae?a (?ioae, I?no??aiei,
Noa?e?i oa ?i.,1963); oaeoii?/ia aoaeiaa aanaeio a oe?eiio oa ?? ca`ycie
c aaieiai-i?iieneiaei ?aeiioaaiiyi (Iiiia,1963); iaaeai? iaci?e
no?oeoo?ieo iiaa?o?a inaaeiaiai oa?o aanaeio c ?icaeyaeii oaeoiie/iiai
?aeiioaaiiy aa?oeeinueeiai no?oeoo?iiai iiaa?oo (Iiiia,1963; Eoe?i,1997
oa ?i.), yeee a?aeneiith?oueny aiane?aeie cia/iiai a?ic?eiiai c??co ia
a?eueo?e /anoei? aea/a?ii? oa??oi???; aecia/ai? ?iceiie e?enoae?/iiai
ooiaeaiaioo aanaeio, ii yeei a?aeaoaaeeny oaeoii?/i? ?ooe aei?noeeo
aeie?a ia on?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo, oa cae?enithaaany ?oo aei iiaa?oi?
iaaiaoe/ieo ?icieaa?a oa a?ae?ioa?iaeueieo ?ic/ei?a (Nieeiaoa,
Ai?iaeoe?i, *aeoiia, 1977; Iaeaeaiiae/, ?aaec?a?ee,1984, oa ?i.). ?c
aeaieo aeeaeiii? aaio?ceee a oe?e aeaa? iaaaaeaia eeoa aeia?aeea i?i
aoaeiao caiii? ei?e, ui io?eiaia ca aeaieie ANC (?eue/aiei, Noaiaiaiei,
1998). Iaaaaeaii iien eiiieaen?a iaaiaoe/ieo ii??ae, ?o iao?ia?ao?/iee
oa i?ia?aeia?/iee neeaae, aaniethoiee oa a?aeiiniee aaieia?/iee a?e .
Ie?aiee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeeaeiiei enaiie?oai, ye? ? i?aaenoaaieeaie
iaio?eiiai noano?aoo iaia?aaeiaei? aa?oeeinueei? aeoea?caoe??
(Aooo?e?iia,1975; Eaca?aiei, Iaiia, A?oaa, 1975). ?icaeyiooa
iaoaeiaai?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aa?iio, ?ici?uaiiy ?oaeieo cii oa neeaae
i?ia?ae?caoe??, ca`ycie ?c ciiaie aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a, ?o aaniethoiee oa
a?aeiiniee a?e (Ooieyinueeee,1983). Iaaeaia ?noi??y aaieia?/iiai
?icaeoeo ?aa?iio..

Aeaaa 2. Aea/aiiy oaieiaiai iioieo Aeiiaano.

Aaioa?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a Aeiiaoeueeiio aanaei? i?iaiaeeeeny ia
i?ioyc? aaaaoueio ?ie?a ??cieie aaieia?/ieie i?aai?caoe?yie, aea
iaeiie/oaaeenue ?acoeueoaoe aei???a oaiia?aoo? o naa?aeeiaeiao. A 1984
?ioe? eieaeoeaii aaoi??a i?ae ea??aieoeoaii TH.A.Aooeeea (Aooeee,
Ia?oeithe, Iiaeia?aeiaa oa ?i., 1984) aoei a?ae?a?aii oa caaaeaii
iaoa??aee ii aei??ai oaiia?aoo? ?, ie?aii, oaieii?ia?aeiino? ii??ae.
Iaeiae oeeo aeaieo aeyaeeiny caiaei aeey noai?aiiy ea?oe OI. Aeyaeeanue
iio??aiith aeiaeaoeiaa ?iaioa ii a?aeai?o aeinoia??iiai iaoa??aeo,
aecia/aiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? inaaeiaeo ii??ae a eiaeiiio ie?aiiio
aeiaaeeo, aianaiiy ei?aeoe??, yea onoaa? aieea iia?/ieo oaeoi??a
?iciiae?eo OI iiaeeco iiaa?oi?.

Aeey io?eiaiiy cia/aiiy OI a eiaeiiio ioieo? nii/aoeo anoaiiaethaaany
aaioa?i?/iee a?aae??io, yeee aoei aecia/aii ii oaiia?aoo?ai ia caai?
naa?aeeiaei oa oaiia?aoo?? iiaa?oi?. Oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oi? aeia?a a?aeiia
caaaeyee iiiai??/iei niinoa?aaeaiiyi ia iaoainoaioe?yo oa aei??ai a
iaaeeaieeo naa?aeeiaeiao ? aei??aith? a na?aaeiueiio 10,3 N. Ia
i?aenoaa? ii??aiyiue oaiia?aoo? ia caai? naa?aeeiaei, /an a?aenoith yeeo
a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia ia?aaeuoaaa aeiae, ?c oio?iaeie, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue i?e?iaei?i, aoei aeiaaaeaii, ui aiie iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey aecia/aiiy aaioa?i?/iiai a?aae??ioo
(Onaiei,1997).

A ?iaio? ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe a?eueo i?ae 4500 aei??thaaiue
oaieii?ia?aeiino?. Cia/aiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeey eiaeii? a?oie ii??ae
aoee i?eeiyo? aeey Aeiiaano aoe?eiio. Aieea ci?ie nooiaith
eaoaaaiaoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o iaaeao ?ioa?aae?a ?ic?aooieo a?aae??ioo
aoei ioe?iaii ye iacia/iee ? aeiaaaeaii, ui iaa?oue o ?ac? eiai
?nioaaiiy a?i iaeaea ia ni?e/eieoue aieeao ia cia/aiiy OI.
Oaieii?ia?aei?noue noi?o? a?a?e?o?a oa aeaa?ie?o?a aoea i?eeiyoa
??aiith 1.8 Ao/iN, i?neiaee?a — 2.6 Ao/iN, aaiiye?a — 2.2 Ao/iN.

A eiaeiiio aeiaaeeo oaieii?ia?aei?noue ?ic?aoiaoaaeanue ye aoaeoeaia ii
?ioa?aaeo (aei caaiy) c o?aooaaiiyi iiooaeiino? aa?noa ii??ae ??ciiai
neeaaeo. Aeey aeayeeo ?aeii?a cia/aiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino?
?ic?aoiaoaaeenue ie?aii aeey eiaeii? naa?aeeiaeie, a ?ioeo aoee
a?aeie?aieai? ae?eyiee, ia yeeo eieeaaiiy cia/aiue ia ia?aaeuothoue
aeae?eueea nioeo Ao/iN. O aeiaaeeo iacia/ieo ci?i a no?aoea?ao?/iiio
?ic??c? a iaaeao ?aeiio aeei?enoiaoaaeinue ?aeeia cia/aiiy aeey
naa?aeeiaei iaeiaeiai? aeeaeie.

E??i oiai, aoei a?aoiaaii aieea oiia caeyaaiiy ia e?eeao Aieiaii? oa
Ae?oaeeianueei-Eiinoyioei?anueei? aioeeeeiaeae (eoo iaae?iiy ii??ae
??cii? oaieii?ia?aeiino? noaiiaeoue 45-65 ).

A oeo ?aeiiao, aea ea?aiiia? ii?iaee ia?ae?eo? oa?ii iae?oeo?eiaaieo
inaaeiaeo ii??ae iacicienueeiai oa eaeiicienueeiai a?eo, a?aoiaoaaany ?o
aeeaae a caaaeueio oaieii?ia?aei?noue. Oaieii?ia?aei?noue /anoeiai
oaiiaaiieo a?aeeeaaeaiue ia?inueeiai a?eo, ye? ?icaeioo? eeoa a iaaeao
Eaeuei?on-Oi?aoeueei? oa Aaoioonueei? eioeiaei, aei??aith? 2.4 Ao/iN, a
ii??ae iacicienueeiai oa eaeiicienueeiai a?eo, ye? ia a?eueoino?
oa?eoi??? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iathoue iacia/io (aei 150 i) iiooaei?noue, —
1.65 Ao/iN (Aaaa?a, Aoaeeiea, Na?a??aa oa ?i.,1987).

