?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

EAEO?IIIAA Aaeeia Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 371:362.86

OAI?AOEEI-IAOIAeE*I? INIIAE NIOe?AEUeII-IAAeAAIA?*II? ?IAIOE C AE?II*ITH
IIEIAeAeTH A OIIAAO AAEEEIAI I?NOA

13.00.05 — nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien. ?iaioa aeeiiaia o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee
/eai AII Oe?a?ie Ie/eaei Iaeey A?eai??aia, I?aceae?y AAO Oe?a?ie,
aeaaeai?e-nae?aoa? A?aeae?eaiiy iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie Cycthi
?aai

Aiae??eiae/, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII
Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?aeaoianueea Aaeaioeia Ieoaee?aia,
Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee oeaio? i?aaaioeaiiai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie,
aee?aeoi?;

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Nouaiei Oaoyia ?aai?aia,
Caii??cueeee iaeaniee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e oai??? ? iaoiaeeee

aeoiaaiiy;

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Eoaainueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i. Eoaainuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 12 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 p. o 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.452.01 a ?inoeooo?
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252053, i. Ee?a, aoe. A?oaia,
52-a, 4-e iiaa?o, cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 9 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eaaeee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaei??th c oa?aeoa?ieo
iciae ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy ?
iineeaiiy oaaae aei ae?ii/eo i?iaeai. I?i oea, cie?aia, na?ae/aoue
aeciaiiy i?aa ae?iie ye aeiyoeiai aaaeeeai? neeaaeiai? /anoeie i?aa
ethaeeie, ?ic?iaea oa i?eeiyooy Eiiaaioe?? III i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th an?o
oi?i aeene?ei?iaoe?? ae?iie (1979), i?iaieioaiiy III I?aeia?iaeiiai ?ieo
ae?iee (1975), Aeanyoee?ooy ae?iee (1976-1985), i?iaaaeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo oa anana?oi?o eiioa?aioe?e, i?enay/aieo ?icaeyaeo ieoaiue
noaiiaeua ae?iie o noni?euenoa?.

O ca’yceo c iineeaiiyi ae?ii/iai ?ooo a 60-o ?ieao XX noie?ooy a i?aaiao
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e?a?i Caoiaeo c’yaeythoueny no?oeoo?e, ia ye?
iieeaaea?oueny iaia’ycie caoeuaoe i?aaa ae?iie, ii/eia?oueny ?ic?iaea oa
?aae?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueieo ae?ii/eo i?ia?ai, c?inoa? e?euee?noue
ae?ii/eo iao?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e, ia’?aeiaiue, iaoeiaeo oeaio??a, ui
aeine?aeaeothoue ae?ii/? i?iaeaie. Aiaeii/an noai?ththoueny aeiaeaoeia?
?iai/? i?noey, niaoe?aeuei? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? aeaeaiiy, ?icaaeoaeaia nenoaia
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?iie.

Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia iaai? aeinyaiaiiy, ae?iee e nueiaiaei?
caeeoathoueny caoeuaieie, ?o aeeooy niiaiaia aaaaoueio aino?eo i?iaeai.
Noni?euenoao iaeaooiueiai noie?ooy iaeaaeeoue c?iaeoe ianooii? e?iee
aeey ?icoe?aiiy i?aa oa iiaeeeainoae ae?iie, ye? neeaaeathoue iieiaeio
ethaenoaa. Ia IV Anana?oi?e eiioa?aioe?? o Iae?i? (1995) cacia/aeiny, ui
aeey e?auiai iaeaooiueiai iaiao?aeii iaaeeoiooe «iiaa iieie?iiy ae?iie
oa /ieia?e?a aei ni?eueii? i?aoe?, ni?yiiaaii? ia aoae?aieoeoai a?eueo
ni?aaaaeeeaiai noni?euenoaa… *a?ac oea i?eioeei ??aiino? ae?iie oa
/ieia?e?a iiaeiai noaoe i?aai?/iei aeaiaioii i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe??».1
Oaeei /eiii, ?inoeoooe aeoiaaiiy iieiae?, a oiio /ene? caeeaaee ina?oe
oa nioe?aeuei? neoaeae, a nai?e ae?yeueiino? iieeeeai? ae??ooaaoe iia?
caaaeaiiy, ui iaaoee aeooaeueiino? e aieeaathoue ia iaeaooi?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Caoiaeo a eieeoiueiio N?N? aaaaeaeiny, ui nioe?ae?ci
aa?aioo? ??aiii?aai?noue /ieia?e?a oa ae?iie aaea naiei oaeoii naiai
?nioaaiiy. AE?ioe? a?aeaiaeeeeny aea? iniiai? ?ie? — «o?oae?aieoe?» oa
«iaoa??», ui, ye i?aaeei, ca?aaeeny. ?o aeeiiaiiy i?ecaiaeeei aei
iiaea?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a oiiaao a?aenooiino? iaeaaeieo oiia iiaooo,
noa?e ianeoaiaoaaiiy oa nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae. Caaeaeea?iaaia
??aiii?aai?noue ia i?aeoeoe? iaa?oaeany aeoeneoaaiiyi ae?iie ia
ia?eoa??th iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, «oai?i?caoe??th» ie?aieo
aaeocae c iecueeith iieaoith i?aoe?, iia??oaiiyi noaio caei?ia’y ae?iie
oa ?o ineoieia?/iiai naiiii/oooy, c?inoaiiyi ianooaa?a nioe?aeueieo
i?iaeai, aaaaoi c yeeo aoee «cae?eoeie» (iai?eeeaae, aai?oe, ?aii?
iaoa?einoai, ae?ii/a cei/eii?noue, i?inoeoooe?y, ianeeuenoai,
naenoaeueia aenieoaoaoe?y). Iayai?noue oeeo i?iaeai ia aeciaaaeany, aiie
ia aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ? ia ciaoiaeeee naiai ?ica’ycaiiy ia aea?aeaaiiio
??ai?.

I?ioyaii aeae?eueeio aeanyoee?oue o eieeoiueiio N?N? na?aae oe?eae oa
caaaeaiue nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe iaoa oi?ioaaiiy ye ae?ii/i?, oae ?
/ieia?/i? iniaenoino? ia , ?icaeyaeaeany. Aea?aeaaa i?eeoaaeany i?i
oi?ioaaiiy «a?iiaaeyi», «i?aoe?aiee?a», «i?aaenoaaiee?a iiai?
ni?eueiino? — ?aaeyinueeiai ia?iaeo» ? aenooiaea caiiaieeii aacnoaoaaiai
aeoiaaiiy. I? ia oai?aoe/iiio, i? ia i?aeoe/iiio ??aiyo ia
a?aoiaoaaeiny, ui ae?a/aoea, thiee, iieiae? ae?iee iathoue nai?
niaoeeo?/i? o?c?ieia?/i?, aeaiia?ao?/i?, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?,
nioe?ieoeueoo?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee e nooo?a? i?iaeaie nioe?ae?caoe??. Ia
aoei oaeiae nenoaie aea?aeaaieo oa iaaea?aeaaieo nioe?aeueieo neoaea,
niaoe?aeueieo i?ia?ai aeey ae?iie, ui iaee a ca iaoo iaaeaiiy ?i
aeiiiiiae oa i?aeo?eiee.

I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a o nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio, aeiiii?/iiio,
eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? a?aeaoeeny nooo?a? ci?ie (ona?aeiieaiiy oa aeciaiiy
o noni?euenoa? aeooaeueiino? ae?ii/eo i?aa oa i?iaeai, noai?aiiy
aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? oa canioaaiiy oe?eiai ?yaeo iao?yaeiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia iie?ioaiiy noaiiaeua ae?iie), aea o noa??
ina?oe oa nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c?ooaiiy aeineoue iacia/i?.
Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia «Ina?oa» (Oe?a?ia XXI noie?ooy).
Caeiie «I?i ina?oo», «I?i caaaeueio na?aaeith ina?oo», «I?i
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io ina?oo», ?ic?iaeai? ia ?o iniia? ?aa?iiaeuei?
i?ia?aie, /eiia ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa aaca oa ina?oyinueea noaoenoeea, ye ?
?ai?oa, caeeoathoueny aacnoaoaaeie. Aiane?aeie oeueiai cia/iee
iioaioe?ae caeeaae?a ina?oe, nioe?aeueieo neoaea ye aaaio?a
nioe?ae?caoe?? aeei?enoiao?oueny ia iiaiith i??ith.

Iniaeeai? aino?ioe iaaoea noeoii?noue noia?a/iinoae i?ae:

— aeaeea?oaaiiyi ??aiii?aaiino? ae?iie ? /ieia?e?a, i?iaieioaiith o
i?aeia?iaeieo aeieoiaioao, ye? ?aoeo?eiaai? Oe?a?iith, ? ?aaeueiith
oaiaeaioe??th aei iaiaaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae o/ano? ae?iie o ea??aieoeoa?
aea?aeaaith, o aeinyaiaii? aenieiai nioe?aeueiiai noaoono, aeiiii?/ii?
iacaeaaeiino?;

— aeciaiiyi aaaeeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ae?iie ye
?oo?eii? neee caaacia/aiiy noaeiai ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa ?
?aaeueiei «aeieaaiiyi» ae?iie, o oiio /ene? e ae?ii/i? iieiae?, ia
ia?eoa??th noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy;

— ni?iaaie i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy noai?eoe oe?e?nio
eiioeaioe?th nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee ae?iie e a?aenooi?noth nenoaie oa
iaoai?ci?a ?? ?aae?caoe??;

iaaeinoaoi?ie oaiiaie ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?iie, iaoeiaeo
no?oeoo?, eio?? aeine?aeaeoaaee a ae?ii/? i?iaeaie ? ?ic?iaeyee
iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o ?ica’ycaiiy; aacnoaoaa?noth
aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee;

— i?iaieioaiiyi iaiao?aeiino? ?iaanooaaoe eiooe o oi?iaeueio oa
iaoi?iaeueio ina?oo, i?ioan?eio i?aeaioiaeo ae?a/ao oa ae?iie ye
i??i?eoaoo a aea?aeaai?e iie?oeoe?, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeiyoeiai
aenieith nioe?aeueiith oa aeiiii?/iith a?aeaea/ath, ? oaeoe/iith
ia?icaeiai?noth nenoaie ae?ii/i? ina?oe, iaiaaeai?noth niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
ina?oi?o oa i?ina?oieoeueeeo i?ia?ai, ye? aacothoueny ia oaiaea?ieo
i?aeoiaeao;

?aii?oaaiiyi oa i?aaethaaiiyi noao? o iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aeoeoe?,
iaiaaeaiiyi ?? o?aaeeoe?eii aocueeeie noa?aie i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy;

— iaiao?aei?noth a?aeiiae a?ae noa?aioeiieo iao??a?oaeueieo oyaeaiue i?i
ae?iie, nenoaio ?oi?o aeeoo?aeo oe?iiinoae oa i?aeoeeith cia?aaeaiiy
ae?iie o niioai?aiiio, i?eieceeaiio aeaeyae? o caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??. Oea iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia noaiiaeu? ae?iie, cieaeo?
?oith naiiioe?ieo, aeieo? aioiai?noue aei naii?aae?caoe?? e iia??oo?
ineoieia?/ia naiiii/oooy, ii?iaeaeo? iaaaeiaieaiiy nai?th noaooth.

O aeiiia?ae? THI?NAO «AE?iee a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae» cacia/a?oueny, ui
aeene?ei?iaoe?y ae?iie no?eio? ?icaeoie aea?aeaa oae naii, ye aiia
aaeueio? i?ia?an aeey ae?a/ao, ae?iie, ?oi?o n?iae. ??ai?noue ia iiaeia
iaa’ycoaaoe cai?e, ye oea aoei i?e nioe?ae?ci?, aea aiia oaeiae ia iiaea
?nioaaoe a oiiaao i?/ei ia ?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo.

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia aea?aeaaia iie?oeea noiniaii ae?iie o iao?e
aea?aeaa? o?eueee ii/eia? neeaaeaoeny. Ia nueiaiaei? iaeaea iaia?
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a uiaei iaa?oiooaaiiy
oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ieo iniia nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth, ie??i iiiaeeiieeo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee
aniaeo ae?ii/i? i?iaeaiaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe?? E.A.I?eiaiei
(1994), i?enay/ai?e ii??aiyiith nenoai ae?ii/i? ina?oe Oe?a?ie oa
O?aioe?? a XVIII — ia?o?e /aa?o? XX noie?ooy. Ie?ai? i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy
ae?a/ao aena?oeaii o iiiia?ao?? O.N.Ao?e?ai? «Ae?a/eia-i?aee?oie:
i?iaeaie a?eo ? i?io?eaeoeea aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiino?» (1997). I?ioeane
noaoaai?ieueiai? nioe?ae?caoe??, ci?ie a naenoaeuei?e iiaaae?ioe?
no/anii? iieiae?, a oiio /ene? ae?ii/i?, aea/athoue A-A.Ai?iee,
O.I.Aiai?oi. Iaaeeei-nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie ae?a/ao aeine?aeaeothoue
C-A-Oe??ye-Ieaeiee, A.?-Iaii/aoiaa-Eo?aoeaae/.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? oaie coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
i?ea?iaeueieo oai?aoe/ieo i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo oao?aoe?a c ieoaiue
ineoio?c?ieia?/iiai oa naenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo i?aee?oe?a oa ae?ii/i?
i?iaeaiaoeee (I.Eea, I.Aiaa/aanueea-Oiiye, Aeae-A?oe?i, N.Aaain,
Aeae-Eaiae?ai oa ?i.). Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaei iciaeiieaiiy c aeia?a
a?aeiieie ia Caoiae? i?aoeyie N?iiie aea Aiaoa?, Aaoa? O??aeai, Ea?ai
Oi?i?. Aaaeeeaeie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee niaoe?aeuei? aeaeaiiy c
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe (ianaiia?aae, «Aioeeeeiiaae?y nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe» a
3-o oiiao, ui ciaeiieoue c aia?eeainueeei aeina?aeii)3, a oaeiae
aeo?iaee, ?ioi?iaoe?ei? atheaoai? c ae?ii/i? i?iaeaiaoeee, a?eueo?noue
yeeo iathoue iacia/iee oe?aae («AEaiueia iethn…», «Ai e ii», «Ae?aeia
??ciiiai?oiinoae», iecea ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a AE?ii/iai
Eiini?oe?oio IIAe-NOA). Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeee
i?aoe? ?in?enueeeo aeine?aeiee?a (N-Aeaaciaa, A. Aaiaeaeyi, A. Eaaai,
?.Eii oa ?i.).

Oai?aoe/ia ia?ic?iaeai?noue, a?aenooi?noue niaoeeo?n?a c i?aeaioiaee oa
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? oao?aoe?a ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
aeey aaouee?a, iaaeaaia?a, a?iiaaenueeeo ae?ii/eo, iieiae?aeieo
i?aai?caoe?e, a oaeiae i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy iaaaoeaii
aieeaathoue ia ?ica’ycaiiy iaaaeueieo i?iaeai nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i?
iieiae?, i?ecaiaeyoue aei cia/ieo ao?ao ye ie?aieo iniaenoinoae, oae ?
noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio. A no/anieo oiiaao o ae??oaii? icia/aieo i?iaeai
ia?aaaaeathoue canoa??e? noa?aioeie, iaoai?/ia ia?aianaiiy ca?oa?aeieo
iaoiaeee ia iao a?oio aac o?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e, no/anii? neooaoe??.

C?inoaiiy e?eueeino? aaeeeeo i?no ? noaeith oaiaeaioe??th noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo. Aea? o?aoeie no/aniiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?iaeeaa? o i?noao,
niin?a aeeooy a yeeo coiiaeth? oa?aeoa? i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe??, o
ca’yceo c /ei aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?ii/i? i?iaeaiaoeee c o?aooaaiiyi
oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy ? a oai?aoe/iiio, ? a
i?aeoe/iiio aniaeoao. E??i oiai, ?nio? iaaaeueia iio?aaa a aiae?c?
nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai aeey ae?a/ao a Oe?a?i? ia ia?oiio aoai? noaiiaeaiiy
? ?icaeoeo nenoaie nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?, a oaeiae a
ia?ainieneaii? a?o/eciyiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo ?icae?eueii?
ina?oe, eio?ee aeey aaaaoueio e?a?i, na?aae yeeo Aiae?y, NOA,
i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoeny ?aaeuei?noth.

Aeeeaaeaia aeua coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
«Oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? iniiae nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa».

Aeaia aeena?oaoe?y ? /anoeiith eiiieaenii? oaie «??cii??aiaaa
iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea a oi?aa?neoaoao», yea aeine?aeaeoaaeanue
eaoaae?ith iaaeaaia?ee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
i?ioyaii 1994 — 1998 pp.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — nioe?ae?caoe?y ae?ii/i? iieiae? a oiiaao
aaeeeiai i?noa.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — oaiaeaioe??, caeiiii??iino?, iniiai? iai?yie,
ci?no ? oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? oa caeiiii??iino?
nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iieiae? a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa; iaa?oiooaaoe e
aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??eoe aaoi?nuee? iiaeae?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth; ?ic?iaeoe
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
oi?aae?iiy, caeeaae?a ina?oe ??cieo ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??, a oaeiae aeey
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? oa iaiiaiie?oi?o.

Eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth ? oaiiiaiii, aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoie yeiai coiiaeththoueny
noeoii?noth aeaiia?ao?/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo, nii?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a. AE?ii/a iieiaeue c
aeanoeaeie ?e aeaiia?ao?/ieie, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie,
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye ? iieiaeue a oe?eiio, ia ?
oi?o?eiaaiith, oe?e?niith i?aea?oiith. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa c
ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth ia?aaeaa/a? iaiao?aei?noue onaiaeiieaii/ nooiino?
oa niaoeeo?ee i?ioeano ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? iniia? c?noaaeaiiy
??cieo oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a, ui aaea ai?iaaaeaeai? /e iathoue ?aaeuei?
oaine ia aeo?ae o i?aeoeeo.

Iaoith nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe ? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ae?ii/i?
iniaenoino? ia iniia? iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, canai?iiy nioe?aeueieo
?ieae, iaaoooy noni?eueiiai oa aeaniiai aeina?aeo, naii?icaeoeo ?
naii?aae?caoe??, aeinyaiaiiy ineoio?c?ieia?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii?
c??eino?. Niaoeeo?ea i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iniaenoino?
aecia/a?oueny ineoio?c?ieia?/ieie oa nioe?ieoeueoo?ieie oaeoi?aie,
?noi?e/iei oa iaoe?iiaeueiei eiioaenoaie, aeii?ioth/eie oyaeaiiyie i?i
?ieue ae?iee o noni?euenoa?, ?aaeueiei aeiiii?/iei oa nioe?aeueiei
noaoonii, ?aa?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie oa a?aei?iiinoyie aeeoo?aiai
na?aaeiaeua. I?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa aeanoeaee
?yae noia?a/iinoae, iia’ycaieo c oiiaaie aeeooy, ui noai?ththoue ye
aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?ice?eooy oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo iniaenoino?,
oae ? o?oaeiiu?, neeaaei? i?iaeaie a ae?ii/?e nioe?ae?caoe??.

