2

?INOEOOO INEOIEIA?? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII OE?A?IE

ssEIAAIEI Na?aie ?aaiiae/

OAeE 152.22

OAI??ss ? I?AEOEEA INEOIEIA?*II? AeIIIIIAE

IIOA?I?EEI A?Ae EAOANO?IO

(ia i?eeeaaei iino/i?iiaeeuenueei? neooaoei?)

19.00.01 – caaaeueia ineoieiaiy, inoi?iy ineoieiai?

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ineoieiai/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iinoeoooi ineoieiai? ii. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie,
eaai?aoi??y aeieia?/ii? ineoieia??.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeaiie
AII Oe?a?ie Ee?e/oe Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/, Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y
ea??aieo eaae??a ina?oe, eaoaae?a ineoieia?? oi?aae?iiy, caa?aeoaa/.

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? ineoieiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeaiie AII Oe?a?ie Iieyei
Aaeaioei Ieaen?eiae/, ?inoeooo ineoieiai? ii. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie,
eaai?aoi??y ineoieia?? oai?/ino? caa?aeoaa/;

aeieoi? ineoieiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie,
Iinaiei Aeaiii?a Eueaiaia, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a a?eiai? ineoieia?? oa aiae?enueei? iiae, caa?aeoaa/;

aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oanoiiaeiaa Ethaeieea Oaaei??aia,
Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ee?i?/ii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaa?ieia?? oa ineo?ao???, a?aeae?e iaaee/ii?
ineoieia??, ea??aiee.

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
?.?.Ia/i?eiaa, eaoaae?a ineoieiai?. I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana.

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny 26 n?/iy 1999 ?ieo ia 11 aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii
niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.453.11 a Iinoeoooi ineoieiai?
ii.A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Iaiueeianueea, 2.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo ineoieiai?
ii.A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Iaiueeianueea, 2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee 25 a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aeaen??aa I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. I?e?iaeii, oaoiiaaiii oa aio?iiiaaii?
eaoano?ioe – aieiaia i?e/eia ianiai? caaeaaei oa no?aaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy,
aeieeiaiiy aino?eo ? o?ii?/ieo, iaoieiai/ieo, iaaeiaeo ? iaiaoieiai/ieo
ineoi/ieo ?iceaaeia. Ioaea, ia?aae ineoieia?/iith iaoeith iinoa?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo ineo?/ieo iane?aee?a eaoano?io,
?ic?iaee aoaeoeaieo cania?a ?o iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa iaaeaiiy ae?eiai?
aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei a?ae ieo.

Aeooaeueiinoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa i?eeeaaeieo aniaeo?a
i?iaeaie iaaeaiiy ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aiane?aeie
/i?iiaeeuenueei? yaea?ii? oa ?ioeo eaoano?io coiiaeaia neeaaeiith
aeieiai/iith neooaoei?th a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae ?aaeueiith caa?icith
noeoieieo eeo (iai?eeeaae, caieao?ono a E?eio, iiaaii o aanaeii
Aeiii?a), iiaeaae oa aeaooia ia aaci- oa iaooii?iaiaeao, oaooao,
ia’?eoao oiii/ii? i?iieneiainoi oa yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee oiui;
iaiao?aei?noth i?aeaioiaee ineoieia?a aei i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe c
iioa?i?eeie a?ae ieo.

Oe? ianoaaeie aeiaaathoue ae??oaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo
i?iaeai iaaeaiiy ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae ie?aiei iniaai oa nioe?aeueiei
a?oiai ia aino?eo oa a?aeaeaeaieo aoaiao eaoano?io, cie?aia i?e
i?ieiiaiaai?e ae?? iani?eyoeeaeo aeieia?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo /eiiee?a.

I??a iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiinoi i?iaeaie. Iane?aeee eaoano?io o?aaeeoeieii
ciaoiaeeeeny o oeaio?i oaaae iaaeeeia, coneeeyie yeeo aoea ooai?aia
iaaeeoeeia (cie?aia ineoiao?iy) eaoano?io, ui ae??oo? caaaeaiiy
eieoaaiiy oieanieo oa aeooaaieo o?aai iioa?iieeo. Aea ?icoe?aia
oeoia/aiiy iane?aee?a eaoano?io c aoiai?noe/ieo iiceoe?e noaaeoue oaia?
ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee ia o?eueee ieoaiiy aeaiaioa?iiai aeaeeaaiiy
iioa?i?eeo, a e noai?aiiy o iinoeaoano?io?/iee ia??iae iaeaaeieo oiia
aeey ?o iiaiioe?iiiai aeeooy – ia a?oio? no/anii? ineoieiai? oa
nioeiieiai? eaoano?io.

Aeina?ae iaaeaiiy ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei aiane?aeie
cae?cie/ii? eaoano?ioe iiaeeco Ooe (N.I.Ianaooiaa), aeaooo a A?iaa???
(A.I.Aaoia), caieao?ono o A??iai?? (TH.?.Aea?tha?i, A.N.Ioo?ia oa ?i.),
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo eiioe?eo?a oa ai?iieo ae?e (?.I.Aaaeo?aoiaiia,
A.A.Ciaeia, ?.I.Eio?i?a, A.?.Iiiia) na?ae/eoue, ui a?o/eciyia ineoieia?y
ia aioiaa iiaiith i??ith caaeiaieueieoe iio?aao iioa?i?eeo a?ae
eaoano?io o ineoieia?/i?e aeiiiiic? o eiioeaiooaeueiiio,
i?aai?caoe?eiiio oa iaoiaee/iiio ieai?. Oea iieiaeaiiy noino?oueny ia
o?eueee ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei ia aino?iio aoai? eaoano?io.
O iino/i?iiaeeuenuee?e neooaoe?? iniaeeai a?ae/ooia ia?ic?iaeai?noue
iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo i?iaeai ineoieia?/ii?
aeiiiiiae ia a?aeaeaeaieo aoaiao ianiaiai eeoa, ca oiia i?ieiiaiaaii?
ae?? neeaaeii? eiiiiceoe?? ineoio?aaioth/eo ?aae?iaeieia?/ieo oa
nioe?aeueieo /eiiee?a.

?ic?ea i?ae oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieie canaaeaie aeaaeai?/ii? ineoieia??
oa ??aiai ?icaeoeo i?eeeaaeii? oa i?aeoe/ii? ineoieia?? iiynith?oueny
oei, ui eiie?aoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a eaoano?io
cae?enithaaeeny ia?aaaaeii o iaaeao oaeeo aaeocae ineoieia??, ye
iaaee/ia, aienueeiaa, i?aoe? a iniaeeaeo oiiaao – aac iaeaaeii?
eiiieaeniinoi oa ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ocaaaeueiaiue c iiceoe?e caaaeueii?
ineoieiai?. A?aoiaoth/e no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? “aeieia?caoe??” aoiai?oa?ieo
iaoe, oai??y ? i?aeoeea ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aianeiaeie
eaoano?io ia? aoaeoaaoeny ia a?oioi oe?ieiai aeieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeo, ui
caaacia/oaaoeia aaeaeaaoio oa aoaeoeaio ?aaaieioaoeith iioa?iieeo.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy caeienithaaeiny ai?iaeiaae 1987-1997 ??.
aiaeiiaiaeii ieai?a ?inoeoooo ineoieiai? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie,
ieaio i?ei?eoaoieo aeineiaeaeaiue, ia?aaeaa/aieo
nithcii-?anioaeieainueeith, a c 1991 ?. iaoeiiiaeueiith i?ia?aiith
eieaiaeaoei? ianeiaeeia /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe.

Ia’?eo aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? iioa?i?eeo
a?ae eaoano?io.

I?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? caeaaei?noue ineo?/iiai noaio in?a, ui
iioa?iiee aiane?aeie eaoano?io aiae ia’?eoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeno?aiaeueieo iiaeie, ?o aeanieo iiaeeaiaeoaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo
a?aei?iiinoae, a oaeiae i?aaiicaoeieieo oi?i oa iaoiaeia iaaeaiiy ?i
ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae.

Caaaeueia iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a ocaaaeueiaii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai
aei?iaeo a aaeoci aea/aiiy oa iiaeieaiiy iaaaoeaieo ineoieiai/ieo
ianeiaeeia eaoano?io; ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo oa
i?aaiicaoeieii-iaoiaee/ieo canaae ?o iiiiiicaoei?.

Iniiaii caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy:

1) ?ice?eoe caeiiiii?iinoi oa iaoaiicie aei? aeno?aiaeueieo /eiieeia
eaoano?io ia ineoieo ethaeeie;

2) aecia/eoe oai?aoe/ii oa i?aeoe/ii canaaee iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa
iiaeieaiiy iaaaoeaieo ineo?/ieo iane?aee?a eaoano?io;

3) aeyaeoe aieiaii /eiieee oa iniaeeainoi aeeiaiiee ineoi/iiai noaio
in?a, ui iino?aaeaeaee aianeiaeie /i?iiaeeuenueei? yaea?ii? eaoano?ioe;

4) aecia/eoe i?aaiicaoeiei? i?eioeeie oa iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? iaoiaee
ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei aiane?aeie /i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe;

5) ae?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?i?i?caoe?? iaaaoeaieo ineoieia?/ieo
iane?aee?a iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oa eaoano?io.

Iaoiaeieiai/ia iniiaa oa aeaea?aea aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieiai/iith
iniiaith aeaii? ?iaioe neoaothoue caaaeuei? i?eioeeie ineoieia?/ii?
iaoee (aeaoa?i?i?cio, a?aeia?aaeaiiy, aeoeaiino?, nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
oa ?i.); oai?aoe/ii iieiaeaiiy caaaeueii? oa aaiaoe/ii? ineoieiai?, ui
?ice?eaathoue caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo iniaenoinoi ye noa’?eoa aeanii?
aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi.

Oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei a?ae eaoano?io
caeeaaeaii a i?aoeyo eeanee?a ineoieia??, ui ?ice?eaathoue ae?aeaeoe/iee
ca’ycie ciai?oiueiai oa aioo??oiueiai, ia’?eoeaiiai oa noa‘?eoeaiiai,
ineo?ee ? ae?yeueiino? (A.A.Aiaiue?a, E.N.Aeaionueeee, A.N.Einothe,
I.I.Eaiioue?a, A.O.Eiiia oa ?i.). Aaaeeea? i???ioe?e uiaei ?icoi?iiy
iane?aee?a eaoano?io oa naino aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei a?ae ieo i?noyoueny a
i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo ineoieia?? aeeoo?aiai oe?oo iniaenoino? oa
aeoeaiino? noa’?eoo aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? o e?eoe/ieo neooaoe?yo
(E.I.Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaanueea, I.A.A?ooeiinueeee, E.O.Ao?ea/oe,
?.?.Aieiaaoa, I.I.E?ii?e, A.I.Iieyei, N.E.?oaiiooaei, E.A.Nioaiue,
A.I.Oaoaiei, O.I.Oeoa?aiei, A.O?aiee).

Nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo i?eeeaaeii? ineoieia?? eaoano?io iathoue
aeai? i?i iniaeea? ineo?/i? noaie ? ?aaeoe??, ui niinoa??aathoueny a
aeno?aiaeueieo ? noaaeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?yo (TH.I.Aeaenaiae?ianueeee,
A.I.Aaee, O.TH.Aaneethe, M.Ai?iaeoe, E.I.Eeoa?a-Niee, I.Ae.Eaa?oia,
E.E?iaeaiai, ?.E?ooii, A.O.Eiiia, A.I.Iieyei, I.I.Ii?icia, A.?.Iyao,
?.Ieoiai, N.?icaioeaaea, A.Naeue?, I.A.Oa?aa?eia, E.O.Oanoiiaeiaa oa
?i.), i?aoe? c oai??? oa i?aeoeee ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae
(I.O.Aiiaea?aiei, ?.A.Aeoa?ia?ia, C.A.E?na?/oe, A.N.Iooiia, A.A.Iaiie,
I.A.*aiae?aa, O.N.ssoeaiei oa ii.), aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a a cii? ?aae?iaeieia?/iiai eeoa
(I.E.Ai?eoaanueeee, I.A.Ee?e/oe, N.Ae.Iaeneiaiei).

Aeaea?aea aeaii? ?iaioe neeaaeathoue iioae?eiaai? iaoa?iaee
aeineiaeaeaiue ianeiaeeia i?e?iaeieo oa oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io; aiii?e/i?
aeai?, io?eiai? aaoi?ii i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaaeaiiy
eiinoeueoaoeaii-ei?eaoaaeueii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aianeiaeie
aeno?aiaeueieo iiaeie.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ai?iaeiaae 1987-1997 ??. ia eiioeiaaio?
aeecueei 5 oeny/ aeioae oa 1 oeny/i aei?ineeo, ui iino?aaeaeaee
aiane?aeie aeno?aiaeueieo iiae?e, ianaiia?aae /i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe.

Iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. I?aaeiaoii ineoieia?? eaoano?io ? iaaeia? oa iaiaoieia?/i? ineo?/i?
?iceaaee, aeieee? aiane?aeie ae?? aeno?aiaeueieo /eiiee?a. Oi?ie oa
iaoiaee ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei a?ae ieo neeaaeathoue
iniaeeao aaeocue oai??? caaaeueii? ineoieia?? oa i?aeoeee ineoieia?/ii?
ae?aaiinoeee, ei?aeoe?? oa oa?ai??.

Ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe ia’?eoeai? (iaaee/i? ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?), a
oaeiae noa’?eoeai? (ineoieia?/i?) e?eoa??? aecia/aiiy iioa?i?eeo a?ae
eaoano?io, oa ?o eiia?iaoe??. Ca ineoieia?/ieie e?eoa??yie aei
iioa?i?eeo aiane?aeie eaoano?io a?aeiinyoueny ethaee, ye? ni?eeiyee
aeno?aiaeueio neooaoe?th ye oaeo, ui noaiiaeoue caa?ico aeey aeeooy oa
caei?ia’y ?o naieo oa ioi/oth/eo. Aiane?aeie ia?aaeeaaiiy eaoano?ioe ?o
aioo??oi?e na?o (ia?ac ss oa aeiae?eey, oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe??) cacia?
nooo?aeo ci?i: oi?io?oueny “eiiieaen iioa?i?eiai”, ui iio?aao?
aeiiiiiae.

2. I?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?i?i?caoe?th
ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a eaoano?ioe, iathoue a?aoiaoaaoeny ?o
niaoeeo?/i? (aeeeeeai? oe?aeeeaeie aaaioaie eaoano?ioe) oa ianiaoeeo?/i?
(?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?) /eiieee.

I?e yaea?ieo eaoano?ioao aieiaiee oe?aeeeaee aaaio – cia/ia iaeii?aciaa
?aaeiaoeieia ii?iiiiaiiy, ui iiaea aeeeeeaoe oea?aa?aeueio oi?io
i?iiaiaai? oai?iae, a i?e o?eaaeiio ii?ii?iaii? iaeeie aeicaie –
iino?aaeiaoeiei? aioeaoaeiiao??.

?ii?coth/a ii?ii?iaiiy aeeeeea? o iaoeaioe?a ?aae?aoe?eii caa?oaeiaieo
?aa?ii?a iaaacia/i? ineoiniiaoe/ii aoaeoe: eaoano?ioi/ia cieaeaiiy
iioiioaoo, aaaaoi?aciaa c?inoaiiy caoai?thaaiinoi, ui i?iyaey?oueny o
iia??oaii? ooieoeiiiaeueiiai ? ineo?/iiai noaio iioa?iieeo (o?ii?/ia
aoiia, o?eaiaeiinoue, aeai?aneaiee noai oiui). Eiiiainaoeiy
?aae?aoe?eiiai ?eceeo aeiaaa? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai ?aaeeio
oa?/oaaiiy, i?aoei oa aiaeii/eieo, iniaeeai? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe oa aeica?eey ae?oae ? iiaeeioe?a, ?o
icaei?iaeaiiy ? naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai eieoaaiiy.

3. Iiina?aaeeiaaiee aieea ?aaeiaoeieieo ?ioeeaeaio?a iia’ycaiee c oaeeie
ineoio?aaioth/eie /eiieeaie, ye iaaaeaeaaoia iioi?iaoeiy i?i
?aae?aoe?eio caa?ico ia oe? ianiaiai yaea?iiai aeaoo; “aoi?eiia
o?aaiaoecaoeiy” iiae /an aaaeoaoei? oa ia?anaeaiiy; ?oeioaaiiy noaeiai
aeeoo?aiai ono?ith, aeaoi?iaoe?y ia?aco “ss” oa aeiae?eey;
iacaaeiaieaiiy eiiiainaoe??th ?aae?aoe?eiiai ?eceeo ia a?aeaeaeaiiio
aoai? ?ioeeaeaioo; a?ae/oooy nioe?aeueii? iacaoeuaiino? oa ao?aoa
aiaaiaiino? o iaeaooiueiio.

