IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO CAAAEUeII? OA IAI?AAI?*II? O?I??

?IAI? A.?.AA?IAAeNUeEIAI

OAeE 541.57.138

NIEIAEIA AAI?AIII AANEEUeIAE*

OAI?AOE*I? I?EIOeEIE AAAAOIAEAEO?IIIEO

I?IOeAN?A A?AeIIAEAIIss ? OI?IOAAIIss AA*

A ?IIIEO ?ICIEAAAO

02.00.04 — o?ce/ia o?i?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?i?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? caaaeueii? ? iai?aai?/ii? o?i??
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie ?iai? A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai ?
Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? TH??y
Eiiae?aothea

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaiiaae
A?eoi? ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii ?CIO IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

*eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
I?enyaeiee A?oae?e Aeai»yiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eaiiyi aeaeo?io?i?/ii?
aia?aaoeee i?e ?CIO IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe Aoiueei Aieiaeeie? Ion?eiae/, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo o?i?? iiaa?oi? IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe I?i/oe Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
caaaeueii? o?ceee oa o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?-neoaoo Oe?a?ie (EI?).

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “___”_______________________1998?. i
_________aiae.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 26.218.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
caaaeueii? ? iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252601, ANI, Ee?a, i?.Iaeeaae?ia,32/34

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
caaaeueii? ? iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252601, ANI, Ee?a, i?.Iaeeaae?ia,32/34

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “____” _______________1998?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
?.A.Iaiia

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oe?iea i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy
?icieaaeaieo nieae ye ?aaeoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua i?e iaea?aeaii?
iai?aai?/ieo ? i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, iiaeo iai?aai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a
iaoiaeaie aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai aeaeo?io?i?/iiai neioaco, aeey
?aae?caoe?? i?ioean?a o aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo aeaea?aeao no?oio, a aaeoc?
aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a??, aaeueaaiioaoi?ee aeiaaa? oe?ea-ni?yiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo
aei oi?aae?iiy o?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?icieaaao. Oea ?iaeoue caaea/o
aea/aiiy aoaeiae, o?i?/ieo oa aeaeo?io?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae neeaaeieo
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo ?icieaaeaieo nenoai, ye? i?noyoue ?iie iie?-aaeaioieo
iaoae?a, iniaeeai aeooaeueiith.

?nioth/? a iao? /ane oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy
aeaeo?i-o?i?/ii aeoeaieo /anoeiie /AA*/ a ?iiieo ?icieaaao, iaea?aeai?
ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ?
e?iaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ?icieaaeaieo nieae iathoue, i?ioa,
oaiiiaiieia?/iee oa?aeoa?. A?aenooi?noue nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c
aecia/aiiy aca?iica”yceo i?ae o?i?/ieie ?aae-oe?yie ooai?aiiy AA* a
ia”?i? ?icieaao ? i?ioeanii ?o aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy, c aieeao
aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaea ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia
eeneioii-iniiai? aca?iiae?? a ?iiieo ?icieaaao ia o?eueee iaoiiaeththoue
iayai?noue noia?a/eeaeo ioe?iie a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueii
iaea?aeaieo caeiiii??iinoae, aea e ia aeicaieythoue noai?eoe caaaeuei?
i?eioeeie oi?-ioaaiiy AA* ? oi?aae?iiy aeaeo?iaeieie i?ioeanaie, ye?
iathoue aaee/acia i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, cie?aia, i?e aeaeo?ineioac?
ooaiieaaeeo niieoe.

?acii c oei oni?o oai?aoe/ii? nenoaiaoecaoe?? eeneio ? iniia
I??niia ? ssoeeie?nueeiai ? eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ?aeae Eeiiiaia iieaco?, ui
iaea?eueo aaae-eeaei e?eoa???i ioe?iee aca?iiae?th/eo /anoeiie ?icieaao
? i?ioeano ?o aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeai? i?i ci?io
aeaeo?iiii? aoaeiae /an-oeiie a i?ioean? aca?iiae??. Oiio aaaaea?oueny
aeioe?eueiei, canoiniaoth/e oai?a-oe/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
ii?aeiaii? ?c ?acoeueoaoaie no/anieo aeae-o?io?i?/ieo iaoiae?a,
iaa?oiooaaoe iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA* aeey oe?iei-

ai eiea ?iiieo ?icieaa?a ? ia eiai iniia? ?ic?iaeoe oai?aoe/io
aaco a

— 2 —

noai?aii? caaaeueieo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieie
i?ioeanaie.

Oae ye a ?iiieo ?icieaaao a iaea?eueo yaiiio aeaeyae?
?aae?cothoueny eeneioii-iniiai? aca?iiae??, a neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?
aca?iiae?? /anoeiie a ?ii-i?e ??aeei? ooai?th? neeaaeiiu? o
oai?aoe/iiio iieno iaoai?cio aca?iiae?-th/eo /anoeiie, aeioe?eueii
caa?iooeny aei iiaeaeueii? noaie eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??, yea
i?eionea? ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia?aiiai ai?iio ci?io eeneio-ii-iniiaieo
aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua iine?aeiaiei aaaaeaiiyi o ?icaaa-eaiee ?icieaa
eao?ii?a ??ciiai oeio.

Ca ia”?eoe oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
oyaeaiiyie I??niia-ssoeeie?nueeiai oa iiaeaeueiith noaiith
eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? aoee aea?ai? oa?aeoa?i? /anoeiee ?icieaa?a:
ai?iie NO3-, NI32-, T?F62-, BF4-, WO42- oa IiI42- (aei?noe? iniiae) oa
eao?iie Cs+, Rb+, K+, Na+, Li+, Pb2+, Ba2+, Sr2+,Ca2+, Mg2+ oa Aa2+
(aei?noe? eeneioe), aca?iiae?y i?ae yeeie iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaia o
?icieaaao c ai?noii i?o?ao?a, ea?aiiao?a, aieueo?aiao?a, iie?aaeao?a oa
ooi?eae?a ai?o ? oeoaio.

Iaoa ?iaioe. ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy
AA* ? i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieie i?ioeanaie a?aeiiaeaiiy a
?iiieo ?icieaaao a iaaeao iiaeae? eao?ii-ai?iiieo aca?iiae?e ?c
a?aooaaiiyi aieeao eeneioii-iniiaieo aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua,
aaeni?aoe?eieo aean-oeainoae iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ?iaioe iio??aii ?ica”ycaoe ne?aeoth/?
iniiai? caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaea eiiieaeno i?ia?ai aeey eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a
ii-eaeoe a iaaeao iaoiaeo NOI II EEAI ? caniao, ui aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe
aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey oa eeanoa?ieo oi?i iiaeaeae iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo
ia aia?aaoe/io oa aeaeo?iiio aoaeiao ?ii-iieaeoey?ieo nenoai;

( iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy AA* o aea?aieo aeey
aea-/aiiy ?iiieo ?icieaaao oeyoii eaaioiaio?i?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
eao?ii-

— 3 —

ai?iiieo aca?iiae?e /anoeiie ?icieaao ? i?ioean?a aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy ?c
a?a-ooaaiiyi aieeao eeneioii-iniiaieo aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua, iiaa?oi?
aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey;

— aea/aiiy aieeao eao?iiiiai neeaaeo ?icieaao ia ci?io aaee/ei
aia?-a?e aioo??oiueiai?iiieo ca”yce?a oa?aeoa?ieo ai?ii?a oeyoii
?ic?aooieo neeiaeo noaeeo ieneai?ii?a ii a?aeiieo /anoioao ?* — ? E? —
niaeo??a ?iaee-a?aeoaeueieo ?icieaa?a;

— eaaioiaio?i?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy ieenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaieo
i?ioean?a ia i?aeoacia?e iaae? ae?aeaeo?ee — ?iiiee ?icieaa aeey
iiyniaiiy aoaeoo aeie-eiaiiy iiaa?oiaai? i?ia?aeiino? aeiaco a ?icieaa?
?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee eaaioiaio?i?/ii? ioe?iee aeueoa?iaoeae
noaae?e-iino? i?io?eaiiy aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a a?aeiiaeaiy ?
aecia/aiiy i??i-?eoaoo iaeiinoaae?eiiai ? iinoaae?eiiai
aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy AA*.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?ic?iaeaii ia canaaeao eaaioiai? o?i??
i?e?i-neii?/io oai??th aca?iiae?? no?oeoo?ieo /anoie ?iiieo ?icieaa?a oa
i?ioean?a aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy o iaaeao iiaeae? eao?ii-ai?iiieo
aca?iiae?e ?c caeo-/aiiyi aecia/ath/eo oaeoi??a aieeao:
eeneioii-iniiaieo aeanoeainoae na-?aaeiaeua, aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/iiai iiey noiniaii ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii
i?o?ao?a, ea?aiiao?a, ooi?eae?a ai?o oa oeoaio. Oai?aoe/ii ?icaeiaii ?
iaa?oioiaaii i?eioeei eao?iiiiai eaoae?co — ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai yaeua,
yea aecia/a? i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy AA* a ?ic-ieaaao. Ia iniia?
?acoeueoao?a eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a aeiaaaeaii aec-ia/ath/ee
aieea eeneioii-iniiaieo aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua ia iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy
AA*, i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee aenia?eiaioaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie aeae-o?io?i?/ieo
aei??thaaiue aeey ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii i?o?ao?a ? ea?aiiao?a ?
oai?aoe/ii — ia/eneaieie aaee/eiaie neeiaeo noaeeo ieneai?ii?a a
i?e-

nooiino? iaeii-? aeaioca?yaeieo eao?ii?a.