Aaeeea i?noi o ii??aiyii? c n?euenueeeie ianaeaieie ioieoaie oa iaeeie
i?noaie ia? aacia?a/i? ia?aaaae, oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey aeeoo?aiai
naiiaecia/aiiy, aeai?o oi?i caeiaoooy ina?oe, i?ioan??, aeica?eey,
niiniao aeeooy, ia?oia??a oa ae?oc?a. sse i?aaeei, o aaeeeeo i?noao
i?enei?ai? oaiie o?c?ieia?/iiai aeic??aaiiy, oaeaeoa oi?io?oueny
caeaoi?noue aaeaioaoe?? aei iiaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeinyaiaiue.
Aiaeii/an aaeeea i?noi oneeaaeith? i?ioean aeeoo?aiai naiiaecia/aiiy,
aeey cae?eniaiiy yeiai iio??ai? iaaiee ??aaiue eiiiaoaioiino?, iaaoooy
iaae/ie iiaaae?iee, ui aa?aioothoue caa?aaeaiiy ineoio?c?ieia?/ii?
noaeino? iniaenoino?. Noia?a/iino? aaeeeiai i?noa iicia/athoueny ia
oa?aeoa?? i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe??, ui iio?aao? a?aooaaiiy o i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? iaeaaaeeea?oeo ?inoeooo?a nioe?ae?caoe??, yeeie ? caeeaaee
ina?oe oa nioe?aeuei? neoaeae.

I?iaeaie ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe??, niaeo? yeeo iino?eii ?icoe?th?oueny,
iiaeooue /anoeiai /e iiai?noth ?ica’ycoaaoeny caaaeyee noai?aiith
oe?e?nii? nenoaie nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee, ui ni?ey? ?icaeoeia? oa
iiaeaeueoiio aeei?enoaiith oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ae?iie ? aiaeii/an
caaacia/o? ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie aeiiiiiae a e?eciaeo /e i?iaeaiieo
neooaoe?yo.

?noi?e/iee ? no/aniee ca?oa?aeiee oa a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui ae?ii/a ina?oa a?ae?a?aaaea ? a?ae?a?a? ?ieue iaeaieeaia?oiai
?inoeoooo nioe?ae?caoe??. ??aaiue ae?ii/i? ina?oe, ca aeaieie
aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ei?aeth? c ??aiai aeeoy/i? oa iaoa?einueei?
nia?oiino?, ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai caei?ia’y oa caaaeueiei ??aiai caaeiaieaiiy
aeeooyi. ?nio? iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aio/eeo
iiaeaeae oi?iaeueii? oa iaoi?iaeueii? iaia?a?aii? ina?oe c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae ??cieo eaoaai??e ae?iie, a oaeiae iioe?aiiy ina?oi?o oa
i?ina?oieoeueeeo i?ia?ai, ci???ioiaaieo ia oaiaea?ia aeoiaaiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a iaio noaoae, eio?a ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
i?eioeei?a iiaoaeiae a?aeiinei i?ae /ieia?eaie oa ae?ieaie.

?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiieaeno aoaeoeaieo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
oaoiieia?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia oi?ioaaiiy ae?ii/i? iniaenoino?, i?io?eaeoeeo
iaaaoeaieo yaeu, ? i??i?eoaoii ia oeyoo iiooe?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
nioe?ae?caoe?? aecia/aii? iieiae?aeii? i?aea?oie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a a?iioac? aeine?aeaeaiiy:
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a oiiaao aaeeeiai
i?noa aoaea aoaeoeaiith ca oiia ?aae?caoe?? ?? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
eiioeaioe?e, ye? a?aoiaothoue noeoii?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai,
ineoio?c?ieia?/iiai, eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai, aeieia?/iiai oa ?ioeo aniaeo?a,
ui aieeaathoue ia i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iniaenoino?, a oaeiae
aeinyaiaiiy na?oiaiai oa a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ieaie oa ina?oe ae?a/ao ? ae?iie. Nenoaiia
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaio nii?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?a/aoaie-i?aee?oeaie ? thieaie a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa iio?aao?
noai?aiiy oe?e?niiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy ??
nooiino? e niaoeeo?ee, ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaoe?? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
iiaeaeae, ye? ni?eyoeiooue oni?oi?e nioe?ae?caoe??’ ??cieo eaoaai??e
ae?ii/i? iieiae?.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe nooi?noue iiiyooy «ae?ii/a iieiaeue» ye
noa’?eoa oa ia’ ?eoa nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe.

2. Cae?enieoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e ae?ii/i?
nioe?ae?caoe??, a oiio /ene? ineoiaiae?oe/ieo oa iaiineoiaiae?oe/ieo,
oai?i?noe/ieo.

3. Aecia/eoe oaiaeaioe??, caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? i?ioeano
ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? a no/anieo oiiaao.

4. Aeyaeoe /eiieee aieeao aaeeeiai i?noa ia i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe??
ae?ii/i? iniaenoino?.

5. Iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yie, ci?no ? oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino?
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?iie a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa.

6. Aeyaeoe iiaeeeaino? ae?ii/i? ina?oe ye ?inoeoooo nioe?ae?caoe?? oa
aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo
ae?ii/i? ina?oe.

7. ?ic?iaeoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aaoi?nuee? iiaeae?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth.

8. Iaa?oiooaaoe oai?aoe/i? canaaee, ?ic?iaeoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??eoe iaoiaeeeo i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?ieaie a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa.

9. ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?aeae
a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo o nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i?e
?iaio? c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Caaaeueia iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiio i?aeoiae?, yeee ii?aeio? iieiaeaiiy oai???
i?ciaiiy, oai??e iniaenoino?, nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino? o
iie?eoeueoo?iiio i?inoi??, ae?aeaeoe/iee aca?iica’ycie yaeu ? i?ioean?a,
?aea? no/anii? o?einio?? ina?oe, iiai? ia?aaeeaie aeoiaaiiy,
aoiai?caoe?? iaia?a?aii? ina?oe, o?aai?noe/ieo oai??e, oai??e
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe, eiioeaioe?e nioe?aeueii? no?aoeo?eaoe??,
naenoaeueieo oa oaiaea?ieo ?ieae, aieeao ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ii?
?aaiethoe?? ia ?icaeoie na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iieiaeaiiy :

— oai??? nioe?ae?caoe??, a oiio /ene? ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? (A.Aa?o,
?.Aao, N.aea Aiaoa?, ‘A-A?aoonue, E-Aeaionueeee, A.Aieoei, O-Aeaeueoi,
A-Eaaai, I.Eea, ?.Eii, Aeae.Eaiae?ai, ; I.I?ae, A.Ino?ia, Ae.0ooa?,
A.Nooiieeinueeee, E.Oi?i?, A.O??aeai, A. A??enii oa ?i.);

— oai??? noaoaaiai aeeii?o?cio (A-Aaiaeaeyi), ii??aiyeueii? ineoieia??
(A.Cacci, ?. Cacci), ae?ii/i? ineoieia?? ( E.Oi?i?, A. Aeae/);

— oai?i?noe/i? eiioeaioe?? (N-Aeaaciaa, N.aea Aiaoa?, A.O?eaeai);

— o?aai?noe/i? oai???, a oaeiae oai??? i?i aieea i?noa ia oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? (i.a?oia, N.Aeaen??aa, I.Aaaa?, E-Aeaionueeee, A.C?iiaeue,
I.O?oia);

— eoeueoo?ieia?/i? oai??? (I. Aaoo?i, A. A?aea?, A.E?oa/ia);

— oai??? no/anii? o?einio?? ina?oe (A.Aiae?ouaiei, A.Aniieia, ?.3ycthi,
A-E?aiaiue, A.Eooae, I-?oaeaae/);

— eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ina?oe, aeoiaaiiy oa iaa/aiiy a no/anieo oiiaao
(A-Aeaenthe, N.Aii/a?aiei, I-Ie/eaei, I.Naa/aiei, IE?ia/aiei);

— oai??? ae?ii/i? ina?oe (I-Aiaa/aanueea-Oiiye, A-Aai/oaia, A-A?e?aai,
I-Aiaeo?ae, E. Eiceiaa, 0-E?oa/iaa, A.Noithi?i, N-Aaain);

— oai??? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe (A.Eainueea, E.Eiaaeue,
E.I?uee, ?.Ieaiae/, A.I?aeaoianueea, O.Nouaiei).

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy aecia/aieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
caaaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoiaee: a) oai?aoe/i? —
?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee aiae?c o?einionueeeo, e?oa?aoo?ieo, a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, i?aeia?iaeieo aeieoiaio?a;

ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee iaoiae ioe?iee ca?oa?aeiiai oa a?o/eciyiiai
aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth;
aea/aiiy oa aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a no/anieo ca?oa?aeieo oa a?o/eciyieo
aeine?aeaeaiue; aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y oa eeaneo?eaoe?y nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai
ae?a/ao oa ae?iie ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa; a) aii??e/i?
-nioe?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e noa?oieeaniee?a
Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae «AE?iee Oe?a?ie: nioe?aeueiee ii?o?ao»ca
aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth aaoi?a; eiia?othaei? iaoiaee, ui ia?aaeaa/aee
nenoaiaoe/ia iieooaaiiy neooa/ie ee?anueeeo aa/??iuei? ae?ii/i? a?iiac??
oa ae?ii/iai e?oeath i?ioyaii e?eueeio ?ie?a; aenia?oia ioe?ithaaiiy;

?ioa?a’th c nioe?aeueieie i?aoe?aieeaie c i?iaeai ae?ii/i? iieiae?,
i?aaenoaaieeaie cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa iaaea?aeaaieo
i?aai?caoe?e, niinoa?aaeaiiy, aan?aee, oanooaaiiy; aeeneon??, a oaeiae
e?oae? noiee, nai?ia?e, eiioa?aioe?? c ieoaiue nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth, nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio c
ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino? iiaeo oaoiieia?e ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a
oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy: caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe oa aeieoiaioe, ui
aecia/athoue Ae?yeuei?noue i?aeia?iaeieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaaieo oa
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e;

noaoenoe/i? aeai?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noaiiaeua ae?iie, ?icaeoie
iiaeaeae nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ieaie; aeieoiaioe oa iaoa??aee
ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo nioe?aeueieo neoaea;

iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?oa?aeieo oa a?o/eciyieo a/aieo c i?iaeai
?noi??? oa o?einio?? ina?oe, nioe?ae?caoe??, noaiiaeua ae?iie,
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?a/ao ? ae?iie, aieeao
aaeeeiai i?noa ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?; ioae?eaoe?? c ieoaiue
nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iieiae? a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa, iiaeeeainoae oa
iniaeeainoae ae?ii/i? ina?oe o no/aniiio noni?euenoa?; iaoa??aee
eiioa?aioe?e, e?oaeeo noie?i. nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai
ae?iie, ae?a/ao-i?aee?oe?a, o oiio /ene? i?iaaaeaieo ca ?i?oe?aoeaith
aaoi?a; a?o/eciyi? oa ca?oa?aei? aeia?aeeia? aeaeaiiy.

I?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue i?ioyaii
1990-1998 pp. o?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1990-1993) aeine?aeaeoaaany noai i?iaeaie o oai??? oa
i?aeoeoe? a?o/eciyii? e ca?oa?aeii? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe;
aecia/aeeny i?aaeiao, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaeany
aeaea?aeueia aaca c ieoaiue ae?ii/i? ina?oe. cae?enithaaeinue aea/aiiy
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e noa?oieeaniee?a Oe?a?ie (1992), oai?aoe/ii
?ic?iaeyeeny ? ia?aa??yeeny aenia?eiaioaeuei? iiaeae? oi?iaeueii? i?
iaoi?iaeueii? ina?oe ae?iie a Oe?a?i?.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1993-1996) ?ic?iaeyeany, ai?iaaaeaeoaaeany oa
ooi/ithaaeany eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa, ocaaaeueithaaany aeina?ae
aeei?enoaiiy ca?oa?aeieo oaoiieia?e nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ae?ieai;
i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny aeyaeaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y oaeoieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a
/a oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy; anoaiiaethaaeeny eiioaeoe c i?aeia?iaeieie oa
ca?oa?aeieie iaoe?iiaeueieie anioe?aoe?yie, cie?aia Anioe?aoe??th
ae?ii/eo oe?e Aaeeeia?eoai??, I?aeia?iaeiei ae?ii/ei oeaio?ii «Iaeaooi?
ae?iee». I?aeia?iaeiith oaaea?aoe??th nioe?aeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ?yaeii
nioe?aeueieo neoaea O?aioe??; ?ic?iaeyeany i?ia?aia aeine?aeaeaiiy
«AE?iee Oe?a?ie: nioe?aeueiee ii?o?ao» (1994), aecia/aeeny ?iaeeeaoi?e
?c ci?no ?iaioe nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?ii/i? iieiae?; a?aeaoeeny
i?aeia?iaei? nai?ia?e oa eiioa?aioe?? a Oe?a?i? c i?iaeai nioe?ae?caoe??
ae?ii/i? iieiae? (1992,1995).

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1996-1998) cae?enithaaeiny ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? oa nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
oaoiieia?e ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?ii/i? iieiae? a Oe?a?i?, a
oiio /ene? Aa/??iuei? ae?ii/i? a?iiac??, Ee?anueeiai ae?ii/iai e?oeath;
?i?oe?thaaeiny noai?aiiy ia?oi? a Oe?a?i? iieiae?aeii? ae?ii/i?
a?iiaaenueei? i?aai?caoe?? — Anioe?aoe?? Aaeae?a Oe?a?ie (AAO);
ia?aa??yeany aoaeoeai?noue nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeaeae ?iaioe c
ae?a/aoaie oa ae?ieaie;

i?iaiaeeeeny e?oae? noiee, aeeneon?? c o/anoth aea?aeaaieo oa
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?y;

ia??oioiaoaaeeny oa ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?iaeoe (noai?aiiy o
12-oe iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie ia?aae? aa/??i?o oa iaae?eueieo ae?ii/eo
a?iiac?e, eeoa?a aeey ae?a/ao. ?aa?iiaeueieo na?a?nieo oeaio??a aeey
iaiiaiie?oi?o iaoa??a oa ?i.); a?aeaoaaeiny iiaa inieneaiiy
iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth oa
ocaaaeueithaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaeoaeueii? ?iaioe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa a Oe?a?i?
aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino?, oaiaeaioe??, iniaeeaino? i?ioeano ae?ii/i?
nioe?ae?caoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi oiia aaeeeiai i?noa; ia i?aenoaa?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ca?oa?aeiiai oa a?o/eciyiiai aeina?e> iaa?oioiaaii iniiai?
iai?yie oa iiaeae? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?iie a oiiaai aaeeeiai
i?noa; aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ae?ii/i?
ina?oe a ??cieo e?a?iao ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao, aecia/aii ??
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee iioaioe?ae, ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?? noai?aiiy
oa i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a caeeaaeao oi?iaeueii? oa
iaoi?iaeueii? ina?oe aeey ae?iie. Iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaaoee
iieiaeaiiy uiaei ci?noo, iniaeeainoae, caeiiii??iinoae, oaiaeaioe?e o
i?ioean? nioe?ae?caoe?? i?aee?oe?a o no/anieo oiiaao, aecia/aiiy aieeao
aaeeeiai i?noa ia i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe??, iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo
iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ieaie.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ieo iniia ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?iie
oa eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ieaie a Oe?a?i?; o
aecia/aii? ci?noo iiiyoue «ae?ii/a iieiaeue», ‘oaiaea?ia aeoiaaiiy»;
aeie?aieaii? ?yaeo /eiiee?a, a oiio /ene? e cai?iiiiiaaieo aaoi?ii
«aoaeo?a aaeeeiai i?noa», ui aieeaathoue ia i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe??
iniaenoino? oa aeyaeaiiy noia?a/iinoae oeueiai i?ioeano; a oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oiooaaii? aaoi?nueeeo iiaeaeae nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth;

o aeyaeaii? iiaeeeainoae ae?ii/i? ina?oe aeey oni?oii? nioe?ae?caoe??
ae?a/ao oa aecia/aii? oaiaeaioe?e ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a aeey ae?iie; a ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?ai nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
«Oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? noa?oieeaniee?a Oe?a?ie» (1992), «AE?iee Oe?a?ie:
nioe?aeueiee ii?o?ao» (1994), a oaeiae o aaaaeaii? o iaoeiaee ia?a
oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e, aace aeaieo nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
(oai?i?noe/i? eiioeaioe?? E.Oi?i?, N.aea Aiaoa?, A.O??aeai, eiioeaioe??
ii??aiyeueii? ineoieia?? A.Cacci, ?acoeueoaoe e?ineoeueoo?iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aee?oe?a ca iaoiaeeeith Ae.0ooa?a, A.Ino?iaa,
E.Oiaa?aea, ?.Aoe?iniia).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui: a)
?ic?iaeaii iiaeae? oi?iaeueii? oa iaoi?iaeueii? aeiaeaoeiai? ae?ii/i?
ina?oe, a oaeiae iiaeae? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa, ye? ai?iaaaeaeai? o 12 iaeanoyo
Oe?a?ie; a) neeaaeaii iaa/aeuei? ieaie ? i?ia?aie ae?ii/i? ina?oe ia
iniia? iaa?oioiaaieo iaie eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue; a) i?iaaaeai?
ia?o? a Oe?a?i? i?aeia?iaei? nai?ia?e oa eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai
noaiiaeua iieiaeeo ae?iie (1992) oa i?iaeai nioe?ae?caoe??
ae?a/ao-i?aee?oe?a (1995); a) i?aeaioiaeai? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth aeey nioe?aeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ina?oyi,
i?aaenoaaiee?a iao?yaeiaeo ae?ii/eo ? iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e
(«Aa/a?iyy aeaineay aeiiacey: iaeao aeieoiaioia», 1994 p.;

«Nioeeaeueiue?a neoaeai aeey aeaineie iieiaeaaee» o ni?aaaoi?noa?, 1994
p., «Aeooaeueiea i?iaeaiue? nioeeaeecaoeee aeaaooae-iiae?inoeia», 1995
p.); ae) noeioethaaei noai?aiiy ia?oi? a Oe?a?i? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iieiae?aeii? ae?ii/i? i?aai?caoe?? — Anioe?aoe?? aaeae?a Oe?a?ie (AAO),
a oaeiae iaaeaii aeiiiiiao a i?aeaioiaoe? e?aea??a oe??? i?aai?caoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a ai?iaaaeaeaii o Ee?anueeiio
ae?ii/iio e?oea? 1992-1997 pp., a?iiac??-?ioa?iao? ?13 (aeia?aeea. ? 40
a?ae 11.05.1999 p.). Ee?anuee?e Aa/??i?e ae?ii/?e a?iiac?? oa ?yae?
aa/??i?o, iaae?eueieo a?iiac?e ? eeoa?a aeey ae?a/ao a ??cieo ?aa?iiao
Oe?a?ie ( aeia?aeea ? 01/167-1 a?ae 17.05. 1999 p.). Oeaio?? ?iaioe c
ae?ieaie Ee?anueei? i?nueei? aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe?? (aeia?aeea
?055-122-a a?ae 21.04.1999 p.). Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iaeani?e
iieiae?aei?e ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiinoeueoaoeai?e neoaea? (aeia?aeea ? 97 a?ae
29.04.1999 p.). Iaaeaaia?/iiio eieaaeae? i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (aeia?aeea ? 81/a a?ae 12.05.1999 p.), a oaeiae ia
eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
iieiae? i?e Aea?aeaaiiio Eii?oao? o ni?aaao n?i’? oa iieiae?, a
Ee?anueeiio i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio ?inoeooo? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
o/eoae?a, Ee?anueeiio ?inoeooo? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a
eoeueoo?e, ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe,
nioe?aeueieo neoaea, nai?ia?ao ? o?ai?iaao aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a
iao?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e, o /eneaiieo aenooiao o caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iaea?aeaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a
iaa?oiooaaii? eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth c o?aooaaiiyi oiia aaeeeiai i?noa; ?ic?iaoe?
iiaeaeae nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe a nenoai? nioe?aeueieo neoaea
aeey iieiae?, ina?oe, a a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?yo;

iaa?oiooaaii? ci?noo oa caaaeaiue ae?ii/i? ina?oe ye aaaeeeaiai
?inoeoooo nioe?ae?caoe??;

caii/aoeoaaii? iai?yio «AE?ii/a iieiaeue» i?ae /an noai?aiiy oa ia
ia?oiio aoai? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
iieiae?.