4. Iniaeea?noue /i?iiaeeuenueei? yaea?ii? eaoano?ioe iieyaa? o
eiiieaeniiio oa i?ieiiaiaaiiio a /an? aieea? ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue
iioa?i?eeo i?yieo oa iiina?aaeeiaaieo ineoio?aaioth/eo /eiiee?a, ye?
ii?iaeaeothoue niaoeeo?/i? oa ianiaoeeo?/i? aoaeoe. Cie?aia, aeyaeaii
ianiaoeeo?/iee (iacaeaaeiee a?ae nooiaiy ?aae?aoe?eiiai o?aaeaiiy)
“eiiieaen iioa?i?eiai a?ae /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe”; aeie?aieaii
aa??aioe iinoeaoano?io?/ieo ia?aaeeaaiue oa iiaaae?iee iioa?i?eeo
(“?aioia”, “ianeaii-iie??ia”, ?aaeoe?y “caia?a/aiiy” iaaa?acae?a aai ?o
na?aeiiiai iiaeieaiiy ca ?aooiie aeanieo coneeue), aeyaeaia i?aea?oia
“inaaaeiiioa?i?eeo”.

5. Iaaeaiiy ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aianeiaeie aaa?i? ia *AAN
ia? aooe ci???ioiaaia ia iiioeyoeiei? no?aoaai?. Aieiaia oaaaa ia?
i?eaeieyoeny iiina?aaeeiaaiie ineoieiai/iie aeiiiiici, ni?yiiaaiie ia
iie?auaiiy yeinoi naii- oa aca?iiaeiiiiiae iioa?iieeo, iiaeaeuaiith
ineoieiai/ii? eiiiaoaioiinoi i?aoeiaieeia nioeiaeueii? noa?e, i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy an?o eaiie.

Iaaeaiiy i?yii? i?ioanieii? ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aiae
?aaeiiaeieiai/ii? eaoano?ioe ia? caeienithaaoenue ia a?oioi oi?ioaaiiy
iiceoeaiiai ieneaiiy oa ae?iaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo iiaeaeae iiaaaeiiee – ca
oiia cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeeoa?aioeieiiai iiaeoiaeo aei ?icieo eaoaai?ie
iioa?iieeo, a?aooaaiiy ?o naineoeaiinoi ii iaaieo oi?i
ineoioa?aiaaoe/iiai ao?o/aiiy (aee?aeoeaiiai, eiai?oeaiiai,
iiaaaeiieiaiai oiui), aacoaaoeny ia aeno?aiicieia?/ieo oa neiioiiaoe/ieo
iaoiaeao ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae.

6. A iino/i?iiaeeuenueeie neooaoei? iaeaieueo iino?aaeaeaee aeioe,
aeiiee, ethaee iioeeiai a?eo. Naia oei eaoaai?i? iioa?iieeo iathoue
io?eioaaoe aae?anio nioeiaeueio oa ineoieiai/io aeiiiiiao. Ia aa?oi
iaiaaaoeny iiaa?iooe ?o “aei aei/i?iiaeeuenueeiai” noaio – oea
iaiiaeeeai. Iioa?i?e? iathoue iaa/eoeny aeeoe o oaia??oi?o neeaaeieo
?aaeiiaeieiai/ieo oa nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oiiaao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeaii? ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aia?oa a
oe?a?inuee?e ineoieia?? iinoaaeaia i?iaeaia ineoieia?? eaoano?io,
cai?iiiiiaaii oai?aoe/i? oa i?eeeaaei? i?aeoiaee aei ?? ?ica’ycaiiy.

Aia?oa ocaaaeueiaii oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i aieea
?aae?aoe?eieo eaoano?io ia ineoi/iee noai in?a, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo
oa?eoi??aeueieo oa a?eiaeo a?oi, ciaoiaeeeenue iiae iaoiaaiiei aieeaii
?iciee i?iiiaeie /ano.

?ice?eoa oiieaeuei?noue ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a aaa??? ia *AAN, yea
iia’ycaia ?c eiiieaeniith ae??th ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo /eiieeia
??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy oa iioaineaiino?, i?ieiiaiaai?noth ineoio?aaioth/i?
neooaoe??, nioeiaeueiei eiioaenoii.

Iienaia oa iiyniaia oaiiiaiieia?y “eiiieaeno iioa?i?eiai aiane?aeie
/i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe”, oeiia? oi?ie ia?aaeeaaiiy
“eaoano?io?/iino?” oa ?aaaoaaiiy ia ineoio?aaioth/o neooaoe?th, ?o
caeaaei?noue a?ae aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a.

Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue oa aecia/ai? iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? ineoiae?aaiinoeee, ineoiei?aeoe?? oa ineoioa?ai??
??cieo eaoaai??e iioa?i?eeo.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o nenoaiaoecaoe?? iiiyo?eiiai
aia?aoo, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey iieno ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a
aeno?aiaeueieo iiae?e oa eaoano?io, aecia/aii? ci?noo iiiyooy
iie?iiaeaeueia aeeoo?aa e?eca, iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue eiai
aeei?enoaiiy aeey iiyniaiiy iino/i?iiaeeuenueei? oaiiiaiieia??, ?ic?iaee
oeiieia?? ineoieia?/ieo iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee ca oiia i?ieiiaiaaii? ae??
ineoio?aaioth/eo /eiiee?a.

Ia a?oioi ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iaaeeoeeie,
nioeiieiai? oa ineoieiai? eaoano?io caeeaaeaii i?aeaaeeie iiaiai
iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue – ?aaeiiaeieiai/ii? ineoieiai?. Aecia/aii ??
i?aaeiao, iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? canaaee.

Anoaiiaeaii aieiai? caeiiiii?iinoi oa iaoaiicie aieeao ia ineoieo
ethaeeie ?aaeiiaeieiai/ieo /eiieeia, aecia/ai? niaoeeoi/i? oa
ianiaoeeo?/i? iane?aeee /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe. ?ic?iaeaia
oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue aieeao ia ineoieo ethaeeie “yaea?iiai aeaoo”,
“iai/aaeaeieo no?ani?ia”, “aoi?eiii? nioe?aeueii? o?aaiaoecaoei?”.
?ice?eoi iinoea ?aaeiiaeieiai/ii? ineoieiai? a nenoaii iaoe oa ??
ca’ycie c ?ioeie aaeocyie ineoieiai?.

?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/ii, iaoiaee/ii oa i?aaiicaoeieii i?aeaaeeie
(i?eioeeie, aieiaii iai?yiee, oi?ie oa iaoiaee) iaaeaiiy ineoieiai/ii?
aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei a?ae ?aaeiiaeieiai/iiai eeoa.

Ie?aneai? oeyoe ae??oaiiy i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai “aeieiaicaoe??”
noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?, iiaeaioiaee ianaeaiiy oa ia?niiaeo
niaoe?aeueieo oi?ioaaiue aei ae?e a oiiaao eaoano?io ??ciiai oeio,
cie?aia i?e ?aaeiaoeiei?e iaaaciaoe?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? oa oeieueia? i?ia?aie
iiiiiicaoei? iaaaoeaieo ineoieiai/ieo ianeiaeeia /i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny i?aaiaie aea?aeaaiiai oa iinoeaaiai
oi?aaeiiiy, a caeeaaeao ia?iaeii? inaioe, icaei?ia/eo oa eieoaaeueieo
onoaiiaao, ineoieiaaie neeiaeo no?oeoo? aea?aeaae.

Iiaeeoieiaaii aeaeieueea aiaeiieo oa ?ic?iaeaii e?eueea iiaeo
ineoiaeiaaiinoe/ieo iaoiaeee, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ineoieiaaie o
iaoeiaeo oa i?aeoe/ieo oe?eyo. Ai?iaaaeaeaii aeayei iiai i?eeiie
eiinoeueoaoeaii-ei?eaoaaeueii? ?iaioe c iioa?iieeie aianeiaeie
aeno?aiaeueieo iiae?e oa eaoano?io.

Iaoa?iaee aeineiaeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e iiaeaioiaoei iecee
caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaioia, ui noinothoueny iaaecae/aeieo
oa aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?e, ineoieiai/ii? neoaeae IAN.

Cai?iaaaeaeaii niaoeeo?ne: “Iniiae ?aaeiiaeieiai/ii? ineoieiai?”
(Iiae?aaiiiaeueiee iinoeooo aaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoaeia), “Ineoieiaiy
aeiyeueiinoi a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao” (ineoieiai/iee oaeoeueoao E?AN).

Iniaenoee aianie. A 1987-1993 ??. aaoi? aenooiaa o ?iei iaoeiaiai
ea?iaieea aai aiaeiiaiaeaeueiiai aeeiiaaoey aeineiaeaeaiue, ui
aeeiioaaeenue ca ieaiaie ?inoeoooo ineoieiai? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII
Oe?a?ie, aoee ia?aaeaa/ai? nithcii-?anioaeieainueeith, iaaeae?
iaoeiiiaeueiith i?ia?aiith “Aeioe *i?iiaeey”. O 1993-1997 ??. aaoi?
iniaenoi cae?enithaaa aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?aaeaa/ai? ieaiaie iaoeiaeo
i?ae?icae?e?a IAN oa II Oe?a?ie, ui noinoaaeeny ineoieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? a aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?yo.

A 6 iaoeiaeo noaooyo, iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, aei?iaie caeiaoaa/a
noaiiaeoue 50 %. Ca ?aaeaeoei?th aaoi?a aeeoee 4 eieaeoeaii iaoiaee/ii
?ic?iaee oa 2 cai?ieee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. O 4-o iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoeiyo, iaienaieo o niiaaaoi?noai e aae?aniaaieo
naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiei caeeaaeai, caeiaoaa/o iaeaaeeoue i?eaeecii 25 %
iaoa??ae?a (ui noinothoueny aeei?enoaiiy ineoieiai/ieo ciaiue i?e
icaei?iaeaiii aeioae ?c ciie ?aaeiaoeieiiai caa?oaeiaiiy). ?ic?iaee oa
?aea?, ui iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai, a aeena?oaoe?? ia aeei?enoiaoaaeenue.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeeaaeaeenue aaoi?ii ia 19
iiaeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo: “THIANEI – a/eoaeyi *i?iiaeey”
(Iieinueea, 1989), “Iaaeeoeeia eaoano?io” (Ee?a, 1991),
“Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia ?aaaieioaoeiy aeioae oa iiaeeioeia, ui
iino?aaeaeaee aianeiaeie *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe” (Ee?a, 1992),
“I?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? ?aaaieioaoei? oa i?aaiaiai caoenoo
aeioae i iiaeeioeia a oiiaao aieeao ianeiaeeia eaoano?ioe ia
*i?iiaeeuenueeie AAN” (Aiiaeue, 1992), “Iinoo?aaiaoe/iee no?an
nueiaiaeii” (Ee?a, 1992), “Ineoinioeiaeueii, ineoieiai/ii oa
ineoiiaa?ieiai/ii aniaeoe ianeiaeeia aaa?i? ia *i?iiaeeuenueeie AAN”
(Ee?a, 1992), “Iaaeeei-ineoieiai/ii aniaeoe *i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa?i?”
(Iiinuee, 1992), “Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia aeiiiiiaa aeioyi ?
iiaeeioeai, ui iioa?iiee aianeiaeie *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe” (Ee?a,
1993), “*i?iiaeeuenueea eaoano?ioa: aeiaaiinoeea i iaaeeei-ineoieiai/ia
?aaaieioaoeiy iioa?iieeo” (Iiinuee, 1993), “Aeieiai/ia inaioa a
eiioaenoi aaa?i? ia *i?iiaeeuenueeie AAN” (Ee?a, 1993), “Iiaeaioiaea
iinoeaaeo iaoeaioeia ye i?aoeiaieeia neoaea ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae a
?aeiiao, ui iino?aaeaeaee” (Iiinuee, 1993), “Ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ia
aeiiiiiaa o/iyi ciie ?AE ia aaci oeie oa iicaoeieueieo caeeaaeia” (Ee?a,
1993), c’?caei Oiaa?enoaa ineoieiaia Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1996); “I?aeoe/ia
ineoieia?y: oai??y, iaoiaee, oaoiieia??” (Ee?a, 1997), “Ianeiaeee
/i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe oa oi?ioaaiiy aeieiai/ii? naiaeiiinoi”
(Ee?a, 1997), “Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y ianaeaiiy, ui
iino?aaeaeaei a?ae aeieia?/ieo oa oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io” (I?inuee,
1998), “Aooiaeano?oeoeaia iiaaae?iea: ae?aaiinoeea, ei?aeoe?y,
i?io?eaeoeea” (Ee?a, 1998); aaaaoueio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo naiiia?ao oa
ia?aaeao, iaiaeii?aciai iaaiai?thaaeenue ia caniaeaiiyo A/aii? ?aaee
?inoeoooo ineoieiai? ii. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie, eiai iiae?icaeieia –
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai oeaio?o “Aeioe *i?iiaeey” oa eaai?aoi?i? aeieiai/ii?
ineoieiai?.

Ioaeieaoei?: ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii a
iiiia?aoi?, 2 iin?aieeao, 17 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa cai?ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 9 iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo oa ?ic?iaeao, 25 oacao
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeie.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 6 ?icaeieia,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoeia. ?oeiien
aeena?oaoe?? ia? ianya 484 noi?. iaoeiiieno, c ieo 18 noi?. caeiathoue
20 oaaeeoeue, 1 noi?. – 1 ?en., 49 noi?. – nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(470 iaeiaioaaiue), 41 noi?. – 7 aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Anooi iinoeoue iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? i?iaeaie aeineiaeaeaiiy oa
ia?aiiai iai?yieo aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ?ice?eaa? ?? ia’?eo oa
i?aaeiao, aieiaio iaoo oa caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeieiai/ii oa iaoiaee/ii
iiaeoiaee. Aeeeaaeaii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy oa i?aeoe/ia ei?eni?noue ?iaioe. Iaaaaeaii
a?aeiiino? i?i iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a, ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icaeie “Ineoieiaiy eaoano?io” iinoeoue noeneee iaeyae inoi?i?
aea/aiiy aieeao ia ineoieo ethaeeie aeno?aiaeueieo /eiieeia (i?e?iaeieo
oa oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io, nioeiaeueieo iio?yniiue oa aienueeiaeo aeie) c
eiioey XIX noieiooy aei oaia??oiueiai /ano. Iieacaii, ui iaea?eueoo
oaaao ?o iane?aeeai i?eae?eyea iaaeeoeeia (o?aaiaoieiaiy,
ineoiiaa?ieiaiy oa ineoiao?iy). Eaeaoueny i?i /a?aiii-iiceia? o?aaie;
?aaeoeai?, ineoioe/i? oa iaa?ioe/i? noaie, aeeeeeai? iaaeneeueieie
“eaoano?io?/ieie” iiae?acieeaie; iaiioanoaoeith eaoaioieo ineoi/ieo
?iceaaeia, caaino?aiiy aeoeaiooaoeie oa aeenaa?iiiie iniaenoinoi a
neeaaeieo aeeoo?aeo neooaoeiyo.

Iaaee/ia aeiiiiiaa a oeeo aeiaaeeao ia?aaeaa/aea eieoaaiiy ineoiaaiie oa
ianeiaeeia eiiaiiiaaieo (niiaoe/ieo oa ineoi/ieo) o?aai ca aeiiiiiaith
oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo i?aia?aoia oa iaiaaeeeaiaioicii? ineoioa?aii?
(Aeae.A?ienai, A.Iiaiaaei, A.I.N?/?iia, A.Noa?eiia, A.E?aon, E.?aeoa?ae,
E.O?aaea?, C.O?aeae, A.E?aiaeii, T.Naeiii, Ae.Iaea?, E.ss.A?oneeianueeee
oa ii.).