Iaiao?aeiei aeyaeeiny aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie ca ee?iaoe/i? ci?ie ai?iaeiaae
o?eaaeiai /ano, oa ca no?oeoo?iee aoaeo ia Aieiai?e ?
Ae?oaeeianueei-Eiinoyioei?anuee?e aioeeeeiaeyo, yeee noai?th?
i?aeaeuaiiy OI caaaeyee cia/ii a?eueo?e oaieii?ia?aeiino? ia oeeo
no?oeoo?ao. Iii?aaee aoei aaaaeaii aaoi?ii ca aaea ?nioth/eie
iaoiaeeeaie (Ai?ae??iei, Caaai?iaeiy, 1997, Aaoiaa, 1996).

Caaaeueia iiieeea aei??thaaiue aecia/aia ii??aiyiiyi io?eiaiieo
?acoeueoao?a ?c iaaaaeaieie a ?iaio? ?.?.Eooana oa I.?. Aaacthea (1992).
A 68% aeiaaee?a aiie a?ae??ciythoueny ia 5 iAo/i2. Oaeei /eiii, iiieeea
aei???a aeinyaa? 7%.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeiiaieo ?ic?aooie?a aoei noai?aii ea?oo OI oe?a?inueei?
/anoeie i?iieneiaiai Aeiiaano (ii aeaiei ia/eneaiue a 4300 ioieoao, ye?
aeiaeaii aei aaea ?nioth/eo 350 cia/aiue), aeaoaeuei?noue yei? iaaaaaoi
aeua ca an? ?nioth/? ea?oe OI (Ai?ae??iei, Caaai?iaeiy, Onaiei, 1999).
Aeinoaoiuei neacaoe, ui Aaie aeaieo ii OI ?a?iie iae?/o? onueiai 3500
cia/aiue (*a?iae,1998).

Oiiiaei cia/aiiyi i?eeiyoi 48 iAo/i2. Oae? cia/aiiy ( 3-5 iAo/i2)
?iciianthaeaeai? a iaaeao Aaoioonueei? oa Eaeuei?on-Oi?aoeueei? eioeiaei
oa ia a?eueo?e /anoei? noiaeo oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano a?ae Iaaieueiiai
e?yaeo aei I?ai?/ii? ciie ae??aii? neeaae/anoino?. I?aeaeuai? ii??aiyii
c oiiiaeie cia/aiiy OI a iaaeao I?ai?/ii? ciie ae??aii? neeaae/anoino?
oa ia noee? Ai?iiaaenueeiai e?enoae?/iiai ianeao, aea na?aaei?i ?
cia/aiiy 58 iAo/i2. Iaeneiaeueiei OI ae??ciythoueny Aieiaia oa
Ae?oaeeianueei-Einoyioei?anueea aioeeeeiae?, i?aaeaiii-cao?aeia oa
i?aaeaiia /anoeie Aeiiaoeueeiai aanaeio, aea noaoenoe/ia na?aaei?
cia/aiiy noaiiaeoue 63 iAo/i2. I?e iayaiino? aeineoue u?eueii? ia?aae?
aei??thaaiue noaei i/aaeaeiei, ui aiiiae?? OI ni?aiaaeathoue ?c ciiaie
aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a ? aeinyaathoue iaeneioio a i?noeyo ia?ao?auaiiy
?iceii?a ??cieo iai?yi?a (aei 98 iAo/i2). Oe? i?e?iceiii? aiiiae??
iathoue iacia/io oe?eio oa aaeeeo i?ioyaei?noue. Iaaaoeaieie (38-39
iAo/i2) cia/aiiyie a?aei?/aii i?ai?/io ae?eyieo
?eai/ee-?iaaiuee?anueeiai aeeaeiiiai ?iceiio.

Aeaaa 3. Aiae?c cia/aiue OI Aeiiaano.

?ioa?i?aoaoe?th iaea?aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?iaaaeaii c
iaoith aeae?eaiiy neeaaeiaeo niinoa?aaeoaaiiai OI. Iiia?oa ia/eneaia
eiai /anoeia, ui iaoiiaeaia ?aae?iaeoeaiei ?iciaaeii a ei?? oa iaio??.
Iaio?eia neeaaeiaa a ?aa?iiao, cae?aieo aei aeoea?caoe??, aei??aith? 22
iAo/i2 (Ai?ae??iei,1998). ?ic?aooiie OI, yeee aaia?o? ei?a, i?iaiaeeany
ii i?io?eyo ANC (?eue/aiei,Noaiaiaiei,1998). A eiinie?aeiaai?e /anoei?
ei?e OA aoea ?ic?aoiaaia ii oaeaeeino? iiaeiaaei?o naeni?/ieo oaeeue
(OA=1.35exp1.5(Vp-6)), i?e a?aooaaii? a?aei?iiino? aeeaeiieo O a?ae
oiiiaeo. A iaaeao inaaeiaiai oa?o aoei aeei?enoaii ae?ac:
OA=(0.624-0.1Vp)exp(0.638+0.0077O-5.10-6O2), a oaeiae caeaaei?noue OA
a?ae u?eueiino? ii??ae — OA=(2.14-0.75)exp(0.638+0.0077O-5.10-6O2)
(Ai?ae??iei,1998). I?ney a?aooaaiiy iiooaeiinoae oa??a, ye? neeaaeathoue
ei?o a iaaeao Aeiiaano, aeyaeeiny, ui ei?a aaia?o? 24-25 iAo/i2. Oaeei
/eiii, cia/aiiy ?aae?iaaiii? neeaaeiai? — 46-47 iAo/i2.

Aiiiaeueiee iio?e, iia`ycaiee c aa?oeeinueeei aaineieeeiaeueiei
i?ioeanii, aoei ?ic?aoiaaii ca?aeii AIA. Iaoiae?ea ?ic?aooie?a
neeaaeiai?, ui iia’ycaia c aeoea?caoe?yie ?ic?iaeaia A.A.Ai?ae??iei
(Ai?ae??iei, Caaai?iaeiy, sseia?, 1982; Ai?ae??iei, 1998). Aeiey
“aa?oeeinueei? neeaaeiai?“ aeoaea iacia/ia — 2 iAo/i2.

Eeia??enueea oa ea?ai?enueea aeoea?caoe?? i?ioiaeyoue ia c?acie
?eooiai?, aea iaiaaeai? i?aeeiiii o?eueee iaeiiai anoaiie?oo
aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ei?o, c iiaeaeueoei ooai?aiiyi a i?e ?icieaaeaieo
cii. ?ic?aooiee aeiaaee, ui aiie ia iiaeooue aooe i?iyaeai? a no/aniiio
OI.

Oaeei /eiii, OI Aeiiaano iiaeiai a?aeiia?aeaoe noi? OI ?aae?iaaiii?
neeaaeiai? (ui aiane?aeie cia/iiai ?icaeoeo inaaeiaeo ooai?aiue c a?eueo
aenieith oaieiaaia?aoe??th aeaui ia?aaeuo? oii ieaooi?ie) oa aoaeoo
aa?oeeinueei? aeoea?caoe?? — 48-49 iAo/i2. Oe? cia/aiiy ? o?enothoueny
ia cia/i?e oa?eoi??? aanaeio ca aeaieie aei??thaaiue.

No/ani?e aeoea?caoe?? i?eoaiaii? aocuee? aiiiae?? OI cia/ii?
?ioaineaiino? — 75-98 iAo/i2. A i?noeyo ?nioaaiiy aeae?eueeio ?iceii?a
aeecueeiai iai?yieo (iai?eeeaae, ia caoiae? aanaeio) aiiiae??
ii?aeiothoueny, noai?thth/e iiey, aea OI i?aeaeuaii a na?aaeiueiio aei
60-65 iAo/i2, c aocueeeie aioo??oi?ie ciiaie iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue, ye?
?ici?uothoueny ai?iaeiaae aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a. Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy
o?enothoueny a i?noeyo ia?aoeio ?iceii?a ??ciiai iai?yieo.