A??ia?aei?noue oa a?aoiaioiaai?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny aeo?aeieie oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieie
iieiaeaiiyie, canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo eiai iao? ?
caaaeaiiyi, nenoaiiei aiae?cii cia/iiai ianyao caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ?ioeo
aeaea?ae, a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo o?einionueeeo, ineoieia?/ieo,
iaaeaaia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeue, o?eaaeei oa?i?iii
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe a ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie oa aoaeoeai?noth
?acoeueoao?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a
oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa.

2. Oai?aoe/i? canaaee oa iaoiaeeea i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ieaie a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa.

3. Aaoi?nuee? iiaeae? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa.

4. Iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe??
ae?ii/i? iieiae? o aaeeeiio i?no? a no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa c oa?aeoa?ieie aeey iueiai caeiiii??iinoyie, oaiaeaioe?yie,
noia?a/iinoyie, a oaeiae aeoiaiee iioaioe?ae ??cieo oi?i ae?ii/i?
ina?oe, cie?aia caaaeueiiina?oi?o caeeaae?a aeey ae?a/ao, iiaeaeae
aeiaeaoeiai? iaoi?iaeueii? ae?ii/i? ina?oe.

5. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy nooiino? iiiyoue «ae?ii/a iieiaeue»,
«aaiaea?ia aeoiaaiiy».

6. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy,
caeeaae?a ina?oe ??cieo ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??, a oaeiae aeey nenoaie
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? oa iaiiaiie?oi?o noiniaii i??i?eoaoieo
iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeany o aeiiia?aeyo oa
aenooiao ia 25 i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo, oe?a?inueeeo, ?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao (Ee?a — 1992-1998 pp.,
Iineaa — 1994,1996 pp., Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a — 1995 p., Aei?i?iiao?ianuee —
1993 p., 1995 p., Aeiiaoeuee — 1995 p., *a?i?aoe? -1994 p.), i?ae /an
aeeneon?e oa e?oaeeo noie?a o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae o
aenooiao ia can?aeaiiyo iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aae Ee?anueeiai ae?ii/iai
e?oeath, a?iiac??-?ioa?iaoo ?13 i. Ee?aa, a ?yae? caaaeueiiina?oi?o
caeeaae?a Ee?aa, A?iieoe?, Aei?i?iiao?ianueea, nioe?aeueieo neoaeaao
aeey iieiae?, iao?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?yo Ee?aa, Oa?iiiiey, *a?i?aoe?a.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii a
32 iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeyo, c ieo aac ni?aaaoi??a — 23,
o oiio /ene?: 1 iaeiiin?aia iiiia?ao?y; 2 iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? aeaeaiiy,
22 iaoeia? noaoo? o aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?e.
Caaaeueiee ianya iniaenoiai aianeo — iiiaae 37 aaoi?nueeeo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a aei ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (253 iaeiaioaaiiy, c ieo 16 ?iicaiieie iiaaie), 9
aeiaeaoe?a, ui caeiathoue 51 crop. Iniiaiee oaeno aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaii ia 399 crop. ?iaioa i?noeoue 4 oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny eiai i?aaeiao, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy,
?ice?eaathoueny iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iaaiaeyoueny
aeai? i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie
nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iieiae?» — aeeeaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea ae?ii/i?
iieiae? ye noa’?eoa oa ia’?eoa iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao oa nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe. I?aaenoaaeai? oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i?
iniaenoino? ineoiaiae?oe/ii? oa iaiineoiaiae?oe/ii? eiioeaioe?e.
Noa?aeoa?eciaai? oai?i?noe/i? eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy ae?ii/i?
iniaenoino?. Cae?eniaii aiae?c no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo aeieoiaio?a uiaei
iaoe, caaaeaiue, ci?noo nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iieiae? oa iaoiae?a
ae??oaiiy ?? aeooaeueieo i?iaeai. Ia??oioiao?oueny aeioe?euei?noue
aaaaeaiiy s iaoeiaee ia?a iiiyooy «ae?ii/a iieiaeue» -iieiae?aeii?
i?aea?oie, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeyoue ae?a/aoa oa iieiae? ae?iee a?ae 12
aei 28 ?ie?a. ?ice?eaathoueny iniiai? aeaiia?ao?/i? oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?ii/i? iieiae?.

Aecia/a?oueny oa ooi/ith?oueny aaoi?nueea ?icoi?iiy oa?i?io
«nioe?ae?caoe?y», yeee caeeoa?oueny i?aaeiaoii iaaiai?aiue oa aeeneon?e.
Iciaeith inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y XX no. noaei iioe?aiiy iiaiai iiaeyaeo
ia i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe?? aeeoeie, coiiaeaiiai i?eeiyooyi Eiiaaioe?? i?i
i?aaa aeeoeie (1989). ?aoeo?eaoe?y oeueiai aaaeeeaiai i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeieoiaioa aaniethoiith a?eueo?noth e?a?i na?oo, a oiio /ene? e
Oe?a?iith, coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ci?ie i?aeoiae?a aei ?icoi?iiy
i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?:

aeeoeio noaee aeciaaaoe ye noa’?eoa, aaciina?aaeiueiai ? aeoeaiiai
o/anieea nioe?ae?caoe??.

?ice?eaa?oueny iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia??iaeo io?ioeoaa, yea aaaaeathoue
oaiiiaiii XX noi??//y, coiiaeaiei ianaiia?aae o?aai?caoe??th oa
?iaeono??ae?caoe??th. sse aeiaiaeyoue aeine?aeaeaiiy (AE?oiai,
AE.Neioo), ea?oeia na?oo, ui oi?io?oueny ia aoai? i?aee?oeiaiai a?eo,
aeyaey?oueny cia/ouith aeey anueiai iiaeaeueoiai aeeooy. Ia i?aeoeoe?
an? ethaee ia eeoa ?iaeii c aeeoeinoaa, aea e ?aiiueiai thiaoeoaa.
Ii?yae c oeei o no/ani?e neooaoe?? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa aoai io?ioeoaa
? aeiyoeiai aaaeeeaei, ine?eueee ioiieth? aeaiaioe oa ?ene iaeaooiueiai,
aiane?aeie /iai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiieaeno i?iaeai i?aee?oe?a ni?ey?
cae?eniaiith i?iaiic?a nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ia iaeaooi?.

Aaoi?ii cae?eniaii ni?iao aeyaeoe aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie nioe?ae?caoe??
ae?ii/i? iieiae? o i?aeia?iaeiiio oa iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiioaeno?. Na?aae
ieo iaea?eueo aaaiieie ? i?iaeaie caei?ia’y, ia?aaeon?i
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai; ?aaeueiiai oa iaeaooiueiai ??aiy aeeooy; ?iceo/aiue oa
iaiiaieo n?iae; aac?ia?ooy; ianeeuenoaa, aea?oaaie yeiai, ye na?ae/eoue
ca?oa?aeia noaoenoeea, noathoue iaeia c /ioe?ueio ae?a/ao oa eiaeiee
nueiiee oeii/ee (A.Eaoea?).

O aeeeaaeaiiio aiae?c? aeaiia?ao?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ae?ii/i? iieiae?
cacia/a?oueny, ui Oe?a?ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae e?a?i Caoiaeo a?eueo
?aii?i anooiii ae?a/ao o oetha oa a?aeiia?aeii a?eueo ?aii?i a?eii
caeiaoooy iaoa?einueeiai noaoono, a oaeiae a?eueoith /anoeith
ia?iaeaeaiue ae?oae o iai a?eii aei 21 ?ieo. Aeoaea aenieeie ?
oe?a?inuee? iieacieee aai?o?a na?aae iaiiaiie?oi?o oa iieiaeeo ae?iie.

Ia oeueiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ??cieo
i?aeoiae?a aei i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iniaenoino?, cie?aia
ineoiaiae?oe/ieo, oai?i?noe/ieo eiioeaioe?e, ia yeeo aaco?oueny i?aeoeea
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe ? ina?oe. Aeyaeaii i?ia?aei? ?aea? aeieoiaio?a, ui
noaee iniiaith o cae?eniaii? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee uiaei ae?iie o
no/aniiio na?oiaiio noni?euenoa?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio
aea/aoe i?iaeaie ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? oa noi?ioethaaoe ?yae
aeniiae?a, aaaeeeaeo ia eeoa o oai?aoe/iiio, aea e o i?aeoe/iiio
aniaeoao. Iai?eeeaae, i?ae oeneii a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, o?aaeeoe?e,
aeoiaaiiy ae?iee ?iiae? aa/aoue nai? i?ecia/aiiy eeoa o oiio, uia
aeinyaoe oni?oo a naenoaeuei?e noa??. Ni?aaaei? eioaiiy aea? ethaeyi
iiaeeea?noue aooe uaneeaeie, aea aiii iio?aao? naii?icaeoeo, oai?/ino?,
aeooiaieo nee, a ae?a/aoa aeyaeythoueny ia aioiaeie aei oeueiai.

Oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee, noi?ioeueiaai? i?aaenoaaieeaie oai?i?cio,
aacothoueny ia aeciaii? nioe?aeueii?, a ia a?ieia?/ii? aeii?iaioe. N.
aea Aiaoa? a nai?e caaaeueiia?aeii?e ia Caoiae? i?aoe? «Ae?oaa noaoue»
iaaieioo? ia iaiao?aeiino? oi?ioaaoe o ae?a/eie i?aaiaiiy aei
iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo. Noni?euenoai /anoi i?iiiio?, a ?iiae? e iaa’yco?
ae?a/ei? oeyo «caa?oo-aiec», yeee iaiaaeo? ?? iiaeeeaino?, caaaeth?
eaae?noth ia?aoai?eoe naaa ia oiaa? aeey i?iaeaaeo ? aiaeii/an coieiy? o
?icaeoeo.

C o?aooaaiiyi oe?eae ? caaaeaiue ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? aeeeaaeaii
?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo aeieoiaio?a, cie?aia
iaoa??ae?a IV Anana?oiuei? eiioa?aioe?? uiaei noaiiaeua ae?iie (Iae?i,
1995), Eiiaaioe?? i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th an?o oi?i aeene?ei?iaoe?? ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ae?iie. Aeaeea?aoe?? i?i aeei?aiaiiy ianeeuenoaa
noiniaii ae?iie. Ia iniia? cae?eniaiiai aiae?co noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaie
uiaei i??i?eoaoiino? ?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo ina?oi?o
i?ia?ai aeey oi?iaeueii? oa iaoi?iaeueii? ina?oe ae?a/ao, ui aeathoue
ciiao i?aeaeuoaaoe ?o naiiioe?ieo, ??aaiue ia?ciaiino? uiaei ieoaiue
caa?aaeaiiy caei?ia’y, iiia?aaeaeaiiy ianeeuenoaa, ni?eyoe oi?ioaaiith
aenieeo i?ioan?eieo iaiaaaiue, ?icaeoeo aeaniiai oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo, a
oaeiae ca?eueiaiith a?ae canoa??eeo noa?aioei?a oyaeaiue i?i aeeoo?aa
i?ecia/aiiy ae?iee, eiee ?aeeiei aaaeaiei ?iia?aoeaii noaaaee cai?aeaey
? iaoa?einoai.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a i?iaeaie
nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iieiae? aeaei ciiao aecia/eoe oeyoe oa iaoiaee,
ni?yiiaai? ia ae??oaiiy aeooaeueieo i?iaeai ae?a/ao ? iieiaeeo ae?iie, a
oaeiae ia ?ic?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
iiaeaeae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee nioe?ae?caoe??
ae?a/ao-i?aee?oe?a a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa» aeeeaaeaii
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaeeeiai i?noa, ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eiai nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy ae?ii/i? iniaenoino?, a oaeiae aea/aiiy aeayeeo i?iaeaiieo
iiaeaeae ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? o aaeeeiio i?no?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny ?c caeo/aiiyi a?aeiiinoae c ??cieo noa?
ciaiue: ?noi???, o?einio??, eoeueoo?ieia??, iaaeeoeeie, nioe?aeueii?
ineoieia??, nioe?ieia??, aeaiia?ao??, noaoenoeee, e?oa?aoo?e.
I?aee?aneaii neeaaei?noue i?nueeiai aeeooy, a yeiio i?enooi?
??ciiiai?oi? yaeua, oaeoi?e, i?ioa?ee eoeueoo?e oa neeaaeia?
i?aai?caoe?? aeeoo?aiai ono?ith, ui oneeaaeiththoue i?iaeaio aeai?o
nenoaie oe?iiinoae, noai?thth/e noia?a/iino?. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo
i?aeoiae?a A.A?aea?a oa iiaeyae?a I.Aaoo?ia ia eoeueoo?o acaaae? oa
i?nueeo cie?aia, aei yei? iniaeno?noue ia? aooe caeo/aia a ?acoeueoao?
oni?oii? nioe?ae?caoe??, ?ice?eoi nooi?noue cai?iiiiiaaiiai aaoi?ii
iiiyooy «aoaeoe» aaeeeiai i?noa- «aoaeo i?nueei? iie?oii??», «aoaeo
eaeaeaeineiia», «aoaeo nea?aie/ee», — iaiaeiicia/ieo ca nai?i aieeaii ia
iniaeno?noue.

Ii?yae c oeei ?acoeueoaoe ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue (e?ineoeueoo?ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?nueeeo i?aee?oe?a o aeanyoe ??cieo e?a?iao na?oo —
Aano?ae??, Aaiaeaaeao, ?c?a?e?, ?oae??, Cao?aei?e I?ia//ei?, NOA,
Oaeaai?, Oo?a//ei?, Oai?uei?, ssiii?? — ca iaoiaeeeith Ae.Iooa?a,
A.Ino?iaa, E.Oiaa?aea, ?-Aoe?iniia) aeaee ciiao aeyaeoe cai?ioi?
ei?aeyoe?? i?ae e?euee?noth ianaeaiiy o i?no? oa ??aiai ineoieia?/iiai
eiioi?oo iieiae?aeii? i?aea?oie: /ei a?eueoa i?noi, oei a??oa
ii/oaathoueny o iueiio i?aee?oee.

Aaeeea i?noi i?iiiio? «oe?ieee iaa??» iiaeeeainoae aeey aeeoo?aiai
naiiaecia/aiiy a on?o noa?ao (ina?oi?e, i?ioan?ei?e, i?aeiniaeno?ni?e,
n?iaei?e, ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e, aeica?eey, eoeueoo?ii-iiaooia?e, noeeth oa
iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee). O ?icae?e? ia??oioiao?oueny, ui o i?nueeiio
na?aaeiaeu?, ye ? a aoaeue-ye?e neeaaei?e nenoai?, aeey i?aaeeueiiai
aeeoo?aiai aeai?o iaiao?aei? ??aaiue eiiiaoaioiino? o ??ciiiai?oieo
aeeoo?aeo ieoaiiyo, ona?aeiieaiiy iniaenoi? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, iaae/ee
iiaaae?iee, ye? aa?aioothoue aeaeeaaiiy oa aeaaiiieo//y iniaenoino?.

Cae?eniaia iaie aea/aiiy oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e noa?oieeaniee?a Oe?a?ie,
yeei aoei ioiieaii 1200 i?aee?oe?a ca ?ai?acaioaoeaiith aea??eith, aeaei
ciiao anoaiiaeoe a?eueo iecueeee ??aaiue naiiioe?iee oa aioo??oiueiai
ineoieia?/iiai eiioi?oo o ae?a/ao-noa?oieeanieoeue (1992). Aa?o/e
o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiiy «AE?iee Oe?a?ie:
nioe?aeueiee ii?o?ao», i?iaaaeaiiai o 1994 p. oeaio?ii «Nioe?aeueiee
iii?oi?eia» ia caiiaeaiiy Oe?a?inueeiai oeaio?o ae?ii/eo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ie noi?ioethaaee ?yae ieoaiue uiaei ineoieia?/iiai naiiii/oooy ae?iie.
1200 ?aniiiaeaioeai c ?ai?acaioaoeaii? aea??ee aoei iinoaaeaii
caieoaiiy: «sse /anoi Ae a?ae/oaa?oa neeueia ia?aiaa iai?oaeaiiy,
ia?aae/oooy c?eao?». O/a a?aeiia?ee — «i?eiee», 15% — «aeoaea ??aeei»,
16% iino?eii ia?aaoaaee o oaeiio noai?, a 26% a?ae/oaaee noai ia?aiaiai
iai?oaeaiiy aeoaea /anoi. Na?aae oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia iineeaiiy
ineoieia?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy, aaaiieie aeyaeeenue : noai caei?ia’y,
??aaiue iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, iayai?noue a?eueiiai /ano, a oaeiae
a?e (i?ney 40 ?ie?a ??aaiue iai?oaeaiiy c?inoaa ? aeinyaaa aiiaath i?ney
60), aeeiiaiiy ?ie? aeaae n?i’?, a oaeiae ?aa?ii i?iaeeaaiiy. Aeyaeeany
cia/ouith ? naiiioe?iea: /ei aiia aeua, oei e?auei ? ineoieia?/iee noai.
Ia ieoaiiy: «*e oeiaeoaaee Ae eiee-iaaoaeue, ui ia?iaeeeeny ae?ieith, a
ia /ieia?eii?» eiaeia i’yoa a?aeiia?ea iiceoeaii.

Ia aoai? ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e noa?oieeaniee?a Oe?a?ie c aeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiy
«AE?iee Oe?a?ie:

nioe?aeueiee ii?o?ao» (1994), aeieeee aeiiiaiaiiy, ui iiyniththoue, ia
iaoo aeoieo, a?eueo iecueeee ??aaiue naiiioe?iee ae?a/ao. -sse
cacia/aeiny aeua, ae?a/aoa /ooeea?o? aei iano?i?a, ia?aaeeaaiue /eai?a
n?i’?. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ieie ? aeinoaoiuei o?ni? aca?ieie c iao??’th.
Oe?eeii i?eionoeii, ui noai ia?aiaiai iai?oaeaiiy, eio?ee a?ae/oaathoue
iaoa??, ni?eeia?oueny aeiiueeaie oa a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ?oi?e
naiiioe?ioe?. Iacaaeiaieai?noue ae?iie nai?th noaooth oaeiae
iicia/a?oueny ia cieaeaii? naiiioe?iee aei/ie, ye? /anoi aeeaeyoueny ia
naaa e??cue i?ecio iaoa?einueeiai na?oini?eeiyooy oa na?oia?ae/oooy.

Aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? i?ae ??aiai caaeiaieaiino? aeeooyi ? oeiii
iiaaae?iee o aeine?aeaeaii? ae?iie Oe?a?ie aeaei ciiao cao?enoaaoe aaea
a?aeiio ei?aeyoe?th: /ei a?eueoei ? i?noi, oei iaioa ae?iee o iueiio
caaeiaieai? nai?i aeeooyi. Iaeaeuee ??aaiue caaeiaieaiino? aeeooyi, ca
aeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiy «AE?iee Oe?a?ie…», o aeeoaeueie na?aaei?o oa
iaeeo i?no, ui ciaoiaeyoueny iica ai?oeaio?ii ao?oeeaeo iiae?e
iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, cei/eiiino?, aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ? o?ainii?oii? aoiie, iathoue na?e a?eueo n?iaeiee oa
aeiiaoi?e ono??e.