Oeyoii caeo/aiiy aei iiaeaethaaiiy aca?iiae?? no?oeoo?ieo
/anoie

— 4 —

?icieaa?a aieeao iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aeiaaaeaii, ui
ii-aa?oiy aeaeo?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/ia iiea i?eioeeiiai ia aieeaathoue ia
iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy AA* a ?icieaaao, aea nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia
?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue i?iaeoeo?a eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? a i?ioeanao
aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy AA* a ?icieaaao ?c
ai?noii i?o?ao?a, ea?aiiao?a, ooi?eae?a ai?o oa oeoaio. Anoaiiaeaii
iioe-iaeueio oi?io AA*, a?aeiiaia caeaoi?noue yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae
eeneioii-iniia-ieo aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua, aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
iiaa?oi? aeae-o?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

Aeiaaaeaii caeaaei?noue aeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?o iiaa?oi?
aeaeo?iaeo, yeee aecia/a? iae?ioa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oi?, a?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ? a?aei?iiinoae a aoaeia? iaae?
?iciiae?eo ?iiiee ?icieaa-aeaeo?iae, ui i?ecaaei aei noai?aiiy iiaeae?
i?aeoaciai? iaae? ae?aeaeo?ee-?icieaa, yea aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe ia
aeaeo?iiiiio ??ai? iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy ii-aa?oiaai? i?ia?aeiino? aeiaco
a ?icieaa? ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a ? aeaea iiae-eea?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy
aiaeia?/ieo aoaeo?a a ?iiieo ?icieaaao.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo eaaioiaio?i?/ii? ioe?iee aeueoa?iaoeae
noa-ae?eiino? aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy a ?iiieo
?ic-ieaaao, yea aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe i??i?eoao iaeiinoaae?eiiai
ia?aiino aeaeo?ii?a ia?aae iinoaae?eiei aeey eao?ii?ciaaieo oi?i AA*,
aeeeeeaiee aoaeoii ciai?oiueinoa?ii? eao?ii?caoe??.

?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen i?ia?ai aeey eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue
iiea-eoe a ?aieao iaoiaeo NOI II EEAI ca ??cieie iiaeeo?eaoe?yie ?
caniae iiaeaethaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe aieea eeanoa?ieo oi?i
iiaeaeae iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia aia?aaoe/i? ?
aeaeo?iii? ia?a-iao?e aca?iiae?th/eo no?oeoo?ieo /anoeiie a ?iiieo
?icieaaao.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeicaieeee iaa?oiooaaoe iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA* a ?icieaaao, yeee
iiaeia aeei-

— 5 —

?enoaoe aeey ?ic?iaee caaaeueii? oai??? aoaeiae ?iiieo ?icieaa?a.
Aeyaeaia niaoeeo?/i?noue eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? no?oeoo?ieo /anoeiie
?icieaao, yea a oe?eiio i?ioiaeeoue ca a -, ( — iaoai?ciii c ia?aaaaith
iaei??? c eiiiiiaio, ?icaeaa? ?nioth/? no/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo
o?i?/iiai ca”yceo aca?-iiae?th/eo /anoeiie ?icieaao. Anoaiiaeaia
?nioaaiiy nooo?aiai aieeao iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia
?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue AA* aei-iiaith? ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci
aeaiaioa?iiai aeoo ia?aiino ca?yaeo.

Aeyaeaiee i??i?eoao iaeiinoaae?eiiai aaaaoiaeaeo?iiiiai
ia?aiino ca?yaeo a i?ioeanao aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aae iinoaae?eiei
aeey eao?ii?-ciaaieo oi?i AA* ?ice?eaa? i?eioeeiiai iia? iiaeeeaino?
oeyo?a ?aae?-caoe?? aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a a?aeiiaeaiiy.

Aeiaaaeaia caeaaei?noue aeaeo?iiieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi?
aeiaco (ae?-aeaeo?eea) a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae aoaeiae iaae?
?iciiae?eo ?ic-ieaa-aeaeo?iae, aeicaiey? iiynieoe aeieeiaiiy
iiaa?oiaai? i?ia?aeiino? ae-iaco a ?icieaa? c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a, ui
?iaeoue iaaiee aianie a oai??th ieenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaieo i?ioean?a, ye?
i?io?eathoue ia i?aeoacia?e iaae? ?ic-iiae?eo aeaeo?iae-?iiiee ?icieaa,
? aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe ?aae?caoe?th aiaeia?/ieo i?ioean?a a
?ioeo ?iiieo ?icieaaao.

A oe?eiio ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai eaaioiaio?i?/iiai aea/aiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai iiooeo oeyo?a
oi?aae?iiy ? i?iaii-coaaiiy i?ioean?a aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy a ?iiieo
?icieaaao oa aeaeo?ineioaco niieoe c iiia?aaeiuei caaeaieie
aeanoeainoyie.

?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaen i?ia?ai aeey eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue
iiea-

eoe ca iaoiaeii NOI II EEAI aea? iiaeeea?noue aac i?iaaaeaiiy
ae-nia?eiaioo iiaeaethaaoe o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? ?icieaa?a oeyoii
?ic —

?aooieo aia?aaoe/ieo ? aeaeo?iiieo oa?aeoa?enoee aca?iiae?th/eo
no?oeoo?-ieo /anoeiie ?icieaao.

— 6 —

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

— ?icaeoie eiioeaioe?? iaoai?cia oi?ioaaiiy AA* a ?iiieo
?icieaaao ?c a?aooaaiiyi aieeao eeneioii-iniiaieo aeanoeainoae
na?aaeiaeua, iiaa?-oi? aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey noiniaii ?icieaa?a
?c ai?noii i?o?ao?a, ea?aiiao?a oa ooi?eae?a ai?o ? oeoaio;

— i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieie i?ioeanaie
a?aeiiaeaiiy a ?iiieo ?icieaaao a iaaeao iiaeae? eao?ii-ai?iiieo
aca?iiae?e;

— iiaeaeueia noaia iaoai?cio aeieeiaiiy iiaa?oiaai?
i?ia?aeiino? ae-iaco o ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a;

— ?acoeueoaoe eaaioiaio?i?/ii? ioe?iee aeueoa?iaoeae
noaae?eiino? aaaa-oiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a a?aeiiaeaiiy a ?iiieo
?icieaaao;

— eiiieaen i?ia?ai aeey eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue iieaeoe,
yeee ?aae?co? iaoiae NOI II EEAI oa aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe aieea
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ia aia?aaoe/io oa aeaeo?iiio
aoaeiao AA*.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii ieaio IAe? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie (oaia “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a
aeaeo?ia?aeiia-eaiiy o ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a, i?o?ao?a oa
ooi?eae?a ai?o ? oeoa-io”, ? 019 U 034881, 1993-1995 ?.?.); ieaio IAe?
Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ii oai?:
“I?aeiieaeoey?i? aca?iiae?? o aacao, ?ic-/eiao oa ?icieaaao”
(1986-1990?.?.), a oaeiae ieaio IAe? ?CIO IAI Oe?a?ie ii oaiai: 75-A, ?
096711 (1986-1990?.?.) “Aea/aiiy iaoai?cio ? e?iaoeee aeaeo?iaeieo
i?ioean?a i?e aeaeo?ie?c? ?iiieo ?icieaa?a ? iecueeioaiia-?aoo?ieo
?icieaaeaieo nenoai”, 183-A ? 09993 (1991-1995?.?.) “Aeae-o?io?i?y
ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a o ?icieaaeaieo nieyo”.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeei?enoiao-

thoueny a ?inoeooo? o?i?? oa aeaeo?io?i?? Aeaaeai?? iaoe A?oc??,
Iieoaanueeiio a?aeae?eaii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe oaoiieia?/ii? e?aa?iaoeee
Oe?a?ie, ia eaoaae?? o?-