Iiney ? oa ?? naioiaeo ai?i cia/iee aianie o ?icoiiiiy iaoaiiciia
ineoi/ii? o?aaiaoecaoei? ca aeno?aiaeueieo oiia c?iaeea aienueeiaa
ineoieiaiy, ui iaa?iiaaeeea aaeeeee aiii?e/iee iaoa?iae oa i?aeoe/iee
aeinaiae aeno?aii? oa “aiaenoaaeaii? o /ani” aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei. Oei
iaoa?iaee i?eaa?ioee oaaao aei ieoaiue i?ioieaeoeee “aieiaeo ineoi/ieo
ao?ao”; ni?eyee aeoeaicaoei? aeineiaeaeaiue c ineoieiai? i?aoe? a
iniaeeaeo oiiaao; ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai i?ioanieiiai ineoieiai/iiai
aiaeai?o ? iiaeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a “aeno?aiaeueieo i?ioan?e”. C?inoaiiy
ae eieueeinoi aea?oa oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io ia ae?iaieoeoai oa o?ainii?oi
iineeeei oaaao aei ineoieiai/ieo aniaeoia eiino?othaaiiy oa aacia/ii?
aenieoaoaoei? oaoii/ieo i?eno?i?a.

No/anii iiaeyaee noiniaii oai?i? oa i?aeoeee ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae
iioa?iieei aiane?aeie eaoano?io aoaeothoueny iaaeiei i?iaeaie
a?aei?iiinoae ineoiiaoieia?/ieo ? iaiaoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a
aeno?aiaeueieo /eiiee?a. Aieiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ?io?aineo?/iei
oaiiiaiai, oyaeaiiy i?i ye? neeaaeaeeny iiae aieeaii eiioeaioeie no?ano,
o?ono?aoei?, neeaaeieo aeeoo?aeo neooaoeie, iinoo?aaiaoe/iiai no?ano oa
nioeiaeueieo no?aniaeo ?iceaaeia.

Ineieueee aeey iieno ineoieiai/ieo ianeiaeeia aeno?aiaeueieo oa
noaaeno?aiaeueieo neooaoeie ??cii? iiaeaeueiino? aeeipenoiaothoueny
picii eaoaaipi? (opaaia, o?aaiaoe/iee, aienueeiaee, aieiaee iaa?ic,
aieiaee oie, nopan, iinoopaaiaoe/iee nopan, oponopaoeiy, eiioeieo,
aeenaa?iiiiy, epeca), neiae cacia/eoe, ui eiiepaoia iiaeiy /e neeaaeia
aeeoo?aa neooaoe?y iiaea oi?eaoeny ie?aieo /e iae?aco aaaaoueio
i?ioa?e?a ineoi/iiai aeeooy, aeeeeeath/e iae?aco i nopan, i
oponopaoeith, i eiioeieo, i aeeoo?ao epeco. Ioaea oe? oaiiiaie
iaiao?aeii picpiciyoe, picoiioe ?o “aca?iiaeith” o oipioaaiii eiioeaaiai
pacoeueoaoo – ianeiaeeia opaaioth/i? neooaoei?.

No?oeoo?ii-eia?/iee aiae?c iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeey iieno iaoieia?/ieo, iaaeiaeo oa iaiaoieia?/ieo ineoieia?/ieo
iane?aee?a eaoano?io iaa?oioiao? aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iiiyooy
“iie?iiaeaeueia aeeoo?aa e?eca” aeey iieno ineo?/iiai noaio ethaeae, ye?
ia?aaoaathoue o?eaaeee /an i?ae aieeaii iani?eyoeeaeo eaoano?io?/ieo oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a, ao?a/athoue eiio?ieue iaae
ianoaaeiaie naiai aeeooy, ia caeaoi? a?aeiiaeoe oni?oia nioe?aeueia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy /a?ac iaaaoeai? ineo?/i? noaie, oeai? eiai?oeai? noaie
oa iaaaeaeaaoi? iiaeae? iiaaae?iee.

Ianiaeaeiee oa?aeoa? eaoano?io ciooo? a?aoiaoaaoe ia o?eueee
?io?aineo?/i? iiaeeaiaeoaeueii-ineoieiai/ii ?aaeoei? ie?aieo iioa?iieeo,
a ? aea/aoe ?ioa?ineo?/i? (nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii oa nioeiieiai/ii)
aniaeoe eaoano?io, ?o aca?iica’ycie oa cia/aiiy aeey ?aaa?e?oaoe??
iioa?i?eeo.

Oeoia/aiiy oa?iiio eaoano?ioa cae?enith?oueny c ia’?eoii-iioieia?/ieo oa
noa’?eoii-aen?ieia?/ieo iiceoe?e. O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo eaeaoueny i?i
/eiieee, ui ni?e/eieee o?aaie, iiaaeiaeiinoue, oei/aniao
iai?aoeacaeaoiinoue, ao?aoo iaeia, ?iaioe, ?iaeieo, ? i?aenoaaith aeey
io?oe?eiiai aeciaiiy noaoono iioa?i?eiai oa iaaeaiiy eiio a?aeiia?aeii?
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae (iioa?i?e? ca ia’?eoeaieie e?eoa??yie).

C noa’?eoeaii-aen?ieia?/ii? iiceoe?? “eaoano?io?/i?noue” aecia/athoue
oyaeaiiyi i?i ao?a/ai? oe?iiino?, ci?no o?aaioth/eo ineoieo
ia?aaeeaaiue, iaa?oue yeui iiaeiy ia oi?eaeany ethaeeie aaciina?aaeiuei
(iai?eeeaae, naiaeee aaoieaoano?ioe /e iiaeaaei c ethaenueeeie
aea?oaaie, ?oi? ?iaee/? ? iioa?i?eeie ca noa’?eoeaieie e?eoa??yie).
Aa?oi a?aoe aei oaaae ?iia??i?noue iiyae i?ney eaoa-no?io
“inaaaeiiioa?i?eeo”, ye? aaci?aenoaaii i?aoaiaeothoue ia nioe?aeueio
aeiiiiiao.

Aeayei aeaee i?e?iaeieo eaoano?io (cie?aia naenii/ii) aianeiaeie
ianiiae?aaiino? oa iaaeneeueieo “i/aaeaeieo” iiae?acieeia caaaeaee
aeeeeeathoue ineoiaaiii ?iceaaee, iioi (iai?eeeaae, iinooa) iaaacia/ii
o?eaaeei aeniaaeeeaei aieeaii.

I?e?iaei? eaoano?ioe /a?ac a?aenooi?noue “ceiai oieneo” ia oae oyaeei
a?aeaeaathoueny ia ineo?/iiio noai? iioa?i?eeo, ye oaoiiaaii?, iniaeeai
yeui inoaii? caa?iaeothoue iaaacia/ieie aiaeaeaeaieie ianeiaeeaie (i?e
oiii/iiio aai ?aaeiaoeieiiio caa?oaeiaii?), ui aeieeathoue c aeie aai
/a?ac iaaeaae?noue eiie?aoieo in?a (aeioaaooe?a eaoano?ioe). Oa
iaeoyae/? ianeiaeee iathoue eeoa aio?iiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy (cei/eie,
oa?i?, iania? nioeiaeuei? caai?ooaiiy oa a?eie), ine?eueee ?o
?i?oe?aoi?e na?aeiii i?aaiooue caaaeaoe oeiaee ?ioei ethaeyi,
iaiaaathoueny caoiieoe ?o ciaiaoeueea.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e ia?oiai ?icae?eo i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo ineoieiai/ieo
ianeiaee?a yaea?ieo aei?iaoaaiue oa aeaooia, ?ioeeaeaio?a a yaea?iie
i?iieneiainoi oa aia?aaoeoei. Aieiaia oaaaa i?eaeieaia ia’?eoeaiei
niiaoe/iei aoaeoai ii?iiiiaiiy (i?iiaiaaa oai?iaa), iaoieiai?
niaaeeiainoi; niaoeeo?/iei ciiiai ineo?/iiai noaio ii?iiiiaieo (anoai?y,
o?eaiaa, aioo?ioiy ea?oeia oai?iae oa i/ieoaaiiy ia iaeaooi?). Iaeaieueo
aeineiaeaeaii iaaee/ii oa ineoieiai/ii ianeiaeee yaea?iiai
aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ssiiii?, aei?iaoaaiue yaea?ii? ca?i? oa iecee
?ioeeaeaio?a a yaea?iie i?iieneiainoi oa aia?aaoeoei (Aiaeiy, A?aceeiy,
Aaiaia, N?N?, NOA); ?ice?eoi iioiaeaeaiiy “yaea?iiai aeaoo” oa eiai
?ieue o oi?ioaaii? ineoiaai?e.

?icaeie caaa?oothoue aeniiaee uiaei iaoieiai/ieo oa iaiaoieiai/ieo,
niaoeeo?/ieo oa ianiaoeeo?/ieo ineoieiai/ieo ianeiaeeia eaoano?io,
aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue ineoieiai? eaoano?io.

Ae?oaee ?icaeie “Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea iino/i?iiaeeuenueei?
neooaoe??” iinoeoue iaeyae aeaieo uiaei i?e/ei oa ianeiaeeia
/i?iiaeeuenueei? yaea?ii? eaoano?ioe. I?inoaaeo?oueny ia?aaia iiaeie oa
aeeiaiiea ciii o ?o ioeiioei, ?ice?eaa?oueny ca’ycie iiae ?iaiai
?aaeiaoeieiiai caa?oaeiaiiy, niiaoe/ieie aoaeoaie,
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieie oaiiiaiaie oa ineoi/iei noaiii ?icieo
eaoaai?ie iioa?iieeo aiae ianeiaeeia aaa?i?.

*a?ac aeanyoeeiooy iiney aaa?i? ia *i?iiaeeuenueeie AAN, ??
eaoano?ioi/ii ianeiaeee ua ia noaee iaaeaaiiyi inoi?i?. Aieueo oiai, ca
oeae /an iiaeyaee oa ioeiiee uiaei aaa?i? ia *AAN oa ?? ianeiaeeia
iaiaeii?aciai ciiithaaeenue. Oae, o 1988 ?. ea??aieoeoai IIC Oe?a?ie
iia?aeiieyei “i?i aiaenooiinoue nooo?aeo aiaeoeeaiue o noaii caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy “aaa?ieieo ?aeiiia” o ii?iaiyiii c eiio?ieueieie a?oiaie”
Iaaeeoeeineea aniaeou aaa?ee ia *a?iiaueueneie aoiiiie yeaeo?inoaioeee.
// Iao. iao/i. eiio. – E., 1988, n. 44..

Aea i?eoiaaoe aeienii ianooaae eeoa (ye oea aaea ia ?ac aoei i?e
yaea?ieo aaa?iyo a N?N?) oeueiai ?aco ia aaeaeiny, ianaiia?aae caaaeyee
aeoiaeo ?aaeiiioeeiaeia ca aea?aeaaii ei?aeiie oa aeoeaii? ?aaeoei?
naioiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa, iacaeaaeieo caniaia ianiai? iioi?iaoei?.

Aecia/aii aenia?oaie i?e/eie aaa?i? i?eiooothoue caieneeoenue iaae
i?iaeaiaie ineoieiai? eiino?othaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoei?
iaaacia/ieo ia’?eoia. I?e oeueiio, ia ia?oee ieai aenooiathoue
ii?aeueii-ineoieiai/ii aniaeoe iaoeiai-oaoii/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
i?eeeaaeii aniaeoe aacia/iiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy nenoai oeio “Ethaeeia –
Iaoeia”, ieoaiiy iiaeaioiaee, o?aioaaiiy oa aeiioneo aei ?iaioe
iia?aoi?ia AAN, i?iaeaie aeieiai/iiai aeoiaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy ii/oooy
aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoi o oeo, ooi ia? ni?aao c aeieiai/ii iaaacia/ieie
ia’?eoaie. Ua iaeiei aaaeeeaei ineoieiai/iei aniaeoii i?iaeaie ?
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaii? aeiyeueiinoi niaoeiaeueieo ?yooaaeueieo
iiae?icaeieia a oiiaao ?aaeiaoei?.

Aeey ?icoiiiiy ianeiaeeia *i?iiaeeuenueei? yaea?ii? eaoano?ioe
iaiao?aeii aeaeieeoe aoaie ?icaeoeo neooaoei?, yei aenaioeththoueny c
iiceoeie ?aaeiiaeieiai?, iaaeeoeeie, ineoieiai? oiui.

Caiaeii ?aaeiiaeieiai/iie ia??iaeecaoe??, oaia? caaa?oo?oueny ae?oaee
aoai ?aaeiiaeieiai/iiai eeoa (iaiaaeaiiy ia?aiino ?aaeiiioeeiaeia oa
noaaieicaoei? ?aaeiaoeieii? ianoaiiaee), iiaio eieaiaeaoeith ianeiaeeia
yeiai (yeui oea acaaaei iiaeeeaa) neiae aiaeianoe aei aiaeaeaeaii? ia
aeanyoeeiooy ia?niaeoeae. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii iiaoaeoaaoe Oe?eooy-2,
aae i?eieieoe ?aae?aoe?eia caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey (o?ao?e aoai) oa
caaa?oeoe ?iaioe c aeacaeoeaaoe?? oa ?aeoeueoeaaoe?? caa?oaeiaii?
?aae?iioee?aeaie oa?eoi??? (/aoaa?oee aoai).

Aeey ineoieia?/ii? ia?iiaeecaoei? *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe aaaeeeaa
ia noieueee o?iiieiaiy iiaeie, neieueee ?o noa’?eoeaia cia/aiiy; ia
noieueee ?aaeueia neooaoeiy, neieueee oyaeaiiy i?i ia?; aeooaeueii
i?iaeaie /e ia?aaeeaaiiy, c yeeie ethaeeia ia? ni?aaeoenue. C oeueiai
iiaeyaeo ia?oi?yaeiith i?iaeaiith a eiioaenoi *i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe aoea i?iaeaia aeeooy oa nia?oi, eiioeieoo iiae i?aaiaiiyi
aeaeeoe ca aoaeue-yeo oeiio e iaia’yceii.

Eiee aaciina?aaeiy caa?ica aeey aeeooy ethaeae ao?aoeea naith aino?ioo,
?? i?noea caeiyea i?iaeaia caei?ia’y, a oiio /enei e ineoi/iiai. O ??
?ica’ycaiii i?iaiaeia ?ieue iaeaaeaea iaaee/iei i?aoeiaieeai. Oa, c
/anii, ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ieia, iaaee/ii i?iaeaie a?ae?eoee ia ae?oaee
ieai, iinooiath/enue iinoeai i?iaeaiai aeaeeaaiiy a e?eciaie aeiiiii/iie
neooaoei?.

Aeno?aiaeueia no?aniaa neooaoeiy aino?iai ia?iiaeo aaa?i? ia *AAN
oi?eaeanue aioaeueieo iniia aoooy oa noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue iaeiioeiieie
?aaeoeiyie o?eaiae oa no?aoo ?iciiai nooiaiy ae?aciinoi. Ciaiioii i?iyae
no?aniaeo ?aaeoeie aino?iai ia?iiaeo aoee oeiiaeie aeey aoaeue-yeeo
no?ania oa caiaeeeenue aei aiii- /e aiia?aeeiaii?. Ca aeeeth/aiiyi
ie?aieo aeiaaeeia, oei ?aaeoei? ia aeinyaaee ineoioe/iiai ?iaiy.
?aaeoeaii ineoice niinoa?iaaeenue, ianaiia?aae, o inoa?e/ieo
iniaenoinoae, ui iaee oyaeaiiy i?i iiaeeeai ianeiaeee ?aaeiaoeieiiai
o?aaeaiiy, aea ia aieiaeiee aeaieie i?i eiie?aoio neooaoeith. O aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao niinoa?iaaeenue ni?iaieiaai? caaino?aiiy ?aiioa eiiiainiaaieo
ineoi/ieo caoai?thaaiue.

Eieueeinoue ineoi/ieo ?iceaaeia aino?iai ia?iiaeo ca ioeiieith oaoiaoeia
aoea iaioith, iiae oea aoaa? a aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoeiyo iaaii?
iiaeaeueiino?, oe?aeeea? aaaioe yeeo ni?eeiathoueny i?aaiaie ii/oooia –
ye i?e caieao?oni /e iiaaii. Aa?oi a?aecia/eoe “iaeaoano?io?/i?noue”
/i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe a ieai? /ooo?aiai ni?eeiyooy – /a?ac
a?aenooi?noue yaieo iciae iaaaciaee ca iaaeaie ciie aaa???, ui aeeeeeaei
neeueiee eiai?oeaiee aeeniiain o ethaeae iaaieo ineoioei?a (iiieneeaeo,
o?eaiaeieo).