I?aee?oee aaeeeiai i?noa, iniaeeai noa?oieeanieee, ? cia/iei
?ioaeaeooaeueiei ?aca?aii, ai naia aiie iiiiaiththoue eaae?e oai?/i?
?ioae?aaioe??, iie?oee?a, i?aei?e?ioe?a, neoaeaiaoe?a. Ca oiia
noni?eueii? ianoaa?eueiino?, ao?aoe e?aaeeoo aeia??e iaea?eueo cae?ai?
oa i?aeaioiaeai? noa?oieeanieee aeei?enoiaothoue aoaeue-ye? iiaeeeaino?
aeey oiai, uia i?iaeiaaeeoe ina?oo (a iio?i ? naiino?eia aeeooy) ca
ei?aeiiii. Iaiao?aei?noue iiooe?a oeyo?a aeey noai?aiiy iiaeeeainoae
naii?aae?caoe?? iieiae? o nioe?aeueia aaaiieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
a Oe?a?i? noa? i?ia?aeiei caaaeaiiyi nioe?ae?caoe?? e aoaeoeaiei
caniaii, ui aeieo?, iiia?aaeaeo?, ciaioo? a?aeo?e i?ce?a c iaoi? e?a?ie.

Oaiaeaioe?? no/aniiai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, cie?aia nei?i/aiiy
e?eueeino? ae?oae, ca?eueoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao ia ?o oo?eiaiiy oa
aeoiaaiiy; ?icocaiaeaeaiiy i?ae o?c?ieia?/iei oa nioe?aeueiei ?icaeoeii;
ci?ia no?oeoo?e n?i’?, ?? ooieoe?e oa noeeth n?iaeieo a?aeiinei;
nai???aei?noue eiie?aoii? nioe?aeueii? neooaoe?? o ii?aeiaii? c
ineoieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie i?aee?oeiaiai a?eo (i?aaiaiiy aei
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, naiiae?aaeaiiy, ianoi?iiaai?noue, ianoae?noue
na?oiaeyaeieo no?oeoo?, iie?aaeaioi?noue iano?i?a, aiioe?ei?noue,
iaeneiae?ci, noeeuei?noue aei ciai?oiueiai aieeao, iaiioeaiaaiiai
?eceeo) — ona oea noai?th? iia? o?oaeiiu? e i?iaeaie o i?ioean?
nioe?ae?caoe??.

O noia?a/eea?e, ae?aiaoe/i?e neooaoe?? no/aniiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa,
eiee ceaiaii noa?a, a iiaa eeoa c’yaey?oueny ? ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny
aie?nii, caa??aa?oueny aeineoue aenieee ??aaiue nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino?. E» ai?oeaio?aie, ye i?aaeei, noathoue aaeee? i?noa. O
ca’yceo c oeei, ia iaoo aeoieo, aaaeeeai iaa??aaoe i?aee?oe?a a?ae
noai?a nioe?aeueii? o?ono?aoe??. A ?ioiio ?ac? iieiae? ethaee
aae?aoeiooue a naaa o? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? ?ene ia?a?iae?a, ui
ii?iaeaeothoue iaaaoeai? yaeua. Ia aeeeth/aia iaaaciaea, ui, eaaei
ao?a/ath/e i???ioe?e ? noath/e c?o/iei ia’?eoii iie?oe/iiai
iai?ioethaaiiy, naia i?aee?oee iiaeooue i?oe oeyoii caeieioo /e aoa/? o
aeaniee na?o, a oiio /ene? ca aeiiiiiaith ia?eioee?a, aeeiaieth,
i?noeee, naeno.

I?nueea na?aaeiaeua iniaeeai aieeaa? ia ae?a/ao-i?aee?oe?a, ii/eiath/e c
oaii?a noaoaaiai aeic??aaiiy. Ii?yae ?c oaiiiaiii aenaea?aoe?? a inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y c’yaeany ? oaiiiai oiia?eueiaiiai (?aoa?aeaioiiai)
o?c?ieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeieeiaiiyi o ae?a/ao
eiiieaen?a iaiiaiioe?iiino? oa i?aaiaiiy aei naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy
aoaeue-yeith oe?iith. ?acoeueoaoe i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?nueeeo i?aee?oe?a ca iaoiaeeeith Ae.Iooa?a, A.no?iaa, E.Oiaa?aea,
?.Aoe?iniia aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe ?nioaaiiy nooo?aeo
a?aei?iiinoae i?ae oeiioeyie e ae?a/aoaie o ni?eeiyoo? naiai ia?aco
o?ea, naiiioe?iee, ai?iiy eiio?iethaaoe aiioe??, iiaaae?ieo,
ni?eeoaaoeny, a oaeiae o ??ai? nioe?aeueii? na?aeiiino?, caeaoiino? aei
ni?a/oooy.

O ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy aeayeeo i?iaeaiieo iiaeaeae
ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe??. Oe? iiaeae? ia iaiaaeothoueny. Ie iiae?ey?ii
oi/eo ci?o, ui aei i?iaeaiieo a?oi iaeaaeaoue ia o?eueee
ae?a/aoa-i?aaiii?ooieoe?, thi? iia??, iaiiaiie?oi? iaie, aeoiaaiee
oe?e-?ioa?iao?a, aea?oae ianeeuenoaa, oaeiae e ae?a/aoa-a?aei?iieoe?,
ae?a/aoa-nii?oniaiee ?c cao?eieith i?ioean?a noaoaaiai aeic??aaiiy
(?aoa?aeaioiee oei ?icaeoeo).

Ia oeueiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy cia/io oaaao aoei i?eae?eaii
iaa?oiooaaiith oeyo?a i?io?eaeoeee iaaaoeaieo yaeu. Ia iaoo aeoieo, ia
ia?aaeoiaaiiy, a oia?aaeaeaiiy ? ia?niaeoeai?oei ? iaaaaaoi aoaeoeai?oei
caniaii ?ica’ycaiiy aaaaoueio ae?ii/eo i?iaeai. Aei iaeaeooaeuei?oeo ie
a?aeiineii o?e c ieo: aaeeeo e?euee?noue aai?o?a oa c?inoaiiy
/enaeueiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o iai; i?iaeaio i?inoeoooe?? e i?iaeaio ??ceiai
c?inoaiiy aaia?e/ieo caoai?thaaiue, caoai?thaaiue ia A?*/NOAe, a oaeiae
i?iaeaio ianeeuenoaa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Ci?no ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
ae?iie a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa» — aena?oeaii ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae ?iaioe
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?iie, i?iaiae?ciaaii i?aai?caoe?th
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth o aea?aeaai?e nenoai?
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? ia ia?oiio aoai? ?nioaaiiy (1994-1996).
O ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii aaoi?nueeo aenia?eiaioaeueio
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/io iiaeaeue, ?ice?eoi iioaioe?ae iao?yaeiaeo
ae?ii/eo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e o ae??oaii? i?iaeai nioe?ae?caoe??
ae?a/ao-i?aee?oe?a, C iaoith aea/aiiy ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ??ciei eaoaai??yi ae?iie o ca?oa?aeiiio aeina?ae?
i?iaiae?ciaaii aeanyoue iiaeaeae: i?eooeee (noiaeua) aeey ae?iie;
oaeaoiiio neoaeao «AE?iea-ianeeuenoai-?ioi?iaoe?y»; oeaio?e ?ioi?iaoe??
aeey ae?iie; aaaaoii?io?euei? ae?ii/? oeaio?e; oeaio?e ieaioaaiiy n?i’?
oa n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy; oeaio?e aeiiiiiae iieiaeei iaiai; ae?ii/?
i?ia?aie o ae?yeueiino? ?aa?iiaeueieo nioe?aeueieo neoaea; iiaeae?, ui
ni?yiiaai? ia ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai ae?ii/i? caeiyoino? (cie?aia
a?cian-?ieoaaoi?); nioe?aeuei? oa ina?oi? i?ia?aie a ae?ii/eo oth?iao;

nioe?aeuei? neoaeae aeey iaiiaieo n?iae.

I?iaiae?ciaai? iiaeae? ia ae/a?iothoue on?o ?nioth/eo aa??aio?a
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ae?ieai, ?o aea/aiiy ? c?noaaeaiiy aeathoue ciiao
aeyaeoe, ye? i?iaeaie ?ica’ycothoueny /e iii’yeoothoueny caaaeyee
aeei?enoaiith iiaeeeainoae ye aea?aeaaieo, oae ? iaaea?aeaaieo
nioe?aeueieo neoaea.

I?aeoe/ii a on?o iiaeaeyo aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? ina?oi?e eiiiiiaio. O
i?ioean? iaieiae?iiy iiaeie ciaiiyie iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ae?ii/o
ineoieia?th. Iaeiei c i?eeeaae?a oaeiai i?aeoiaeo ? aeeeaaeai? a
?icae?e? eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee ae?yeueiino? ae?ii/i? oth?ie ooaoo
?iae?aiaiie?n (NOA). Iciaeiiethth/enue c aaaaoianiaeoiith ae?yeuei?noth
oeueiai caeeaaeo, ie ia?aeiiaeeny, ui aeii?iaioith ? ia iiea?aiiy ? ia
ia?aaeoiaaiiy, a ei?aeoe?y iiaaae?iee oa i?aeaioiaea aei aeeooy ia
naiaiae?, i?io?eaeoeea ?aoeeaeea?a.

Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa c iieiaeaeth acaaae? e ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth cie?aia —
oea i?iaeaia iiaiai /ano, eiee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ? iie?oe/ia
neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? noaea i?eioeeiiai ?ioith, o ca’yceo c /ei
aeooae?coaaeanue iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy iiai? eiioeaioe??
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iiaeaeae ?? i?aeoe/ii?
?aae?caoe??. Iaeaea o?noue ?ie?a, ui ieioee a?ae /ano noai?aiiy nenoaie
aea?aeaaii? nioe?aeueii? neoaeae aeey iieiae?, iiaeia noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
ye aoai ?aoi?ioaaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe e?eueea
caaaeaiue, ia ?ica’ycaiiy yeeo a Oe?a?i? o ia?o? ?iee ni?yiiaoaaeanue
ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? (NNI) :

1. Iaa?oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
oaoiieia?e, i???ioiaaieo ia nioe?aeueiee oa iniaeno?niee ?icaeoie
ae?a/ao, ia aeiiiiiao i?aaenoaaieoeyi «e?eciaeo a?oi» (cie?aia iaeeiieei
iaoa?yi; ae?ieai, ui ia?aaoaathoue o aeai?aneaieo noaiao;
ae?a/aoai-aeoiaaieai oe?e-?ioa?iao?a); ia ??ciiiai?oio eiinoeueoaoeaio
aeiiiiiao ae?a/aoai oa & aaoueeai, iieiaeei ae?ieai (A?iieoeueeee,
?aiaoi??enueeee, AEeoiie?nueeee, Ee?anueeee, Iaeanueeee, Iieoaanueeee,
Oiaeueieoeueeee iaeani? oa i?nuee? oeaio?e).

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeenue o na?aaeiaeu? ae?ii/i?
iieiae?, c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe
(iieooaaiiy, i?iaaaeaia AEeoiie?nueeei iaeaniei oeaio?ii nioe?aeueieo
neoaea aeey iieiae? «Oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? ae?a/ao oa iieiaeeo ae?iie, o
oiio /ene? aeoiaaiie ?ioa?iao?a» (1995); oa??-?icaeoi «*e eaaei aooe
iieiaeith?» a i?noao Ee?a?, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo, *a?i?aoeyo, Naeao,
*a?aiiiaaa?ae?enueeo).

3. ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c
ae?a/aoaie i?aee?oeiaiai a?eo, iieiaeeie ae?ieaie oeyoii i?aeaioiaee
ia?oeo ioae?eaoe?e na??? «AE?ii/a iieiaeue», a oaeiae aena?oeaiiy o
ioae?eaoe?yo iaoiaeee nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c oe??th eaoaai???th iieiae?.

4. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a, ui caeiathoueny
i?aai?caoe??th nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth (aei i?ia?aie
eo?n?a i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea
oa?eoea oaia «AE?ii/a iieiaeue ye ia’?eo oa noa’?eo nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe»; o aa?ani? 1995 p. a?aeaoany ia?oee a Oe?a?i? I?aeia?iaeiee
nai?ia? «Ae?a/aoa-i?aee?oee: aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie nioe?ae?caoe??»).

Iiceoeaio ?ieue a?ae?a?aei iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ca’yce?a oa ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c
aea?aeaaieie oa iaaea?aeaaieie ae?ii/eie i?aai?caoe?yie,
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie ?inoeoooaie, oeaio?aie Oe?a?ie, ?in?? oa ?ioeo
e?a?i («AE?ii/a a?iiaaea», «Ni?eea ae?iie Oe?a?ie», Oe?a?inueeee oeaio?
ae?ii/eo nooae?e. AE?ii/ee eiinoeueoaoe?eii-?ioi?iaoe?eiee oeaio?
«Iaia-86», I?aeia?iaeiee ae?ii/ee oeaio? «Iaeaooi? ae?iee». Anioe?aoe?y
ae?ii/eo oe?e Aaeeeia?eoai?? oa ?i.).

Ia iniia? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? iaie
aoee aecia/ai? ci?noia? eiiiiiaioe nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth ca o?ueiia iniiaieie iai?yiaie: nioe?aeueia i?io?eaeoeea,
nioe?aeuei? iineoae oa aeiiiiiaa, nioe?aeueia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y.

Nioe?aeueia i?io?eaeoeea noiniaii ae?ii/i? iieiae? ia?aaeaa/a? noai?aiiy
iiaeaeae iaoi?iaeueii? ina?oe, ??ciiiai?oieo eeoa?a aeey ae?a/ao,
iieiaeeo ae?iie; ?aae?caoe?th ie?aieo i?ina?oieoeueeeo oa iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai, eaeoi???a ye aeey ae?ii/i? iieiae?, oae ? aeey oeo, ooi
i?aoeth? c oe??th i?aea?oiith, c ieoaiue caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy,
ieaioaaiiy n?i’?, iiia?aaeaeaiiy ianeeuenoaa, ae?ii/eo i?aa, ?icaeoeo
e?aea?nueeeo yeinoae oa ?i. Aaeeeee iioaioe?ae aeey cae?eniaiiy
i?aaaioeaiiai aeoiaaiiy, nioe?aeueii? i?io?eaeoeee iathoue iieiae?aei?,
ae?ii/? i?aai?caoe??. Naia oiio i?aeo?eiea ?o ae?yeueiino?, oo?aioa i?i
i?aeaioiaeo e?aea??a oeeo i?aai?caoe?e c /enea cae?aieo aei
a?iiaaenueei? ae?yeueiino? ae?a/ao, caeo/aiiy thiie aei nioe?aeueii?
oai?/ino?, o/ano? o ?on? ieeina?aey, aieiioa?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ?
oaeiae neeaaeiaeie nioe?aeueii? i?io?eaeoeee. C?inoa? cia/aiiy
aeei?enoaiiy aoaeoeaieo nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e i?aai?caoe?? ci?noiaiiai
aeica?eey, ui ni?eythoue ona?aeiieaiith oe?iiino? ae?iee ye iniaenoino?
e a nai???aeieie aeueoa?iaoeaaie «eiieo?n?a e?ane» (cie?aia eiieo?ni?
i?ia?aie «?icoiieoey». «Aeiiueee-iaoa??», nayoeoaaiiy «Aeiy n?i’?»,
«Aeiy Iaoa??», «Nayoa A??e, Iaae??, Ethaia?», Oaoyieiiai aeiy oa ?i.).
Aaaeeeaith eaieith i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe noa? ?ic?iaea oa cae?eniaiiy
?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai c i?aeo?eiee oa ?icaeoeo ae?ii/iai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, a oaeiae i?aeo?eiee iaaea?iaaii? ae?ii/i? iieiae?.

C iai?yio nioe?aeuei? iineoae oa aeiiiiiaa ae?ii/?e iieiae? aoei
aeae?eaii 13 eiiiiiaio?a, na?aae yeeo iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue:
eiinoeueoaoeaia aeiiiiiaa th?eno?a, ineoieia?a, nioe?aeueieo
i?aoe?aiee?a, iaaeee?a, iaaeaaia?a thieai oa ?o aaoueeai, aeoiaaoaeyi;
a?aee?eooy ae?ii/eo e?i?e «oaeaoii?a aeia??e»; noai?aiiy aiii?iieo
eiinoeueoaoeaieo eaa?iao?a, neoaea, ioieo?a c i?iaeai ieaioaaiiy n?i’?,
i?io?eaeoeee ia?eiiai??, NOAeo; a?aee?eooy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oeaio??a aeey
ae?ii/i? iieiae?; ?ic?iaea oa i?iaaaeaiiy o?ai?iaiaeo i?ia?ai c ?icaeoeo
eiioi?eaoeaieo iaae/ie, iicaaaeaiiy eiiieaen?a iaiiaiioe?iiino?,
iiaeieaiiy caieaeaii? naiiioe?iee; noai?aiiy a?oi c iaaeyaeo ca ae?oueie
o aa/??i? aiaeeie oa aeo?aei? aei?; aeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo,
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo, iiioey?ieo aeaeaiue, noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
?oa?ee o aacaoao oa aeo?iaeao, oaea- oa ?aae?ii?ia?ai, ui aena?oeththoue
i?iaeaie ae?ii/i? iieiae? c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aeoiae?a.

Iai?yi nioe?aeueia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y ae?ii/i? iieiae? ia?aaeaa/a? ?ic?iaeo
oa ?aae?caoe?th ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa a?oiiaeo o?ai?iaiaeo i?ia?ai,
eiinoeueoaoeaieo iaoiaeee aeey ae?iie, ye? ia?aaeeaathoue /e ia?aaeeee
no?aniao neooaoe?th; noai?aiiy e?eciaeo oeaio??a, i?eooee?a aeey aea?oa
ianeeuenoaa oa in?a, ui ia?aaoaathoue i?ae caa?icith ianeeuenoaa /e
naenoaeueii? aenieoaoaoe??, ia?eioe/ii? aai aeeiaieueii? caeaaeiino?;
?aae?caoe?th i?ia?ai i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy, eiii’thoa?ii? a?aiioiino?
aeey aac?ia?oieo ae?iie; ?ic?iaeo oa cae?eniaiiy i?ia?ai i?aeo?eiee
iaiiaiie?oi?o iaoa??a, ia?aaeon?i oeo, ye? aeoiaothoue ae?oae aac
aaoueea.

Nioe?aeuei? i?io?eaeoeea, iineoae ? aeiiiiiaa, a oaeiae ?aaa?e?oaoe?y
ae?ii/i? iieiae? iia’ycai? i?ae niaith. Aeineoue /anoi ?o aaaeei
?iciaaeoaaoe. Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae ? o?eueee ia?oi? ni?iaith
aecia/eoe caaaeueiee ci?no nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth,
aacith aeey iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy oa ei?aaoaaiiy.