— 7 —

i?? Iieoaanueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo, a Iieoaanueeiio
aea?-aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia OO Ananithci?e *oaa?anuee?e ia?aae? c o?i??
eiiieaenieo niieoe (Ee?a — 1985), ia 37 c»?cae? I?aeia?iaeiiai
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Eeoaa,A?eueithn — 1986), ?O Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? c o?ce/ii? o?i?? oa aeaeo?io?i?? ?iiieo ?icieaa?a
(Naa?aeeianuee -1987), O?? Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c iai?aai?/ii?
o?i?? (Neioa?iiieue 1989), O O?aeuenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? o?ce/ii? o?i?? ? aeaeo?io?i?? (Naa?aeeianuee —
1989), O?? Ananithci?e eii-oa?aioe?? “Canoinoaaiiy eieeaaeueieo
niaeo??a aei aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?aai?/ieo ? eii?aeeiaoe?eieo
niieoe”(I?inuee 1989), ?? ?anioae?eainueeee eiioa?aioe?? “O?ceea
oaa?aeiai o?ea oa iia? aaeoc? ?? canoinoaaiiy” (Ea?aaaiaea — 1990), ?O
Ananithciiio nai?ia?? c i?iaeaie “Aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy iie?aaeaioieo
iaoa-e?a a ?iiieo ?icieaaao” (Oa?e?n? — 1990), Ananithci?e ia?aae? c
eaaioiai? o?i?? (Eacaiue — 1991), O eiioa?aioe?? e?a?i NIAe c o?ce/ii?
o?i?? oa aeaeo?io?i?? ?iiieo ?icieaa?a (?eaoa?eiao?a — 1992), O???
Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? (Oaeai?iae — 1992), ?
Oe?a?inueeiio aeaeo?io?i?/iiio c”?cae? (Ee?a — 1995), O?O Oe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? c ia?aai?/ii? o?i?? (Ee?a — 1996), ?a?iiaenuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? c ?icieaaeaieo nieae (Neiaae?y, Niieai?ea — 1996), 47
c»?cae? I?aeia?iaeiiai aeaeo?io?i?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Oai?ueia,
Aa-eaoiioth?aae — 1996), ui??/ieo i?aenoieiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1985 — 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 50
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.

Ia”?i oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ia”?iii a
361 noi-??iie neeaaea?oueny ?c aaaaeaiiy, naie aeaa, aeniiae?a,
aeiaeaoeo ? aeeth/a? 88 oa-aeeoeue, 25 ?enoie?a oa a?ae?ia?ao?th c 298
iaeiaioaaiue. O aaaaeaii? aeaii ia-a?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? i?iaeaie,
noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?i-

— 8 —

aioe, iaa?oioiaaii aea?? ia”?eo?a aea/aiiy ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeeea-aeaii iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe. A ia?o?e aeaa? ia iniia?
aiae?co ?nioth/eo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ?ice?eo? nooue, noai, no/ani?
i?iaeaie iaoai?cio oi?-ioaaiiy AA* oa i?ioean?a aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy a
?iiieo ?icieaaao, noi?io-eueiaai? iniiai? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe. Ae?oaa aeaaa i?enay/aia ei?ioeiio aeeeaaeo iniia ??cieo
aa??aio?a iaoiaeo NOI II EEAI (Iiiea-Naio??-Naaaea, O?oa?a-Eieueia?a,
Eeaea-Oaoa-ssiaeea), ye? canoiniaothoueny a aeai?e ?iaio?. Iienaii
niin?a a?aooaaiiy aieeao aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia ?ii-iieaeoey?io nenoaio,
?aae?ciaaiee a ae?th/eo i?ia?aiao canoiniaaieo iiaee-o?eaoe?e. Aeaii
ei?ioeo oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoiaeo ia/eneaiue neeiaeo noaeeo. A o?ao?e aeaa?
iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe eaaioiaio?i?/iiai aea/aiiy eeneioii-iniiaii?
aca?iiae?? a ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a oa i?o?ao?a; ?acoeueoaoe
?ic?aooieo neeiaeo noaeeo ai?ii?a ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii eenith. *aoaa?oa
aeaaa i?enay/aia aea/aiith iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy AA* oa i?ioean?a
aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy o ooi?eaeieo ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii oeoaio. A i”yo?e
aeaa? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy AA* o
ooi-?eaeieo ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ai?o. Oinoa aeaaa i?enay/aia
iiaeaethaaiith o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a ia i?aeoacia?e iaae? ?iiiee
?icieaa-ae?aeaeo?ee. A nueii?e aeaa? i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
eaaioiaio?i?/ii? ioe?iee noaae?eiino? aaaa-oiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a
aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy. O aeiaeaoeo i?eaaaeai? aea??eia? ?acoeueoaoe
iaaii??e/ieo ia/eneaiue.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/ canoinoaaeenue: iaoiae NOI
II EEAI oa iao?e/iee iaoiae iine?aeiaieo iaaeeaeaiue (aeey ?ic?aooieo
neei-aeo noaeeo).

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa a ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a,
ye? ae-

iinyoueny aei caoenoo — iinoaiiaea, i?aeaioiaea, i?iaaaeaiiy oa
aiae?c oai?a-

oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Oai?aoe/i? ia/eneaiiy c iiaeaethaaiiy i?aeoaciai?
iaae? aeiac-?icieaa i?iaiaeeeenue ca o/anoth aeioeaioa E.I.Aeaaeaeaiei,
a iaaiai?ai-

— 9 —

i? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a ?
i?o?ao?a a?aa o/anoue i?ioani? O.A.Eoooia, c yeeie aaoi? ia? ni?euei?
noaoo?. Aaciina?aae-ith o/anoue o iaaiai?aii? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
i?eeiaa iaoeiaee eiinoeue-oaio aeaii? ?iaioe i?ioani? A.?.Oaiiaae. An?
ocaaaeueithth/? iieiaeaiiy aee-na?oaoe??, o?ceei-o?i?/i? caeiiii??iino?
?ic?iaeai? ? noi?ioeueiaai? ini-aenoi aaoi?ii.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

EENEIOII-INIIAI? ACA?IIAe?? A ?ICIEAAAO

?C AI?NOII EENITH

Cai?iiiiiaaia A.?.Oaiiaaeii aeey ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii eenith
eiioeaioe?y eeneioii-iniiaiiai iaoai?cio ooai?aiiy AA*, ca?aeii c yeith
ieneai?ii iaoae?a oa iaiaoae?a ia i?eeia? aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? a
aeae-o?iaei?e noaae?? a?aeiiaeaiiy, a AA* ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoao?
eeneioii-in-iiaii? (eao?ii-ai?iiii?) aca?iiae?? /anoie ?icieaao, ia
iiai?noth a?aeia-?aaeaea eeneioii? ?ie? eao?ii?a ?icieaao, ye? iiaeooue,
iiae?aii aei i?ioiio, i?e?aeioaaoenue aei ai?iio ? oei naiei
i?enei?thaaoe i?ioean aeaeo?ia?aeiia-eaiiy. Neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?
aca?iiae?? /anoeiie a ?iii?e ??aeei? noai?th? neea-aeiiu? o
oai?aoe/iiio iieno iaoai?cio aca?iiae?th/eo /anoeiie, oiio aei-oe?eueii
caa?iooeny aei iiaeaeueii? noaie eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??, yea
i?eionea? ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia?aiiai ai?iio ci?io eeneioii-iniiaieo
aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua iinooiiaei ia?iuoaaiiyi eao?ii?a ia?oi?
nieueaaoii? iaieiiee a?aeiinii ai?iia. Noiniaii aei ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii
ea?aiiao?a ? i?o?ao?a i?ioean eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? iiaeia
i?aaenoaaeoe oaeei /eiii:

— 10 —

(Mnm+ ( CO3(2- ( (mn-2)+

nMm+ + CO32-
/1.1/

M2/mO + CO2 +(n — 2/m) Mm+,

(Mnm+ (NO3(-((mn-1)+

nMm+ +NO3-
/1.2/

M2/mO + NO2+ + (n — 2/m) Mm+,

aea m — ca?yae eao?iio, n — ii?yaeie ?aaeoe?? ca eao?iiii
(eii?aeeiaoe?eia /enei).