O iino/i?iiaeeuenueeie neooaoei? niinoa?iaaeinue ia?inoaiiy iaa?ioe/ieo
i?iyaia, ui iiynith?oueny o?eaaeinoth no?aniaaiii? neooaoei? oa aieeaii
“aoi?eiiiai noeoieiiai eeoa” (ao?aoa aeeoea, iaeia, cae/iiai
nioeiaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua oiui), noia?a/iinoth iiae niiaeiaaiiyie oa
?aaeueiinoth, iacaaa?oai?noth iiaeie. Oei ianoaaeie iaoiiaeee
ia?aiai?oaeaiiy (aeaiiaieicaoeith) ineoieiai/ieo iaoai?ci?a aaeaioaoei?
(aiiapaaeaioic). Oa?aeoa?ieiai/ii oi?ie aeacaaeaioaoei? iaaoaaee, a
caeaaeiinoi aiae no?oeoo?e iniaenoinoi oa niiaoe/iiai iaoyaeaiiy,
iayaiinoi aeciaaiieo oo?oaeiaiue, anoaii-iaa?ioe/ii? oa iiioiiae?e/ii?
oi?ie, aiaeaoaaeanue aeaeiiiainaoeiy eaoaioieo ?iceaaeia ineoiee,
nioe?aeueia aeacaaeaioaoeiy iniaenoinoi.

Ia caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?iaaiue ?aaeiaoeieiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iinoeaainoi,
ieoii? aiaee, i?iaeoeoia oa?/oaaiiy aeyaeany ieae/ei, iiae i/ieoaaeinue,
aaaeoaoeiy i?iaaaeaia i?aaiiciaaii, a aea?aeaaia nenoaia iaaee/iiai oa
naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai eieoaaiiy ni?aoethaaea e?aua, iiae iiaeia aoei
niiaeiaaoenue, noai caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy c eiaeiei ?ieii iiai?oo?oueny.
Ca aeaieie oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai oeaio?o ?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie
(OIOe?I), eieueeinoue caeipiaeo ethaeae a *i?iiaeeuenueeiio ?aaiiii
ciaioeeanue ca 1986-1991 ??. o 1,5-2 pace, a noaiii ia 1995 ?. – o 3
?ace. O 1998 ?ioe? e?euee?noue ?iaae?ae?a na?aae “e?ea?aeaoi??a” nyaioea
68 oen. /ie.

I?i iiiioiee aieea ia noai caei?ia’y ineoieiai/ieo /eiieeia naiae/eoue
aiaeic no?oeoo?e caoai?thaaiinoi, a yeie /?eueia iinoea iiniaeathoue
naia ineoiniiaoe/ii oa ia?aiai caoai?thaaiiy. Oae, ca aeaieie OIOe?I o
1987-1991 pieao a *i?iiaeeuenueeiio ?aaiiii niinoapiaaeinue
eaoano?ioi/ia (o 15-20 pac) caieueoaiiy eieueeinoi iapaiai-ineoi/ieo
caoaipthaaiue. A 1995 ?. aiie iiniaeaee 2-3 iinoea na?aae caoai?thaaiue,
oeiiaeo aeey iioa?iieeo aiae ianeiaeeia aaa?i? ia *AAN.

Ca naiae/aiiyi iaaee/ieo ineoieiaia, o oai?eo ia aino?o i?iiaiaao
oai?iao, aeayeeo eaoaai?ie “eieaiaeaoi?ia” niinoa?iaa?oueny iiaeaeuaiiy
?iaiy ?aaeoeaii? oa iniaenoinii? o?eaiae, cieaeaiiy oa ciiia no?oeoo?e
naiiioeiiee, iiai?oaiiy ineoi/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiinoi, niaoeeoi/ii ciiie
no?oeoo?e iniaenoinoi. Iaaioue /a?ac 2,5 – 3 ?iee iiney aaa?i?, ia
caaaeath/e ia iaeno/aniioa eieoaaiiy oa caoiaee c nioeiaeueiiai caoenoo,
iaaaoeaii ineoi/ii i?iyae caa?iaaeenue o 82 % inia, ui ia?aoai?iee
i?iiaiaaith oai?iaith III nooiaiy, 71 % – II nooiaiy oa o 34 % – I
nooiaiy. Oeae noai iiaeia iacaaoe, neiaeii ca ?.Eiooiiii, “oaipiaith
yaeapiiai aeaooo”.

I?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a
/i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe iathoue ?acoeueoaoe iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iane?aee?a iiiicoth/iai iipiiiithaaiiy i?e
iino-paaeiaoeieieo aioeaoaeiiaoiyo.

C?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ineoiniiaoe/ieo oa ia?aiai-ineoi/ieo caoai?thaaiue
aea? iiaenoaae aeey aeniiaeo i?i ?o aeieeiaiiy ia a?oio? aca?iiaei? ye
ia’?eoeaieo (aeica ii?iiiithaaiiy), oae ? noa’?eoeaieo (i?aii?aioii ?ene
oa?aeoa?o, o?eaiaeiinoue, cieaeaiiy naiiioeiiee caeipia’y, iaaaoeaii
i/ieoaaiiy ioi/oth/eo oiui) /eiieeia ooieoeiiiaeueio oa ipaaii/io
ao?ieia?th.

Aeaii aeineiaeaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ieia?a iieacaee, ui iioa?iiei
ni?eeiathoue *i?iiaeeuenueeo eaoano?ioo ye iniaenoo o?aaaaeith, e?ao
noaei? ea?oeie naioo, cae/iiai niiniao aeeooy oa aeeoo?aeo ieaiia.

O noniieueiie oa iiaeeaiaeoaeueiie naiaeiiinoi niinoa?iaa?oueny ?yae
ia?aaeienia: iacaaeiaieaiiy aeaaeith – iieioe/ia ianeaiinoue; ianiieie
ca aeania caei?ia’y – iaaaaeaiiy aeio?eioaaoenue caei?iaiai niiniao
aeeooy; ianoa/a iioi?iaoei? – iaaaaeaiiy io?eioaaoe iiai ciaiiy oa
iioi?iaoeith oiui. Iaeia c aieiaieo i?e/ei ?o aeieeiaiiy – iiieeee o
caeieniaiii nioeiaeueii? iieioeee, yea i?iaiaeeeanue aac o?aooaaiiy
aeaieo ineoieia?? oa nioe?ieia?? eaoano?io.

I?iaaaeaii o 1990-1994 ??. aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui “?aaeiaoeieiee
?ecee” ao?a/a? naith aino?ioo, iinooiath/enue iinoeai “nioeiaeueiiio
?eceeo” (ia?aae/oooy caa?ice a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie, aieiaeo, aac?iaiooy
oiui).

Iiaeaiaey/e iiaenoiee aiaeico caaaeueieo ianeiaeeia /i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe, neiae cacia/eoe, ui na?aae /eneaiieo i?iaeai ia?oi/a?aiaiai
ae?ioaiiy aeiaaathoue “?aciiainii” – iaaee/ii oa nioeiaeueii. Aeey
oeueiai iio??aii iapiuoaaoe ianya e yeinoue iaaee/ii? oa nioeiaeueii?
aeiiiiiae iioapiieei, yea ia? aooe “aae?aniith” oa aeiiiaithaaoenue
ianooaaieie caoiaeaie c nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii? ?aaaieioaoei?. Oei
coneeey iathoue caeienithaaoenue o ??/eu? eiiieaeniiai
iiaeaeenoeeieiiapiiai iiaeoiaeo, niieueii oniia caoeieaaeaieie
aiaeiinoaaie, i?e aenieie aeoeaiinoi naieo iioapiieeo.

O?ao?e ?icaeie “Aeineiaeaeaiiy ineoieiai/ieo ianeiaeeia /i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe” iiaoaeiaaii ca o?iiieiai/iei i?eioeeiii. A iueiio
?ice?eaa?oueny aeeiai?ea ciii oyaeaiue ipi ianooaae oa nooiinoue
ineoieiai/ieo ianeiaeeia *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe aiaeiiaiaeii aoaiai
?o aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Aa?oi iaaaaeaoe, ui o 1986 ?ioe? iaioaaea eiioeaioe??, ca?aeii yei?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aoaeoe /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe
iiynithaaeeny “?aae?ioia??th”; a ineoiaai?? caiaeeeeny aei iiiaeeiieeo
aeiaaee?a ?aaeoeaieo noai?a, iai?oanoaoe?? eaoaioieo ineo?/ieo ?iceaae?a
oa ianiaeo iaa?ioe/ieo i?iya?a o?eaiae, i?e/eie yeeo aaa/aeeny o
iaaaeaeaaoiiio ?icoi?ii? iiaeeeaeo iane?aee?a ?aae?aoe?eiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe ia?oiai ianooaaiiai aeniapeiaioaeueiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
ineoi/iiai noaio picieo oapeoipiaeueieo oa aieiaeo apoi (1200 o/iia 3,
5, 7, 9 eeania), cae?eniaiiai a 1987 ?. aeyaeee iiaipoaiiy ia 10-30 %
iieacieeia picaeoeo aeueo ineoi/ieo ooieoeie oeieypia, ui ipiaeeaaee o
paeiiao, ipeeaaeeo aei ciie aiae/oaeaiiy, iayaiinoue oneeaaeiaiue
aaeaioaoe?? aei iiaeo oiia aeeooy iapanaeaioeia, iayaiinoue
ineoieiai/ieo ipiaeai o Ee?anueeeo oeiey??a.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui iioa?iiei ia ? iaeii?iaeiith niieueiioith. Aeie?aieaii
e?eoa??? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iioa?i?eeo ca oa?eoi?iaeueieie, aieiaeie,
noaoaaeie ? i?ioanieieie e?eoa??yie, oa?aeoa?ii o/ano? o iiae?yo
(aeiaaeeiaee, i?eioniaee aai aeia?ia?eueiee) Aeaia
aeeoa?aioe?eii-ineoieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea 9 iiaea?oi “ae?oae
*i?iiaeeth” ui aiae?iciythoueny iinoeai i?iaeeaaiiy, /enaeueiinoth,
niiaaiaeiioaiiyi ineoio?aaioth/eo /eiieeia, ye?nieie oa e?euee?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia?aaeeaaiiy e?eciai? neooaoei?.

O 1988-1990 ??. aieiaia oaaaa aaoi?a i?eae?eyeany o/iyi-iapanaeaioeyi.
Aeine?aeia oa ineoiei?aeoe?eia ?iaioa ipiaiaeeeanue ia aaci NO ? 270 i.
Ee?aa, aea iiapaioe neeaaeaee ipeaeecii iieiaeio (aiey oeny/i)
o/iianueeiai oa a/eoaeuenueeiai eieaeoeao, noaipeeany aeineoue neeaaeia
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia ianoaiiaea.

Ipiyae nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? aeacaaeaioaoei? niinoapiaaeeny o iiiaae
50 % o/iia-iapanaeaioeia, ui aope/i iapaaieueooaaei ipiyae
aeacaaeaioaoei? o ?o iaeiieioeia-eeyi. Ipe oeueiio noaoenoe/ii
aeinoiaipieo aiaeiiiiinoae o picaeoeo i?ciaaaeueieo i?ioean?a iiae
iinoeaaeie oa aaaeoeiaaieie ia aeyaeaii. A?aei?iiino? ia?aaaaeii
oi?eaeeny aiioe?eii-iioeaaoe?eii? noape (o?eaiaa, iaaiaaiai?noue o nia?,
cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeiiaaaiue, iaaei??ia o?enaoe?y ia noai? caei?ia’y).

O 1991 ?. cia/ii caainopeeanue neooaoeiy a paaiiiao, yei iiaeeyaaee
aa?aioiaaiiio iaaiaeeeaaeiiio aiaenaeaiith. A ieo caeeoaeeny
ia?ica’ycaieie ipiaeaie eieoaaiiy oa icaeipiaeaiiy ianaeaiiy, iinoa/aiiy
aeieiai/ii /enoeo ipiaeoeoia, paipaaiicaoei? aeiyeueiinoi
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeia, iiaeaioiaee iaaeaaiai/ieo eaaepia aei
piaioe a oiiaao paaeiiaeieiai/iiai eeoa. A aieiaia, ia?oeyia ia?anaeaiiy
a?aeeeaaeaeiny ia iaaecia/aiee oa?i?i.

Ineoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeee a iioa?i?eeo eiiieaen neiioii?a
ineo?/ii? aeacaaeaioaoe??, ye? i?iyaeyeeny ia ineoiniiaoe/iiio,
ooieoe?iiaeueiiio oa ineo?/iiio ??aiyo, cie?aia o ye?nieo ci?iao
aiioe?eii-aieueiai? oa iioeaaoe?eii? noa?e. Niinoa??aaeiny caaino?aiiy
i?aii?a?oieo ?en iniaenoino?, iiaeai?iiy e?eueeino? aeoeaiooaoe?e
oa?aeoa?o ianaiia?aae anoaii-iaa?ioe/iiai oa ineoioe/iiai eiea, aeiaaeee
aeenaa?iii?eiiai oa iaoieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?. Oe? c?ooaiiy
aoee a?eueo ae?aci? o ae?a/ao, i?ae na?aae thiae?a

O noa?oieeaniee?a niinoa??aaeiny caoaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a, aeaoi?iaoe?y
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e, na?aae yeeo ia ia?oa i?noea aeeoea oe?ii?noue
caei?ia’y, a ?io? (i?iaeoeoeaia aeeooy, oe?eaaa ?iaioa ni?aaaeiy ethaia
oiui) a?ae?eoee ia ae?oaee ieai.

Nooo?ai ci?ieeany naiiioe?iea caei?ia’y ia o?eueee iaoeaioe?a ciie
?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy, a ? non?aei?o, aeieia?/ii /enoeo ?aa?ii?a.
I?e oeueiio c?inoaiiy coneeue uiaei caa?aaeaiiy caei?ia’y oa aeio?eiaiiy
caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy ia niinoa??aaeiny. Iaaiaee, iaaoaaea iioe?aiiy
naiiaeano?oeoeaia iiaaae?iea, ui aeyaeyeiny a iania?e aeeiaie?caoe??
ianaeaiiy, cie?aia i?aee?oe?a.

Oe? ianoaaeie cioooaaee aeoea?coaaoe ipaeoe/io ineoieia?/io aeiiiiiao
o/iyi ia a?oio? oipioaaiiy iiceoeaii? aeeoo?ai? ipi?ioaoei?, naiaeiiiai
noaaeaiiy aei ipioanieiiai oa aeeoo?aiai naiiaecia/aiiy, caeaoiinoi aei
naii- oa aca?iiaeiiiiiae.

Ie??i ?io?aineo?/ieo ia?aaeeaaiue, ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee aeeoee
?ioa?ineo?/i? i?iaeaie, ui iaaoee aino?ioe na?aae aeiooaieo
ia?anaeaioe?a. Eaeaoueny i?i a?ae/oooy nai?? iaiio??aiino?,
a?ae/oaeaiino?, ai?iaeiai noaaeaiiy ioi/oth/eo. Ia aeeaii, ui
“/i?iiaeeueoe?” ?ieiee i?eoiaothoue naith i?eiaeaaei?noue aei oe???
ni?eueiioe.

Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a iiyniaiiy oyaeeeo iaaee/ieo oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe
“?aae?ioia??th” ci?ieeiny eiioeaioe??th eieaeoeaiiai ineoieia?/iiai
no?ano. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aoa eiino?oeoeaiei o ia?o? ?iee i?ney aaa???, aea
a?i ia iiynithaaa a?aeaeaeai? iane?aeee ineoio?aaioth/i? neooaoe??,
cie?aia c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? aeiaaee?a ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice o 20
?ac?a, iioe?aiiy ?ioeo niiaoe/ieo caoai?thaaiue.

A?aeaeaeai? iane?aeee aaa??? ia *AAN a?eueoa a?aeiia?aeaee eiioeaioe??
iinoo?aaiaoe/iiai no?ano, aea c aeayeeie ooi/iaiiyie, ui noinoaaeeny
aieeao “iai/aaeaeieo” no?ani??a (a?aenooi?noue o aaaaoueio iioa?i?eeo
eiie?aoieo aeaoeeaeo ia?ac?a o niiaeae?iiyo oa iaa’yceeaeo niiaaaeao, ye
oea cae/aeii aoaa? i?e ae?? “i/aaeaeieo” no?ani??a) ?aae?aoe?eii?
aaa???, iaiiaeeeaino? /ooo?aiai ni?eeiyooy ?aae?aoe??. Ca aeaieie
I.A.Oa?aa?eii?, e?eoa??yi iinoo?aaiaoe/iiai no?ano a?aeiia?aea? noai
o?eueee 20 — 40 % “e?ea?aeaoi??a” aino?iai ia??iaeo eaoano?ioe.
Iia??oaiiy ineo?/iiai noaio ianaeaiiy a iino/i?iiaeeuenuee?e neooaoe??
TH.I.Aeaenaiae?ianueeee iiynith? “nioe?aeueieie no?aniaeie ?iceaaeaie”,
ye? aeieeathoue /a?ac iacaeaoi?noue cia/ii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy (60-65%)
i?enoinoaaoeny aei ci?i a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio oa iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?
ia oa?ai? eieeoiueiai N?N?, aaeaea aiie aeoiaeyoue ca iaae? cae/aeiiai
aeina?aeo ethaeeie.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iiyniaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iane?aee?a
/i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe iaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?acenoaioiino? ia?aiai?
nenoaie ethaeeie aei aieeao ?aae?aoe?eiiai /eiieea, i?aai?/ieo
iioeiaeaeaiue noano?aoo ineo?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (iiceo ethaeeie).