Aeaoaeueii aea/aeenue aiiiae??, ui ?icoaoiaai? a iaaeao Ieeeo?anueeiai
?oaeiiai iiey (Aieiaia aioeee?iaeue). Caaeey oieeiaiiy iiaeeeaino?
iiieeee i?e aeai?? ia`?eoo, yeee caeaoai noai?thaaoe iiae?aio aiiiae?th,
aoei ?icaeyiooi 3 aa??aioe iiaeeeaeo aeaea?ae oaiea: ?aae?iaaiiee,
?io?oceaiee oa a?ae?ioa?iaeueiee. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo oea iiaeiii aooe
o?ei, neeaaeaia ii?iaeaie, caeaoieie aei OA, yea a aeanyoee oa nioi?
?ac?a ia?aaeuoth? an? a?aeii? a iaaeao ei?e, oa ?icoaoiaaia ia aeeaei?
2.5 ei. A ae?oaiio oea iaaiaoe/ia aeaeea, a?e yei? ia ia?aaeuo? ia?o?
aeanyoee oeny/ ?ie?a, a aiiiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a noaiiaeoue 1000N, c
oaeith ae aeeaeiith caeyaaiiy, ye ? a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo. Ia ae?eyioe?
Ieeeo?anueeiai ?oaeiiai iiey, aea ?niothoue naa?aeeiaeie, aeeaeia yeeo
ia?aaeuo? aeacai?, iiae?ai? ooai?aiiy a?aenooi?.

Aiae?c a?ae?ioa?iaeueiiai aeaea?aea oaiea i?iaaaeaii ii iaoiae?oe?,
?ic?iaeai?e A.A.Ai?ae??iei aeey eeia??enueeiai aoaio aeoea?caoe??
(Ieaenaiae?ia, Ai?ae??iei, Aea?aanueea, oa ?i., 1996), ye i?aea??
?ioaineaiino? aaeaaeoe??, yea a iiynithaaea ?nioth/ee ?iciiae?e
aiiiaeueieo OI. Aoei ?ic?aoiaaii, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? i?aeaeuaiiy
aiiiaeueieo O iaae oiiiaeie noaiiaeoue 4-5N ia aeeaeiao 1-4 ei; ia
aeeaei? 5 ei — 15 N. Ia iie??ae? ?io?oceaiiai o?ea, ?icoaoiaai?e ia
aeeaei? 6-7 ei, O ia?aaeuo? oiiiao onueiai ia 100 N (aiiiaeueia O ia /an
aoi?aiaiiy noaiiaeoue 530N).

Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oie oaeo, ui a?ae?ioa?iaeueia ae?yeuei?noue
iiiiaeth?oueny ia iaeiiio e oiio ae i?noe?. A ia??iaee iiiiaeaiiy
oaeoiie/ii? aeoeaiino? ciia, yea ?icoaoiaaia iaae aeeaeiiei ?iceiiii, ?
iaea?eueo ?ooeeaith, ui ni?ey? i?aeeiio iaaiaoe/ieo ?icieaa?a oa
ooai?aiith a inaaeia?e oiau? cii c? ca`ycaiith ii?eno?noth, ye? ?
oeth?aeii?iieeieie. Oaeei /eiii no/ania i?aeaeuaiiy OI iiaea aooe
iiooeiaith iciaeith.

*eiieeii ?io?oceaieo aoi?aiaiue ia aeeaeie 6-7 ei iiaea aooe eeoa
aeoeaiee i?ioean a iaio??. Aeey iiyniaiiy a?aenooiino? i?iyao
eiiaeoeoeaii? neeaaeiai? i?ia??ao a no/aniiio OI, a?e iaio?eiiai
i?ioeano i?eeiyoi — i?eaeecii 5 iei. ?ie?a, a?e aoi?aiaiue a ieaeith
/anoeio ei?e — 500 oen. ?ie?a, a aa?oith — 100, ?io?oc?e i?ae ciiaie
eiiaaeoe?? — 35. Ciia /anoeiaiai ieaaeaiiy a ei?? ?icaeiooa a iaaeao
?ici?uaiiy ii??ae aio?aie?oiai? oaoe??, O ieaaeaiiy aeey yeeo
anoaiiaeth? 600 N. ?? ieaeiy iaaea aecia/a?oueny ii cia/aiiyi
i?iaeiaaeieo naeni?/ieo oaeeue 6.6-6.8 i/n. A iaio?? O nie?aeona
i??ie?oa ia?aaeuai? ia aeeaeiao 50-90 ei.

Aeaaa 4. Aeeaeii? i?ioeane a oaeoiiinoa?? Aeiiaano.

A aeaa? ?icaeyiooi i?io?eaiiy aaineiee?iaeueiiai i?ioeano a Aeiiaan?
ca?aeii AIA (a ?ic?aooiie aeeaaeaii ?ici?? oa?eoi??? oa /an a?ae ii/aoeo
i?ioeano). Aeae? i?iaaaeaii c?noaaeaiiy iiae?e, ia?aaeaa/oaaieo ca?aeii
AIA (Ai?ae??iei, 1998) oa cao?eniaaieo a aaieia?/i?e aoaeia? oa ?noi???
?icaeoeo, a oaeiae iiae?e, ui a?aeaoaaeeny i?ae /an e?ia??enueeiai oa
no/aniiai aoai?a oaeoiie/iie aeoeaiino?.

A iaae?ao aaineiee?iae? (i?eaeecii 390 iei.?ie?a iacaae) ia aeeaeiao
220-480 ei O ia?aaeuothoue O nie?aeono iaio?eiiai i??ie?oo, ooai?thth/e
oa? /anoeiai ?icieaaeaieo ii??ae. Iaaeae? a?aeaoaa?oueny iine?aeiaiee
i?aeeii anoaiie?o?a, nii/aoeo aei aeeaeie 150-160 ei, /a?ac i?eaeecii 60
iei. ?ie?a aei aeeaeie 100-110 ei. I?aeeii o?aoueiai anoaiie?oo
cae?enith?oueny aei “ei?iaeo” aeeaei — 40-100 ei.

Caaeeaeaiiy e?enoae?/iiai ooiaeaiaioo iaoiiaeaii i?ioeanaie iie?ii?oieo
ia?aoai?aiue i?ae anoaiinoa?iei oa?ii (ia aeeaei? 480-500 ei) i?ae /an
i?aeeiio ia?oeo aeaio anoaiie?o?a. I?ioeane, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei
i?aeeiio iiaa?oi?, iia`ycai? c i?aeaeuaiiyi O a aa?oi?e /anoei?
oaeoiiinoa?e oa ?icoe?aiiyi ii??ae. A oeueiio ae iai?yieo ae?? ?
??cieoey a aonoei? ?icieaao. Iaeneiaeueiei i?aeeii oa?eoi??? aoaea ia
caeeth/iiio aoai? oa noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeiaoueny neeaaeeiooai?aiiyi
(Ai?ae??iei,1998).

Oaeei /eiii, ca?aeii AIA, aanue i?ioean ?iciaaea?oueny ia /ioe?e aoaie,
o?e c yeeo iiaeii? i?iyaeoeny a ci?i? aeeaei iaaiia?aeae?eaiiy
(iaaiaoe/ieo ina?aaee?a), iane?aeeii /iai aoaea ci?ia iao?ia?ao?/ieo oa
i?ia?aeia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iaaiaoe/ieo ooai?aiue, a oaeiae oaeaeeino?
caio?aiiy e?enoae?/iiai ooiaeaiaioo oa, a?aeiia?aeii, oaeaeeino?
iaeiie/aiiy inaaeiaeo ii??ae.

Aaoi?ii aoei ?icaeyiooi neeaae iaaiaoe/ieo eiiieaen?a Aeiiaoeueeiai
aanaeio (Aooo?e?iia,1975; Eaca?aiei, Iaiia, A?oaa, 1975). Ii ci?iai ?o
i?ia?aeia?/iiai oa iao?io?i?/iiai neeaaeo aeae?eaii a?oie, ye?
a?aeiinyoueny aei ??cieo aoai?a iaaiaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, oa i?eaeecii
ioe?iaii aeeaeie iaaiia?aeae?eaiiy.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeianaii iaaiaoe/i? ii?iaee I?eacianueeiai oa
Aieiiaaonueei-?eai/eoeueeiai eiiieaen?a. O e?enoae?caoe?? ia?oiai
ioe?iai? ii aiiiaai?caoe?? aaciai-??aeeiieo ae?aieaiue a aiaeia?/ieo
ooai?aiiyo. Aiie noaiiaeyoue 1450-1480N (??iaeia, Aeieaia, 1979).
A?aoiaoth/e aae?aaaoe/iee a?aae??io, ie io?eia?ii ia?aoeiaiiy e?eai?
nie?aeono iaio?eiiai i??ie?oo ia aeeaei? 160-170 ei.