Oaeei /eiii, eao?ii-ai?iiia aca?iiae?y iiaea i?eaanoe aai aei ooai?aiiy
eao?ii?ciaaieo ai?ii?a (iaoaeieiiieaen?a), aai aei aeenioe?aoe?? ai?iia
ye aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ae??th eao?ii?a, oae ? /a?ac i?ii?aeio noaae?th
ooai?aiiy “ei?ioeiaeeao/eo” iaoaeieiiieaen?a.

?ai?oa i?iaaaeaia eaaioiaio?i?/ia ioe?iea, a ii?aeiaii? c
?acoeueoaoaie aeaeo?io?i?/ieo aei??thaaiue, iieacaea, ui aiane?aeie
eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?-iiae?? o ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii i?o?ao?a ne?ae
a?aeaeaoe ia?aaaao i??i?eoaoiiio ooai?aiith iaoaeieiiieaen?a i?o?ao-?iia
ca?aeii noaie (1.2), a o ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a iiaeia
i?eionoeoe ?aae?caoe?th aeaio iaoai?ci?a oi?io-aaiiy AA* ca?aeii ?c
noaiith /1.1/: aai ooai?aiiy /anoeiie aeaeyaeo

(Mnm+ (CO3(2-((mn-2)+, aai(iieaeoee NI2 aiane?aeie ?oeioaaiiy ai?iio
NI32- .

?acii c oei a iaaeao cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? eao?ii-ai?iiii?
aca?-iiae??, yea ?aae?co?oueny ia oii? ?icaaaeaieo ?icieaa?a, ia
a?aoiaoaaany aieea aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo oa
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia oa?aeoa? eeneioii-iniiaieo aca?iiae?e oa ia
aeaiaioa?iee aeo

— 11 —

ia?aiino ca?yaea. A?aooaaiiy o?eueee aeene?aoii? no?oeoo?e iiaa?oi?
oaa?aeiai aeaeo?iaeo oa a?aei?iiinoae a aoaeia? iaae? ?iciiae?eo
?icieaa(aeaeo?iae ii-aeiii i?ecaiaeeoe eeoa ca caaaeueiio?ce/ieie
oyaeaiiyie aei ci?ie aean-oeainoae iiaa?oi? ?iciiae?eo, aeeeeeaii?
aca?iiae??th aoii?a iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo c aaeni?aiaaieie /anoeieaie
?icieaao. A?aoiaoth/e, ui a ?aaeueieo oiiaao i?ioeane
aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy i?io?eathoue ia i?aeoacia?e iaae? aeaeo?iae(?icieaa,
aea ? iaaiee a?aae??io iioaioe?aeo ? ia i?ioeane eao?ii-ai?iiii?
aca?iiae?? oa aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy aieeaathoue ia o?eueee aaeni?aoe?ei?
aoaeoe, a ? aeaeo?e/ia iiea (ciai?oia ? iiaea?eiiai oa?o), aeioe?eueii
a?eueo aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooe aieea iiey, ye iaeiiai ?c i?eioeeiiaeo
oaeoi??a, aecia/ath/eo oa?aeoa? i?ioeana aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy, ia
aia?aaoe/i? ia?aiao?e i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? oa
?o ?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue.

Oaeei /eiii, o?eueee ni?eueia a?aooaaiiy o?ueio i?eioeeiiaeo
oaeoi??a: eeneioii-iniiaieo aeanoeainoae ?icieaao, iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ?
aeaeo?e/-iiai iiey iiaea aeaoe ia»?eoeaio ?ioi?iaoe?th ii iaa?oiooaaiith
i?ioean?a aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy ? iaoai?cia oi?ioaaiiy AA* o ?icieaaao ?c
ai?noii ea?aiiao?a oa i?o?ao?a.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aaee/ei iiaieo aia?a?e, aaee/ei ca?yae?a,
ca-naeaiinoae AI ?icaeyaeoaaieo ia”?eo?a iieacaa, ui i?enooi?noue aoii?a
iaca-?yaeaeaii? iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, iiaeaeueiaaii? eeanoa?ii ?c o?ueio
aoii?a aoa-eaoeth, noeioethth/e ia?a?iciiae?e aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a
?cieueiaaiiio ai?ii? NI32- ca a -, ( — iaoai?ciii a oe?eiio, c
i??i?eoaoii a-neeaaeiai?, i?ecaiaeeoue aei iineaaeaiiy
aioo??oiueiai?iiieo ca”yce?a. ?iciiae?e aieeao aiane?a ii-aa?oi?
aeaeo?iaeo oa eao?iiiiai iiey iieacaa, ui ia?aaaaeiith ? ?ieue eao?-ii?a
o ci?i? aaee/ei aia?a?e ca”yce?a N-I o ea?aiiao-?ii?. A oe?eiio ae
a?aeao-aa?oueny iineaaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai?iiieo ca”yce?a a NI32- a
i?enooiino? eao?ii?a oa iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo. Ioaea, iiaa?oiy
aeaeo?iaeo a iaaeao ia?aii?

— 12 —

iiaeaeueii? noaie i?eioeeiiai ia aieeaa? ia iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy AA*,
yeee

aecia/a?oueny aieiaiei /eiii eao?iiiei neeaaeii ?icieaao.

? oaeiio, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a?ey iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo i?ae ae??th
eao?iiiiai oa aeaeoe/iiai (A = 2 ( 1010 A/i) iie?a aeicaiey?
eiinoaooaaoe aeenioe?aoe?th ca”yce?a N-I c ooai?aiiyi NI2.

Aieea iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ia aeaiaioa?iee aeo ia?aiino ca?yaeo
i?e-caiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a 2-o oa 4-o
aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiia-eaiiy ?icaeyaeoaaieo aca?iiae?e a ii??aiyii? c
?cieueiaaiei NI32- . Aeiaeao-eiaee aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia o?eueee
i?aeneeth? aeyaeaiee aoaeo / ~ a 2 ?ace/, aea ? aeaco? ia ia?aaaao
aaciina?aaeiueiai a?aeiiaeaiiy iieaeoee NI2.

Oaeei /eiii, aeiaeaoeiaee ?icaeyae aieeao iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo
oa aeae-o?e/iiai iiey iieacaa, ui ni?eueia cao?thth/a ae?y aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey oa ii-aa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeenioe?aoe?? ye ai?iio
NI32- , oae ? eao?ii?-ciaaieo ai?ii?a c ooai?aiiyi AA* — NI2, a nai
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy AA* a ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a a?aeaoaa?oueny
/a?ac noaae?th ooai?aiiy eao?ii?ciaaieo ai?ii?a a?aeiia?aeii ?c noaiith
/1.1./. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee, a ii?aeiaii? c ?acoeueoaoaie
aeaeo?io?i?/ieo aei??thaaiue, aeicaieeee i?aaenoa-aeoe aeaeo?iaeio
?aaeoe?th oaeei /eiii:

NI2 + 4a N + 2 I2-.
/2/

Aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e iaoaeieiiieaen?a, ooai?aieo a ?acoeueoao?
eao?ii-ai?iiieo aca?iiae?e a ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii i?o?ao?a, ia?aaeuoaaee
?ici??e e?i?eiiai eeanoa?a, iiaeaethth/iai iiaa?oith aeaeo?iaeo a
?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a, ui ?i?oe?thaaei iiooe iiaeo eeanoa?ieo
oi?i iiaea-

— 13 —

eae iiaa?oi? /EOII/ aeaeo?iaeo. A ?acoeueoao? iiooeo iioeiaeueiiai
aa??ai-

oo EOII ?c 4-o aeueoa?iaoeaieo iiaeaeae aoei ia?aii a?iiaoe/io nenoaio
?c 12 aoii?a aoaeaoeth /48 aacenieo i?a?oaeae/, caaacia/oth/o aaeaeaaoia
a?aei-a?aaeaiiy aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieo aeanoeainoae iaca?yaeaeaii?
iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo.