Ocaaaeueithth/e ?acoeueoaoe ineoiae?aaiinoe/ieo ianoaaeaiue iioa?i?eeo
??cieo oa?eoi??aeueieo oa a?eiaeo a?oi, i?iaaaeai? o 90-o? ?iee, iiaeia
eiinoaooaaoe iioe?aiiy anoaii-iaa?ioe/ieo oa ?iioiiae?e/ieo i?iya?a,
neiioii?a aino?iai, o?ii?/iiai aai iinoo?aaiaoe/iiai no?ano,
aeoeaiooaoe?e oa?aeoa?o, aeaeiiiainaoe?? eaoaioieo ineo?/ieo ?iceaae?a,
aeenaa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, nioe?aeueieo no?aniaeo ?iceaae?a.

Oaea iica?/ia ea?oeia aea? i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo i?i iayai?noue
aeno?aiicieia?/ii? iie?iiaeaeueii? aeeoo?ai? e?ece, yea aecia/a?
nooi?noue eiiieaeno “iioa?i?eiai aiane?aeie /i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe”. ?? aieiai? i?iyaaie – anoai?caoe?y, o?eaiaei?noue, noai
aeai?an??, a?ae/oooy aeanii? aacii?aaeiino?, caeaaeiino? a?ae ciai?oi?o
ianoaaei, ia?aa?ao iiae?e, ao?aoa eiio?ieth iaae neooaoe??th,
aiaaiaiino? o nia? oa nai?io iaeaooiueiio.

Oe? aeai? i???ioothoue i?aeoe/ieo ineoieia?a ia aeei?enoaiiy iaaieo
eiie?aoieo iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoe/ii? oa ei?eaoaaeueii? ?iaioe c
iioa?i?eeie, a c ?ioiai aieo, ?ice?eaathoue cia/aiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei “/i?iiaeeueoe?a”, aeacothoue ia iaiao?aei?noue ?o
eiiieaenii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia a?oio? a/eieiai-a?ia?ao?/iiai i?aeoiaeo
(E.I.Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaanueea, E.O.Ao?ea/oe, ?.?.Aieiaaoa, I.I.E?ii?e,
A.I.Iieyei, A.A.?iiaiaoeue, N.E.?oaiiooaei, E.A.Nioaiue, A.I.Oaoaiei,
O.I.Oeoa?aiei).

Aeai? i?i i?noea, ui iin?aea? /i?iiaeeuenueea eaoano?ioa o aeeoo?aiio
oeyoo i?aee?oe?a ??cieo oa?eoi??aeueieo aea??ie, io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith
“Oooo?ieia?/iiai iieooaaeueieea”, na?ae/aoue, ui a iino/i?iiaeeuenuee?e
neooaoe?? ineoieia?/ii? i?aeo?eiee iio?aao? iaeaea 2/3 noa?oieeaniee?a,
aeey yeeo aaa??y ana ua caeeoa?oueny cia/eiith, “aeooaeueiith”
no?aniaaiiith iiae??th aeeooy, iane?aeee yei? ua ia ae/a?iai?.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue oeeo aeniiae?a i?aeoaa?aeeee aeai? uiaei aea/aiiy
iiaeaeae iinoeaoano?io?/ii? iiaaae?iee aei?ineeo iioa?i?eeo ca
aeiiiiiaith iieooaaeueieea “I?aenoiee oa ia?niaeoeae”. Aeie?aieaii?
iiaeae? iiaaae?iee (“?aioia”, “ianeaii-iie??ia”, “caia?a/aiiy”
iaaa?acae?a aai ?o na?aeiiiai “iiaeieaiiy”) na?ae/eee, ui a oeo
aeiaaeeao, eiee iioa?i?e? caeiaee aeoeaio aeeoo?ao iiceoe?th oa
iaiaaaeeny nai?ie ?i?oe?aoeaieie a/eieaie iie?auaoe aeeooy, ?o ineo?/iee
noai aeyaeyany cia/ii e?au?i, i?ae o aeiaaeeao ianeaiiai aeeiiaiiy ?ie?
“aea?oae”, yea iieeaaea?oueny ia aeiiiiiao cciai?.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iane?aee?a
/i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe aeicaiey? cpiaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1) iaaeiioeiiea cia/aiiy nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo oa
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ieo aniaeoia /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe caaaaeeea
nai?/aniie ?ic?iaoei iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? eiioeaioei? eiiieaeniiai
iiaeieaiiy ?? ianeiaeeia, ui cia/ii cieceei aoaeoeaiinoue ?aaaieioaoei?
iioa?iieeo;

2) iaaeinoaoiy aoaeoeaiinoue ineoieiai/ii? ?aaaieioaoei? iioa?iieeo
aianeiaeie *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe iiynith?oueny oei, ui ia aoee
a?aoiaaii ani iiaeeeai iaoiaaiii /eiieee (?aaeiieiai/ii, iaaee/ii,
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/i? oiui) niaoeeo?/ieo oa ianiaoeeo?/ieo ii?ooaiue
ineoi/ii? aeiyeueiino? iioa?iieeo. Oiio ineoieia?/ia aeiiiiiaa
caiaeeeany o?eueee aei onoiaiiy ie?aieo neiioiiaoe/ieo i?iya?a ? ia
iaaoaaea oe?e?niiai, eiiieaeniiai oa?aeoa?o.

3) ineoi/iee noai iioa?iieeo aianeiaeie *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe,
eiai aeeiaiiea aecia/athoueny neeaaeiei niieo/aiiyi ia’?eoeaieo i
noa’?eoeaieo /eiieeia, aea/aiiy i o?aooaaiiy yeeo ? iaiaoiaeiith
ia?aaeoiiaith ?aaeicaoei? i?eioeeio aeeoa?aioe?eiiai iiaeoiaeo aei
?icieo aieiaeo oa oa?eoi?iaeueieo a?oi, ae?iaeaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
?aeiiaiaeaoeie noiniaii aeiyeueiinoi aeioeieueieo caeeaaeia, oeie oa
iicaoeieueieo onoaiia ?icieo cii ?aaeiiaeieiai/iiai eiio?ieth,
eieoaaeueii-icaei?ia/eo oa ineoi?aaaieioaoeieieo caeeaaeia, caaacia/aiiy
oe?eani?yiiaaii? iiaeaioiaee oa iiaeaeuaiiy eaaeioieaoei? iaaeaaiaia,
oeieueieo ineoieiaia, nioeiaeueieo i?aoeiaieeia, niaoeiaeinoia o aaeoci
ineoioa?aii?;

4) caiiaiaaiiy oa iiaeieaiiy aaae o ineoi/iiio ?icaeoeo aeioae i
iiaeeioeia, aeaoi?iaoei? oeiii?nieo i?i?ioaoeie oa ss–eiioeaioei?
iioa?iieeo, aei?ainoue iaaeaiiy ?i ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae caeaaeeoue
aiae oiai, ianeieueee aaeaeaaoii aeei?enoiao?oueny aeinaiae iiaeieaiiy
ianeiaeeia iioeo aeno?aiaeueieo iiaeie; yeith ii?ith aaea?oueny iaaeaoe
?e eiiieaeniiai oa?aeoa?o oa aoiaiinoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiinoi, caaacia/eoe
iaeneiaeueia iiaeianaiiy naiiaeoeaiinoi noa’?eoia i?eeiyooy aeiiiiiae,
iaiaaeoth/e ?? oieueee iaiaoiaeiith oa aeinoaoiueith, i?i?iooth/enue ia
?icaeoie iniaenoinoi ye ia aieiaio iaoo oa ?acoeueoao ineoieiai/ii?
aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e “Aeina?ae nioe?aeueii? ? ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae
iioa?iieei aiane?aeie aeno?aiaeueieo iiae?e” aeeth/a? aiaeic i?e/ei
iaaeinoaoiuei? aoaeoeaiino? ni?ia iaaeaiiy nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii?
aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aianeiaeie /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe, caieao?ono
o Ai?iaii?, iioeo iaaecae/aeieo neooaoeie.

Aiae?c inoi?i? aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo i?ioanieii? nioeiaeueii? piaioe,
aieiaieo iai?yie?a nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee, ?? oai?aoe/iiai i?aea?oioy,
i?aaiicaoei? nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao, aea
iaa?iiaaeaeaii aaaaoi?i/iee aeinaiae iaaeaiiy nioeiaeueii? oa
ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae ethaeyi o neeaaeieo aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?yo,
iioa?i?eei a?ae eaoano?io ?ice?eaa? aieiai?, ia?niaeoeai? e?i?? ??
?icaoaeiae a Oe?a?i?. C 70-oeo pie?a aeiiiioth/ei ipeioeeiii iiaeaioiaee
nioeiaeueieo ipaoeiaieeia ? oiiaapnaeici, ipi?ioaoeiy ia caaaeueio
oaipith nenoai, iaoeiai iaapoioiaaii caniae aopo/aiiy o aeeooy
iiaeeaiaea, apoie, nioeiaeueii? niieueiinoi.

?ice?eoi oeiei, caaaeaiiy oa iaoiaee nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe c ?icieie
eaoaai?iyie a?iiaaeyi; aoaie oa iaoiaee ?? iaaeaiiy; niaoeeoiea iaaeaiiy
ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae ia ?icieo aoaiao aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoeie (o
aino?iio ia?iiaei, ia aoaii noaaieicaoei? ianoaiiaee oa iiney caaa?oaiiy
?yooaaeueieo ?iaio), aiaeiiiiinoi o oaeoeoei iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae i?e
eaoano?ioao ?iciiai aeaeo oa ianooaao, noiniaii ?icieo eaoaai?ie
iioa?iieeo (aei?ineeo i aeioae, /ieiaieia i aeiiie oiui), iioeiaeueiee
ianya aeiiiiiae, e?eoa?i? ioeiiee ?? aoaeoeaiinoi.

I?e oeueiio i?eioeeiiaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? iieiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee, yea ia?aaeaa/a? noaaeaiiy aei iioa?i?eiai ye aei ethaeeie, yea
/a?ac iaaecae/aeio iiae?th oei/aniai ia caeaoia aei ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy o noni?euenoa?, aea caaaeyee oe?eani?yiiaai?e
nioe?aeuei?e aeiiiiic?, ineoioa?aiaaoe/iiio ao?o/aiith, iaeaaei?e
eiinoeueoaoeaii-ei?eaoaaeueii? ?iaio? iiaea a?aeiiaeoe na?e aeeoo?aee
iioaioe?ae. Inoaiiy ia? aooe ni?yiiaaia ia e?aua ona?aeiieaiiy
iioa?i?eei ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei aeaniiai ineo?/iiai noaio,
oeyo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii cia/oueo oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e,
nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a, iniaeno?nieo yeinoae, iaae/ie iiaaae?iee,
i?eoaiaiieo naiino?ei?e, nioe?aeueii c??e?e inia?.

Ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui iioa?i?eeie aiane?aeie eaoano?io iiaeooue noaoe
aoaeue-ye? eaoaai??? ethaeae – aei?ine? e ae?oe, /ieia?ee e ae?iee,
i?aaenoaaieee ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi /e ineoioei?a. Oea icia/a?
i?eioeeiiao iaiiaeeea?noue ae?iaeaiiy oi?o?eiaaii? iiaeae? iaaeaiiy
ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei – c iaeiiai aieo, oa aaaeai?noue
ae?iaeaiiy oaei? iiaeae? /e, i?eiaeii?, iaaieo i?eioeei?a ?? iiaeaiiy.

Aecia/aii iaoiaeieiai/i? canaaee ioeiiee oa i?iaiicoaaiiy “ineoieiai/ieo
ao?ao” i?e noeoieieo eeoao oa oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?ioao, ?ic?iaee
noeaia?i?a ?o ia?aaiao, caniaia neooaoeieiiai aiaeico, aoiaiioa?ii?
aenia?oece oi?aaeiinueeeo ?ioaiue oiui.

Ii??aiyiiy iniiaieo ineoioa?aiaaoe/ieo ia?aaeeaie, ?o ia?aaaa oa
iaaeieie?a noiniaii iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aiae eaoano?io aea?
i?aenoaae eiinoaooaaoe oae? no/anii oaiaeaioei? aaeineiiaeaiiy
ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii? ?iaioe: nei?i/aiiy oa?iiio oa?aii?, ?iaioa ia c
ie?aieie iniaaie, a a?oiaie, iiaeaeuaiiy aeanii? aeoeaiinoi eei?ioa,
aeeoa?aioeieiee iiaeo?ae noiniaii iiaeai?o iaoiaeia ao?o/aiiy ia a?oio?
nenoaiiiai aeeaeoecio, ?ioaa?aoeaii? oa?ai??, a?aooaaiiy aeieiai/iiai
eiioaenoo oiui.

Ia aino?iio aoai? eaoano?io aoaeoeai? ineoioa?iaeieia?/i? i?aia?aoe.
Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie a ieai? iaaeaiiy ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae a?oiai
iioa?i?eeo ? oaoi?ee aeaa?eo?iao oa aeaouethc?iao, a ia a?aeaeaeaiiio
aoai? eaoano?ioe – oaoi?ee, ?ic?iaeai? o eiai?oeaiiio, iiaaae?ieiaiio oa
a/eieiai-a?ia?ao?/iiio i?aeoiaeao.

Ia a?oio? aiaeico aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei a?ae
eaoano?io aecia/aii ci?no oa oi?ie iiaeaioiaee nioeiaeueieo
i?aoeiaieeia, oaoiaoeia c ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae oa ia?niiaeo
iiae?icaeieia, ui iathoue aeiyoe a aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoeiyo (cie?aia
i?e ?aaeiaoeieiiio caa?oaeiaiii iinoeaainoi). I?ine?aeeiaaii aiaeaeaeai?
ianeiaeee ineo?/ii? o?aaiaoecaoei? oa i?ioanieii? aeaoi?iaoei?
ni?a?ia?oiee?a niaoe?aeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a. Aeeeaaeaii aeayei iaoiaee/ii
i?aeoiaee noiniaii i?ioanieii-ineoieiai/iiai aiaeai?o oa iiaeaioiaee
?yooaaeueiee?a. Iaa?oioiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ineoii?ioieaeoeee oa
ineoieiai/ii? i?aeo?eiee ?iaioieeia “aeno?aiaeueieo i?ioanie”,
ni?yiiaai? ia iiia?aaeaeaiiy ineoi/ii? o?aaiaoecaoei?. Caaa?oothoue
?icaeie ii?eoaaiiy uiaei noai?aiiy ineoieiai/ii? neoaeae Iiiinoa?noaa c
iaaecae/aeieo neooaoeie oa eieaiaeaoei? ianeiaeeia /i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe.

I’yoee ?icae?e “I?eioeeie, i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie oa iaoiaee ineoieia?/ii?
aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei aiane?aeie /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe”
?icii/eia?oueny c aiaeico iio?aa “/i?iiaeeueoe?a” o aeiiiiici. Ca
i?ae?aooieaie oao?aoe?a, a Oe?a?ii i?aai aeiiiiiao aea?aeaae iathoue 60
oen. aeioae, aaaeoeiaaieo c 30-eieiiao?iai? ciie aiae/oaeaiiy, 250 oen.
aeioae ciie aacoiiaiiai aiaenaeaiiy, aiey 600 oen. aeioae cii
aa?aioiaaiiai aeia?iaieueiiai aiaenaeaiiy oa iineeaiiai
?aaeiiaeieiai/iiai eiio?ieth, a oaeiae aeioe, ui ia?iaeeeeny /e aoaeooue
ia?iaeaeaii aaoueeaie – “eieai-aeaoi?aie” ianeiaeeia aaa?i? ia *AAN.
Ioaea, eieueeinoue aeioae, ui iio?aaothoue nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii?
aeiiiiiae a Oe?a?ii iaaeeaea?oueny aei 1 iei., a caaaeueia eieueeinoue
iioa?iieeo ia?aaeuo? 4,5 iei. /ieiaie.