Cae?eniaia aea/aiiy aeaei i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo uiaei i??i?eoaoiino?
ina?oiueiai eiiiiiaioo a nioe?aeuei?e ?iaio? c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth.
Aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ? i?aeoeeith ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee a oe?e aaeoc?, ca?oa?aeiei oa a?o/eciyiei aeina?aeii
ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea, ina?oi?o caeeaae?a, iao?yaeiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e. O ?icae?e? iaaieioo?oueny ia aaaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
iiaeeeainoae ae?ii/eo iieiae?aeieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o
ae??oaii? i?iaeai ae?ii/i? iieiae? ia i?eioeeiao naiiaeiiiiiae.

O ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii aaoi?nueeo eiioeaioe?th iaoi?iaeueii? aeiaeaoeiai?
ae?ii/i? ina?oe oa noa?aeoa?eciaaii i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? caoiaee,
ui caaacia/othoue aoaeoeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo iiaeaeae. O
1990 p. o Ee?a? ca ?i?oe?aoeaith oa i?e aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? aaoi?a
aoei noai?aii Aa/??ith ae?ii/o a?iiac?th (AAEA) — ia?oo a Oe?a?i?
aenia?eiaioaeueio iiaeaeue aeiaeaoeiai? ina?oe aeey ae?a/ao, ni?yiiaaio
ia nioe?aeueio oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io aeiiiiiao ae?ii/?e iieiae?.
Iacaa «Aa/??iy ae?ii/a a?iiac?y» na?ae/eea i?i a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
aea?aeaa? ia iiaiio aoai? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo o?aaeeoe?e ieioeiai, ye?
iaaia /anoeia ianaeaiiy, ia?aaeon?i ?ioae?aaioe?y, ni?eeiaea iiceoeaii.
Iaeei c ?acoeueoao?a nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy «AE?iee Oe?a?ie:

nioe?aeueiee ii?o?ao» iieyaaa o oiio, ui 60% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
iieooaaieo iiceoeaii iinoaaeeenue aei iiaeeeaino? a?aeoai?aiiy iiaeaeae
ae?ii/i? ina?oe.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? nai?? ae?yeueiino? i?ia?aeiei caaaeaiiyi Aa/??iuei?
ae?ii/i? a?iiac?? noaea eiiiainaoe?y i?iaaeei ?nioth/i? nenoaie ina?oe,
yea ia ?ica’yco? i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? c o?aooaaiiyi
ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo oa nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo iniaeeainoae noao?. O
cai?iiiiiaai?e iiaeae? aaa/aany oeyo, ni?yiiaaiee ia /anoeiaa ciyooy
aecia/aieo i?iaeai. C o?aooaaiiyi iaa?oioiaaieo iaie eiioeaiooaeueieo
canaae Aa/??ith ae?ii/o a?iiac?th aoea ci???ioiaaia ia : noai?aiiy oiia
aeey oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? c o?aooaaiiyi ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo oa
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo a?aei?iiinoae noao?;

?icaeoie o ae?a/ao aioiaiino? a?aoe o/anoue o aeaaiae?ei?e ae?yeueiino?;
cae?eniaiiy i???ioaoe?? ia aea?? i?ioan?? nioe?aeueiiai i?aoe?aieea;
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo iiaeeeainoae aeey ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c i?aeia?iaeieie
oa iaoe?iiaeueieie ae?ii/eie i?aai?caoe?yie, anioe?aoe?yie,
aeaaiae?eieie oiiaeaie; noai?aiiy o ia?niaeoea? eoeueoo?iiai oa
iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oeaio?o, ae?yeuei?noue yeiai ni?yiiaoaaeanue ae
ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?ii/eo i?iaeai oa caaacia/aiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe c ae?a/aoaie oa iieiaeeie ae?ieaie;
?ic?iaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e aeey
?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth.

Aaaiiei ?acoeueoaoii ae?yeueiino? AAEA noaei oa, ui aeecueei 70% ??
aeioneieoeue i?iaeiaaeeee iiaeaeueoa iaa/aiiy. *anoeia a?iiacenoie,
aecia/ath/e na?e i?ioan?eiee oeyo, a?aeaeaee ia?aaaao niaoe?aeueiinoyi
iaaeaaiaa oa nioe?aeueiiai iaaeaaiaa.

Ua iaeei ?acoeueoao ae?yeueiino? Aa/??iuei? ae?ii/i? a?iiac?? iieyaaa o
i?aeaioiaoe? e?aea??a iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?ii/i? iieiae?aeii? i?aai?caoe??
— Anioe?aoe?? Aaeae?a Oe?a?ie, yea ca oaiiaie ?icaeoeo aeia?aaeeea
aaaaoi «aei?ineeo» ae?ii/eo i?aai?caoe?e oa cayaeea i?i naaa e ia
i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — «Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo ae?ii/i? ina?oe o a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e i?aeoeoe?» —
aecia/aii ?noi?e/i? aoaie, iniaeeaino?, a oaeiae oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
ae?ii/i? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, ?in??; aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co
ieioeiai ? no/aniiai ae?ii/i? ina?oe o Aaeeeia?eoai?? oa NOA;
i?iaiae?ciaaii ia?oee aeina?ae a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiaeaeae ae?ii/i? ina?oe a
NIAe.

C ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a o ?yae? aaeeeeo i?no e?a?i NIAe (Iineaa,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, I?inuee, Ee?a, ss?ineaaeue, Aaeo, Eacaiue oa ?i.) aoee
?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? oi?iaeueii? oa iaoi?iaeueii? ina?oe aeey ae?a/ao. O
Eaoa?? oa Eeoa? a na?aaeei? 90-o ?ie?a ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?
ii?oooaaeiny ieoaiiy i?i ia?ao?ae aei ?icae?eueiiai iaa/aiiy.
Cai?iiiiiaai? iiaeae? ni?eeiaeeny ye ?iiiaaoe?y, ? iaeii/anii ye aianie
o a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ao?a/aieo eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e. Oaeei /eiii,
aeooae?coaaeiny caaaeaiiy inieneaiiy ?noi?e/iiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeina?aeo c iaoith aecia/aiiy a iueiio iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
eiiiiiaio?a, ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey i?aeoeee, yea ia ciiaea
oni?oii ?icaeaaoeny, iiaoi?thth/e o?eueee ieioea.

A?o/eciyia ?noi??y ae?ii/i? ina?oe nyaa? nai?i ei??iiyi o aeaeaea ieioea
? ia? aaaao? o?aaeeoe??. A?ae naiiai ii/aoeo i?aai?caoe?y ae?yeueiino?
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aeey ae?a/ao aeineoue /anoi ?i?oe?thaaeeny naieie
ae?ieaie (iai?eeeaae, eiyaeiy Aaiia Anaaieiae?aia, Eaoa?eia II, ae?ii/?
a?oie, ye? aenooiaee ca noai?aiiy a?iiac?e oa aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a aeey ae?a/ao o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no.). Nenoaia ae?ii/i?
ina?oe aeineoue /?oei a?aeia?aaeaea ?nioth/ee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee oa
iie?oe/iee ono??e.

Iniaeeaee aoai o ?icaeoeo ae?ii/i? ina?oe iia’ycaiee c a?aee?eooyi o
1764 p. Niieueiiai ?inoeoooo, iaaeaaia?/io eiioeaioe?th yeiai ia oie /an
aoei aeciaii iaei??th c e?aueo. Aiia ia?aaeaa/aea aeaiaioe aeaiie?ao??:
aeinooii?noue ina?oe, o oiio /ene? e aeey i?aaenoaaieoeue i?uainoaa.
Iiai?noth cae?enieoe caaeoiaia ia aaeaeiny, aea, aacia?a/ii, a?aee?eooy
oa ae?yeuei?noue Niieueiiai noaee aaaeeeaei aianeii o ?icaeoie ina?oe,
eoeueoo?e, noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Niieueiee ?inoeooo aoa iiaeaeeth, yea
oe?aaeoaaeany (uii?aaaea, ?ieiee c? cieaeaiiyi ??aiy) a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao
?in??, aeeth/ath/e Oe?a?io, a oaeiae ni?eyea oi?ioaaiith a?oie ae?ii/i?
?ioae?aaioe??. Ina?/ai? ae?iee aieeaaee ye ia n?i’th, aeoiaaiiy ae?oae,
oae ? ia nioe?aeueia aeeooy.

Iiaee aoai o ?icaeoeo ae?ii/i? ina?oe ii/aany o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no.
C? ci?iith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? aeieeea iio?aaa noai?aiiy
oiia aeey iaa/aiiy ia eeoa aea?aieo, e oe?ieiai caaaeo ae?a/ao.
I?aeaeuaiiy ina?oiueiai oeaico ae?iee iia’yco?oueny o noni?euei?e
na?aeiiino? c i?aeaeuaiiyi ?? iiaeeeainoae aeey oni?oiiai aeeiiaiiy
nioe?aeueieo ?ieae ae?oaeeie, iaoa??, iiae?oae, eiiiaiueeiia. Noai?aiiy
ia?oeo ae?ii/eo a?iiac?e ca?aa?oueny c ai?ioueaith ca neanoaaiiy
e??iiniiai i?aaa.

Aeinyaiaiiyi ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. noaei oa, ui ae?iee caaithaaee
i?aai ia caeiaoooy aeui? ina?oe ia eeoa ca ei?aeiiii, aea e a nai?e
e?a?i?. Naia aaeee? i?noa a?ae?a?aee ?ieue ina?oi?o oeaio??a, ye?
iaeiie/oaaee «ae?ii/ee iioaioe?ae».

?icaeoie nenoaie ae?ii/i? ina?oe o OE no. a Oe?a?i? iaa nai?
iniaeeaino?, i?e /iio a eiaei?e c aeaio ?? /anoei, iaeia c yeeo aoiaeeea
aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???, a ae?oaa iaeaaeaea Aano???. Ina?oa
iaaoaaea ooo aca?iica’yceo c ai?ioueaith ca iaoe?iiaeueia
naiiaecia/aiiy, ca caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. A oe?eiio
i?ioean noai?aiiy iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aeey ae?iie a?aeaoaaany ?c
cai?ciaiiyi, a?aenoath/? a?ae aeiia noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Iacaaaeath/e
ia iaai? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe, Aano??y e ?in?y o oiai/ani?e ?a?ii? aoee
«e?aea?aie» uiaei iieaciee?a ae?ii/i? iaienueiaiiino?, aeeoy/i?
nia?oiino?, iecueei? o?eaaeino? aeeooy.

O Aaeeeia?eoai?? aaea iai?ee?ioe? XVin no. ooieoe?iioaaei 6 oei?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aeey ae?a/ao c ??cieo nioe?aeueieo i?ioa?e?a
ianaeaiiy: ae?ii/? i?eooeee aeey ne??o, oeiee ieeina?aey aeey aeiiueie
i?aaenoaaiee?a na?aaeiueiai eeano; iiianoe?nuee? oa oea?eiai? oeiee
ia?aaaaeii aeey aeiiueie aeooiaainoaa; ioae?/i? oeiee, ui iaaeaaaee
ina?oi?e noaiaea?o aeey i?aeaioiaee aei cai?aeaey, iaoa?einoaa; i?eaaoi?
oeiee aeey i?aaenoaaieoeue caiiaeieo n?iae; aeu? oeiee aeey ae?iie, ye?
i?aaioee aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?in?? oa ?yaeo ?ioeo ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i o no/ani?e
Aiae?? caa?aaeany nenoaia iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aeey ae?a/ao. Ieoiia
aaaa ae?ii/eo oe?e a oe?e e?a?i? neeaaea? nueiaiaei? 11% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino?; 250 c ieo ia’?aeio? iaoe?iiaeueia Anioe?aoe?y ae?ii/eo oe?e.
I?e oeueiio naia ae?ii/? oeiee iathoue iaeaeuee ?aeoeia o ii??aiyii? c
/ieia?/eie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie oa oeieaie c? ni?eueiei iaa/aiiyi.
AE?ii/? oeiee ia o?eueee aa?aioothoue iaea?aeaiiy ina?oiueiai
noaiaea?oo, a e aioothoue aei aoaeoeaiiai aei?ineiai aeeooy. Naia c
oe??th iaoith a i?ia?aiao i?eae?ey?oueny cia/ia oaaaa i?ioan?ei?e
i?aeaioiaoe?, nioe?aeuei?e ina?o?, oi?ioaaiith oa?aeoa?o, iaae/ie aeeooy
o noni?euenoa?. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith iiai? iaaeaaia?ee noa? oaaaa oa
iiaaaa aei iniaenoino?, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? c o?aooaaiiyi
ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo oa nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo iniaeeainoae noao?.

Aeina?ae Aiae?? na?ae/eoue, ui i?eioeei ?icae?eueiiai iaa/aiiy, a?ae
yeiai ?aaeyinueea aea?aeaaia nenoaia ina?oe a?aeiiaeeany ia ii/aoeo 50-o
?ie?a XX no., ia? ? iaa/aeueiee, ? aeoiaiee iioaioe?ae. Naia oiio ? nain
a iiaeaeueoiio aea/aii? oeueiai aeina?aeo oa aeei?enoaii? eiai ia
i?aeoeoe?.

Cae?eniaiee ia aeaiiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aiae?c aeaa ciiao aeyaeoe
/eiieee noaeino? e i?anoeaeiino? caeeaae?a ae?ii/i? ina?oe a Aiae?? oa
NOA. AE?ii/? eieaaeae? nueiaiaei? a?aeiia?aeathoue iio?aaai iaaii? a?oie
ianaeaiiy, ui iaiaaa?oueny aeaoe ia o?eueee aenieee aeaaeai?/iee ??aaiue
ina?oe nai?i aeiiueeai, aea e aeyaey? oo?aioo i?i ?icaeoie ?oi?o
cae?aiinoae, oi?ioaaiiy oa?aeoa?o, ineoieia?/ii eiioi?oi? oiiae aeey
caaacia/aiiy oni?oiiai oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?.

Oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui aaniethoii ?aeaaeueieo ina?oi?o iiaeaeae ia
noai?aii. Ii?yae c ia?aaaaaie ae?ii/a ina?oa ia? e iaaeie?ee oa
i?iaeaie, ye? iio?aaothoue naiai ?ica’ycaiiy.

O ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii i?ia?aei? ?aea? eiioeaioe?? iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo
iiaiai oeio -Ee?anueeiai ae?ii/iai e?oeath, ?ic?iaeaii? iaie ?acii ?c
N.I.Aeaen??iei. O iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae? iiaiai oeio noai?thaaeeny
aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?ice?eooy oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ae?a/ao, a
oaeiae aeey ?o i?aeaioiaee aei iaeaooiueiai aeeooy, a yeiio, ye i?aaeei,
ii?aeioaaoeiooueny i?ioan?ei? oa niaoeeo?/i? nioe?aeuei? ae?ii/? ?ie?.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeeeaaeaieo aeua eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue iaie
iaa?oioiaaii iaoo e?oeath — ?icaeoie oa oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueia c??ei?
oai?/i? ae?ii/i? iniaenoino? a ?? aeanieo ?ioa?anao oa ?ioa?anao
aea?aeaae., a oaeiae aecia/ai? eiai iniiai? caaaeaiiy.

O iaa/aeuei?e i?ia?ai? oeueiai caeeaaeo aoei ia?aaeaa/aii 3 aeiee
aeenoeeie?i, cie?aia aeey: a) caaacia/aiiy noaiaea?oo na?aaeiuei?
ina?oe; a) i?ioan?eii? i???ioaoe?? oa ni?eyiiy aeii?ioan?ei?e
i?aeaioiaoe?; a) ?icaeoeo iaoee?a oa cae?aiinoae, caaaeueii? eoeueoo?e
oa a?oaeeoe??.

?aae?coth/e eiioeaioe?th ae?ii/i? ina?oe, iaaeaaia?/iee eieaeoea
c?oeioany c ieceith i?iaeai. Ae?a/aoa oa ?o aaoueee aiyeeny neiaa
«?ioa?iao», yea anioe?thaaeiny c oyaeaiiyie iaaeaaiiieo//y, i?iaeaiii?
n?i’?, aaaeei? aeeoeie, caeoeiaino?. Oeae noa?aioei caaaaeaa oi?ioaaiith
iiceoeaiiai ?i?aeaeo ae?ii/iai e?oeath.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a?eueo?noue ae?a/ao, ye? neeaaeaee anooii? ?nieoe
aei e?oeath -eeyiee, niinoa??aaany iaaeinoaoiuei aenieee eoeueoo?iee
??aaiue n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy, Ui aeyaeyany a iaaioiaiino? aei
naiiianeoaiaoaaiiy, aeeiiaiiy a?a??i?/ieo ii?i, iaciaii? eoeueoo?ieo
iaaeaaiue ??aeiiai i?noa. Nooo?ao i?iaeaio noaiiaeea aaeaioaoe?y aei
iiaiai caeeaaeo c i?aeaeuaiei ??aiai ina?oi?o aeiia, a oaeiae aei ai?iiy
aeeoe o eieaeoea?, caa??aath/e naith ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ? aiaeii/an
?aooth/enue c iio?aaaie ?ioeo.

Aeao?oeeo iaa/aeueii? oa ?ioi? niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e, iaaeinoaoi?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy, niia?eueithaaei i?inoaaiiy
aia?aae, iio?aaoaaei aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee eiaeiiai e?ieo c
iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiieeie.

Na?aae ia?aaaa ii?aeiaiiy «ae?ii/i? ina?oe» c iain?iiiith (?ioa?iaoiith)
oi?iith iaa/aiiy, cie?aia: cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy /ano aeey ina?oe oa
?icaeoeo iniaenoino?; iaaoooy iaae/ie aeeooy o eieaeoea?; oi?ioaaiiy
aaeaeaaoii? naiiioe?iee, ii/oooy ineoieia?/iiai eiioi?oo. Aeioneieoe?
e?oeath ci???ioiaai? ia i?iaeiaaeaiiy ina?oe ? i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue
ia iniia? ii?aeiaiiy nioe?aeueieo ?ieae. Oa?aeoa?ieie aeey ieo ?
a??i?noue oe?euei?e ae?oaea?, aioiai?noue aeiiiiaaaoe iaeia iaei?e.

Iaa/aiiy ae?a/ao aeyaeei i?iaeaio a?aooaaiiy o ci?no? i?ia?ai oa
iaoiaeeeao aeeeaaeaiiy, iniaeeainoae noao?. ? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui ia
o?eueee o ca?oa?aei?e, aea e o a?o/eciyi?e iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aeoeoe? i?e
?ic?iaoe? oe?eiai ?yaeo i?ia?ai, ?o ?aae?caoe?? ia?aaeon?i aa?ooueny aei
oaaae ?ioa?ane, iio?aae, cae?aiino? o/i?a-thiae?a.