Ae?oaa a?oia ia`?aeio? ooai?aiiy Iie?iai-Ee?a?anueeiai eiiieaeno oa
oiea?oia? aacaeueoe. Aeey ia?oiai c ieo O e?enoae?caoe?? ioe?iai? oei
aea /eiii. Aiie aei??aiththoue 1350-1380 N, ui, c a?aooaaiiyi
aae?aaaoe/iiai a?aae??ioo, a?aeiia?aea? aeeaeiai ia?aoeiaiiy e?eai?
nie?aeono ia 100-110 ei.

Aei o?aouei? a?oie a?aeianaii ii?iaee I?aaeaiii-Aeiiaanueeiai oa
aiaeac?o-o?ao?aiaeac?oiaiai eiiieaen?a, ye? ii /ano i?iyao
iiia?aaeaeothoue oa noi?iaiaeaeothoue neeaaeeiooai?aiiy. Iao?ia?ao?/i?
oa i?ia?aeia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeeaeia
iaaiia?aeae?eaiiy aeey ia?oeo ciaoiaeeoueny iiaeeco ?icae?eo
ei?a-iaio?y, a aeey ae?oaeo — aaciina?aaeiuei a iaaeao aa?oiuei? /anoeie
ei?e.

?icaeyae aaio?i?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? on?o eiiieaen?a ui a?aeiinyoueny
aei aa?oeeinueeiai aoaio aeoea?caoe?? (cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo Ti, Zn,
Ba, Sr, U, oa ?i., i?e cieaeaii? Cr, Co) aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
aiie ooai?ai? c ?aeeiiai ?iaeiia/aeueiiai ?icieaao, ui ci?ithaaany
aiane?aeie anei?eyoe?? ?a/iaeie ia ??cieo ?ioa?aaeao aeeaei.

Ii iiooaeiinoyi inaaeiaeo ii??ae, ui iaeiie/aii ca iaaiee ?ioa?aae /ano
ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao aanaeio (?ioae, I?no??aiei, Noa?e?i oa ?i.,1963),
aoei ?ic?aoiaaii ci?io oaeaeeinoae inaaeeiiaeiie/aiiy. ??cea ci?ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia ae?eyioe? /ano i?ae oo?iaenueeei oa a?caenueeei
a?eaie. Iai?eeeaae, a ?aeii? a.Ai?e?aea oaeaeeino? inaaeeiiaeiie/aiiy
ci?iththoueny c 25 i ca 1iei.?ie?a aei 260 , *enoyeiai — c 35 aei 325;
Aeiiaoeueeo — c 35 aei 240; Eoaainueeo — c 15 aei 110. Ai?iaeiaae
na?aaeiueiai ea?aiio oaeaeeino? inaaeeiiaeiie/aiiy a i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e
oa oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? Aeiiaano caeeoathoueny i?eaeecii oaeeie ae, a
ia noiae? i?iaeiaaeothoue iacia/ii ca?eueooaaoenue oa iinooiiai
niaaeathoue a i?caeiueiio ea?aii?, aeinyaath/e i?eaeecii oeo naieo
cia/aiue, ui e o a?caenueeee a?e. A ?aii?ia?inueeee /an i?iaeiaiiy
ci?ith?oueny i?aeeiiii.

Iiyaa cia/ieo ian ?icieaaeaii? ?a/iaeiie aaciina?aaeiuei a iaaeao ei?e
i?ecaaea aei cia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy aaioa?i?/iiai a?aae??ioo oiai /ano oa,
aiane?aeie, eaoaaaiaoe/ieo ci?i inaaeiaeo ii??ae ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio
??ai?. Iaeneiaeueiei iaeaiaaioa?i?/iee a?aae??io a iaaeao Aeiiaano aoa
iaia?aaeiaei? neeaaeeiooai?aiiy oa i?aeeiio oa?eoi???. Oeaea
iaoaii?o?cio aoa?eey aoea ?ic?iaeaia ?.?.Aiiiniaei oa ?.A.??aieiei (1987
a.), a iiooaeiino? ?icaeoeo cii aoa?eey eiaeii? ia?ee aeey Aeiiaano a
oe?eiio — I.E.Eaaaiooaeiii (1963 a.). Caeaaeii?noue oeeo oaeoi??a
iaeiiai a?ae ?ioiai ? e?i?eiith ? a?aeiia?aea? aaioa?i?/iiio a?aae??ioo
ia ia?oeo 10 ei a?ae iiaa?oi? — 35N ia 1ei, ui ni?aiaaea? c ?ic?aooieii.

Aea/aiiy ?ici?uaiiy ia?ie aoa?eey ia ?aaeueieo ?icoeiao ??cieo /anoei
Aeiiaano (Eaaaiooaei, Ni???ia, Iiniaa oa ?i., 1985-1990) aeicaiey?
anoaiiaeoe i?aeaeuaiiy a?aae??ioo c i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue oa c caoiaeo ia
no?ae. A oeueiio ae iai?yieo ca?eueoo?oueny iiooaei?noue aa?oeeinueeiai
inaaeiaiai oa?o oa, a??ia?aeii, ?ioaineai?noue i?iyao i?ioeano acaaae?.

Aeei?enoaiiy iaeaiaaioa?i?/iiai a?aae??ioo aeicaieeei aaoi?ia?
?aeiino?othaaoe ??aaiue a?ic?eiiai c??co. Iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue
a?ic?eiiai c??co anoaiiaeaii ia ae?eyioe? Iaaieueiiai E?yaeo (5-6 ei). A
i?ai?/iiio iai?yieo a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai iinooiiaa ciaioaiiy: ai?iaeiaae
I?ai?/ii? ciie aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a — 3.5-4 ei, ia noeeo c Ai?iiaaenueeei
e?enoaee/iei ianeaii — 2.5-3 ei. Ia i?aaeaiue oa cao?ae cia/aiiy
ci?iththoueny no?eaeaie a ciiao ia?aoeio aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a. Oae, ia
i?ai?/ a?ae Iooeao?anueei-Ia?neai?anueeiai ?iceiio aiie noaiiaeyoue 5
ei, ia i?aaeaiue — 4 ei, oa aeae? ca?eueoo?oueny aei 4.5 ia i?ai?/iiio
ai?o? aanaeio. Ua cia/i?o? ci?ie a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e ia?aoeiaii?
Aieiiaaonueei-*a?ioo?inueeiai ?iceiio (a?ae 1.7-2.7 aei 4-4.5 ei). C
iaaaaeaiiai noa? i/aaeaeiei, ui i?aeeii a?aeaoaaany aeeoa?eioe?eiaaii,
aeieaie, a?aeie?aieaieie i?ii?ae niaith ciiaie aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a.
Ai?iaeiaae iaio ia??iae?a oaeoii?/ii? aeoeaiino? ia ae?eyioe?
Iaaieueiiai e?yaeo oa ae?eyieao,ui aaciina?aaeiuei aei ia? i?eeyaathoue,
i?aeeii ia?aaeuoaaa iioneaiiy. Oey oaiaeaioe?y a aa?oeeinueeee /an
i?iyaeaia ia an?e oa?eoi???, ui aea/aeany. A eeia??enueeo oa
ea?ai?enueeo aiioe oaeoii?/ii? aeoeaiino? ia i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e
ae?eyioe? aanaeio (Aaoioonueea oa Eaeuei?on-Oi?aoeueea eioeiaeie), a
oaeiae a i?ai?/i?e oa i?aaeaiii-no?aei?e /anoeiao aanaeio, ia?aaaaeaei
iioneaiiy oa?eoi???.