Cae/aeii ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iiopaaothoue ia o?eueee oi aeipinei oa
aeioe, yei iathoue aiaeiiaiaeii iinaiae/aiiy, a e oi, ooi aiae/oaa?
iiopaao o iie. ?aaeueii caaeiaieueieoe oaeo iiopaao capac ipaeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeai, aaeaea a Oepa?ii nenoaia onoaiia ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae
ianaeaiith oieueee oi?io?oueny. Oea oeaiope ineoi/iiai caeipia’y,
“oaeaoiie aeiaipe”, neoaeae caeiyoino?, nioeiaeueia neoaeaa aeey iieiaei
oiui. C ieie eiieopothoue anieyei oapeaoaie, yei caiiaiththoue i?oo, yea
ooaipeeany /a?ac “?ic?ea” iiae iiopaaith o ineoieia?/i?e aeiiiiici oa
oaiiaie ?icaeoeo ?? iiopanopoeoope.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo uiaei ianeiaeeia
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe iiae eooii cipo aeinaiaeo iaaeaiiy
ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aeicaieea cai?iiiioaaoe ianooiii
i?eioeeie iaaeaiiy ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae: 1) aeinooiiinoi
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae (ye oa?eoi?iaeueii, oae i oiiainiai,
inoaii? ia icia/a?, ui aeiiiiiaa iaia’yceiai ia? aooe aaceiooiaiith); 2)
iia?aoeaiinoi, nai?/aniinoi, aaeaeaaoiinoi noaaeiyi picaeoeo neooaoei? i
iapaaeeaaiiyi noa’?eoo; 3) aeeoa?aioeieiiai iiaeoiaeo aei aei?ineeo oa
aeioae ?icieo aieiaeo oa oa?eoi?iaeueieo a?oi, c ?icieie ineoieiai/ieie
i?iaeaiaie; 4) nenoaiaoe/iinoi iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae, aaeaea iiiaeeiiei
aiiciaee iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae iepaiei iniaai oieueee iiaeepaneththoue
aiaenooiinoue nenoaiiinoi a oeie piaioi; 5) eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaeo, ui
iapaaeaa/a? piaioo ia picieo piaiyo: c iiaeeaiaeii, nii’?th, eiioaeoiith
oa iioeie apoiaie, aieueo oepieeie nioeiaeueieie nenoaiaie, a paieao
yeeo ia? ooieoeiiioaaoe iiaeeaiae, ocaiaeaeaiino? caoiaeia, ui
caeieniththoueny ?icieie aiaeiinoaaie; 6) eiiiaoaioiinoi oa
aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoi oeo, ooi aa?aoueny aeiiiiaaaoe iioei; 7) ipi?ioaoei?
ia ?icaeoie iniaenoinoi ye ia aieiaio iaoo oa ?acoeueoao ineoieiai/ii?
aeiiiiiae; 8) aeoeaiinoi noa’?eoa, iaiaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae oieueee
iaiaoiaeiith oa aeinoaoiueith; 9) i?eeiyoiino? iaoiaeia iaaeaiiy
aeiiiiiae, ?o aa??aaaeueiinoi aiaeiiaiaeii caieoai iioa?iieeo.

?aae?caoe?? iaaaaeaieo ipeioeeiia oo?oaeiaia /a?ac cia/io eieueeinoue
iioapiieeo. Oey ianoaaeia aenoaa? ia iapoee ieai ipaaiicaoeieii ieoaiiy,
pica’ycaiiy yeeo, a naith /apao, aeiaaa? c’ynoaaiiy nooiinoi iiiyooy
“aeiiiiiaa”, yea aecia/a?oueny ye oeieani?yiiaaia aopo/aiiy a neooaoeith
aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi noa’?eoo ipeeiyooy aeiiiiiae (ie?aieo in?a, a?oi /e
niieueiinoae), ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie /e aiaeiiaeaiiy caeaoiinoi aei
nioeiaeueiiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy, a oaeiae ia noai?aiiy iaeaaeieo
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo oiia, yee a ni?eyee aeinyaiaiith ieie nai?o
oeieae, nipeyee picaeoeo oa paaeicaoei? ?o iioaioeiaeo, caapaaeaiith
caeipia’y o oepieiio picoiiiii neiaa.

Ineoieiai/ia aeiiiiiaa ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean, ui ia? ia’?eo,
noa’?eo, iaoo, caniae aeinyaiaiiy, iaaiee ?acoeueoao, yeee caeaaeeoue
aiae i?iaeai eei?ioa, iioaineaiinoi oa o?eaaeinoi ?iaioe c iei,
eaaeioieaoei? oaoiaoey, eiai iiii/ieeia – aieiioa?ia, aeanii? aeoeaiinoi
iioa?iieiai, iiaeo?eiee ?iaeieo oa “iii?o ciiiai” a nioeiaeueiie nenoaii
oiui. Oaea picoiiiiy iiiyooy “aeiiiiiaa” piaeoue i/aaeaeiith niaoeeoieo
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae aeioyi oa iiaeeioeai, ineieueee aiie oieueee
aoiaeyoue o nioeioi, oa ?oiy caeaoiinoue aei oniioiiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy
ianaiiapaae caeaaeeoue aiae iiaeeeainoae aeey iniaenoiniiai picaeoeo,
iayaiinoi oiia aeey noaipaiiy oiai iioaioeiaeo, yeee aoaea paaeiciaaiee
ieie o iaeaooiueiio.

Aeie?aieththoueny o?e iai?yiee ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae:

1. Iaipioaniiiaeueia naii- oa aca?iiaeiiiiiaa iioapiieeo, yea ?
iaeaieueo aeinooiiith, iiapaoeaiith oa aeineoue aoaeoeaiith ca oiia
aeinoaoiueiai caaaeueiiai piaiy ineoieiai/ii? eoeueoope ianaeaiiy.
A?aecia/ai? nooo?a? iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy a ieai? iioe?aiiy ineoieia?/ieo
ciaiue na?aae ianaeaiiy oa aeaye? i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c c?inoath/ith
a?ae/oaeai?noth ethaeae ca oiia iia??oaiiy ??aiy aeeooy.

2. Ipioaniiiaeueia ipyia aeiiiiiaa iioapiieei, yea caeienith?oueny
neeaie ineoieiaia, ui ipaoeththoue a onoaiiaao ioipiie caeipia’y,
iapiaeii? inaioe, iioeo aiaeiinoaao. A aeena?oaoei? iaaiai?ththoueny
ia?aaaae oa iaaeieiee ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei iaaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei?
aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei a?ae eaoano?io. Aiaeii/a?oueny iaiaoiaeiinoue
oe?iei? ipiiaaaiaee ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae c iaoith oipioaaiiy o
iioaioe?eieo ee??io?a aiaeiiaiaeiiai caieoo oa caeaoiinoi eipenooaaoeny
aeiiiiiaith.

3. Ipioaniiiaeueia iiinapaaeeiaaia aeiiiiiaa, ui caeienith?oueny ia
?iaii e?a?ie, iaeanoi, ?aeiio, apiiaaee oiui. Aiia iapaaeaa/a?: a)
o/anoue ineoieiaia o neooaoeieiiio aiaeici, aoiaiioapiie aeniapoeci
oipaaeiinueeeo pioaiue, ui noinothoueny aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi iioapiieeo;
a) picpiaoei oeieueiaeo i?ia?ai nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii? ?aaaieioaoei?
oa i?aaiaiai caoenoo iioa?iieeo; ?aeiiaiaeaoeie uiaei noai?aiiy
iaeaaeieo oiia aeey iiaiioeiiiiai ?icaeoeo aeioae oa iiaeeioeia, ui
iino?aaeaeaee aianeiaeie eaoano?ioe aeey aipiaaaeaeaiiy ca iinoeai
i?iaeeaaiiy, icaei?iaeaiiy oa eieoaaiiy; a) iiae-aioiaoei eaaepia aeey
piaioe c ianaeaiiyi paaiiiia eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy /e aiaenaeaiiy
iioapiieeo, ianaiiapaae c ipioanie oeio “ethaeeia–ethaeeia” (iaaeeeia,
iaaeaaiaia, ineoieiaia, nioeiaeueieo ipaoeiaieeia, ea??aiee?a ??cieo
??ai?a oa eaiie).

Aeina?ae eiinoeueoaoeaii-ei?eaoaaeueii? ?iaioe aaoi?a c 280 iioa?iieeie
aiae iane?aee?a aaa??? ia *AAN oa ?ioeo aeno?aiaeueieo iiaeie aea?
i?aenoaae aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy eiie?aoieo oi?i oa iaoiae?a aeeoa?aioeieii?
ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iniaai ?iciiai aieo, ?iaiy ?icaeoeo (iioaeaeoo,
oai?/i? oyae, niiioaiiinoi oiui), ui ?ic??ciythoueny iiaeaeyie
iinoeaoano?io?/ii? iiaaae?iee oa iioeaaie caa?oaiiy aei ineoieiaa.
?ice?eoa a?aei?ii?noue o aeai?? oaeoeee ineoieia?/iiai ao?o/aiiy i?e
ia?oe?aeueieo oa aeiaaeueieo nea?aao ee??io?a, iayaiino? niaoeeo?/ieo oa
ianiaoeeo?/ieo i?iya?a iinoeaoano?io?/ieo ci?i ineo?ee. Iiyniaii
iano?ee? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae ca oiia
a?aenooiino? eiiieaenii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iioa?i?eeo.

A oinoiio ?icaeie? “No/aniee noai oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
?aaeiiaeieiai/ii? ineoieiai?” ?icaeyaea?oueny inoi?iy noaiiaeaiiy oa
no/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo aeieiai/ii? ineoieiai? – iaoaiaoee i?i i?e?iaeo,
ethaeeio oa noni?euenoai, ui ooai?eeanue ? ?ioaineaii ?icaeaa?oueny o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO no.

A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy ?ioa?an aei aeieia?/ii? ineoieia?? iii?oii c??n ?
a Oe?a?i?. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ioae?eaoe?? I.A.Einoeoeueeiai (1993),
A.I.Ne?aaoey (1997) oa ?i., aeeeaaeaiiy oe??? aeenoeeie?ie o AOCao, a
oaeiae e oa, ui o 1996 ?. ia c’?cae? Oiaa?enoaa ineoieia?a Oe?a?ie
aia?oa i?aoethaaea naeoe?y c aeieia?/ii? ineoieia??.

C?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano aei aeieia?/ii? ineoieia?? coiiaeth?oueny ia o?eueee
oyaeeei noaiii iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i?, a e ona?aeiieaiiyi
oiai, ui aaeaeaaoia ?icoi?iiy ineoieia?? ethaeae, ?o ?aaeueii?
iiaaae?iee ia iiaeeeaa aac o?aooaaiiy oe?ieiai aeieia?/iiai eiioaenoo,
iine?aeiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai i?aeoiaeo a
iaooe?.

AEiaeia ie?aia aaeocue ineoieia?? iani?iiiaeia ioiieoe a iiaiiio ianyc?
an? aei??e, an? aniaeoe aieeao aeiaaeueieo eaoano?io ia ineo?eo
ethaeeio, aaeaea aiie oi?eathoueny i?aeoe/ii an?o ??ai?a ineo?/iiai –
ii?oieia?/ieo, niiaoe/ieo oa o?c?ieia?/ieo iniia aeueo ineo?/ieo
ooieoe?e, aiioe?eii-aieueiai? ?aaoeyoe??, ieneaiiy oa oyae.

Aiie aieeaathoue ia nioe?aeueio ? aeooiaio noa?e aeeooy, ci?iththoue
aeieth ia o?eueee ie?aieo ?iaeea?ae?a, a e n?iae, iaeeo oa aaeeeeo a?oi
(oa?eoi??aeueieo, i?ioan?eieo oiui), oe?eeo eiai?o, iiioeyoe?e ?
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ni?eueiio.

Oae ? iane?aeee aaa??? ia *AAN ia aeeaaeaeeny o aeineoue aocuee? iaae?,
icia/ai? ?aae?aoe?eiith iaaee/iith ineoieia??th (I.?.Aiai?aa, 1992) aai
aeieia?/iith iae?iineoieia??th (E.Ae.Oiinueea, 1997). Oe? aaeoc? ciaiue
iiaeooue aooe ei?eniei aeey ?icoi?iiy iaoai?ci?a iioeiaeaeaiiy ineo?ee
iioa?i?eeo a?ae aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao ?aae?aoe??, aea ia caeaoi?
iiynieoe “inaaaeiiaoieia?/i?” “aeiiicieia?/i?” ineo?/i? noaie oeo
ethaeae, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue ca iaaeaie ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy,
iii?oi? ci?ie na?oiaeyaeo ethaenoaa i?ney aaa??? ia *AAN. Inieneeoe oe?
ci?ie iiaeeeai o?eueee ia a?oio? anaa?/iiai, eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
an?o aniaeo?a *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe. Aaeaeaaoi?noue aeieia?/iiai
i?aeoiaeo naia aei aea/aiiy iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei? yaea?ii?
eaoano?ioe aeieeaa? c aeciaiiy aeiaaeueiiai cia/aiiy ?aae?aoe?eiiai
/eiieea oa i?ieiiaiaaiino? eiai ae?? o /an?.

Aeiooai? ci?ie o niinia? aeeooy aaeeeeo ian ethaeae (iniaeeai naeyi), ui
neeaaeaany a?eaie e ia? cia/io ?ia?oe?th; ci?ie ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa
noni?eueii? na?aeiiino? (ia?ac ss ? aeiae?eey) ia anoeaathoue ca ci?iaie
a ?aae?iaeieia?/i?e neooaoe?? oa ?aaeeeaeueieie c?ooaiiyie o
noni?eueiiio aeeoo?. Ni?iae aaeaioaoe?? aei iino/i?iiaeeuenueei? oa
iino?aaeyinueei? neooaoe?? – iaaoaeoeai?, eiiiainaoe?y – iaaeinoaoiy.
Ca?aene aeieeaathoue i?iaeaie aeacaaeaioaoe??, no?ano, o?ono?aoe??,
eiioe?eo?a, aeeoo?aeo e?ec, ui ooai?ththoue oaiiiaiieia?th
?aae?iaeieia?/ii? ineoieia??. Ca oeeo oiia iaaoaa? aeooaeueiino?
i?iaeaia iaaeaiiy aoaeoeaii? ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae ethaeyi o
ineoio?aaioth/ee neooaoe?? eaoano?io?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy ?ai?oa aacia/iiai
aeieia?/iiai ? iae?inioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua. Eiinoaoo?oueny aeieeiaiiy
ia noeeao iaoe iiaiai iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ?aaeiiaeieiai/ii?
ineoieiai?., yea ia? na?e i?aaeiao, oai??th ? noa?o i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy. I?aaeiao ?aae?iaeieia?/ii? ineoieia?? ooai?ththoue
ia’?eoeai? oaeoe, caeiiii??iino? ? iaoai?cie ineo?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a
oiiaao neeaaeiiai niieo/aiiy ??cieo ca i?e?iaeith, ?ioaineai?noth oa
o?eaae?noth ae?? eaoano?io?/ieo oa iinoeaoano?io?/ieo /eiiee?a.

I.A.Ee?e/oe Iniiae ineoieia??: I?ae?o/iee / Ca caaae. ?aae.
I.A.Ee?e/oea, A.I.?iiaioey. – E.: Eea?aeue, 1995, n. 127. aaiaeeoue
?aae?iaeieia?/io ineoieia?th o caaaeueio nenoaiaoeeo iai?yie?a no/anii?
ineoieia?/ii? iaoee. ?aae?iaeieia?/ia ineoieia?y ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
aeieia?/ii? ineoieia??, ia? o?ni? i?aeaeenoeeie?iapi? ca’ycee c
caaaeueiith oa nioe?aeueiith aeieia??th, aeieia??th iiioeyoe?e, apoi,
ethaeeie; aeieia??th aeiae?eey. Aiia o?nii iia’ycaia c ?ioeie aaeocyie
ineoieia?? (cie?aia, caaaeueiith, iaaee/iith, a?enueeiaith, a?eiaith ?
iaaeaaia?/iith, ineoieia??th i?aoe?, ae?yeueiino? a iniaeeaeo oiiaao,
caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy oiui), a oaeiae c iaaeeoeeiith, nioe?ieia??th,
iaaeaaia?eith, th?eni?oaeaioe??th oiui. A?aeiia?aeii aiia naia
aeeoapaioe?th?oueny ia caaaeueio, iaaee/io, nioe?aeueio, a?eiao ?
iaaeaaia?/io paae?iaeieia?/io ineoieia?th, ineoieia?th i?aoe? a
iniaeeaeo aeieia?/ieo oiiaao, caeipiaiai niiniao aeeooy ca oiia
?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy i?noeaaino?.