Aeey iaaii? eaoaai??? noa?oieeanieoeue ae?ii/a ina?oa aenooia? ia
o?eueee oi?iith caeiaoooy caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe, a e ae??aith
oi?iith nioe?aeueii? oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeo?eiee. Iiiinoaoaaa
na?aaeiaeua ni?ey? iiaeieaiith aeayeeo eiiieaen?a iaiiaiioe?iiino?,
oi?io? a??o o aeani? neee oa ii/oooy a?aeiino?. Oe? ?ene, noi?iiaai? ia
aoai? i?aee?oeiaiai a?eo, aeyaeythoueny noaeeie iniaeno?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

AENIIAEE

1. Cae?eniaiee aiae?c noeoiiino? nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo,
ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo, nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ae?a/ao oa iieiaeeo
ae?iie, ui noaiiaeyoue a Oe?a?i?, ye ? a oe?eiio o na?o?, a?eueoo
/anoeio na?aae nai?? a?eiai? a?oie, aea? i?aenoaae aeey aeie?aieaiiy
ae?ii/i? iieiae? a iniaeeao iieiae?aeio i?aea?oio oa aecia/aiiy ??
iniaeeainoae. O ii??aiyii? c ?iaanieeaie /ieia?/i? noao? aeey ae?ii/i?
iieiae?, yea ia’?aeio? ae?a/ao-i?aee?oe?a oa iieiaeeo ae?iie,
oa?aeoa?ieie ?: a?eueo ?aii?e (ia 1,5-2 ?iee) a?e anooio o ioaa?oaoiee
ia??iae; aeuee nooi?iue caeaaeiino? a?ae noni?euenoaa, n?i’?,
ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e, coiiaeaiee oeei aeuee
??aaiue «neooiyiino?». Aiaeii/an aeey ae?a/ao oa?aeoa?iith ? a?eueoa
a?aceea?noue aei iaaaoeaieo i?iya?a nioe?oio.

Noaiiaeua ae?ii/i? iieiae? a iao?e aea?aeaa? oa ca ?? iaaeaie aeineoue
neeaaeia. A?o/eciyia ? ca?oa?aeia noaoenoeea na?ae/eoue, ui i?eaeecii
6-7 c 10 ee??io?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea — ae?iee. Ioaea, ae?ii/a iieiaeue
? ia’?eoii nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe. C ?ioiai aieo, naia c /enea
ae?ii/i? iieiae? oi?io?oueny aaca i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe oa nioe?aeueieo
neoaea. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue nooaeaio?a aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a
ina?oe, a?aeae?eaiue oa oe?e nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe ? a Oe?a?i?, ? a ?ioeo
e?a?iao NIAe, ? ia Caoiae? — oea ae?iee. Naia aiie aenooiathoue
?i?oe?aoi?aie noai?aiiy a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oa ia’?aeiaiue, ye?
aa?ooue ia naaa ?ica’ycaiiy aeineoue neeaaeieo nioe?aeueieo,
eoeueoo?ieo, aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai. Oaeei /eiii, ae?ii/a iieiaeue ia
o?eueee ia’?eo, aea e noa’?eo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe.

2. Ia i?aenoaa? c?noaaeaiiy iieiaeaiue oai??? noaoaaiai aeeii?o?cio
(A.Aaiaeaeyi), oai??e aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? naenoaeueieo ?ieae
(ooieoe?iiae?ci, oai??y eiioe?eoo, iaiia?enenonuee? oai???,
ineoiaiae?oe/ia oa iaiineoiaiae?oe/ia oai???, eoeueoo?ieia?/ia
oai??y, ii??aiyeueia ineoieia?y, oai?i?noe/i? oai???), aeaieo
iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue inoaii?o ?ie?a, a oaeiae aiae?co ?yaeo
i?aeia?iaeieo aeieoiaio?a c i?iaeai ae?iie iaa?oioiaaii iieiaeaiiy i?i
oa, ui ae?ii/a nioe?ae?caoe?y ia? naith niaoeeo?eo, nai? aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie, aeeiai?eo, ui coiiaeaii ?noi?e/ieie oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie ci?iaie o noni?euenoa?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? iio?aao?
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai aiae?co. E iaoith ? oi?ioaaiiy ae?ii/i?
iniaenoino?, yeo oa?aeoa?eco? ineoio?c?ieia?/ia oa nioe?aeueia
c??e?noue, ai?iiy naiino?eii cae?enithaaoe aeeoo?a? aeai?e ? ianoe
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ieo, noi?iiaaia ea?oeia na?oo oa aecia/aiiy
naiai i?noey a iueiio.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ci?iththoueny caaaeaiiy
nioe?ae?caoe??: aeey oni?oiiai aeeooy a iaeaooiueiio c eiai oaeaeeeie
ci?iaie a oaoi?oe?, ?aeaieia??, ii?iao ? noaiaea?oao iiaaae?iee aaaeeeai
ia o?eueee iaieiae?oe iaaieie ciaiiyie, nioe?aeueieie ?ieyie, iaaooe
iaiao?aei? iaae/ee, aea e iaoe a?aee?eo? iiaeeeaino? aeey i?aeaioiaee
aei aeeooy a aeeiai?/iiio noni?euenoa? iaeaooiueiai.

Iiaa noni?euenoai iiaeiii aooe noni?euenoaii, a yeiio i?eioeei ??aieo
iiaeeeainoae aeey /ieia?e?a oa ae?iie ia o?eueee aeaeea?o?oueny, aea e
aeinyaa?oueny a ?aaeueiino?. Ca oaeeo oiia aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi
nioe?ae?caoe?? ia? noaoe aaiaea?ia aeoiaaiiy. Aiii ia?aaeaa/a? niin?a
ia?aaea/? ciaiue, ii?i, noaiaea?o?a iiaaae?iee, ci???ioiaaieo ia
ni?eeiyooy ae?iee ye iiaiii?aaiiai /eaia noni?euenoaa, aeciaiiy
oe?iiino? ?? iniaenoino? ? oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo, iiaoaeiao ia oe?e aac?
a?aeiinei i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie iaio noaoae.

3. Iniaeeaino? i?ioeano ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? coiiaeai?
ia?aaeon?i ineoio?c?ieia?/ieie a?aei?iiinoyie, a oaeiae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie /eiieeaie, eoeueoo?ieie ii?iaie, noaiaea?oaie,
oyaeaiiyie uiaei ae?ii/a i?ecia/aiiy, eio?? iaiothoue a noni?euenoa?.
Cae?eniaia ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?yaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
(Eae?oi?i?enueeee eiia?othae, e?ineoeueoo?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aee?oe?a
ca iaoiaeeeith Ae.0ooa?a oa ?i., aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Cacci, a oaeiae
aea/aiiy oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e noa?oieeaniee?a a Oe?a?i?) aeicaieeei
aeyaeoe ae?ii/? iniaeeaino?, ui coiiaeththoue ? oa?aeoa? nioe?ae?caoe??.
Ae?a/aoai i?eoaiaiia oaea ?ena, ye aeno?aaa?oi?noue. Aeey ieo a?eueoa
cia/aiiy iathoue i?aeiniaeno?ni? a?aeiineie. I?ioean ?icaeoeo ae?ii/i?
iniaenoino? a ii??aiyii? c /ieia?/ith ia? a?eueoa aa??aio?a.
Caeaaei?noth a?ae nioe?aeueieo, eoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a coiiaeth?oueny
caeaoi?noue ae?a/ao aei aaeaioaoe??, eiioi?i?cio. Aiie iathoue
iniaeeaino? o oa?aeoa?? ? i?ioean? ?icaeoeo naenoaeueiino?, aiioe?ei?oa
ni?eeiathoue iaaeieeoi?e na?o, ?i i?eoaiaiii a?eueo ?icaeiai? ii/oooy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?ioo?oe?y, caeaoi?noue aei ni?a/oooy, ? aiaeii/an
ieae/ee, a ii??aiyii? c thiaeaie, ??aaiue naiiioe?iee, iia?euei?o? oaiie
iaaoooy aaoiiii??. Na?aae ae?iie a?eueoa iioe?aiiy iathoue ??ciiiai?oi?
eiiieaene iaiiaiioe?iiino?, ii/eiath/e a?ae iacaaeiaieaiiy nai?th
ciai?oi?noth, o?eii, aei iacaaeiaieaiino? noaooth.

O no/aniee oiiaao ?yae i?iaeai ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? ? oeiiaeie ia
o?eueee ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio, a e ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai?. Aei ieo,
cie?aia, a?aeiinyoueny oae?, ye: caa?aaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai caei?ia’y;
caa?ica aaia?e/ieo caoai?thaaiue, A?*/NOAeo;

aai?o?a oa ia?iaeaeaiue o iaiiaiie?oi?o; ianeeuenoaa; naenoaeueii?
aenieoaoaoe?? oa i?inoeoooe??; c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? n?iae, a yeeo iaoe
aeoiao? ae?oae aac aaoueea;

aeai?aneaieo noai?a ? nioe?aeueieo aeaa?aoe?e, oai?i?caoe?y a?aeiino?;
iecueeee iie?oe/iee, i?ioan?eiee oa nioe?aeueiee noaoon ae?iee.

4. Iaei??th c oaiaeaioe?e na?oiaiai ?icaeoeo ? c?inoaiiy i?nueeiai
ianaeaiiy oa e?eueeino? aaeeeeo i?no. Aaeee? i?noa c ?o neeaaeiith
i?aai?caoe??th oa no?oeoo?ith ? ai?oeaio?aie iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
nioe?aeueieo, eoeueoo?ieo iiae?e. A ieo ia?iaeaeothoueny,
iiaeaeththoueny, ai?iaothoueny ??ci? eiioeaioe?? e iiaeae? iaeaooiueiai.
sse i?aaeei, naia ca?aene aiie ?ao?aineththoueny a iinaeaiiy ?ioeo
oei?a. Cae?eniaia o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?iaa neioacoaaoe oaeoe e
?aea? uiaei oaiiiaio aaeeeiai i?noa aeaee ciiao cai?iiiioaaoe o?e
oa?aeoa?i? «aoaeoe aaeeeiai i?noa», a naia: «aoaeo iie?oii??», «aoaeo
eaeaeaeineiio», «aoaeo nea?aie/ee».

5. Niin?a aeeooy aaeeeiai i?noa noia?a/eeai aieeaa? ia nioe?ae?caoe?th
ae?ii/i? iniaenoino?. C iaeiiai aieo, aaeeea i?noi nei?i/o? ia??iae
ii/aoeo ioaa?oaoo, iaaea? a?eueo? iiaeeeaino?, naiaiaeo a iaea?aeaii?
?ioi?iaoe??, caaeiaieaii? ??cieo ?ioa?an?a, o aeai?? oi?i caeiaoooy
ina?oe, aeica?eey, ni?eeoaaiiy, ae?oc?a, eoeueoo?ieo oa ii?aeueieo
oe?iiinoae, noeeth, niinia?a aeeooy oa ?i. C ?ioiai aieo, nioe?aeueia
ia??aeei ?icaeaa?oueny ca ?aooiie o?aaeaiiy a?ieia?/iiai, ui coiiaeth?
ao?aoe o o?ce/iiio oa ineo?/iiio caei?ia’?. Neeaaei?noue i?nueeiai
aeeooy, c?inoath/? iai?oaeaiiy oa iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ecaiaeyoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? i?aee?oe?a ?c cao?eieith o?c?ieia?/iiai
aeic??aaiiy. Na?aae ieo /eiaei ae?a/ao-a?aei?iieoeue oa
ae?a/ao-nii?oniaiie. Aaeeea i?noi oo?oaeith? i?iaeaio aeeoo?aiai aeai?o,
aeiaaa? a?ae iniaenoino? iaaieo ciaiue oa iaae/ie, a?aenooi?noue /e
iaaeinoaoi?noue yeeo iaa?oa?oueny aeeoo?aeie ae?aiaie ? iaa?oue
o?aaaae?yie. I?iaeaie i?nueei? naiioiino?, aaciniaeno?niino?
ni?eeoaaiiy, aaeaeoaeino? aaeeeiai i?noa, a?aeaeaeaiino?, a ia??aeei e
a?aenooiino? «aaouee?anueeiai aeiio», ?iceo/aiue, niieone i?nueeith
naiaiaeith aeeeeeathoue iiyao oa iineeaiiy i?iya?a ?ioaioee?cio,
nioe?aeueii? o?ono?aoe??, aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee oa ineoiiaoieiae. sse
iieacaei e?ineoeueoo?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aee?oe?a (Ae.0ooa? oa ?i.),
aaee/eia i?noa aaea naia ii nia? i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy
ineoieia?/iiai naiiii/oooy eiai iieiae?. Neeaaei?noue aaeeeiai i?noa
coiiaeth? iiiaeeii?noue iiaeaeae ? oei?a ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe??, ye? ua
/aeathoue naiai aea/aiiy.

6. Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue c aeaiia?ao??, iie?oieia??,
o?einio??, o?aai?noeee, nioe?ieia??, nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??,
aoiia?ao??, oooo?ieia??, iaaeeoeeie, naenieia??, iaaeaaia?ee,
ineoieia??, eoeueoo?ieia?? oa nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe aeaei ciiao aeyaeoe
/eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia oa?aeoa? i?ioeano ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe??,
cie?aia:

noai caei?ia’y, oaiie o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo, oei iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo,
no?oeoo?a oa nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eiee noaoon aaouee?anueei? n?i’?,
oa?aeoa? n?iaeieo a?aeiinei, iaeaeeae/iai ioi/aiiy, caoiieaiue,
i?e?i?aeii i?iaeeaaiiy, iaoe?iiaeuei?, eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??,
?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?, nenoaia oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e.

O aaeeeiio i?no?, caeaa?eueoiai a caaaeueiiina?oi?o caeeaaeao iiaiai
oeio (e?oeayo, a?iiac?yo oa ?i.), oi?io?oueny oei ae?a/eie, ui
i???ioo?oueny ia ii?aeiaiiy i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, a?iiaaeyinueei?
aeoeaiino? c aeeiiaiiyi nooi ae?ii/eo nioe?aeueieo ?ieae, ia aeinyaiaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? oa aeooiaii? iacaeaaeiino?, oiaoi ia oi?ioaaiiy aeanii?
iniaenoino?. Naia oeae oei ae?a/ao ? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei aeey
iiiiaiaiiy eaae??a ?ioae?aaioe??, i?aei?e?ioe?a.

?acoeueoaoe cao?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui iiaith
oaiaeaioe??th ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe??, ii/eiath/e c ae?oai? iieiaeie XX
no., noa? ci?ia naenoaeueii? iiaaae?iee, a oiio /ene? o a?e cieaeaiiy
a?eo iaaoooy ia?oiai aeina?aeo noaoaaeo a?aeiinei. Oea noinoaaeinue
ia?aaeon?i aeeoaeueie aaeeeeo i?no, ye? aenooieee «?oo?eiith neeith»
naenoaeueii? ?aaiethoe?? ia Caoiae? a 60-o ?ieao ? a inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y — a e?a?iao NIAe. Aeey no/anii? Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?iei ?
cieaeaiiy i?eaeecii ia 2,5 ?iee o ii??aiyii? c 80-ie ?ieaie a?eo ii/aoeo
naenoaeueiiai aeeooy o aaeeeeo ?iaeono??aeueieo i?noao. A?eueoa iieiaeie
ae?a/ao oa 80% thiae?a iaaoaathoue ia?oee naenoaeueiee aeina?ae aei 17,5
?ie?a (A.Ai?iee, O.Aiai?oi). Naenoaeueia ?aaiethoe?y a Oe?a?i? ia
a?aei?io a?ae cao?aeieo e?a?i a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao iaaee/ii? oa
naenoaeueii? iaina?/aiino? ia o?eueee i?aee?oe?a, a e aei?ineeo,
ia?icaeiaiino? neoaea ieaioaaiiy n?i’?, a?aenooiino? i?aee?oeiai?
a?iaeieia?/ii? neoaeae.

Iaeiei ?c i?iya?a «naenoaeueii? ?aaiethoe??»» noaei c?inoaiiy /enea
ia?iaeaeaiue o iieiaeeo (?iiae? e caiaaeoi iieiaeeo) iai. A Oe?a?i? 20%
ae?oae ( a 2 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae a ?in?? ? a 4-6 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae o
Na?aaei?e Ac??) ia?iaeaeo?oueny ae?ieaie iieiaeoa 20 ?ie?a. A?eueo?noue
c ieo ia i?aeaioiaeai? ineoieia?/ii ? nioe?aeueia aei naiino?eiiai
aeeiiaiiy iaoa?einueeeo iaia’yce?a. Iieiaeoa? e iicaoethaia
ia?iaeaeoaai?noue (ieoiia aaaa yei? ? i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith ? a i?noao,
? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?). Iaeiei c iaaaoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
naenoaeueii? ?aaiethoe?? a Oe?a?i? ? ??cea c?inoaiiy, ia?aaaaeii o
aaeeeeo i?noao, aaia?e/ieo caoai?thaaiue, e?eueeino? aaa?oiinoae oa
aai?o?a iaiiaiie?oi?o.

I?iaeaie i?inoeoooe??, naenoaeueii? aenieoaoaoe?? oa naenoaeueieo
aeiiaaaiue, i?iaeaie ianeeuenoa, ae?ii/i? ia?eiiai?? oa aeeiaie?cio,
ae?ii/i?, a oiio /ene? ae?ai/i?, cei/eiiino?, iieacieee yei? iathoue
oaiaeaioe?th aei c?inoaiiy, ia?o ca ana oa?aeoa?i? oaeiae aeey aaeeeeo
i?no. Iaeei c aeniiae?a, eio?ee ?iaeoue aeine?aeiee ae?ii/i? cei/eiiino?
TH.Aioiiyi ? yeee iiae?ey? aaoi?ea, iieyaa? o oiio, ui /eiieeii
i?aaiii?ooaiue ia??aeei noa? a?aenooi?noue ethaia? aaouee?a, o?nieo
aiioe?eieo ca’yce?a c ieie. Iioeaaoe??th ?aiiueiai ii/aoeo noaoaaiai
aeeooy aeey ae?a/ao c oaeeo n?iae /anoi noa? aaaeaiiy ciaeoe eioaiiy. A
oeeo aeiaaeeao ae?a/aoa ?iiae? eaaei iio?aieythoue o oaiaoa
naen-a?ciano, cei/eiieo a?oi /e ie?aieo in?a, ia?eiiai??, aeeiaie?cio.
I?eoaiaiiee ae?a/aoai a?eueoee nooi?iue aaeaioeaiin-a?, eaa?eueiino?,
iaa?thaaiiy iaa?oa?oueny iaiiaeeea?noth iiaa?iooeny aei ii?iaeueieo
ethaenueeeo noinoie?a oa iiaiioe?iiiai aeeooy. Oaeei /eiii, c?inoaiiy ca
e?euee?noth oa ye?noth i?iaeaiieo iiaeaeae ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? a
oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa — iciaea no/aniino?. Oea aeiaaa? iiooeo oeyo?a
ae??oaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?aneaieo ?aeae a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai
aeina?aeo.

Ia?niaeoeaieie o ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeai ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ae?ii/i? ineoieia??, ?aaeoe?e ia e?eciaee
nioe?oi ? noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, ?? naii?aae?caoe??,
naiiaecia/aiiy, a oaeiae i?io?eaeoeea iaaaoeaieo yaeu.