Aca?iiae?y eeanoa?a iiaa?oi? c ai?iiii NO3- ?i?oe?th?
ia?a?iciiae?e aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a ((3- a oe?eiio ca a -, ( —
iaoai?ciii, c ia?aaaaith a -eiiiiiaioe, oa i?ecaiaeeoue aei iineaaeaiiy
aioo??oiueiai?iiieo ca”yce?a (((. Aeiaeaoeiaee aieea iiey eao?ii?a (?+
oa Aa2+ ia ai?ii ((3- i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai /~ a 3-4 ?ace/
ca?eueoaiiy aaee/ei aia?a?e ca»yce?a N-O. I?e oeueiio eao?iiia iiea
noeioeth? i??i?eoao ( — neeaaeiai? a a (((( — iaoai?ci? ia?a?iciiae?eo
aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie i?ae aieeaii iaio oaeoi??a, aeeeeeath/e ca?eueoaiiy
aaee/ei aia?a?e ca»yceo N-O. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eii?aeeiaoe?eiai /enea
oaiaeaioe?y ci?oeiaiiy ca”yce?a ((( caa??aa?oueny.

Ioaea, ni?eueiee aieea iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo oa eao?ii?a
?icieaao ia ia-oai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA* aecia/a?oueny eiieo?aioe??th aeaio
??ciini?yiiaaieo oaiaeaioe?e a ia?a?iciiae?e? aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a ((3-
, c ia?aaaaith ( — neea-aeiai?, ? aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a iaaeao
ia?aii? noaie iiaa?oiy aeae-o?iaeo i?eioeeiiai ia aieeaa? ia iaoai?ci
oi?ioaaiiy AA* — iaoa-eieiiieaen?a aeaeyaeo {Mnm+[ NO3]-}(mn-1)+.

I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee aieeao aeaeo?e/iiai iiey / A = 2( 1010
A/i/ ia aia?aaoe/i? ia?aiao?e eao?ii?ciaaiiai i?o?ao-?iia a?ey iiaa?oi?
aeaeo?iaeo iieacaee, ui aeaeo?e/ia iiea i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith? aaee/ei
aia?a?e ca”yce?a ((( a i?o?ao-?ii? ia oii? aeinoaoiuei neeueii?
aca?iiae?? ((3- c eao?iiaie (?+ oa Aa2+. ?iciiae?e aiane?a aieeao
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey oa iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe
a?aenooi?noue noooaaiai aieeao ye iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, oae ?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia eao?ii-ai?iii? aca?iiae??, iaoai?ci yeeo
aecia-/a?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, eao?iiiei neeaaeii ?icieaao ?c ai?noii
i?o?ao?a.

— 14 —

Iiaa?oiy aeaeo?iaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai ca?eueoaiiy
?aaeoe?eii?

caeaoiino? iaoaeieiiieaen?a i?e aeaioaeaeo?iiiiio a?aeiiaeaii? ca
aeaieie

ia/eneaieo aaee/ei aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a. Oeae aoaeo i?aeneeth?oueny
i?e ca?eueoaii? ieoiiiai ca?yaeo eao?iio oa ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai /en-ea aeey eao?ii?a (?+ oa Aa2+. Aeiaeaoeiaa
iaeeaaeaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iiey caa-??aa? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy
aa?”???a. ?iciiae?e aiane?a aieeao iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, eao?iiiiai oa
aeaeo?e/iiai iie?a ia aeaiaioa?iee aeo ia?aiino ca?yaea iieacaa, ui
aaeni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo a?athoue a?eueo cia/io
?ieue a i?ioeanao a?aeiiaeaiiy a ii??aiyii? c aeaeo?e/iei ii-eai.
Aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? eii?aeeiaoe?ei? /enea: ((( ( ((( ((3- a ioi/aii?
eao?ii?a (?+ oa ( = 3 ( eao?ii?a Aa2+.

Oaeei /eiii, ni?eueiee aieea iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo oa
aeaeo?e/iiai ii-ey ia eao?ii-ai?iii? aca?iiae?? a ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii
i?o?ao?a ia ? ae??-oaeueiei o oi?ioaaii? AA*. ?acii c oei iiaa?oiy
aeaeo?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/ia iiea ca?eueoothoue ?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue
i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?-iiae?? oeyoii ciaioaiiy
aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a a?aeiiaeaiiy ? aeicaieythoue anoaiiaeoe
iioeiaeueio oi?io AA* -iaoaeieiiieaen?a, ooai?aieo a ?acoeue-oao?
eao?ii?caoe?? NO3- ca noaiith /1.2/. Nai i?ioean aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy, c
o?a-ooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeaeo?io?i?/ieo aei??thaaiue, iiaea aooe
i?aaenoaa-eaiee oae:

{Mnm+ [NO3]-}(mn-1)+ + 2e NO2- + nM2/mO + (n —
2/m)Mm+ . /3/

?ai?oa i?iaaaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
aeaeo?i-a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?iio NO3- ia o?eueee i?aeoaa?aeeei i?aaaeea?noue
ooai?aiiy AA* ca noaiith /1.2/, aea e iaeiicia/ii aeacaei ia
eaoae?oe/io i?e?iaeo oaeeue a?ae-iiaeaiiy i?o?aoa a i?enooiino?
neeueiiiiey?ecoth/eo eao?ii?a, iaaeeeoie yeeo aeo?a/a?oueny ia o?eueee
ia ooai?aiiy ye?nii iiaeo AA* — iaoaeieiii-

— 15 —

eaen?a, aea ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?aaaia?aoe?? aeaiiey?ecaoi?a ca
ne?aeoth/ith noa-

iith:

Im+, A

3((2- ((3- ( ((( (
(2- /4/

Iiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? noaie /4/ aoea i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
eaaioiaio?i?/ieie ?ic?aooieaie aca?iiae?e Inm+ ((( NO2- (M=Li+, Be2+)
o aeaeo?e/iiio iie? iai?oaeai?noth A=0; 0,2; 2(1010 A/i, ye?
iaeii/anii i?aeoaa?aeeee i??i?eoaoio ?ieue eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? o
oi?ioaaii? AA* a ?iiieo ?icieaaao.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy nooo?aiai aieeao eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??
ia iaoa-i?ci ooai?aiiy AA* a ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii neeaaeieo ieneai?ii?a
aoei iaea?-aeaii oeyoii aea/aiiy aieeao eao?iiiiai neeaaeo ?icieaao ia
ci?io neeiaeo noaeeo ca”yce?a ((((((-I, ( -I oa Ii-I ai?ii?a ((3-
((((32- ,(((42- , IiI42- ca a?aeiieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie /anoioaie ?*
— oa E? -niaeo??a a?aeiia?aeieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?icieaa?a.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ia/eneaiue neeiaeo noaeeo nenoai
[ MNO3 ]o i [M2CO3]o (M=Cs+, Rb+, K+, Na+) aeacothoue ia
oaiaeaioe?th ca?eueoaiiy ye neeiaeo noaeeo ?icoyao ca”yce?a ( — I oa
N-I, oae ? — aeaoi?iaoe?eieo, a ii??aiyii? c oaeeie ae a ?cieueiaaieo
ai?iiao (I3- oa NI32- ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ieoiiiai ca?yaeo eao?iia a ?yaeo
a?ae ((+ (aei((?+. Aeyaeaiee aoaeo ci?oeiaiiy ca”yce?a ( — I i?o?ao-?iia
aiane?aeie eao?ii?caoe?? iiai?noth ni?aiaaea? ye c ?a-coeueoaoaie
eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue aeey ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii i?o?ao?a, oae ? c
?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co aeaeo?iiieo niaeo??a iiaeeiaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai
N.A.Aieeiaei. Aeey ea?aiiaoieo ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii eao?ii?a (((+( ((+,
oa E+ / a iaei?e ?c ?icaeyaeoaaieo eiioi?iaoe?e / niinoa??aa?oueny
iai?aaeaii?noue aei ciaioaiiy neeiaeo noaeeo ca”yce?a N — I, ui
iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? oya-eaiiyi, iaea?aeaiei ia iniia?
eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue, ca?aeii c yeeie eao?iiia iiea ?icieaao
noeioeth? ia o?eueee iineaaeaiiy iaeiiai ?c ca”yce?a

— 16 —

N-I ea?aiiao-?iia, aea ? ?o aeenioe?aoe?th.