Aeae? ?icaeyiooi iane?aeee eeia??enueeiai aoaio aeoea?caoe??.
Iao?ia?ao?/i? oa i?ia?aeia?/i? iniaeeaino? ii??ae I?onueeiai eiiieaeno
eaii?io???a aeacothoue, ui ?o ooai?aii c aeeaeiii? iaio?eii? ?a/iaeie,
caaaa/aii? Na2O, K2O, Al2O3 oa ?i., ui aoaea i?e ci?ooaaii? aeeaeiii?
iaio?eii? oa ei?iai? ?a/iaeie. Oea iiaeeeai iiynieoe i?aeeiiii
iaio?eiiai anoaiie?oo c aeeaei 200-400 ei aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ei?o oa
iiyaith a ei?? cii /anoeiaiai ieaae?iiy aiane?aeie iiaeaeueoeo
aoi?aiaiue. Ianooiiei i?iyaii eeia??enueei? aeoea?caoe?? ?
a?ae?ioa?iaeueia ae?yeuei?noue a i?iieeieo ciiao iaae iaaiaoe/ieie
o?eaie. ?? iiyaa iia’ycaia c i?ia??aii oa ieaae?iiyi ii??ae
aio?aie?oiai? oaoe?? oa aoi?aiaiiyi eenei? (/e na?aaeiuei?) iaaie a
inaaeiao oiauo ii ciiao aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a. Oe? oaeoe aeicaieeee
caoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue aeoea?caoe??, ui i?ioiaeeoue ii c?aceo ?eooiai?
(Ai?ae??iei, 1998), aea iaiaaeaia i?aeeiiii o?eueee iaeiiai anoaiie?oo
aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ei?o. Iayai?noue ca’yceo iaoaniiaoe/iiai oa
a?ae?ioa?iaeueiiai i?ioean?a c iaio?eiith ?a/iaeiith o?eno?oueny a
o?i?/iiio neeaae? eeia??enueeeo iaoaniiaoe/ieo ooai?aiue (Ooieyinueeee,
1983), a ca’ycie c iaaiaoe/ieie o?eaie cao?eniaaii a ?cioiiiiio neeaae?
naeioeth (Eaca?aiei, Iaiia, Iaae?oei, 1975), a oaeiae eenith a
a?ae?ioa?iaeueieo ooai?aiiyo (Ooieyinueeee, 1983).

Iayai?noue no/anii? aeoea?caoe?? a ia?oo /a?ao o?eno?oueny a caaaeueiiio
i?aeeii? oa?eoi??? ia 150-200 ca inoaii? 5 iei. ?ie?a (Iae??iei,1992).

No/aniee aeoeaiee i?ioean iiaeeco iiaa?oi? i?iyaeaii oaeiae a
a?ae?ioa?iaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?, a iayai?noue a a?ae?iea?aiiaoii-iao?iaeo
aiaeao, ui i?ae?eiathoueny ii oeth?aeii?iieeieo ciiao H2, N2, CO2, B,
Hg, oa?aeoa?eco? ?o ye aeeaeii? (Eoe?i,1997).

Ia i?ioyc? e?eueeio ?ie?a ca o/anoth aaoi?a aecia/aeenue aeiiii?aei?
e?eoa??? ioe?iee cii no/anii? aeoea?caoe??. Iaeiei c aeinoia??ieo aoei
aeciaii ?cioiiiee neeaae aae?th aac?a, ?ic/eiaieo a i?aecaiieo aiaeao.
Aoei anoaiiaeaii oiiia? (3Ia/4Ia= (2.0-2.5)*10-8) oa aiiiaeuei? (a?eueo?
ca 6.5*10-8) cia/aiiy a iaaeao Oe?a?ie ca aeaieie aaea ?nioth/eo
aei???a, i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee a?aeiioaiiy 3Ia/4Ia a ei?? oa iaio?? c
iaoith aecia/aiiy «iinoa/aeueieea» eaaeiai ?cioiio (Ai?ae??iei,
Caaai?iaeiy, Oa?ania, Onaiei, 1996). Aoei aeieacaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy
a?aeiioaiiy 3Ia/4Ia i?e iaia’yceiaiio a?aooaaii? aeiaeaoeiaeo oaeoi??a
(a?aenooi?noue aiiiaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e e?o?th a ii?iaeao
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aeiia, a?aenooi?noue caa?oaeiaiiy Ia aoiinoa?e oa
?i.), iiaeii ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ye i?eaianaiiy iaio?eii? ?a/iaeie. Aeai?,
io?eiai? a iaaeao aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? anoaiiaeththoue 9.5*10-8;
(8-16)*10-8 ia noeeo Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie oa 12*10-8 a
i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e /anoei? aanaeio (Oa?ania,1999). Aiiiaeuei? cia/aiiy
o?enothoueny iaae ciiaie aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a, a i?noeyo ?o a?aenooiino?
ca/aiiy aeaui aeu? ca oiiia? (3.7-6.1*10-8). Oe? oaeoe aeicaieythoue
i?eionoeoe, ui no/aniee aeoeaiee i?ioean iia’ycaiee c aeoea?caoe??th, ui
ii/eia?oueny a iaio?? ? i?ioiaeeoue ye ? eeia??enueea.

Eiio?ieue no/aniiai aeeaeiiiai i?ioeano i?iaaaeaii oaeiae c caeo/aiiyi
iaoiae?a aeeaeiii? aaio?ceee. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoaii ?acoeueoaoe
iiaoaeiae eaac?o?ueioaei??ii? iiaeae? (Eoe?e, Ao?aoiae/, 1999). Iiyaa
ciie /anoeiaiai ieaae?iiy a iaaeao ei?e a?aeaeaa?ny a cieaeaii? ieoiiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o ii??ae. ?ic?aooiee a?aa?oaoe?eiiai aoaeoo ei?e
(Ai?ae??iei,1999) aeiaaee, ui ?ic?aoiaaia iiea aeey aeiaaeeo ii?iaeueii?
u?eueiino? ii??ae iaio?? (ii?iaeueieo oiiiaeo O) a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?
?aa?iio ia 40-50 iAe aeua ca niinoa?aaeoaaia. A?aooaaiiy ia`?eo?a c
aiiiaeueiith u?euei?noth a iaio?? c??aith? ?ic?aoiaaia oa
niinoa?aaeoaaia iiey. Iaaeaia oaieiaa iiaeaeue iiaeiia i?iyaeoeny ? a
iaai?oiiio iie? ye a?aenooi?noue aeaea?ae ?aa?iiaeueieo iaai?oieo
aiiiae?e. Noaia ?ici?uaiiy aeaea?ae ?aa?iiaeueieo iaai?oieo aiiiae?e
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oeae i?iaiic (I?ethe, Iaoeaae/, 1996).

Aeaaa 5. Aaineieeeiaeueiee i?ioean oa neeaae iaio?? Aeiiaano
iaia?aaeiaei? aa?oeeinueei? aeoea?caoe??.

?acoeueoaoe ?aeiino?othaaiiy oaeoii?/ieo i?ioean?a, io?eiai? a
iiia?aaei?o aeaaao, na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui, iacaeaaeii a?ae iaooaao
i?iyao aeoea?caoe?? ia iiaa?oi?, ?? /eiieeii ? ci?ia oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia
a iaio?? ia cia/ieo aeeaeiao, a iane?aeeii — ia?a?iciiae?e ?a/iaeie a
iaaeao onueiai caae?yiiai ?ioa?aaeo aeeaei c aeiinii aeaiaio?a,
iaeiaa?aioieo aeey iaio??, a aa?oi? oa?e ei?e.

Aeoeaiee i?ioean ii/eia?oueny c iacia/iiai ia?aaeuaiiy O nie?aeono
iaio?eiiai i??ie?oo a ?ioa?aae? aeeaei, aea aeey oeueiai ?nio?
iiaeeea?noue (iece aa?oiuei? iaio??) (Ai?ae??iei,1998) . C ?ioiai aieo,
iiaeeea?noue oa oaeaee?noue i?io?eaiiy on?o i?ioean?a (aaeaaeoe?? oa
eiioeaio?aoe?? o iie??ae? anoaiinoa?e ?icieaaeaii? ?a/iaeie, iiyae oa
ia?inoaiiy ??cieoe? a u?eueiino? anoaiinoa?e oa iie?eaath/i? ??
e?oinoa?ii? ieeoe oa ?io?) iathoue caeaaei?noue a?ae aeie? ?icieaaeaii?
?a/iaeie a anoaiinoa?iiio oa??. Inoaiiy iiaea aooe i?aeaeuaia, yeui a
i?ia?aeia?/iiio neeaae? i?enooi? a?aeiinii eaaeiieaae? i?ia?aee.