7. ?ioaa?aoe?y Oe?a?ie a ?a?iiaenueeee i?ino?? ia?aaeaa/a? aeyaeaiiy ?
aiaeii/an oai?/a aeei?enoaiiy aoaeoeaiiai ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo
c o?aooaaiiyi aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo iniaeeainoae. Oea coiiaeth? aeioe?euei?noue
iiaeaeueoiai ia’?eoeaiiai aea/aiiy aeaniiai oa no/aniiai ca?oa?aeiiai
aeina?aeo noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueieo neoaea,
aeyaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?aeae, iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy a
Oe?a?i?.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy no/aniiai ca?oa?aeiiai e a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo aeaei
ciiao cai?iiiioaaoe aeey i?aeoeee 10 iiaeaeae nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
ae?iie, a naia: i?eooeee aeey ae?iie-aea?oa aeiiaoiueiai ianeeuenoaa;
oaeaoiiia neoaeaa «AE?iee — ianeeey -?ioi?iaoe?y»; aaaaoii?io?euei?
ae?ii/? oeaio?e; nioe?aeuei? neoaeae aeey iaiiaieo n?iae;

oeaio?e ieaioaaiiy n?i’? oa n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy; oeaio?e aeiiiiiae
iieiaeei iaoa?yi;

ie?ai? i?ia?aie i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iie; nioe?aeuei? oa ina?oi?
i?ia?aie aeey ae?iie-a’yci?a. O no/anieo oiiaao aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiaothoueny iiaeeeaino? aea?aeaaieo oa iaaea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?,
iaeiie/aii aaeeeee aeina?ae ?ica’ycaiiy aaaaoueio neeaaeieo ae?ii/eo
i?iaeai ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie oa nioe?aeueieie iaoiaeaie. I?ia?aeiei
eiiiiiaioii a?eueoino? i?ia?ai nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ae?ieai ? ina?oi?
i?ia?aie /e i?aei?ia?aie, ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy iiaeo ciaiue, ci?ie
o na?aeiiino? oa iiaaae?ioe? iniaenoino?. Ii?yae c oeei nioe?aeuei?
neoaeae oaeiae ni?eythoue caaeiaieaiith iio?aa o ni?eeoaaii?, a
?ioi?iaoe??, ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?.

?i?oe?aoeaa noai?aiiy aaaaoueio nioe?aeueieo neoaea iaeaaeaea naiei
ae?ieai. I?eioeei naiiaeiiiiiae aoa ? caeeoa?oueny iaeiei c iniiaieo a
i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? nenoaie nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?iie. O
ae??oaii? ae?ii/eo i?iaeai c?inoa? ?ieue iao?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e. I?e
i?aeo?eioe? aea?aeaae, a?iiaaenueeino? aiie ?aae?cothoue nai?
nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie, noai?ththoue iaaea?aeaai? nioe?aeuei? neoaeae aeey
ae?iie.

8. Nenoaia nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? o?eueee
ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny a oiiaao ae?ae iaaeinoaoiueiai o?iainoaaiiy,
a?aenooiino? eaae?o?eiaaieo oao?aoe?a, iaoiaeieia?/ii? oa iaoiaee/ii?
ia?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie, aeao?oeeoo iaoeiaeo oa
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo aeaeaiue, caa?aaeaiiy o iaaii? /anoeie
ea??aiee?a (na?aae yeeo ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue noaiiaeyoue /ieia?ee)
canoa??eeo noa?aioei?a uiaei aaaeeeaino? ae??oaiiy ae?ii/eo i?iaeai. I?e
an?e i?ea?iaeueiino? ? ie?aieo iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoaoao a?o/eciyieo
iai?aoethaaiue noai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? nenoaie niaoe?ae?ciaaieo neoaea aeey
ae?iie iiee ui ? o?eueee ia?niaeoeaith. Aea c ia?oeo aei?a ae?yeueiino?
Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oeaio?o nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?
(1993) ? i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo eiio ?aa?iiaeueieo no?oeoo? ca ?i?oe?aoeaith
? o/anoth aaoi?a aoei caii/aoeiaaii iai?yi «Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa c
ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth», yeee c iiyaith Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo o ni?aaao
n?i’? oa iieiae? aoa aeciaiee iaeiei c i??i?eoao?a.

?ic?iaeai? oa ai?iaiaai? aaoi?ii iiaeae? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth, a oaeiae i?iaaaeai? nai?ia?e, aeeneon??, e?oae? noiee,
i?aeaioiaeai? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? oa ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iaoa??aee ni?eyee
iiya? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie. A
12 iaeanoyo ae?yee Aa/??i? ae?ii/? a?iiac??, aoea noai?aia ia?aaea
eeoa?a aeey ae?a/ao. ?ic?iaeaii ie?ai? i?iaeoe, iaoa yeeo iieyaaea a
iaaeaii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeiiiiiae ae?a/aoai c «a?oi ?eceeo»
(aeoiaaiee oe?e-?ioa?iao?a oa aeeoy/eo aoaeeie?a, iaeeiie? iaoa??,
ae?iee a aeai?aneaieo noaiao). A inoaii?e /an iiaei iai?yiii
ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea noaea ?iaioa c iiia?aaeaeaiiy caeo/aiiy
ae?a/ao aei naen-a?ciano i?e ae?cae? ia ?iaioo ca ei?aeii.

Eiioeaioe??, ?aea?, iaa?oioiaai? aaoi?ii, aeei?enoaii o noai?aii?
Anioe?aoe?? Aaeae?a Oe?a?ie, yea ca aeineoue ei?ioeee /an oa?eoea aei
na?oiaiai ae?ii/iai oa iieiae?aeiiai ?ooo. Ca ?i?oe?aoeaith aaoi?a
aaeaeaie aoei ?ic?iaeaii ? cae?eniaii i?e i?aeo?eioe? i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiii??a ?iiiaaoe?eiee aeey Oe?a?ie nioe?aeueiee i?iaeo «Ia?iaeeoenue
ae?ieith: aeeeee aeeooth», yeei ia?aaeaa/aeiny noai?aiiy na?a?nieo
oeaio??a aeey iaiiaiie?oi?o oa iieiaeeo iaeeiieeo iai o /ioe?ueio
?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie. I?iaeo i?aeo?eiaee i?aaie i?noeaaiai a?yaeoaaiiy,
Aea?aeaaiee Eii?oao o ni?aaao n?i’? oa iieiae?. Ca ci?noii ? ca
i?eioeeiaie ?aae?caoe?? eiai iiaeia ioe?ithaaoe ye iiao noi??ieo a
nioe?aeuei?e ?iaio? c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth. Aoei oaeiae iaa?oioiaaii
aeioe?euei?noue a?aee?eooy a?aeae?eaiue nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe ia aac?
ie?aieo iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaaeae?a oa oi?aa?neoao?a

9. Ina?oa, ye iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ?inoeooo?a nioe?ae?caoe??, ia?
iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ae?iie ? aecia?oueny /eiieeii noaeiai ?icaeoeo.
Aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? ae?ii/i? ina?oe aeey oni?oii? nioe?ae?caoe??
iieyaathoue o : a) caaacia/aii? iaieiae?iiy ciaiiyie ia ??ai? no/anieo
noaiaea?o?a; a) aeiiiiic? nai?i aeoiaaieai o aecia/aii? noa?e
iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ua o oe?euei? ?iee, a oaeiae o
oi?ioaaii? ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei oni?oii? ?iaioe a i?e; a)
?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae oa iaoee?a aeoiaaii? a?eueii? iniaenoino? c
?icaeiaiei ii/oooyi a?aeiino?, a??ith o aeani? neee, iacaeaaei?noth; a)
i?aeaioiaoe? ae?ii/i? iieiae? aei aeeooy a noni?euenoa?, caaacia/aii?
nioe?aeueii? a?aiioiino?, noeioethaaii? ?? aeoeaiino?, ui a iiaeaeueoiio
caaacia/oaaoeia aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? aeey naii?aae?caoe??; ae)
a?aooaaii? ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, coiiaeaieo noaooth.
I?iaeooth/e oa aeei?enoiaoth/e iaaeaaia?/i? oaoiieia??, ae?ii/a ina?oa
i???ioo?oueny naia ia ae?a/eio, ?? ni?eeiyooy, eia?eo, ??aaiue o?ce/iiai
oa aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo, ?ioaeaeooaeuei? e oai?/? cae?aiino?. Aiia
ni?yiiaaia ia aeiiiiiao eiaei?e ae?a/ei? a ?aae?caoe?? aeaniiai
iioaioe?aeo, anoaiiaeaii? aeey naaa a?eueo aenieeo caaaeaiue o an?o
aeeoo?aeo noa?ao, ona?aeiieaii? nai?? oi?eaeueiino? oa ?? caa?aaeaii? ia
ei?enoue nia? e noni?euenoao; a) ai?iaaaeaeaii? niaoe?aeueieo i?ia?ai
aeey iniaeeaeo eaoaai??e ae?iie (ae?iee na?aaeiueiai a?eo, naiioi?
iaoa??, canoaeaeai? oa ?i.), ci???ioiaaieo ia ae??oaiiy aeeoo?aeo
i?iaeai, neeaaeieo neooaoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy oain?a ia aeaeeaaiiy oa
iie?ioaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua.

Iaaaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe?? iaoa??ae o ii?aeiaii? c? ni?iaaie aaoi?a
a?ae?iaeeoe ae?ii/o ina?oo (o oiio /ene? a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aaoi?nueeeo iiaeaeyo Aa/??iuei? ae?ii/i? a?iiac?? oa Ee?anueeiai
ae?ii/iai e?oeath) aeiaiaeyoue, ui ia eeoa o ca?oa?aei?e i?aeoeoe?, a e
o iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiioaeno? iiaeae? ae?ii/i? ina?oe iiaeeea? e
aeioe?euei?. Aaoi?ii aoea i?aeaioiaeaia ? eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy Aeueo
ae?ii/eo eo?n?a ia aac? Ee?anueeiai Neia’yinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aea c
iaaieo i?e/ei oey ?aeay ia ao?eaia a aeeooy.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, aeioe?eueiei ? noai?aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaeaeai/eea
AII Oe?a?ie ia aac? oeiee-?ioa?iaoo ? 13 i. Ee?aa, ui ni?eyei a
i?iaeiaaeaiith ?icii/aoi? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe, ?acoeueoaoe yei?
iaoeiooue cia/aiiy ye aeey iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, oae ? aeey i?aeoeee
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe.

Iniaeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue i?ia?aie «oiiaiiaaaeaii? ina?oe», ui
ni?yiiaai? ia oaiaea?ia aeoiaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? aei iiaoaeiae
i?aenoaoaaeo a?aeiinei c aeciaiiyi i?aa ae?iee, noai?aiiy ??aieo
iiaeeeainoae aeey ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? oeyoii iciaeiieaiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a iaio noaoae c oaiaea?ieie i?iaeaiaie.

10. Cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? ciiao noi?ioethaaoe aeaye?
i?iiiceoe?? ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? a
oiiaao aaeeeeo i?no.

Ia ??ai? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy: ni?eyoe ?icaeoeo oa
aaeineiiaeaiith nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth
ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? eiioeaioe??, ui ocaaaeueith? i?ia?aneai? ?aea?
?noi?e/iiai ? no/aniiai a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo, a?aoiao?
?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?; aeioe?eueii ?ic?iaeoe oa ?aae?coaaoe
iaoe?iiaeueio ? ?aa?iiaeuei? oe?eueia? i?ia?aie «AE?ii/a iieiaeue»,
ni?yiiaai? ia:

a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e ae?ii/iai aeoiaaiiy, aeciaiiy
oa caeiiiaeaa/a cae??ieaiiy i?aaa ia ?nioaaiiy ina?oi?o caeeaae?a aeey
ae?a/ao;

?icoe?aiiy ia?aae? nioe?aeueieo neoaea, ci???ioiaaieo ia nioe?aeueio
i?io?eaeoeeo, iaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae oa iineoa, nioe?aeueio
?aaa?e?oaoe?th ae?ii/i? iieiae?, aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? yeeo
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?o/eciyiei aeina?aeii;

i?aeo?eieo oa aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?aeo iao?yaeiaeo ae?ii/eo ?
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye? iiaeooue aenooiaoe ia?oia?aie aea?aeaae o
?ica’ycaii? ae?ii/eo i?iaeai, ni?eyoe naii?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino?,
caeo/aiith ae?ii/i? iieiae? aei ae??oaiiy aeanieo i?iaeai; i?aai?caoe?th
niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a, nioe?aeueieo
i?aoe?aiee?a, ina?oyi, i?aoe?aiee?a i?aai?a ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a oa ?ioeo oao?aoe?a, i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue yeeo
iia’ycaia c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth, a oaeiae aaouee?a, i?aaenoaaiee?a
a?iiaaenueeino?;

noai?aiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo no?oeoo? (oeaio??a, eaai?aoi??e, naeoi??a
oiui) c iaoith aea/aiiy i?ioean?a o na?aaeiaeu? ae?ii/i? iieiae?,
aiae?co e ocaaaeueiaiiy ca?oa?aeiiai oa a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo, ?ic?iaee
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c i?iaeai ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe??;

aeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? iaoeiai? a?ae?ia?ao?? c i?iaeai ae?iie, a oaeiae
noai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oeaio??a ?c no/anieie ?ioi?iaoe?eieie
oaoiieia?yie; canioaaiiy i?ina?oieoeueeeo aeaeaiue, aeo?iae?a, noi??iie,
?oa?ee oaea- ? ?aae?ii?ia?ai aeey ae?a/ao-i?aee?oe?a, ye? aaee a
caoe?eaaeaio eiiiaoaioio ?iciiao, aeiiiiaaaee o ?ica’ycaii? neeaaeieo
i?iaeai nioe?ae?caoe??, o noai?aii? oe?e?nieo oyaeaiue i?i no/aniee
na?o, noai oa ?ieue ae?iee a iueiio;

aaaaeaiiy aei aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee, iieaciee?a, iia’ycaieo ?c oaeoi?ii
noao?, cie?aia aei noaoenoeee I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe. I?i?noa?noaa
aioo??oi?o ni?aa, I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo o ni?aaao n?i’? oa iieiae?.

Ia ??ai? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? oa iaiiaiie?oi?o:

aoaeoaaoe ?iaioo c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth ia i??i?eoaoiino? i?eioeei?a
i?io?eaeoeee iaaaoeaieo yaeu oa naiiaeiiiiiae, noai?aiiy oiia aeey
?icaeoeo, ?aae?caoe?? oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ae?a/ao oa iieiaeeo ae?iie;

i?aeo?eioaaoe ?icaeoie e?aea?nueeeo yeinoae o ae?a/ao oa iieiaeeo
ae?iie, noeioethaaoe ?o o/anoue o ?iaio? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e,
aieiioa?nueeiio ?on? oa ?on? aeia?i/eiiino? e ieeina?aey; c oe??th
iaoith i?iaiaeeoe e?oi? oeiee, nai?ia?e;

aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiaeeeaino? ina?oiueiai eiiiiiaioo
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?ia?ai ye oi?ie iaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? oa
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeo?eiee; a?aoiaoaaoe noeoii?noue oaeoi??a,
eio?? a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa aieeaathoue ia i?ioean ae?ii/i?
nioe?ae?caoe?? e coiiaeththoue iiyao aaaaoueio i?iaeai ? iniaeeaeo «a?oi
?eceeo», a ?iaio? c yeeie iio??ai? niaoe?aeuei?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i?, iaaeeei-nioe?aeuei?, ineoieia?/i? oaoiieia??
oa oao?aoe?, ia?ciai? c ieie;

oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe a nai?e ae?yeueiino? i?ia?aneai? iiaeae?,
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oaoiieia??, ui i?aeoaa?aeeee naith
aoaeoeai?noue o a?o/eciyiiio aeina?ae?;

?icaeaaoe oa ci?oeithaaoe ca’ycee c? neoaeaaie, ui ae??oothoue i?iaeaie
ae?iie, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie oeaio?aie a Oe?a?i? oa ca ?oaaaeai aeey
i?enei?aiiy aaeaioaoe?? oa aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?aeae
ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo; ?i?oe?thaaoe i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?e, nai?ia??a, aeeneon?e c aeooaeueieo ieoaiue nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth, i?aeaioiaee i?iiiceoe?e a i?aaie
?aa?iiaeueiiai oa aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c oe??th iieiae?aeiith i?aea?oiith;

iie?ioeoe ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy oao?aoe?a, ye?
i?aoeththoue c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth.

Ia ??ai? caeeaae?a ina?oe:

o iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiio caaacia/aii? a?aoiaoaaoe, ui oai?/a
?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeio ?icae?eueiiai iaa/aiiy noai?th? aeiaeaoeia?
iiaeeeaino? aeey oi?ioaaiiy ae?ii/i? iniaenoino? c ?icaeiaiei ii/oooyi
aeanii? a?aeiino?, a??e o aeani? neee, iaiaaaiiyie aei naii?aae?caoe?? o
i?ioan?ei?e ae?yeueiino?, a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo?. Naia oeei
coiiaeth?oueny aeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaeaeai/ee?a
o caeeaaeao ina?oe ??ciiai ??aiy, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo iiaoaeiaaia ia
iniia? ?icae?eueiiai iaa/aiiy;

ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yiii ? noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
/e i?ia?ai aeey ie?aieo eaoaai??e ae?ii/i? iieiae? (iai?eeeaae,
iaiiaiie?oi? ? iieiae? iaeeiie? iaoa??, iieiae? ae?iee c ie?aieie
iio?aaaie, ae?iee-aac?ia?oi?, ae?iee-a’yci?). sse na?ae/eoue no/aniee
ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae, naia ina?oi? i?ia?aie ? aa?aioii i?aeaeuaiiy
oain?a ia ?ioaa?aoe?th a noni?euenoai, aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
iacaeaaeiino?;

o i?ioean? ni?eueiiai iaa/aiiy oeii/ee?a ? ae?a/aoie, thiae?a ? ae?a/ao
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe a?aei?iiino?, ui coiiaeai? noaooth, o aecia/aii?
ci?noo ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy, iaoiaeee aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i,
i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe. Iaaaeueiith iio?aaith ? iiaeieaiiy
aeene?ei?iaoe?? ae?a/ao o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy, iniaeeai i?e aeeeaaeaii?
aeenoeeie?i i?e?iaeie/iai oeeeeo, i?ae /an neeaaeaiiy i?ia?ai;

ca i?eeeaaeii Caoiaeo a nenoai? i?aeaioiaee oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a
ina?oe, niaoe?ae?no?a nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe aeioe?eueii cai?iaaaeeoe oa
?icoe?eoe eo?ne c aaiaea?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee ( «Oai?iieia?y», «Nioe?ieia?y
naenoaeueieo ?ieae», «AE?iea a ?noi??? oa no/aniino?», «AE?ii/? i?aaa ye
iaa?ae’?iia /anoeia ethaenueeeo i?aa» oa ?i.) e a?aeiia?aeii aeiiiaieoe
i?ia?aie c iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieia??, nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe;

o i?aeoeoe? aeoiaii? ?iaioe c ae?a/aoaie oe?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe cono??/?
c ae?ieaie, ye? aeinyaee eiie?aoieo oni?o?a o i?ioan?ei?e ae?yeueiino?,
a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo? ? iiaeooue neoaeeoe c?aceaie oni?oii?
naii?aae?caoe??;

ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy, aei
o/ano? o aeoiaaii? ae?a/ao aeoeai?oa caeo/aoe ia o?eueee iaoa??a, a e
aaouee?a.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eeoa ia?oei e?ieii o aea/aii? neeaaeii?,
aeooaeueii? oa aaaiii? o oai?aoe/iiio ? i?aeoe/iiio aniaeoao oaie ? ia
ae/a?io? an?o i?iaeai nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith
iieiaeaeth o aaeeeiio i?no?. Iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy iio?aaothoue: i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa c o?aooaaiiyi oaeoi??a
aieeao aoii iaoe?iiaeueieo, eoeueoo?ieo, n?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e,
iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo, i?e?i?aeiio i?iaeeaaiiy, noaio caei?ia’y, a?eo,
nenoaie aeeoo?aeo oe?iiinoae, ?aa?iio. Aeooaeueieie oaeiae ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
caeeaae?a oi?iaeueii? oa iaoi?iaeueii? ae?ii/i? ina?oe, nioe?aeueieo
neoaea aeey ae?iie; nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ie?aieie
i?aea?oiaie ae?ii/i? iieiae? (iai?eeeaae, iaiiaiie?oi? iaie, ae?iee ?c
caeaaei?noth a?ae ia?eioee?a oa aeeiaieth, ae?iee-oai?? ia NI?Ae,
aea?oae ianeeuenoaa, iaeeiie? iieiae? iaoa??, ae?iee-?iaae?aee,
ae?iee-a’yci?, a oaeiae ae?a/aoa-nii?oniaiee, ae?a/aoa-a?aei?iieoe?,
ae?a/aoa-e?aea?e oa ?i.), ? iaaaeueia iio?aaa o a?aei?aoethaaii?
iiiyoo?ai-oa?i?iieia?/iiai aia?aoo, ui ?ice?eaa? ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee
oa neeaaeia? i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iniaenoino? oa
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

?. Iiiia?ao??.