Aiae?c ?ic?aooieo neeiaeo noaeeo nenoai [MYO4]o(M=Na2+, Li2+,
?b2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+; Y =W, Mo) aeaco? ia ca?eueoaiiy neeiaeo noaeeo
?icoyao ca”yce?a Y-I ? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo neeiaeo noaeeo aeey ((42- oa
IiI42- ?c ca?eue-oaiiyi ieoiiiai ca?yaeo eao?iia a iie? iaeii- oa
aeaioca?yaeieo eao?ii?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino? a aaiiao???
ai?ii?a a i?enooiino? eao?ii?a: oao?aaae?e/ii? — aeey eao?ii?a eoaeieo
iaoae?a oa oaae?oiai? aeey aca?iiae?? YI42- c aeaioca?yaeieie
eao?iiaie, aeyaeaiee aoaeo caa??aa?oueny, oi/ ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ia??aiioe?iiino? ci?ie neeiaeo noaeeo ca”yce?a. Aeyaeaia c?inoaiiy
aaee/ei neeiaeo noaeeo ia/eneaieo aca?iiae?e ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ieoiiiai
ca?yaeo eao?iia iiynith?oueny i?aeneeaiiyi nooiaiy aeaeieae?caoe??
aa-eaioieo aeaeo?ii?a ai?iia YI42- ia i?a?oae? eao?ii?a, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy noaa?e?caoe?? ??ai?a aia?a?? aeaeo?ii?a
aioo??oi?o iaieiiie a YI42-.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeaiee ?ic?aooiie iiaiiai iaai?o neeiaeo
noaeeo ca a?aeiieie /anoioaie niaeo??a ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?icieaa?a ?c
ai?noii neea-aeieo ieneai?ii?a i?aeoaa?aeea aaaiiee aieea
eao?ii-ai?iiieo aca?iiae?e ia iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy AA* a ?icieaaao, ui
iiai?noth ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ?acoeue-oaoaie eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue.

IAOAI?CI OI?IOAAIIss AA* O OOI?EAeIEO

?ICIEAAAO ?C AI?NOII OEOAIO

Oni?oia canoinoaaiiy iiaeaeueii? noaie eao?ii-ai?iiii?
aca?iiae?? aei ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a ? i?o?ao?a aea?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaethaaiiy ?ioeo ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii
ai?ii?a neeaaeii? aoaeiae. Oiio ii-aeaeueio noaio eao?ii-ai?iiii?
aca?iiae?? o ooi?eaeieo ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii oeoaio iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe
oae:

— 17 —

{Mnm+ [ TiF6 ] 2- }(mn-2)+

nMm+ + TiF62- /5/

TiF4 + 2F- + nMm+ .

?c /5/ ne?aeo?, ui a ?acoeueoao? eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? iiaeeeaa aai
ooai?ai-iy eao?ii?ciaaieo ai?ii?a (iaoaeieiiieaen?a) aeaeyaeo {Mnm+ [
TiF6]2-}(mn-2)+, aai aeenioe?aoe?y ai?iia (((62- c ooai?aiiyi
oao?aooi?eaeo oeoaio (((4.

Iiia?aaeiuei i?iaaaeai? ia/eneaiiy iieacaee, ui aeenioe?aoe?y
?cieuei-aaiiai ai?iia (((62- iaiiaeeeaa c aia?aaoe/ieo i??eoaaiue.
Aiae?c aia?aa-oe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ii ?acoeueoaoai i?iaaaeaieo
?ic?aooie?a, iieacaa, ui aca?iiae?y eao?ii?a (a+, (?+ oa I(2+ c ai?iiii
(((62- i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy iaoaeieiiieaen?a ai?iia (((62- c
eao?iiaie(((a+ oa ((+ c eii?aeeiaoe?eieie /eneaie (=2,4,6. I?e oeueiio
aia?a?? aioo??oiueiai?iiieo ca”yce?a (((( i?ae aieeaii eao?ii?a
ciaioothoueny, a aia?a?? ca”yce?a eao?ii-ai?ii ca?eue-oothoueny ?c
c?inoaiiyi (. Aca?iiae?y eao?ii?a iaai?th c (((62- aaea aeey(((=2
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeenioe?aoe?? aeaio ca”yce?a ((((, a iiaeaeueoa
ca?eueoaiiy e?eue-eino? eao?ii?a ((2+ a ia?o?e nieueaaoi?e iaieiioe?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeenioe?aoe?? ai?iia (((62- . I?e oeueiio aoaeo
iineaaeaiiy ca”yce?a (((( aiane?aeie eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??
aeeeeea?oueny ia?a?icae?eii aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a ai?ii? (((62- ca
a(((( — iaoai?ciii, c ia?aaaaith a-eiiiiiaioe, yeee c?inoa? ye ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai /enea, oae ?c c?inoaiiyi ieoiiiai
ca?yaeo ea-o?iia ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeenioe?aoe?? (((62- c ooai?aiiyi
(((4, caeeoath/e iac-i?iiei aieiaiee ?acoeueoao — ooai?aiiy a ia”?i?
?icieaao AA* aeaeyaeo

{ Mnm+ [ (((6]2-}(mn-2)+. Aca?iiae?y iaeiiai ?c i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe??
eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? iieaeoee (((4 c eao?iiaie ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeenioe?aoe?? ca”yce?a ((((, ui aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe iiaeeea?noue
?nioaaiiy a ia”?i? ?icieaao

— 18 —

anioe?ao?a aeaeyaeo {Mnm+[TiF4]o}(mn)+ c eii?aeeiaoe?eieie /eneaie
(=2,4. Aaee/eie aia?a?e ca”yce?a (((( a ia/eneaieo aca?iiae?yo
ciaioothoueny iac-ia/ii a ii??aiyii? c oaeeie ae aeey (((4,
caaacia/oth/e aeey anioe?ao?a i?oeiee ca”ycie eao?ii?a c iieaeoeith
(((4.

Aieea eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? ia aeaiaioa?iee aeo ia?aiino
ca?yaeo aeey ?icaeyaeoaaieo aca?iiae?e i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”?-??a 2-o oa 4-o aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy
iaoaeieiiieaen?a ai?iia (((62- oa iieaeoey?ieo anioe?ao?a oao?aooi?eaeo
oeoaio a ii??aiyii? c ?cieueiaaieie (((62- oa (((4. Ca aeaieie
ia/eneaiue aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a a?aeiiaeaiiy anoa-iiaeaii i??i?eoao
4-o aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiiaeaiy ia?aae 2-o aeaeo?iiiei aeey /anoeiie Mnm+
[TiF6]2-}(mn-2)+ oa {Mnm+ [TiF4]o}(mn)+; aeey ?cieueiaaiiai TiF4
iio??aii a?aeaeaoe ia?aaaao 2-o aeaeo?iiiiio ia?aiino ca?yaeo a
ii??aiyii? c eao?ii?ciaaiei oao?aooi?eaeii oeoaio.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co ?* ai?n?eieo niaeo??a
iiaeeiaiiy ia ii-aeia iiai?noth aeeeth/eoe aieea ai?ii?a ((- aeaeo?ie?oo
ia iaoai?ci ooai?ai-iy AA*. I?iaaaeaia eaaioiaio?i?/ia ioe?iea
aca?iiae?? ai?ii?a oiiiaiai aeae-o?ie?oo ((- c iieaeoeith (((4 aeacaea
ia iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy a ia”?i? ?ic-ieaao no?eeeo ?ii-iieaeoey?ieo
anioe?ao?a aeaeyaeo { Cl2- [ TiF4]o}2-. I?e oeuei-io aeoeaaoe?ei?
aa?”??e 2-o oa 4-o aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy (((4 nooo?ai
ca?eueoothoueny a i?enooiino? ai?ii?a oei?o, aeacoth/e ia oa, ui ai?iiia
ioi/aiiy, ia a?aei?io a?ae eao?iiiiai aieeao, ia ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith
a?aeiiaii? caeaoiino? iieaeoe (((4 oa ia aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe a yeino? AA*
?ii-iiea-eoey?iee anioe?ao aeaeyaeo {Cl2- [TiF4]o}2-.

Aea/aiiy aieeao iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, yea iiaeaeth?oueny
a?iiaoe/iith nenoaiith c 12 aoii?a aoaeaoeth, ia oa?aeoa?
eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae?? o ooi-?eaeieo ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii oeoaio
aeaco?, ui iiaa?oiy aeeeeea? ia?a?ic-iiae?e aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a
eao?ii?ciaaieo (((62- ?((((4 oa (a ?cieueiaaiiio (((4 ia?aaaaeii ca a
-iaoai?ciii, i?aeneethth/e oei naiei ni?yiiaai?noue ae??