?aaeiiaeieiai/ia ineoieiaiy ?icaoaeiao?oueny ia a?oioi eiiieaeniiai
iiaeaeenoeeieiia?iiai iiaeoiaeo, nie?a?oueny ia iaoiaeieiaith
i?e?iaeie/eo oa aoiaiioa?ieo iaoe, ei?enoo?oueny ?o iaoiaeaie,
?icaeaa?oueny ca eiaieith ia aaeocaaiai, a i?iaeaiiiai iiaeoiaeo.
Iio?aae i?aeoeee ciooothoue a/aieo ia’?aeioaaoe coneeey, ?ic?iaeyoe iiai
aeineiaeieoeueei iaoiaeeee aeey ne?eiiiao, iii?oi?eiao,
ineoiaeiaaiinoeee, aaeaeaaoii caaaeaiiyi ?aaeiiaeieiai/ii? ineoieiai?;
noai?thaaoe no/anii aia?aoii-i?ia?aiii caniae cai?o oa ia?iaee
?iciiiaiioieo aac aeaieo (?a?no??a) – ?aaeiiiao?e/ieo, aeaiia?aoi/ieo,
aio?iiiiao?e/ieo, oiciieiai/ieo, iaaee/ieo, ineoieiai/ieo,
nioeiieiai/ieo, iaeieo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaioia oiui.

Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ?aaeiiaeieiai/ii? ineoieiai? aaa/athoueny o
iiaeaeueoiio ocaaaeueiaiii ?acoeueoaoia aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy
ineoi/iiai noaio iioa?iieeo aianeiaeie /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe,
i?inoaaeaii? eiai aeeiaiiee; ocaaaeueiaiii aeinaiaeo ineoieiai/ii?
aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei; ?ic?iaoei ?aeiiaiaeaoei? uiaei iiaiioeiiiiai
?icaeoeo aeioae oa aiaeiiaeaiiy ii?iaeueiiai aeeooy aei?ineiai
ianaeaiiy.

AENIIAEE

I?aeaiaey/e caaaeuei? i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
i?aeoaa?aeeee iieiaeaiiy, aeianai? ia caoeno, iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe oae?
caaaeuei? aeniiaee:

1. ?aaeueia caa?ica aeey aeeooy, niiaoe/iiai oa ineo?/iiai caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy caaaeii oa ie?aieo i?ioan?eieo a?oi (“aeno?aiaeuei?
i?ioan??”), coiiaeaia i?e?iaeieie, oaoiiaaiieie oa aio?iiiaaiieie
eaoano?ioaie, ciooo? ni?yiiaoaaoe coneeey ia ?icaoaeiao ineoieia??
eaoano?io. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ineo?ao??? eaoano?io, oey aaeocue ciaiue ia?
nai?i i?aaeiaoii oei/ania? oa no?ee? iaiaoieia?/i? ci?ie ineo?ee
ethaeeie i?ae aieeaii aeno?aiaeueieo /eiiee?a. Oi?ie oa iaoiaee
ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei a?ae ieo neeaaeathoue iniaeeao
aaeocue oai??? caaaeueii? ineoieia?? oa i?aeoeee ineoieia?/ii?
ae?aaiinoeee, ei?aeoe?? oa oa?ai??.

A?aoiaoth/e ianiaeaeiee oa?aeoa? eaoano?io, ?? i?aaeiaoii ? ia o?eueee
?io?aineo?/i? oaiiiaie (aino?ee, o?ii?/iee /e iinoo?aaiaoe/iee no?an,
aeacaaeaioaoe?y, noai o?eaiae, ia?aaeeaaiiy eaoano?ioe, ui aieeaathoue
ia na?oiaeyae oa oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? iioa?i?eeo), a oaeiae
?ioa?ineo?/i? yaeua (ineo?/ia ca?aaeaiiy, iai?ea, iioe?aiiy /ooie, aieea
cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia ineo?/iee noai oa iiaaae?ieo iioa?i?eeo,
i?aea?oiia? eiioe?eoe oiui).

Aeioe?eueii ?ic??ciyoe ia’?eoeaii-iioieia?/i? (iaaee/i? ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?), a oaeiae noa’?eoeaii-aen?ieia?/i?
(ineoieia?/i?) e?eoa??? aecia/aiiy iioa?i?eeo a?ae eaoano?io, ?o
eiia?iaoe??. Aei iioa?i?eeo aiane?aeie eaoano?io a?aeiinyoueny ethaee,
ye? aaciina?aaeiuei ciaoiaeeeeny a aeno?aiaeuei?e neooaoe??, ui
noaiiaeea caa?ico aeey aeeooy oa caei?ia’y ?o naieo oa ioi/oth/eo,
caciaee a?ae/ooieo ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ao?ao, ui oiaiiaeeeaeththoue “ii?iaeueia” aeeooy; iino?aaeaeaee
iiina?aaeeiaaii oa aaaaeathoue naaa oaeeie, ui iio?aaothoue aeiiiiiae.

2. I?e i?i?i?caoe?? ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a eaoano?io iathoue aooe
a?aoiaai? ?o niaoeeo?/i? (ni?e/eiai? oe?aeeeaeie aaaioaie iaaii?
iiaeaeueiino?) oa ianiaoeeo?/i? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? /eiieee.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo a?aei?iiinoae ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a
?aae?aoe?eieo eaoano?io aea? i?aenoaae eiinoaooaaoe, ui ineoi/iee noai
iioa?iieeo aecia/a?oueny iniaeeaei oa?aeoa?ii ?aaeiaoeieiiai aieeao
(iaiiaeeeainoth eiai /ooo?aiai ni?eeiyooy), iaaaeaeaaoiith iioi?iaoei?th
i?i iioaineaiinoue oa o?eaaeinoue ii?iiiiaiiy, iaeiie/aio aeico oa
niiaaiaeiioaiiyi ciaiioiueiai oa aioo?ioiueiai ii?iiiiaiiy;
iiaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieiai/ieie iniaeeainoyie iioa?i?eeo (aieii oa
noaooth, i?eii?aioieie ?enaie iniaenoinoi), ?ioeie noiooiiie /eiieeaie
(ianaiia?aae aeieiai/ieie oa nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieie), yei
aeaoa?i?iothoue iieiiiaeaeueio aeeoo?ao e?eco oa ciaoiaeyoueny o
neeaaeiiio, iaeiiieiiio ca’yceo.

I?e yaea?ieo eaoano?ioao aieiaiee oe?aeeeaee aaaio – cia/ia iaeii?aciaa
?aaeiaoeieia ii?iiiiaiiy, ui iiaea aeeeeeaoe oea?aa?aeueio oi?io
i?iiaiaai? oai?iae, a i?e o?eaaeiio ii?ii?iaii? iaeeie aeicaie –
iino?aaeiaoeiei? aioeaoaeiiao??. Ii?ooaiiy ii?i ?aaeiaoeieii? aaciaee
aeeeeea? o ianaeaiiy caa?oaeiaieo ?aa?ii?a iaaacia/i? ineoiniiaoe/ii
aoaeoe: eaoano?ioi/ia cieaeaiiy iioiioaoo, aaaaoi?aciaa c?inoaiiy
caoai?thaaiinoi, ui iaaaoeaii aiaeaeaa?oueny ia ooieoeiiiaeueiiio ?
ineo?/iiio noaii iioa?iieeo (o?ii?/ia aoiia, o?eaiaeiinoue, aeai?aneaiee
noai oiui).

3. Iniaeea?noue /i?iiaeeuenueei? yaea?ii? eaoano?ioe iieyaa? o
eiiieaeniiio oa i?ieiiaiaaiiio a /an? aieea? ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue
iioa?i?eeo i?yieo oa iiina?aaeeiaaieo ineoio?aaioth/eo /eiiee?a. Oei
/eiieee ii?iaeaeothoue niaoeeo?/i? oa ianiaoeeo?/i? aoaeoe, aeey
i?i?i?caoe?? yeeo ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye aeno?aiicieia?/i?, oae ?
niaoeeo?/i? neiioiiaoe/i? iaoiaee ineoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae. Aeyaeaii
ianiaoeeo?/iee (iacaeaaeiee a?ae nooiaiy ?aae?aoe?eiiai o?aaeaiiy)
“eiiieaen iioa?i?eiai a?ae /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe”, ?iaa??aioe
iinoeaoano?io?/ieo ia?aaeeaaiue oa iiaaae?iee iioa?i?eeo: “?aioia”,
“ianeaii-iie??ia”, ?aaeoe?? “caia?a/aiiy” iaaa?acae?a aai ?o na?aeiiiai
“iiaeieaiiy” ca ?aooiie aeanieo coneeue, aeie?aieaii i?aea?oio
“inaaaeiiioa?i?eeo”.

4. I?e ineoiaeiaaiinoe/ieo ianoaaeaiiyo “/i?iiaeeueoe?a” aeyaeaii
ia?aaaaeii anoaii-iaa?ioe/ii oa iiioiiae?e/ii i?iyae, aino?ee, o?iii/iee
/e iinoo?aaiaoe/iee no?an, caaino?aiiy aeoeaiooaoeie oa?aeoa?o,
aeaeiiiainaoeiy eaoaioieo ineoi/ieo ?iceaaeia oa aeenaa?iii?e
iniaenoinoi, nioeiaeueii no?aniai ?iceaaee. Ana oea aea? iiaenoaae
eiinoaooaaoe iayaiinoue aeno?aiicieiai/ii? iieiiiaeaeueii? aeeoo?ai?
e?ece, yea e aecia/a? nooiinoue eiiieaeno “iioa?i?eiai a?ae
/i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe”. Eiai aieiai? i?iyae – anoaiicaoeiy,
aaia?ae?ciaaia o?eaiaa, aeai?aniy, aiae/oooy aeanii? aacii?aaeiinoi,
iaaiaaiaiinoue o iaeaooiueiio, ye? aeyaeeeny a?eueo caeaaeieie a?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iioa?i?eeo, i?ae a?ae
nooiaiy ?o ?aae?aoe?eiiai o?aaeaiiy.

No?ieaoa, a iiaeaeiee e “?icieoa” neiioiiaoeea, ia?oe?aeuei?noue aai
iaaiaee, aeiaaeuei?noue nea?a iioa?iieeo aeiaaa? caaaeaiiai i?aeoiaeo
i?e iinoaiiaoei ineoieiai/iiai aeiaaiico oa aeai?i no?aoaai? iaaeaiiy
aeiiiiiae, a?aooaaiiy ?iaa??aio?a iinoeaoano?io?/ieo ia?aaeeaaiue oa
iiaaae?iee iioa?i?eeo (“?aioii?”, “ianeaii-iie??ii?”, “caia?a/aiiy”
iaaa?acae?a aai ?o na?aeiiiai “iiaeieaiiy” ca ?aooiie aeanieo coneeue)
a??ia?aeiino? caa?oaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith “inaaaeiiioa?i?eeo”.

5. A?aoiaoth/e aaeeeo eieueeinoue iioa?iieeo aianeiaeie aaa?i? ia *AAN
oa iaaeinoaoiie ?iaaiue ?icaeoeo iio?ano?oeoo?e iaaeaiiy i?ioanieii?
ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae ianaeaiith, i??i?eoao ia? iaaeaaaoeny aae?ani?e
nioeiaeuei?e ?iaio?, ai?iaaaeaeaiith eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai “icaei?iaeaiiy”
aeiaeieey, a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy oa aeiiiiiee, oa?eoi??aeueiei oa
iiioeyoeieiei no?aoaaiyi. Aieiaia oaaaa ia? i?eaeieyoeny
iiina?aaeeiaaiie ineoieiai/iie aeiiiiici, ui nie?a?oueny ia iie?auaiiy
yeinoi naii- oa aca?iiaeiiiiiae iioa?iieeo, iiaeaeuaiiy ineoieiai/ii?
eiiiaoaioiinoi an?o aa?noa ianaeaiiy, eiaea?ia noniieueii? aeoiee,
i?aoe?aiee?a nioeiaeueii? noa?e, ea??aiee?a an?o ??ai?a.

Iaaeaiiy i?yii? i?ioanieii? ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aiae
?aaeiiaeieiai/ii? eaoano?ioe ia? caeienithaaoeny ia a?oioi oi?ioaaiiy
iiceoeaiiai ieneaiiy oa ae?iaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo iiaeaeae iiaaaeiiee – ca
oiia cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeeoa?aioeieiiai iiaeoiaeo aei ?icieo eaoaai?ie
iioa?iieeo, a?aooaaiiy ?o naineoeaiino? ii iaaieo oi?i oa iaoiae?a
ineoioa?aiaaoe/iiai ao?o/aiiy (aee?aeoeaiiai, eiai?oeaiiai,
iiaaaeiieiaiai, a/eieiai-a?ia?ao?/iiai oiui).

6. A iino/i?iiaeeuenueeie neooaoei? iaeaieueo iino?aaeaeaee aeioe,
iiaeeioee, aeiiee, iniae iioeeiai aieo. Cia/ii iiai?oeeenue oiiae aeey
iiaiioeiiiiai ?icaeoeo aeioae, ui iaoeathoue a ciii ?aaeiaoeieiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy. A ?oi?o ?ioa?anao aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii
ieceo iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. Naia oei eaoaai?i? iioa?iieeo iathoue
io?eioaaoe aae?anio nioeiaeueio oa ineoieiai/io aeiiiiiao. Ia aa?oi
iaiaaaoeny iiaa?iooe ?o “aei ia?aae/i?iiaeeuenueeiai” noaio – oea
iaiiaeeeai. Iioa?i?e? iathoue iaa/eoeny aeeoe o oaia??oi?o neeaaeieo
?aaeiiaeieiai/ieo oa nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oiiaao ia a?oio?
aeei?enoaiiy aaeaeaaoieo iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee.

Iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi caoiaeia uiaei iiiiiicaoei? ineoieiai/ieo
ianeiaeeia eaoano?io aeiaaa? aeoeaicaoei? oai?aoe/ieo oa i?eeeaaeieo
aeineiaeaeaiue a aaeoci ineoieiai? eaoano?io, ?aaeiiaeieiai/ii?
ineoieiai?; noai?aiiy ca o/anoth ineoieiaia niaoeiaeiciaaieo neoaea aeey
eieaiaeaoei? ianeiaeeia iaaecae/aeieo iiaeie oa eaoano?io,
ineoieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?.

Iiaeaeueo? ia?niaeoeae aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? aaa/a? a nenoaiaoe/iiio
aeine?aeaeaii? ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a aeno?aiaeueieo iiae?e oa
eaoano?io. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii noai?eoe iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee Oeaio?
ineoieia?? e?eciaeo neooaoe?e oa eaoano?io, caaaeaiiy yeiai iieyaaoeia a
?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo canaae iaaeaiiy ineoieia?/ii?
aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei, ieoaiue caiia?aaiiy “ineo?/ii? o?aaiaoecaoe??” oa
caaacia/aiiy ineoieia?/ii? aaciaee ianaeaiiy, ineoieia?/iiai
noi?iaiaeaeaiiy (a?aeai?o, i?aeaioiaee oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia?niiaeo)
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao, ni?eyoe
ai?iaaaeaeaiith no/anieo iaoiae?a i?io?eaeoeee, ae?aaiinoeee oa
ei?aeoe?? ineoieia?/ieo iane?aee?a eaoano?io o i?aeoeeo.

Aieiaiee ciino aeena?oaoei? aiaeia?aaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iiiia?ao?y: sseiaaiei N.?. Ineoieiaiy ethaeeie ca oiia
?aaeiiaeieiai/iiai eeoa. — E.: *i?iiaeeueiioa?iioi?i, 1996. -171 n.
(?aeiiaiaeiaaii aei ae?oeo A/aiith ?aaeith I?OO, ?aoeaicaioe:
E.O.Ao?ea/oe, O?io?iia TH.E.).

2. Iin?aieee:

2.1. Ineoieiae/aneay ?aaaeeeoaoeey o/aueony, iino?aaeaaoeo aneaaenoaea
*a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou (iiniaea aeey o/eoaeae e oeieueiuo
ineoieiaia)./ Iiae ?aae. N.E.sseiaaiei. – E.,1995. – 177 n.

2.2. sseiaaiei N.?. Ineoieia?/ia aeiiiiiaa iniaai, ui iino?aaeaeaee
aiane?aeie aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?e oa ?aae?iaeieia?/iiai eeoa. — E.:
No?ein, 1998. — 58 n. (?aeiiaiaeiaaii aei ae?oeo A/aiith ?aaeith E?AN,
?aoeaicaioe: A.I.Neiueia, O.N.ssoeaiei.).