?.Eaeoeiiiaa A.I. Nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay ?aaioa n aeaineie
iieiaeaaeueth a e?oiiii ai?iaea: oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/aneea iniiaue? — E.:
Oe?. oeaio? aeooia. eoeueoo?ue?, 1998. — 326 n. — 19,07 aao, a?e.

II. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iin?aieee oa a?ioo?e:

2.Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa / Nioe?aeueiay iaaeaaia?ea : (iiiyoo?ai-oa?i?iie.
neia.). — E.:

Aoiinoa?a, 1994.- 118n.

3. Aeia??a ? iaae?y: ?ioi?i.-iaoiae. athe./ A?aei. ca aee. A.I.
Eaeo?iiiaa. — 1995.- ?3.

-34n.

4. Aa/a?iyy aeaineay aeiiacey / Iiae iau. ?aae. A.I.Eaeoeiiiaie,
A.AE?aiaiei.-E.: Aeaaeaii?ann, 1994.- 80 n.

5. Aeooaeueiue?a i?iaeaie nioeeaeecaoeee aeaaooae-iiae?inoeia : Na.
iao/. no. / Iiae iau. ?aae. A.I.Eaeoeiiiaie. — E.: A.E.Ae., 1995. — 104
n.

6. Eaeoeiiiaa A., A?eai?ueaaa I., ae?. Nioeeaeueiue?a neoaeaue? aeey
aeaineie iieiaeaaee.

-E.: Aeaaeaii?ann, 1994. — N.36-98.

7. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I., Ca???aa ?.Ae., ??iaeia ?.A. Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa oa
?aaa?e?oaoe?eia iaaeaaia?ea ia ii?ic? XXI noie?ooy. — E.: ?ioiAe?OE,
1998. — 32n. O. Iaoeia? noaoo?, oace:

8. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. No/ani? i?aeia?iaei? aeieoiaioe i?i caaaeaiiy oa
ci?no nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iieiae? // Nioe?ae?caoe?y iniaenoino?: 36.
iaoe. i?. / Ca caa. ?aae. A-E.Eainueei?. — E., 1999. — Aee. 2. — N.
32-40

9. Eaeoeiiiaa A.I. Naenoaeueia? iiaaaeaiea aeaineie iieiaeaaee eae
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay i?iaeaia // Iaoea ? no/ani?noue: 36. iaoe.
i?. Iaoe. iaae. oi-oo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — E., 1999- 4.1. — N. 34
-41.

10. Eaeoeiiiaa A. I?ioeana oi?ie?iaaiey aeaineie ee/iinoe a
«cioeeeeiiaaeee oaieiecia» — ?aaioa Neiiiue? aea Aiaoa? «Aoi?ie iie» //
Iaoeia? caienee: 36. iaoe. no. Iaoe. iaae. oi-oo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa /
Oee. I.A.Aeieo?aiei, ?..I. Eia/eia, I.I. Nei?iaiaaoueei.-E.,
1999.-*.1.-N. 95-102

11. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. AE?iea ? i?ioan?y: ia?aaeiene aoooy //
I?ioan?eii-oaoi. ina?oa.

-1999.-?3.-N.48-49.

12. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. I?aeaioiaea ae?a/ao aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?:
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aniaeo // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe. — 1999. — ?2. — N. 212-218.

13. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. A eean? o?eueee ae?a/aoa /’/ Oeyo ina?oe. — 1999. —
?2 — N. 30-33.

14. Eaeoeiiiaa A. I. Oai?/aneee iioaioeeae aeaai/ae-iiae?inoeia:
aa?uea?ue? a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey // Iaaeaaia?ea ?
ineoieia?y oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino?: i?iaeaie ? iiooee: 36. iaoe.
i?- E.; Caii??aeaey.- Aei.10.- N.29-33.

15. Eaeo?iiiaa A., A?aoonue ?. O?aaeeoe?? ae?ii/i? ina?oe o
Aaeeeia?eoai?? // Oeyo ina?oe. — 1997. — ?4 — N.25-28.

16. Eaeoeiiiaa A.I. Iaoi?iaeueia? ia?aciaaiea eae oaeoi? ?acaeoey
oai?/aneiai iioaioeeaea iiae?inoeia : (Ia i?eia?a aao. iiaeaee Aa/a?.
aeai. aeiiacee^ //Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i?
iniaenoino?: i?iaeaie ? iiooee: 36. iaoe. i?.- E.;

Caii??aeaey. — Aei. 15.-N. 105-109.

17. Eaeoeiiiaa A.I. AEaineia ia?aciaaiea: i?aai ia ianoiyuaa, i?aai ia
aoaeouaa //I?aeo. ineoieia?y oa nioe?ae. ?iaioa. — 1998. —?10. — N.
17-20.

18. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. Caeiiii??iino? ? i?iaeaie ae?ii/i? nioe?ae?caoe?? a
eiioaeno? ineoiaiae?oe/ii? oai??? Ea?ai Oi?i? // Ina?oa ia Eoaaiuei?.
-1998. — ? 3.-N.21-24.

19. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. I?ia?aia ae?yeueiino? oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo neoaea
aeey iieiae? c ?aae?caoe?? iai?yio «Nioe?aeueia i?aeo?eiea ae?ii/i?
iieiae?» : (AE?ii/a iieiaeue o na?o. oa iaoe. eiioaenoao: aeooae.
caaaeaiiy nioe?ae. ?iaioe) // Nioe?ae. ?iaioa c iieiaeaeth a
Oe?a?i?.-E., 1997- N.47-53

20. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. Ui aeaiue i?eeaeaoi?e iai aioo?? // Na?oei. — 1998.
— ?12. -N.64-65.

21. Eaeo?iiiaa A. AE?ii/a iieiaeue ye ia’?eo ? noa’?eo nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe // Iieiaeue Oe?a?ie: noai, i?iaeaie, oeyoe ?ica’ycaiiy : 36.
iaoe. ioae. Oe?IAe? i?iae. iieiae? ca i?aenoieaie aeeiiaiiy iaoe. i?ia?.
? i?iaeo?a o 1993 p. — E.,1994. — Aei.C.- N.106-112

22. Eaeo?iiiaa A. Noaoue ? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe??
noa?oieeaniee?a // Nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea ? aaeaioeai?noue iniaenoino?
: Iaoe.-iaoiae. aeae.- Noie, 1994. -1994.- N.358-366.

23. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. Oe?iiino? na?oo oa na?o oe?iiinoae noa?oieeaniee?a
// Iicaoe?eueia iaaeaaia?ea: iiooe ? i?iaeaie: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?.
iaoe.-i?aea. eiioa?aioe??, 20-24 aa?an. 1994 p. / I-ai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.
?i-o nenoai, aeine?aeae.- E., 1996.-N.19-24.

24. Eaeoeiiiaa A.I. E?oiiee ai?iae eae n?aaea nioeeaeecaoeee :
(Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeie. aniaeo) // Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oa
iaaeeei-ineoieia?/i? caoiaee i?ioeae?? aaeeaaiith ia?eiaaiieo cania?a
iaiiaiie?oi?ie ? iieiaeaeth.-E.,1995.- Aei.2. — N.16-31

25. Eaeo?iiiaa A. Noa?oieeanieoe? — nueiaiaei?, ae?iee XXI noi??//y —
caao?a // Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy ae?oae oa iieiae?
a iaoe?iiaeuei?e nenoai? ina?oe oa oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy: Iaoa??aee
iaoe.-i?aeo.. eiio. 22-23 n?/. 1997 p. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. -1997- N.37-41

26. Eaeoeiiiaa A. I?iaeaiue? nioeeaeueiie aaeaioaoeee aeaineie
iieiaeaaee // I?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iieiae? a oiiaao ci?ie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei:

Iaoa??aee i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeoe/. eiio. 25-28 eenoii. 1992 ?.Aee?a.—E.,
1993:- C.I 18-120.

27. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. Eiioe?eo i?ae ia?acaie ?aeaaeueieo ? ?aaeueieo
/ieia?e?a oa ae?iie a oyaeaiiyo noa?oieeanieoeue ye a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy
eiioe?eoo noaoae a noni?euenoa? // Eiioe?eoe a iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoaiao.:
36. aeii.iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. 20-21 o?aa. 1997 p. -A?iieoey, 1997.-C.I
81-183.

28. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. A?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue ae?iie a Oe?a?i?:
i?iaeaie nueiaiaeaiiy ? ia?niaeoeae // I?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? ineoieia?? oa
?? ?ieue o noaiiaeaii? a?iiaaeyieia oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae: Iaoa??aee
Anaoe. iaoe. eiioa?aioe?? 29-31 o?aaiy 1995 ?.-E., 1995-N. 208-209.

29. Eaeo?iiiaa A.I., Ca???aa ?.Ae. Ae?oe a ne?oo?: aeueoa?iaoeae
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie // I?aeo. ineoie. oa nioe?ae. ?iaioa. — 1998. — ?3. —
N.9-10.

30. Eaeo?iiiaa A. Iieiaea iieie?iiy iae?a? ia o?eueee «Iain?» // Iiaa
ina?oa Oe?a?ie. — 1994. — ? 2. — N.34-36.

31. Eaeoeiiiaa A.I., Caa?aaa E.Ae., Aa?ooaei A.I. Oeaio?
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie iiaeaea?aeee aeaoae e iiae?inoeia //
Nioe?aeuei? neoaeae aeey iieiae? : .(Oai??y, iaoiaeeea ? i?aai?caoe?y
?iaioe). Aei.?. — E.,1992. — 64-80. Oe?a?inueeee IAe?

i?iaeai iieiae?, 1992. — N.64-80.

32.Eaeoeiiiaa A.I., Caa?aaa E.Ae., Oo?aeia I.Ae. I?eia?iia iieiaeaiea i
, «Oaeaoiia aeiaa?ey» aeey iiae?inoeia e iieiaeaaee // «Oaeaoii
aeiaa?ey»: neoaeaa

oaeaoiiiie ceno?aiiie ineoieiae/aneie iiiiue aeey iiae?inoeia e
iieiaeaaee (Na?.

Oinoaea?noaaiiay iieiaeaae. iieeoeea a ?innee: aeieoiaioe, iiueaaue?,
i?aeoeea»). — I.,

1993.-N.9-31.

Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. Oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? iniiae nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a oiiaao aaeeeiai i?noa. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
?c niaoe?aeueiino? 13.00.05 — nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea, ?inoeooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iniia
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?ii/ith iieiaeaeth a oiiaao
aaeeeiai i?noa. Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ??cieo oai?aoe/ieo
eiioeaioe?e, i?aeia?iaeii? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? noaoenoeee, ?acoeueoao?a
nioe?ieia?/ieo oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaa?oioiaai?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?ii/i? iieiae?.
Aecia/aii .no/ani? oaiaeaioe??, caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? oeueiai
i?ioeano, eiai aeooaeuei? ; i?iaeaie c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao nioe?aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua aaeeeiai i?noa. I?iaiae?ciaaii e ocaaaeueiaii ca?oa?aeiee oa
a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?ieaie.
?ic?iaeaii e aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??aii aaoi?nuee? eiioeaioe?? oa
iiaeae?, iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? iai?yie, ci?no ? oi?ie i?aai?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?ii/i? iieiae?. Cae?eniaii
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? i?aeoeee
ae?ii/i? ina?oe, iaa?oioiaaii ?? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee iioaioe?ae.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii o i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino?
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?, caeeaae?a oi?iaeueii? oa iaoi?iaeueii?
ina?oe aeey ae?a/ao o i. Ee?a? oa a ?yae? ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa, ae?ii/a iieiaeue,
aaiaea?ia aeoiaaiiy, o?aai?caoe?y, nioe?ae?caoe?y, nioe?aeuei? neoaeae
aeey ae?iie, iiaeae? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe, ae?ii/a ina?oa.

Eaeoeiiiaa A.I. Oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/aneea iniiae
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie ?aaioue? n aeaineie iieiaeaaeueth a oneiaeyo
e?oiiiai ai?iaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.05 — nioeeaeueiay iaaeaaiaeea. — Einoeooo
iaaeaaiaaee AII Oe?aeiue?, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aue?a a Oe?aeia enneaaeothony oai?aoe/aneea e
iaoiaee/aneea iniiai nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie ?aaioue? n aeaineie
iieiaeaaeueth n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae ia?aca aeecie a e?oiiii ai?iaea.
Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaiaaaony Oeaeaniia?aciinoue aaaaeaiiy a iao/iue?e
iai?io oa?ieia «aeaineay iieiaeaaeue», ii?aaeaeythony aai niaea?aeaiea
e oa?aeoa?enoeee. Ia iniiaaiee n?aaieoaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai aiaeeca
?acee/iue?o oai?aoe/aneeo eiioea?uee nioeeaeecaoeee aeaineie ee/iinoe,
iaoeeiiaeueiie e ca?oaaaeiie noaoenoeee iainiiaue?aathony
caeiiiia?iinoe, oaiaeaioeee, iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna a nia?aiaiiue?o
oneiaeyo. Iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iue?e aiaeec iicaieee ii?aaeaeeoue oaeoi?ue?,
aeeythuea ia i?ioeana nioeeaeecaoeee a e?oiiii ai?iaea, aue?yaeoue
iniaaiiinoe iaeioi?ue?o i?iaeaiiue?o iiaeaeae aeaineie nioeeaeecaoeee e
ai/eaieoue aeooaeueiue?a i?iaeaii aeaineie iieiaeaaee ai?iaea ia
nia?aiaiiii coaia ?acaeoey oe?aeineiai iauanoaa.

N o/aoii ca?oaaaeiiai e ioa/anoaaiiiai iiueaaa i?aaiecaoeee e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nioeeaeueiueao neoaea aeey aeaiuei i?aaenoaaeaiue?
eiie?aoiue?a iiaeaee nioeeaeueiuee oaoiieiaee, niinianoaothuea ?aoaieth
aeeciaiii aaaeiue?o aeaineeo i?iaeai, a oaeaea iainiiaaii niaea?aeaiea,
iaoiaeue?, ia?niaeoeaiue?a iai?aaeaiiy nioeeaeueiie ?aaioue?.
?ac?aaioaiue? e cenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aii aaoi?neea eiioeaioeee e
iiaeaee nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie ?aaioue? n aeaineie iieiaeaaeueth a
oneiaeyo e?oiiiai ai?iaea. Iaiauaiea ?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiue?o oeaio?ia nioeeaeueiuee neoaea aeey iieiaeaaee a
Oe?aeia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ?aaioa n aeaineie iieiaeaaeueth
noaiiaeony iaeiei ec i?ei?eoaoiue?o iai?aaeaiee a ainoaea?noaaiiie
nenoaia aa nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee.

?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo cenia?eiaioaeueiuee
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneeo aaoi?neeo iiaeaeae, iieo/eaoeo iiaeaea?aeeo
e ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ?yaea ?aaeiiia Oe?aeiue?, nicaeaee i?aaeiinue?eee
aeey oai?aoe/aneiai e iaoiaee/aneiai iainiiaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuee
iiaeaeae nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie ?aaioue? n aeaineie iieiaeaaeueth.
Noi?ioee?iaai aue?aiae i oii, /oi ia?aciaaoaeueiue?e eiiiiiaio yaeyaony
iaycaoaeueiie ninoaaeythuae anao nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneeo i?ia?aii.
Iiae/a?eiooi, /oi oi?ii aeaineiai ia?aciaaiey iaeaaeatha
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneei iioaioeeaeii.

Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiiy e ?acaeoey aeaineiai ia?aciaaiey a
?innee, Oe?aeia, Aiaeee, N?EA, ?acoeueoaoue? cenia?eiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee
aaoi?neeo iiaeaeae e iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai iaania/aiey aeaineiai
ia?aciaaiey ia nia?aiaiiii coaia ?acaeoey iauanoaa aeieacue?aatho, /oi
o/aaiue?a caaaaeaiiy aeey aeaaooae, aeaenoaothuea ia iniiaa i?eioeeia
?acaeaeueiiai iao/aiey, eiatho iieiia i?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea ia oieueei
a ca?oaaaeiie, ii e a ioa/anoaaiiie iaaeaaiae/aneie i?aeoeea. Iie
nicaeatho aeiiieieoaeueiue?a aiciiaeiinoe aeey oniaoiie nioeeaeecaoeee,
oi?ie?iaaiey aeaineie ee/iinoe e yaeythony iiaeaeyie
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaea?aeee aeaineie iieiaeaaee.
I?eia?aoaaiue?e eie iiue?o ii inouanoaeaieth o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna n o/aoii ineoioeceieiae/aneeo e nioeeieoeueoo?iue?o iieiaue?o
ioee/ee eiaao aaaeiia nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneia cia/aiea.

Iaiauaie? ?acoeueoaoia coiai enneaaeiaaiey iicaieeei noi?ioee?iaaoue
?yae aaoiaeia e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey, nioeeaeueiuee
neoaea aeey iieiaeaaee, a oaeaea aeey o/aaiuee caaaaeaiee,
iai?aaeaiiue?o ia aeaeueiaeoaa oeo/oaiea nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie
?aaioue? n aeaineie iieiaeaaeueth.

Eeth/aaue?a neiaa: nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay ?aaioa, aeaineay
iieiaeaaeue, aayaea?iia ainieoaiea, o?aaiecaoeey, nioeeaeecaoeey,
nioeeaeueiue?a neoaeae aeey aeaiuei, iiaeaee nioeeaeueiie ?aaioi,
aeaineia ia?aciaaiea.

Galina M. Laktionova. The theoretical-methodical basis of
social-pedagogical work with female youth in urban areas. — Manuscript.

The author is pursuing a scientific degree of Doctor of Pedagogical
Science, specialization No. 13.00.05 — Social Pedagogy, the Institute of
Pedagogy, Ukrainian Academy of Pedagogical Science, Kyiv, 1999.

The present thesis includes researches on theoretical and methodical
bases of social-pedagogical work with female youth in urban areas.
Methodological approaches to the process of female youth socialization
were elaborated based on the comparative analysis of different
theoretical conceptions, national and world statistics, the results of
social and psycho-pedagogical researches. The author pointed out modem
tendencies, regularities and distinctions of this process, its topical
problems taking into account the influence of social environment in
urban areas.

There has been analyzed and summarized foreign and national experience
in organizing social work with women, the author’s models have been
developed. The major directions, content and forms of work of social
services for female youth have been grounded as well.

The author provides historical and pedagogical analysis of foreign and
national practice of women’s education and reasons its
social-pedagogical potential. The major results of the research have
been put into practice by social service organizations for young people,
institutions of formal and non-formal education for girls in the city of
Kyiv and other regions of Ukraine.

Key words: social-pedagogical work, female youth, gender education,
urbanization, socialization, social services for women, social work
models, female education

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