Iayai?noue eeeiii??ienai?a (o?oai-aa?oo) oa a?aenooi?noue i?oii??ienai?a
a neeaae? enaiie?o?a na?ae/eoue, ui i?ney noaiiaeaiiy iaio?? Aeiiaano ye
iaio?? ieaooi?iaiiai ?aa?iio (ia ui aeaco? a?aenooi?noue
i??ienai-oi?iaeaai? oaoe?? (Aeia??oeia,1980)) ia ia? aoei iaeeaaeaii
i?ioeane, ye? i?ecaaee aei cia/ieo ci?i a ?? neeaae?. Aea/aiiy
aca?iia?aeiioaiue i?ae i?ia?aeaie (Aaioaoo, Iieyeia, Eenaeueia,
Naiaiiaa, Nieiaeiaa oa ?i., 1984 ) i?ecaaei aei aeniiaeo, ui iiyaa
iiae?aieo i?ia?aeueieo ia?aaaiacen?a (ye? ? aeineoue noaiaea?oieie
iaa?oue aeey ??cieo ?aa?ii?a) ? iane?aeeii ?icaeoeo iaoaniiaoe/iiai
i?ioeano a iaaeao aa?oiuei? iaio??, i?iyaa yeiai i?ecaiaeeoue aei
caaaa/aiiy iaio?eiiai noano?aoo i?ia?aeaie, ieaae?iiy yeeo ii/eia?oueny
a ia?oo /a?ao, a?aeaoaa?oueny iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii, oa ye? aeyaeythoueny
iinoa/aeueieeaie iao?iaaiieo oa, iniaeeai, ??aeeeo aeaiaio?a a
aacaeueoia? aeieaaee. Aiane?aeie i?io?eaiiy iaoaniiaoe/ieo i?ioean?a
ooai?eoueny iaio?y, aaoa?iaaiia a iaaeao ie?aieo aeie?a, aea ia oe?
aeaieaoiaaiiai ea?oeie?oiaiai noano?aoo aoaeooue ?icoaoiaai? caaaa/ai?
iaeiaa?aioieie aeaiaioaie ae?eyiee i??ienai?oiaiai oa aa?e?oiaiai
neeaaeo.

A ianooiiiio ?icae?e? ia i?eeeaae? iaaiaoe/ieo eiiieaen?a aaoi?ii
anoaiiaeaii ci?ie neeaaeo iaio?? aaciina?aaeiuei Aeiiaano ii aa?oeeae?.

1. Ii?iaee I?eacianueeiai eiiieaeno ooai?ai? c ?a/iaeie, yea
ciaoiaeeeanue a iaio?? ia aeeaeiao a?eueoeo ca 200 ei, a eiioai?iaoe?y
?a/iaeie c aeeaei 200-150 ei oa aeua, iacia/ia.

Aaeeeo ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aeaoieen aoaeaoeth, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny ooo a
aeaeyae? aenieiu?eueieo aeeth/aiue oa aeia?a ?ic/eiy?oueny a
oeueo?ainiiaiiio ?icieaa?, ia i?ecaiaey/e aei ??cei? ci?ie eiai
a`yceino?, ui iaaea? eiio ciiao aei caoaaoo oa aeiino enaiie?o?a. I?e
cieaeaii? oeneo i?ae /an oaeaeeiai i?aeeiio ii iaaiii?iieeiei ciiai,
/anoeia NI2 a?aeie?aieth?oueny, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei aenieiceaiiai
oa?aeoa?o aeaa?aeaiue, ?ioa /anoeia iia`yco?oueny c eao?iiaie oa
ooai?th? ea?aiiaoio iano.

Oaeei /eiii ooai?ththoueny e?iaa?e?oe.

2. Iaaeae? iaaia anei?eth? ?a/iaeio, yea ciaoiaeeeany a ?ioa?aae? aeeaei
200-140 ei oa aaea ai?uo? i?ia?aee-eiioeaio?aoi?e aiaee, e?euee?noue
yei? ua aeoaea iacia/ia, oa eoaeieo aeaiaio?a — oeiaii?o oa ea?noo?o, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiya? a ?? neeaae? ?o cia/ieo e?eueeinoae, a oaeiae
aaeiaai?a. Aiie i?e?aeiothoueny aei aeaoieeno aoaeaoeth oa ai?iiieo
eiiieaen?a, ui ai?uothoue oinoi? oa n??eo, i?eoaiaii? eeiaa?eeoia?e
iaai?.

C oaeeo iaai ooai?ththoueny eoaei? aacaeueoe. Aeeaeia iaaiia?aeae?eaiiy
?o oaea ae ye ? a e?iaa?eeo?a, aea a ieo i?enooiy ?a/iaeia c iaiueoeo
aeeaei, ui ci?ith? o?i?/iee neeaae oa o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ?icieaao
(cieaeo? a`yce?noue). Aaeee? ia`?ie ?a/iaeie iia?eueii i?ae?eiathoueny
aei iiaa?oi?.

3. Aeoaea ??cea ci?ia yeinoae a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiea?oiaiio ?icieaa?,
aeeaeia iaaiia?aeae?eaiiy yeiai ciaoiaeeoueny ia iaae? 100-110 ei, a
neeaae ii?aeio? iniaeeaino? iiia?aaei?o ooai?aiue (iai?eeeaae,
iniaeeaino? ai?noo ??aeeeo oa ?icn?yieo aeaiaio?a), a oaeiae iaaoaa?
iia? aiane?aeie an?i?eyoe?? ?a/iaeie ?ioa?aaeo 150-90 ei. ??cei
i?aeaeuo?oueny ai?no aiaee, aaeiaai?a, e?aii?eeneioe oa e?aiiacaio. On?
oe? oaeoi?e i?ecaiaeyoue aei cieaeaiiy a`yceino? ?icieaao oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eiai aa?aneaiino?. Cieaeo?oueny ai?no aai ?ieue aeaoieeno aoaeaoeth.
Iiyaa iieueiaeo oiao?a na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aoiaiiy iaae? ?o ?nioaaiiy a
iaio?eiiio noano?ao?.

4. Aaeeea e?euee?noue a on?o iaio?eieo ooai?aiiyo eeeiii??ienai?a
(aaa?oo, o?oai-aaa?oo, aa???i-aaa?oo), aio?aie?a (ea?noo?oo), oeiaii?oo,
a oaeiae aiao?oo, ?eueiai?oo oa ?i., iiyaa a i?ia?aeueiiio neeaae?
oiea?oiaeo iaai ?acii c oeeie i?ia?aeaie enaiio?io, oo?iae?io,
aa?eee?oo, ?eieie?oo oa ?ioeo i?ia?ae?a, ui eiioeaio?othoue ??aee? oa
?icn?yi? aeaiaioe, na?ae/eoue i?i iaoaniiaoe/io ia?a?iaeo iaio?eiiai
noano?aoo acaeiaae anueiai ?ioa?aaeo aeeaei.