— 19 —

eao?iiiiai iiey a {Mnm+ [TiF6]2-}(mn-2)+ oa ca?eueooth/e aianie a
a-eiiiiiaioo a(((( — iaoai?cio i?a?aoe?? aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie aeey {Mnm+
[TiF4]o}(mn)+ oa TiF4, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeiaeaoeiaiai iineaaeaiiy
ca”yce?a Ti-F aeey an?o o?ueio oei?a AA*. Oiio iiaa?oiy aeaeo?iaeo,
eao?iie ?icieaao a iaaeao ia?a- ii? iiaeaeueii? noaie, aiaeia?/ii
?icieaaai ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a ? i?o?ao?a, i?eioeeiiai ia aieeaathoue
ia iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA*, a eeoa i?aene-eththoue aoaeo
eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??.

sseui aeey aca?iiae?? eao?ii?a Li+ oa Na+ c TiF62- aeaeo?e/ia
iiea iai?o-aeai?noth 2 ( 1010 A/i ? iiaa?oiy aeaeo?iaeo i?ecaiaeyoue aei
i?aeneeaiiy aoaeoo ciaioaiiy aaee/ei aia?a?e ca”yce?a Ti-F, yeee c?inoa?
?c ca?eueoaiiyi /enea eao?ii?a a ia?o?e nieueaaoi?e iaieiioe?, oi o
aeiaaeeo aca?iiae?? Na+, Li+, Mg2+ c TiF4 a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?oeiaiiy
ca”yce?a Ti-F iieaeoee (((4. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ca?yaeiaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee aoii?a oa canaeaiinoae aoiiieo i?a?oaeae c ?iciiae?eo
aiane?a iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iieacaa, ui aeaeo?e/ia
iiea, ?i?oe?thth/e ia?a?iciiae?e aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a ai?ii? ((62-
ia?aaaaeii ca a-iaoai?ciii, a a O?(4 ( ca( ( — iaoai?ciii, iaoiiaeth?
iaeiaeiao ni?yiiaai?noue ae?? iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, eao?iiiiai oa
aeaeo?e/iiai iie?a a i?a?aoe?? aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a ai?ii?((?(62- oa (
i?ioeeaaeio a iieaeoe? (((4, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iineaaeaiiy
ca”yce?a((((( a(((((62- oa ( aei ci?oeiaiiy a (((4.

Ni?eueiee aieea iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/iiai iiey
nooo?ai cieaeo? aenioo aeoeaaoe?eiiai aa?”??o 4-o aeaeo?iiiiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeey anueiai iaai?o aca?iiae?e /aea ia aeey (((62- /;
ciaioo?oueny oaeiae aa?”?? 2-o aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy aeey iieaeoee
(((4 ia oii? iaci?iiiai aa?”??o ?? 4-o aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy. I?e
oeueiio iioeiaeueio a?aeiiaio caeaoi?noue ia? ai?ii (((62- a ioi/aii?
oanoe eao?ii?a ? iieaeoea T?F4 — a ioi/aii? /ioe-?ueio eao?ii?a
aiane?aeie iaeneiaeueiiai ciaioaiiy aenioe aa?”??o. Iaea?-

aeaiee ?acoeueoao iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? ?aea? ciai?oiueinoa?ii?
eao?ii?caoe?? a

— 20 —

?icieaaao ai?ii?a neeaaeii? aoaeiae i?e aeinyaiaii? iaaeeeoeo eao?ii?a,
cai?i-iiiiaaii? A.?.Oaiiaaeii oa i?aeoaa?aeaeaii? aeaeo?io?i?/ieie
aeine?aeaeai-iyie aeey ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii aieueo?aiao?a.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? ia/eneaiiy aeicaieythoue
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ni?eueia ae?y iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, ai?ii?a oiiiaiai
aeaeo?ie?oo oa aeaeo?e/-iiai iiey i?eioeeiiai ia aieeaa? ia iaoai?ci
oi?ioaaiiy AA*, aea iiaa?-oiy aeaeo?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/ia iiea
ca?eueoothoue ?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? eao?ii-ai?iiii?
aca?iiae?? oeyoii cieaeaiiy aenioe aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a a?aeiiaeaiiy,
ui aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeueio oi?io AA*:

{ M6m+ [TiF6]2-}(6m-2-)+ , { M4m+ [TiF4]o}4m+ , TiF4 , iaoai?ci
ooai?aiiy yeeo /5/ iiaeii aeiiiaieoe noaiith:

nMm+ + TiF4 {Mnm+ [TiF4]o}(mn)+
. /6/

O?iiiaieueoaiia?iiao?e/i? aei??e aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy
aeaeo?io?i?/ii? iiaaae?iee (((62- ia oii? ?icieaao ((((((((
/I.A.Oeeeeao??, A.?.Oaiiaae/ aeyaeee 3 oaee? a?aeiiaeaiiy, aea? c yeeo
aoee ?aeaioeo?eiaai? ye a?aeiiaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai ai?iia a eao?iiiiio
ioi/aii? ? i?iaeoeoa ?aaeoe?? /5/ ( (((4; iiynieoe o?aoth oaeeth
a?aeiiaeaiiy oeyoii eeoa ia?iaee aenia-?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeyaeyeinue
iaiiaeeeaei. Aeyaeaiiy a ?acoeueoao? eaai-oiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue o?ueio
oei?a AA* aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe ia o?eueee ei?aeyoe?th
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa ?ic?aooieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee, aea ? iiaeaoe
iaa?oioiaaio ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th an?o o?ueio oaeeue a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?iia
(((62- .

IAOAI?CI OOAI?AIIss AA* O OOI?EAeIEO

?ICIEAAAO ?C AI?NOII AI?O

Iiaeaeueio noaio ooai?aiiy AA* o ooi?eaeieo ?icieaaao ?c
ai?noii

— 21 —

ai?o iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe, aiaeia?/ii ?ai?oa ?icaeyiooei ?icieaaai, oaeei
/eiii:

{Mnm+ [BF4]-}(mn-1)+

nMm+ + BF4-
/7/

BF3 + F- + nMm+
.

Iiia?aaei? ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui aeenioe?aoe?y
“?cieueiaaiiai” ai?iia ((4- iaiiaeeeaa c aia?aaoe/ieo i??eoaaiue.
Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aia?aa-oe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ca ?acoeueoaoaie
i?iaaaeaieo ia/eneaiue, iieacaa, ui aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? ai?iia c
eao?iiaie (((+ oa ((2+ a oe?eiio niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei
ciaioaiiy aaee/ei aia?a?e aioo??oiueiai?iiieo ca”yce?a, a — c
eao?iiaie ((+ niinoa??aa?oueny ?o ca?eueoaiy a ii??aiyii? c oaeeie ae a
((4- ia oii? aeinoaoiuei neeueii? eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??.
?icaeyae ca?yae?a ia aoi-iao oa canaeaiinoae AI ia/eneaieo nenoai
iieacaa, ui ci?oeiaiiy ca”yce?a ((( a iaoaeieiiieaenao ai?iia c
eao?iiaie ((+ iaoiiaeaia i??i?eoaoii (-neeaaeiai? a(((( — iaoai?cio
ia?a?iciiae?eo aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a ((4- , ia a?aei?io a?ae
iaoaeieiiieaen?a c eao?iiaie ((+ oa ((2+ , aea niinoa??aa?oueny
ia?aaaaa a -eiiiiiaioe. Oaeei /eiii, eao?ii-ai?iiia aca?iiae?y o
ooi?eae-ieo ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ai?o i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy a
ia”?i? ?icieaao iaoaeieiiieaen?a aeaeyaeo { (nm+ {((4]-}(mn-1)+
a?aeiia?aeii c? noaiith /7/.

Oae ye aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia aeeeth/a?
aeueoa?iaoeaii? iiae-eeaino? aeenioe?aoe?? ai?iia ((4- aiane?aeie
eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??, aoei i?i-aaaeaii aea/aiiy aca?iiae?? iaeiiai
c i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? /7/ iieaeoee ((3 c eao?iiaie. Aiae?c aia?aaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aca?iiae?? ((3 c eao?iiaie ((+

oa Li+ aeey eii?aeeiaoe?eieo /enae ((1,2,3 iieacaa, ui ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny aee-

— 22 —

nioe?aoe?y ca”yce?a (((, iacaaaeath/e ia ?o nooo?aa iineaaeaiiy. ?acii c
oei aca?iiae?y aeaio eao?ii?a ((2+ c BF3 i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?oeioaaiiy
iieaeoee ((3, caeeoath/e iaci?iiith iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy a ia”?i?
?icieaao anioe?ao?a aeaeyaeo {Mnm+ [BF3]o}(mn)+.

Aieea eao?iiiiai ioi/aiiy ia ?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue i?iaeoeo?a
?aaeoe?? /7/ i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a 2-o oa
4-o aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy iaoaeieiiieaen?a ai?iia ((4- ? anioe?ao?a
iieaeoee ((3 a ii??a-iyii? c ?cieueiaaieie ((4- oa ((3. I?e oeueiio ye
aeey eao?ii?ciaaieo oi?i /anoeiie, oae ? aeey ((3 niinoa??aa?oueny
i??i?eoao 2-o aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiia-eaiiy ia?aae 4-o aeaeo?iiiei.