3. Noaooi o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao i cai?ieeao:

3.1. sseiaaiei N.E. Aeeyiea oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee iiae?inoeia ciiu
*AAN ia ee/iia naiiii?aaeaeaiea // Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia
?aaaieioaoeiy aeioae i iiaeeioeia, ui iino?aaeaeaee aiae
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe. – E., 1992. – C. 100-108.

3.2. Ee?e/oe A.A., Oaoaiei A.A., sseiaaiei N.E. Noaiiaeaiea
?aaeeiyeieiae/aneie ineoieiaee a Oe?aeia. // Ineoie. aeo?iae. -1993. — N
3. – C. 176-179.

3.3. sseiaaiei N.?. Caaaeueii ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii aeaii ipi aieea
oaeoipia paaeiaoeieiiai caapoaeiaiiy ia picaeoie iniaenoinoi aeioae i
iiaeeioeia // ?icaeoie oaip/i? iniaenoinoi a oiiaao aeieiai/ii? epece. –
E., 1993. – C. 7-14.

3.4. sseiaaiei N.?. Oeaio? “Aeioe *i?iiaeey” // Iioi?iaoeieiee
atheaoaiue AII Oe?a?ie. Aei. 2. — 1993. – C. 8-9.

3.5. sseiaaiei C.E. Ineoieiae/aneay iiiiuue aeaoyi, iino?aaeaaoei
aneaaenoaea aaa?ee ia *AYN // Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea e
ineoiiaa?ieiae/aneea aniaeou iineaaenoaee aaa?ee ia *a?iiaueueneie AYC.
– E., 1993. – C. 113-117.

3.6. Ceeaeia A.E., sseiaaiei N.E. Aac?aaioiua aeaiueiu: ineoieiae/aneea
aniaeou nioeeaeueiie caueou // Nioeeaeueiay ?aaioa n iieiaeaaeueth: Na.
iao/i. o?oaeia Einoeoooa iieiaeaaee. – E., 1994. – N. 77-81.

3.7. Ee?e/oe I.A., sseiaaiei N.?. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy
aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie “Aeioe *i?iiaeey” // Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia
aeiiiiiaa aeioyi i iiaeeioeai, ui iino?aaeaeaee aiae *i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – E., 1994. – C. 3-8.

3.8. sseiaaiei N.E. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey e oi?iu ieacaiey
ineoieiae/aneie iiiiue aeaoyi, iino?aaeaaoei a neaaenoaee aaa?ee ia *AYN
// Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia aeiiiiiaa aeioyi i iiaeeioeai, ui
iino?aaeaeaee aiae *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – E.,
1994. – C. 66-73.

3.9. sseiaaiei N.E. I?eioeeiu e oi?iu ieacaiey ineoieiaeaneie iiiiue
iino?aaeaaoei aneaaenoaea *a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou / Aaeoeaoeuy i
auoaaaiia. — 1994. — N 12. – C. 86-90.

3.10.sseiaaiei C.I. Ineoieiai/ia aeiiiiiaa ianaeaiith a
iino-/i?iiaeeuenueeie neooaoei? // Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii ianeiaeee
aaa?i? ia *AAN. I?iaeaie i?aaiicaoei? i ooieoeiiioaaiiy oeaio?ia
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii? ?aaaieioaoei?. – E., 1995. – C. 36-47.

3.11. sseiaaiei C.I. Ineoieiai/ii iniaeeainoi ineoi/iiai ?icaeoeo aeioae
ciie *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe // Ineoieiai/ii i?iaeaie iaa/aiiy,
aeoiaaiiy, aeoeaiinoi i ?icaeoeo iniaenoinoi. – E., 1995. – N. 340-347.

3.12.sseiaaiei C.I. Ineoi/ia aeeooy ethaeae a iino/i?iiaeeuenueeie
neooaoei? // Nioeiaeueii ianeiaeee *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe. –
Oa?eia: Oieii, 1996. – C. 354-367.

3.13. sseiaaiei N.E. Ineoe/aneay aeacaaeaioaoeey nio?oaeieeia IAAe eae
oaeoi? noeoeeaeaeueiiai ?enea. // Ineoiiaaeaaiaeea a i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo
i?aaiao. — 1996. — ? 1 (3). — N. 30-32.

3.14. Ee?e/oe I.A., sseiaaiei N.E. Eoiae e ia?niaeoeau ineoieiae/aneiai
eco/aiey aeaoae, iino?aaeaaoeo aneaaenoaea *a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou //
Aeaoneay eo?i?oieiaey e oeceioa?aiey: O?oaeu einoeoooa aeaoneie
eo?i?oieiaee e oeceioa?aiee. Aui. IV. – Aaiaoi?ey, 1996. – N. 34-35.

3.15. sseiaaiei N.?. I?aeaioiaea ineoieia?a aeey ?iaioe a i?aaiao
aioo??oi?o ni?aa. // I?aeoe/ia ineoieia?y: oai??y, iaoiaee, oaoiieia??.
– E.: I?ea-oeaio?, 1997. – N. 126-136.

3.16. Oaiiaaeia I.A., sseiaaiei N.?. I?io?eaeoeea naiiaoanoa na?aae
iniaiaiai neeaaeo i?aai?a oa i?ae?icae?e?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. //
No?oeeaeieia?y: oai??y oa i?aeoeea: Ca. iaoe. no. – E., 1998. – N.
21-24.

3.17. Iaaeaaae?a A.N., sseiaaiei N.?. Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ae?yeueiino?
ineoieia?/ii? neoaeae a i?aaiao aioo??oi?o ni?aa. // A?niee ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Nioe?ieia?y, Ineoieia?y. Iaaeaaia?ea. Aeione 5. — E.,
1998. — N. 31-35.

4. Iaoiaee/ii ?ic?iaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoeiy, ui aeeoee ca ?aaeaeoei?th /e
i?e ?aaeaeoeieiie o/anoi caeiaoaa/a:

4.1. I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou ineoieiaa oeieu-eioa?iaoa: Iaoiae. ?aeii. /
Iiae ?aae. N.E.sseiaaiei. – E.: ?OIE, 1991. – 128 n.

4.2. Ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou i?aaiecaoeee eaoiaai icaei?iaeoaeueiiai
ioaeuoa aeaoae ciiu *a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou: Iaoiae. ?aeii. / Iiae
?aae. I.E.Ai?eoaaneiai, N.E.sseiaaiei. – E., 1992. – 83 n.

4.3. Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia ?aaaieioaoeiy aeioae ? iiaeeioeia, ui
iino?aaeaeaee aiae *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. //
Aieia. ?aae. I.A.Ee?e/oe, ?aae. N.I.sseiaaiei. – E,. 1992. – 182 n.

4.4. Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia aeiiiiiaa aeioyi i iiaeeioeai, ui
iino?aaeaeaee aianeiaeie *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.
/ Ca ?aae. I.A.Ee?e/oea oa N.I.sseiaaiea. – E., 1994.– N. 100.

5. Iaoiaee/ii ?ic?iaee, iiaeaioiaeaii o niiaaaoi?noai:

5.1. E?eoa?ee yooaeoeaiinoe icaei?iaeaiey e naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai ea/aiey
aeaoae ec cii n ?aaeeiioeeeaeiui caa?yciaieai: Iaoiae. ?ae. / Iiae ?aae.
I.I.Ae?eiaaneiai. Aaoi?ne. eieeaeoea. – E., 1993. – 25 n.

5.2. Ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe icaei?iaeaiiy ? naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai e?eoaaiiy
ae?oae, ui iino?aaeaeaee a?ae *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe: Iaoiae.
?aeii. / Ca ?aae. I.I.Ae?eiaanueeiai. Aoi?nuee. eie. – ?aiaoi??y, 1994.
– 24 n.

5.3. I?ia?aiia aeey oeaio?ia ineoieiae/aneie ?aaaeeeoaoeee UNESCO.
Iiaeoeue 8. Ninoaaeaiea eiioeaioeee ineoiei??aeoeee / Nino.:
I.I.Aa?iaoe, A.E.Eunaiei, N.E.sseiaaiei. — E., 1995. — 39 n.

5.4. No/anii oaoiieiai? icaei?iaeaiiy oa naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai eieoaaiiy
aeioae, iino?aaeaeaeeo aiae *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe: Iaoiae. ?aeii.
/ Ca ?aae. I.I.Ae?eiaanueeiai. Aaoi?nuee. eie. – ?aiaoi??y, 1995. – 27
n.

5.5. sseiaaiei N.?., sseiaaiei O.I. Ineoi/ia noieeinoue
aienueeiaineoaeaiaoeia aei aieeao aeno?aiaeueieo /eiieeia: Iaoiae.
?aeii. – E.: EAA?, 1997. – 44 n.

Ie?aii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? aeeeaaeaii a 25 iioaeieiaaieo oacao
aeiiiaiaeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 2,5 ae?oe. a?e.

sseiaaiei N.?. Oai??y ? i?aeoeea ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei a?ae
eaoano?io (ia i?eeeaaei iino/i?iiaeeuenueei? neooaoei?). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai noaiaiy aeieoi?a ineoieiai/ieo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 19.00.01 – caaaeueia ineoieia?y, inoi?iy ineoieiai?.
– ?inoeooo ineoieiai? ii.A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoeiy i?enay/aia caeiiiii?iinoyi aieeao ia ineo?eo ethaeeie
aeno?aiaeueieo /eiieeia eaoano?io oa ocaaaeueiaiith aeinaiaeo
ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?iieei aiae ieo; iinoeoue ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy aieeao ianeiaeeia /i?iiaeeuenueei? yaea?ii?
eaoano?ioe ia ineoi/iee noai ?icieo eaoaai?ie ianaeaiiy. Aecia/aii
i?ia?aei? iai?yiee oa i?eioeeie iaaeaiiy ineoieiai/ii? aeiiiiiae
iioa?iieei, aieiaii iieiaeaiiy oa caeiiiii?iinoi ?aaeiiaeieiai/ii?
ineoieiai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: /i?iiaeeuenueea eaoano?ioa, aieea ia ineoieo
aeno?aiaeueieo /eiieeia, ineoieiai/ia aeiiiiiaa iioa?iieei,
?aaeiiaeieiai/ia ineoieiaiy.

sseiaaiei N.E. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea ineoieiae/aneie iiiiue iino?aaeaaoei
aneaaenoaea eaoano?io (ia i?eia?a iino/a?iiaueueneie neooaoeee). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a ineoieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 19.00.01 – iauay ineoieiaey, enoi?ey ineoieiaee. –
Einoeooo ineoieiaee ei A.N.Einothea AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco aicaeaenoaey ia ineoeeo /aeiaaea
yeno?aiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee e eaoano?io, iaiauaieth
iiuoa ineoieiae/aneie iiiiue iino?a-aeaaoei io ieo. Aeaaiia aieiaiea a
?aaioa oaeaeyaony iineaaenoaeyi /a?iiaueueneie yaea?iie eaoano?iou,
niiniaai ieieiecaoeee a? ineoinioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iaoieiae/aneea, iia?aie/iua e iaiaoieiae/aneea
ineoe/aneea ?anno?ienoaa, aicieeathuea a yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeeyo
(ineoe/aneay o?aaia, o?aiaoe/aneee iaa?ic, aiaaie oie, aeacaaeaioaoeey,
ino?ue, o?iie/aneee e iino?aaiaoe/aneee no?ann); iniaia aieiaiea
oaeaeaii aiaeeco ineoieiae/aneeo iineaaenoaee yaea?iuo eioeeaeaioia.
Nenoaiaoece?iaai iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao ineoieiaee eaoano?io, i/a?/aiu a?
i?aaeiao e caaea/e.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniiaiua ia?aiao?u, iaaeeoeeineea e ineoinioeeaeueiua
iineaaenoaey aaa?ee ia *AAN, ?ane?uoa a? niaoeeoeea, iaoneiaeaiiay
i?iaeieaeathueiny aicaeaenoaeai ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai caa?yciaiey
(“iai/aaeaeiiai” no?anni?a), iaee/eai “yaea?iiai no?aoa”,
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie eiiiainaoeeae ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai ?enea, “aoi?e/iie
nioeeaeueiie o?aaiaoecaoeeae”, eiieie ?aiaa neiaeeaoeony noa?aioeiia
iiaaaeaiey e iiyaeaieai iiauo iiaaaeai/aneeo iiaeaeae “auaeeaaiey”, a
oii /enea “?aioiuo”.

Anoaii-iaa?ioe/aneea e eiioiiae?e/aneea i?iyaeaiey, neiioiiu ino?iai,
o?iie/aneiai e iinoo?aaiaoe/aneiai no?anna, aeoeaiooaoeee oa?aeoa?a e
aeenaa?iiiee ee/iinoe, aeaeiiiainaoeey eaoaioiuo ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa
e aicieeiiaaiea nioeeaeueiuo no?anniauo ?anno?ienoa a iino/a?iiaueueneie
neooaoeee iauyniyaony n iiceoeee iieeiiaeaeueiiai aeeciaiiiai e?ecena.
Ia?auaii aieiaiea ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeoaeaiiie aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie
aeeaaiinoeee ineoe/aneiai ninoiyiey iino?aaeaaoeo, a /anoiinoe,
auyaeaiea aa?iyoiuo iineaaenoaee iino?aaeeaoeeiiiie yioeaoaeiiaoee.

O aeaoae e iiae?inoeia ciiu ?aaeeiyeieiae/aneiai eiio?iey iaia?oaeaii
nieaeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iieacaoaeae e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiciaaaoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia, oooaeoaiea yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaie ?aaoeyoeee (anoaiey,
o?aaiaa, aeai?anney), eciaiaiey ia?aca “ss” e n?aaeu iaeoaiey (/oanoai
aaniiiiuiinoe, nioeeaeueiie iacaueuaiiinoe, iaoaa?aiiinoe a naaa e
aeaaiiieo/iii “caao?a”), Yoe i?iyaeaiey eiaee iaeioi?ua niaoeeoe/aneea
?acee/ey, oa?aeoa?iua aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo, aic?anoiuo e iieiauo a?oii, iaoneiaeaiiua nei?aa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoyie iioa?iaaoeo, nioeeaeueiie
neooaoeee ?acaeoey, iaaeaee noaiaiueth iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
?aaeeaoeeiiiiai ii?aaeaiey.

?anniio?aiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiie e ineoieiae/aneie iiiiue
iino?aaeaaoei a /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeeyo. Ii?aaeaeaiu aaaeouea
iai?aaeaiey e i?eioeeiu ieacaiey ineoieiae/aneie iiiiue iino?aaeaaoei
aneaaenoaea /a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou, iniaaiiinoe
eiinoeueoaoeaii-ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou n ?acee/iuie eaoaai?eyie
iioa?iaaoeo. I?e yecenoaioeei-iaeueiii e?ecena iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui
ieacaeny aeia?aoe/aneee o?aieia, eiaieoeaiay e iiaaaeai/aneay
ineoioa?aiey.

I?aaeeiaeaiu ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea ineoieiae/aneiai
ioai?a, iiaeaioiaee e ?aaaeeeoaoeee i?aaenoaaeoaeae “yeno?aiaeueiuo
i?ioannee”, a /anoiinoe, nianaoaeae.

Iiaeaaaeaiu eoiae noaiiaeaiey ?aaeeiyeieiae/aneie ineoieiaee, a?
iniiaiua iieiaeaiey e caeiiiia?iinoe, ia?niaeoeau iineaaeothueo
enneaaeiaaiee e i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee a iaeanoe ieieiecaoeee
ineoieiae/aneeo iineaaenoaee eaoano?io.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: /a?iiaueueneay eaoano?ioa, aicaeaenoaea ia ineoeeo
yeno?aiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, ineoieiae/aneay iiiiuue iioa?iaaoei,
?aaeeiyeieiae/aneay ineoieiaey.

Yakovenko S.I. The theory and practice of psychological help to people
who had suffered after disasters (on the example of Nhernobyl disaster).
– Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 19.00.01 – general
psychology, history of psychology. – G.S.Kostyuk’s Institute of
Psychology Academy of pedagogical science of Ukraine. Kiev, 1998.

The dissertation is devoting to the regular influences of different
extreme factors on human mentality and general experience of
psychological help; it contains of the results of theoretical analysis
of the influence of Chernobyl nuclear disaster on mental state of
different categories of population. Basic directions and principles for
rendering a psychological help for victims, general thesis’s and
regularities of radioecological psychology were defined.

Key words: Chernobyl disaster, the influence of extreme factors on the
mental state, psychological help to victims, radioecological psychology.

Похожие записи