Ia i?aenoaa? iaoa??aeo, iaaaaeaiiai a ?iaio?, oa ia/eneaiue iiaeeeaino?
aeieeiaiiy aeoeaiiai i?ioeano ia i?eeeaae? aaieia?/ii? ?noi??? Aeiiaano
a?ae aeaaiio aei no/aniino?, c?iaeaii aeniiaee, ui eiaeia aeieeath/a
aeoea?caoe?y ca?iaeaeo?oueny ia aeeaeiao 200-400 ei ? i?ioean ?aea a
iaaeao on??? oaeoiiinoa?e, oi/a i?eiiaa?oiaa? eiai i?iyae iiaeooue aooe
iacia/i? ? i?ecaiaeeoe aei iiyae a?ae?ioa?i, oaiia?aoo?a yeeo ia?aaeuaia
aaciina?aaeiuei o iiaa?oi? eeoa ia 4-5N. Iaia?aaeiaei? aeoea?caoe??
i?ioeane iaio?eiiai iaoaniiaoico i?ecaiaeyoue aei caaaa/aiiy iaio?eiiai
noano?aoo ?a/iaeiith, ui ia ? i?eoaiaiiith aeey iaio??. Iiyaa a
iaio?eiiio neeaae? oe??? ?a/iaeie i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
nie?aeono, ? noa? iaeiei c /eiiee?a aeoea?caoe??. A iaeiei c iane?aee?a
aeoeaiiai i?ioeano, iacaeaaeii a?ae eiai iaooaao, ? aeianaiiy c iaio??
iaeiaa?aioieo niieoe, aeaiaio?a oa aaciai-oeth?aeii? oace aei aeaiii?
iiaa?oi?.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE

1. Ia i?aenoaa? aecia/aiiue OI a 4300 naa?aeeiaeiao Aeiiaoeueeiai
aanaeio caoaeiaaii aeaoaeueio ea?oo OI oe?a?inueei? /anoeie i?iieneiaiai
Aeiiaano.

2. Aecia/aii oiiiaa cia/aiiy OI ?aa?iia, yea aei??aith? 48-49 iAo/i2.

3. Aeyaeaii aiiiae?? OI, ye? ?icoaoiaai? iaae ?iceiiaie e?enoae?/iiai
ooiaeaiaioo aanaeio. A inaaeia?e oiau? iaae ?iceiiaie ciaoiaeyoueny
iaaii- oa oeth?aeii?iieei? ciie, ui ii/eiathoue ooieoe?iioaaoe a
ia??iaee oaeoii?/ii? aeoeaiino?. Oea aeicaiey? iia’ycoaaoe no/ani?
aiiiae?? c i?ioeanaie eiiaaeoeaiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo oaiea a iaaeao
iaaiaoe/ii? oa a?ae?ioa?iaeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

4. Iiaoaeiaaii aeeaeiio oaieiao iiaeaeue ei?e oa aa?oi?o ai?eciio?a
iaio?? ?aa?iio. Aiia ocaiaeaeaia c aaieia?/ieie oa aaio?ce/ieie aeaieie.
Iayai?noue a ei?? ?aa?iio aa?noae /anoeiaiai ieaae?iiy, ui o?eno?oueny a
aaio?ce/ieo iieyo, iia’ycaia c i?ioeanii, ui ii/eia?oueny a iaio?? ia
aeeaeiao 200-400 ei.

5. Iieacaii, ui iiae?aia aeoea?caoe?y a?aeaoaaeanue a Aeiiaan? i?ae /an
eeiia??enueeiai aoaio oaeoii?/ii? aeoeaiino?. Aiia i?ioiaeeoue ii c?aceo
?eooiai?, aea iaiaaeaia i?aeeiiii iaeiiai anoaiie?oa aaciina?aaeiuei
i?ae ei?o.

6. Aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi iiae??, ui a?aeaoaaeeny ia ??cieo aoaiao
aa?oeeinueeiai aaineieeeiaeueiiai i?ioeano, ye oi: ci?ia aeeaei
iaaiaoe/ieo ina?aaee?a, ci?ia oaeaeeino? i?ia?aaiiy e?enoae?/iiai
ooiaeaiaioo, iaeaiaaioa?i?/iee a?aae??io iaia?aaeiaei? ?iaa?n??.

7. Aeieacaii, ui iiae??, ye? ae?enii a?aeaoaaeeny a iaaeao
aa?oeeinueeiai aoaio aeoea?caoe?? ia i?ioe?a/aoue iiae?yi, ui caeeaaeaii
a ?ic?aooiie ia?a?iciiae?eo oaiea ii AIA (Ai?ae??iei, 1998).

8. Aenoiooi a?iioaco i?i aieea neeaaeo iaio?? oa eiai aaiethoe?? ia
iiaeeea?noue aeoeaieo i?ioean?a oa ?o i?io?eaiiy. ?icaeyiooi
i?ia?aeia?/iee neeaae iaio?? a iaaeao Aeiiaano iaia?aaeiaei?
aa?oeeinueeiai i?ioeano.

INIIAI? IAOA??AEE AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAI? O ?IAIOAO:

1. Ai?aeeaiei A.A., Caaai?iaeiyy I.A., Oa?ania A.I., Onaiei I.A.
Ecioiiiue ninoaa aaeey a ii?iaeao e i?e?iaeiuo aacao oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu
// Aaioec.aeo?i.,- 1996,- ?4,- N.24-36.

2. Ai?aeeaiei A.A., Caaai?iaeiyy I.A., Onaiei I.A. Oaieiaie iioie
Aeiiaoeeiai aannaeia // Aaioec. aeo?i., -1999 — ? 1,- N.127-130.

3. Aaee/aiei I.A., Aeioia I.A., Ai?aeeaiei A.A., Onaiei I.A. e ae?.
Iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey Ieueoiaaonei-Aieuioeaaneie aioeeeeiaee Aeiiaana
a nayce n aa ?oaeiiiniinoueth.// Aaioec. aeo?i.,1999, -?2, -N.69-84.

4. Ai?aeeaiei A.A., Ai?aeeaiei E.A.,Caaai?iaeiyy I.A., Oa?ania A.I.,
Onaiei I.A. Ei?iaua oaiia?aoo?u oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu // O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?.
eiio. «Aeoaeiiia no?iaiea eeoinoa?u e iao?aaeeoeeiiiia eniieueciaaiea
iaae?».-E.,1996.-N.145-148.

5. Onaiei I.A. Oaiia?aoo?u ia caaia a neaaaeeiao Aeiiaanna // Oaieiaia
iiea Caiee e iaoiaeu aai eco/aiey.- I.: ?OAeI, 1997. — N.157-158..

6. Ai?aeeaiei E.A., Onaiei I.A. Oaieiaie iioie e ianoi?iaeaeaiey cieioa
ia Oe?aeia // Oaieiaia iiea Caiee e iaoiaeu aai eco/aiey.- I.: ?OAeI,
1997. — N.184-186.

7. Usenko O.V., Gordienko V.V., Gordienko I.V. at al. The heat flow of
the Donets basin // The Earth`s thermal field and related reserch
methods. — M.: RUFH. -1998. -P.266-267.

8. Tarasov V.N., Gordienko V.V., Zavgorodnyaya O.V. Usenko O.V., Helium
isotopes and terrestrial heat flow in the Ukrain // The Earth`s thermal
field and related reserch methods. — M.: RUFH. -1998. -P.266-267.

Aiioaoe?y

Onaiei I.A. Oaieiaee iio?e oa aeeaeii? i?ioeane a oaeoiiinoa??
Aeiiaano.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 04.00.22. — Aaio?ceea.- ?inoeooo aaio?ceee IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee aaaaoi??/ii? ?iaioe a Aeiiaoeueeiio
aanaei?, aea aeeiiaii aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiaiai iioieo.
Anoaiiaeaii oii oa aeyaeaii aiiiae??, ye? i?i?ioa?i?aoiaaii. Iiaoaeiaaii
oaieiao iiaeaeue ei?e oa aa?oi?o oa??a iaio??. Oeth iiaeaeue aoei
ii??aiyii ?c ?nioth/eie aeaieie naeniieia??, a?aa?iao???, iaai?oiiao???,
aeae?iaaio?i??, ?cioii?? aae?th oa iia?oi?o oa no/anieo ?oo?a iiaa?oi?
Caie?.

?icaeyiooi ?noi??th aeeaeiieo i?ioean?a oa oaieiaiai iiey ?aa?iio oa
i?iaaaeaii ?? c?noaaeaiiy c ?aaeueieie aaieia?/ieie iiae?yie, ui
cao?eniaaii a aoaeia? ?aa?iio. Caaaeaii aeai? ?c no?aoea?ao??,
oaeoii?ee, ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith iao?ia?ao?/ieo,
i?ia?aeia?/ieo oa aaio?i?/ieo iaoiae?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?icaeyaeo i?ia?aeia?/iiai neeaaeo iaio?eieo enaiie?o?a oa
aaio?i?/iiai neeaaeo iaaiaoe/ieo ooai?aiue aeiaaaeaii niaoeeo?/i?noue
neeaaeo iaio?? iaia?aaeiaei? aa?oeeinueei? aeoea?caoe?? oa aeeacaii
aeiioaco aieeao neeaaeo iaio?? ia iiaeeeaenoue oa i?io?eaiiy i?ioean?a
aeoea?caoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaieiaee iio?e, aiiiae?y oaieiaiai iioieo, Aeiiaann,
aeeaeiia oaieiaa iiaeaeue, a?ae?ioa?iaeueia ae?yeuei?noue, iaio?eiee
iaoaniiaoic, aa?oiy iaio?y.

Aiiioaoeey

Onaiei I.A. Oaieiaie iioie e aeoaeiiua i?ioeannu a oaeoiiinoa?a
Aeiiaanna. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.22. — Aaioeceea.- Einoeooo aaioeceee IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeena?oaoeee iiaeaaaeaiu eoiae iiiaieaoiae ?aaiou a Aeiiaoeeii
aannaeia, aaea i?iaaaeaiu aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey oaieiaiai iioiea
(OI). Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie a aaineieeeiaeueiuo ?aaeiiao (a oii /enea e
a Aeiiaanna) oaeie aiaeec naea?aeeaaeny i/aiue ?aaeeie naoueth
iaaethaeaiee OI e iiiai/eneaiiuie i?eiiaa?oiinoiuie eneaaeaieyie aai
cia/aiee. Aeey AeA nia?aii aieueoia eiee/anoai caia?ia oaiia?aoo? ia
caaiyo neaaaeei, /oi iicaieeei nicaeaoue ea?oo OI iaiau/aeiie ieioiinoe,
oaa?aiii ii?aaeaeeoue oii e i/a?oeoue aiiiaeee.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai OI a eaaeaeie oi/ea ecia?aiee
?ann/eouaaeenue aaioa?ie/aneee a?aaeeaio e oaieii?iaiaeiinoue,
aaiaeeeenue iii?aaee, ieaaee?othuea i?eiiaa?oiinoiua eneaaeaiey OI.

Ia ea?oa OI, iino?iaiiie ii ?acoeueoaoai 4300 iiauo e 350 oaea
nouanoaiaaaoeo cia/aaiee, auaeaeythony 3 ciiu: ieceeo cia/aiee (48-49
iAo/i2),n?aaeieo cia/aiee (58 iAo/i2), aunieeo cia/aiee (63 iAo/i2).

I?iaaaeai aiaeec aaee/ei oaieiaiai iioiea Aeiiaanna. Ii?aaeaeaia
?aaeeiaaiiay ninoaaeythuay, naycaiiay n ?aaeeiaeoeaiui ?aniaaeii a ei?a
e iaioee. Iia ?aaia 46-47 iAo/i2. Aa?oeeineay ninoaaeythuay auea
?ann/eoaia aeey i?ioeanna i?ioaeathuaai ii noaia, iniiaaiiie ia
aaeaaeoeeiiii-iieeii?oiie aeiioaca, e aeey i?ioeanna, caeii/eaoaainy 250
iei. eao iacaae, ieacaeanue ?aaiie 2iAo/i2. ?an/aou, i?iaaaeaiiua aeey
eeiia?eeneie e ea?aieeneie ninoaaeythueo iieacaee, /oi eo aeeaae a
nia?aiaiiue OI i?aiaa?aaeeii iae.

I?ieioa?i?aoe?iaaiu aiiiaeee, naycaiua n ia?aiinii aauanoaa e oaiea a
iaioee e ei?a, i?ino?iaia oaieiaay iiaeaeue ei?u e aa?oieo ai?eciioia
iaioee ii aiaeiaee n iiaeaeyie eeiia?eeneiai yoaia, i?iyaeaoaainy a
aeae?ioa?iaeueiie aeoeaiinoe aiaeiae/iie nia?aiaiiie, e nia?aiaiiie
aeoeaecaoeee ia caiaaea Oe?aeiu e a Iieaeiaa. Nia?aiaiiay oaieiaay
iiaeaeue ei?u e aa?oiae iaioee Aeiiaanna auea niiinoaaeaia n
nouanoaothueie aeaiiuie naeniieiaee, a?aaeiao?ee, iaaieoiiao?ee,
aeae?iaaioeiee, ecioiiee aaeey, iiaaeoeo e nia?aiaiiuo aeaeaeaiee
iiaa?oiinoe Caiee.

?anniio?aia enoi?ey aeoaeiiuo i?ioeannia e oaieiaiai iiey ?aaeiia
aa?oeeineiai aaineieeeiaeueiiai yoaia, niaeanii niauoeyi,
i?aaeiieaaaaiui ia iniiaaiee aaeaaeoeeiiii-iieeii?oiie aeiioacu,
i?iaaaeaii eo niiinoaaeaiea n ?aaeueiuie aaieiae/aneeie niauoeyie,
eioi?ua caoeene?iaaiu a no?iaiee ?aaeiia. ?anniio?aiu aeaiiua
no?aoea?aoee, oaeoiieee, ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua ia iniiaaiee eco/aiey
oaea eiathueony aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo n iiiiuueth iao?ia?aoe/aneeo,
ieia?aeiae/aneeo oa aaioeie/aneeo iaoiaeia. Ii?aaeaeai
iaeaiaaioa?ie/aneee a?aaeeaio, nouanoaiaaaoee a Aeiiaanna iaeaioia
eiaa?nee (a ieaeiae ia?ie) e o?iaaiue y?iceiiiiai n?aca aa?oeeineiai
no?oeoo?iiai yoaaea. Aanue eiiieaen iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia
niioaaonoaoao ?an/aoiui.

Ieia?aeiae/aneee ninoaa iaioeeiuo enaiieeoia e oeie/aneee ninoaa
iaaiaoe/aneeo ia?aciaaiee oeacuaaao ia niaoeeoeeo ninoaaa iaioee
iaeaioia aa?oeeineie aeoeaecaoeee, /oi iicaieeei auneacaoue aeiioaco i
aeeyiee ninoaaa iaioee ia aiciiaeiinoue oa i?ioaeaiea aeoeaiuo
i?ioeannia. E?iia oiai, iieacaii, /oi ethaay aeoeaecaoeey iacaaineii io
aa ianooaaia, i?aaeaa?yaony iaoaniiaoe/aneeie i?ioeannaie a iaioee n
i?eaiinii iaeiaa?aioiuo yeaiaioia e niaaeeiaiee; a aa i?ioeanna
i?ienoiaeeo auiin iaoa?aeoa?iiai aeey iaioee aauanoaa, n ia?aciaaieai
ea?oeieeoiaiai (ia?eaeioeoiaiai) inoaoea. Oaeei ia?acii, aeoeaecaoeey
i?aaeaa?yaony e nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?ioeannaie i?a?aiina e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aauanoaa a iaioee e ei?a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaieiaie iioie, aiiiaeey oaieiaiai iioiea, Aeiiaann,
aeoaeiiay oaieiaay iiaeaeue, aeae?ioa?iaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue,
iaioeeiue iaoaniiaoic aa?oiyy iaioey.

Iaat Flow and Deep Processes in the Tectonosphere of the
Donbas.-Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidat’s degree by a speciality 04.00.22 — geophysics.-
Institute of Geophysics of National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1998.

The thesis reviews the results of many years work performed in the
Donets basin where detailed heat flow (HF) studies were made. The HF
background value was calculated and HF anomalies were revealed and
interpreted, crust and upper layers mantle models were set up.

The history of development of the deep processes and thermal field of
the region was considered and compared to the real geological events,
which are reflected in the structure of the region. The stratigrafic and
tectonical data were generalized and analysed, the petrographical,
mineralogical and geochemical data were generalized.

On the basis of the analysis of the mineralogical composition of the
xenoliths and geochemical content of magmatic formations the specificity
of the mantle composition on the eve of the Hercynian activization was
substantiated and a hipothesis the influence of mantle composition on
probability of active processes was expressed.

Key words: heat flow, heat flow anomaly, the Donbas, deep thermal model,
hidrotermal activity, mantle methasomathos, upper mantle.

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