?acoeueoaoe niaeo?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?icieaaeaii?
iio??eii? nen-oaie ((((((((((((4 aeacothoue ia ?nioaaiiy a ?icieaa?
ci?oaieo oei?eaeii-ooi?eaeieo eiiieaenieo ?ii?a aeaeyaeo (((4-o((o(-.
I?iaaaeaiee eaaioiai-o?i?/iee aiae?c aieeao ai?ii?a ((- oiiiaiai
aeaeo?ie?oo ia aca?iiae?th ai?iia ((4- c 1 oa 2 eao?iiaie e?o?th
aeacaa ye ia iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy ani-oe?ao?a aeaeyaeo
(((4-o((o(-, oae ? oaeeo aea a eao?iiiiio ioi/aii? . I?e oeueiio
iaea?eueo no?eeith ? /anoeiea ((((3(i((-(-. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, oi
aeoe-aaoe?eiee aa?”?? 2-o aeaeo?iiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy oaeeo anioe?ao?a
cieaeo?oueny a ii??aiyii? c oaeei aeey ai?iia ((4- , iaeneiaeueia
cieaeaiiy aeinyaa?oueny aeey nenoaie((((+(((3(((-(i. Oi/a aoaeo
cieaeaiiy aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a aeey (((4- oa ((3 a eao?iiiiio ioi/aii?
a?eueoee, i?ae aeey anioe?aoo (((+(((3(((-(i, ia iiaeia aeeeth/aoe naio
iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy inoaiiueiai.

A?aooaaiiy aieeao iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, yea iiaeaeth?oueny
eeanoa?ii c 12 aoii?a aoaeaoeth, ia oa?aeoa? eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??
o ooi?eaeieo ?ic-ieaaao ?c ai?noii ai?o iieacaa, ui iiaa?oiy aeaeo?iaeo,
aeeeeeath/e aeiaeao-eiao i?a?aoe?th aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie ca a-iaoai?ciii
aeey an?o ?icaeyaeoaaieo oei?a AA*, i?ecaiaeeoue aei iacia/iiai
iineaaeaiiy ca”yce?a ((( o ?icaeyaeo-

aaieo aca?iiae?yo. Oiio a iaaeao ia?aii? iiaeaeueii? noaie iiaa?oiy
aeae-

— 23 —

o?iaeo, aiaeia?/ii ?ai?oa ?icaeyiooei ?icieaaai, nooo?ai ia aieeaa? ia
iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy AA*.

Iaeeaaeaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iai?oaeai?noth A=2 ( 1010 A/i
i?aeneeth? oaiaeaioe?th aei iineaaeaiiy ca”yce?a ((( a
((nm+(((4(-((mn-1)+ ? (aei iacia/iiai ?o ci?oeiaiiy a ?ioeo AA*, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ii??aiyeueiei aiae?cii canaeaiinoae AI c ?iciiae?eo
aiane?a aieeao iiaa?oi? ? iiey a ?icaeyaeoaaieo aca?iiae?yo, aeacoth/e
oei naiei ia iacia/i?noue aieeao iiey oa iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ia iaoai?ci
ooai?aiiy AA*.

Aieea iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia aeaiaioa?iee
aeo ia?aiino ca?yaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai cieaeaiiy aa?”???a 2-o
aeae-o?iiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy aeey anueiai iaai?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo nenoai
/aea ia aeey ((4- /, yea ca?eueoo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi /enea eao?ii?a a
nieueaaoi?e iaieiioe?.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? ia/eneaiiy aeicaieeee c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui ni?eueia cao?thth/a ae?y iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo oa
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia eao?ii-ai?iiio aca?iiae?th o ooi?eaeieo ?icieaaao
?c ai?noii ai?o i?eioeeiiai ia aieeaa? ia iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy AA*. ?acii
c oei iiaa?oiy ? aeaeo?e/ia iiea nooo?ai ca?eueoothoue a?aeiiaio
caeaoi?noue i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? eao?ii-ai?ii-ii? aca?iiae?? oeyoii
cieaeaiiy aenioe aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a a?aeiiaeaiiy, ui aeicaiey?
anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeueio oi?io AA*: {M4m+ [BF4]-}(4m-1)+,

{M2m+ [BF3]o}2m+, BF3, {Li+[BF3Cl]-}o, iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy /7/ yeeo
iiaea aooe aeiiiaiaiee noaiith:

nMm+ + BF3 {Mnm+ [BF3]o}(mn)+
/8/

nMm+ + [BF4-xClx]- {Mnm+ [BF4-xClx]-}(mn-1)+ .
/9/

Aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaeo?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?ioeano a?ae-

iiaeaiiy ((4- oa ((3 ia oii? ?icieaao (((((((( /I.A.Oeeeeao??/
i?ecaiaeeoue

— 24 —

aei oaiiiaiieia?/iiai iiyniaiiy oaeeue a?aeiiaeaiiy 3 oei?a AA*.
I?iaaaeai? ia/eneaiiy aeicaieeee i?eionoeoe aeiaeaoeiao AA* — {Mnm+
[BF3]o}(mn)+, ?iia??i?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy yei? aeua, i?ae ci?oaiiai
oei?eaeii-ooi?eaeiiai anioe?aoo.

EAAIOIAIO?I?*IA IIAeAETHAAIIss

IEENETHAAEUeII — A?AeIIAIEO I?IOeAN?A

IA I?AEOACIA?E IAAE? Ae?AEAEO?EE-

IENEAeIEE ?ICIEAA

Anoaiiaeaiiy aeey oe?ieiai eiea ?icieaa?a ci?ie aeaeo?iiiiai
niaeo?o iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, aeeeeeaii? aca?iiae??th aoii?a iiaa?oi? c
aaeni?aiaaieie /anoeieaie ?icieaao, aeicaiey? ?ica”ycaoe iaa?iaio
caaea/o: i?i aieea i?e?ineii?/ieo aoaeo?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia
i?aeoacia?e iaae? ae?aeaeo?ee(?icieaa, ia ??ci? iae?ineii?/i?
o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo. I?aeoe/iei ao?eaiiyi
oaei? caaea/?, cae?eniaii? ?c can-oinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a eaaioiai? o?i??, ?
iiyniaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeieeiaiiy iiaa?oiaai? i?ia?aeiino?
aeiaco-ae?aeaeo?eea, caio?aiiai a ?icieaa ?c ai?n-oii ea?aiiao?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aoei iieacaii, ui a aeiaco, caio?aiiai a
??ci? ie-neaei? ?icieaae ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a eoaeieo iaoae?a, aeieea?
iiaa?oiaaa i?ia?aei?noue, aeaeo?iiiee iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy yei? i?yeei
aenia-?eiaioaeueiei iaoiaeii anoaiiaeoe iaiiaeeeai. Oiio aoei
canoiniaaii eaaioiaio?i?/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey? ia i?e?ineii?/iiio
??ai? ?ica”ycaoe oeth caaea/o. Aeey aeyaeaiiy oiieeo aoaeo?a ci?ie
aeaeo?iiii? no?oeoo?e iiaa?oi? aeiaco a i?enooiino? no?oeoo?ieo /anoeiie
?icieaao aoei ia?aii i?inoi?iao iiaeaeue eeanoa?o aeiaco c 5
aoii?a aoaeaoeth N1-5

oao?aaae?e/ii? eiio?ao?aoe??.

— 25 —

sse aeueoa?iaoeai? /anoeiee ?icieaao, ye? aecia/athoue
iiaeeea?noue i?i-

o?eaiiy ieenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaieo i?ioean?a ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo
aeiac-?icieaa, aoei ia?aii ieenethaaeueieee NI2 oa AI2- /a ?icieaaao ?c
ai?noii ai?o iiaa?oiaaa i?ia?aei?noue ia aeieea?/.

I?e aca?iiae?? eeanoa?a N1-5 c iieaeoeith NI2, iaea?eueo
?iia??iith no?oeoo?iith /anoeieith a ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a ?
a?eueo neeueiei ieenethaaeueieeii, ia o?eueee a?aiue aeiaco, caa?iooa
aei NI2, iaaoaa? iice-oeaiiai ca?yaeo, aea ? a oe?eiio aanue eeanoa?
iaaoaa? iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo.

Ii??aiyeueiee ?icaeyae aaee/ei ca?yae?a ca Iaee?eaiii oa
canaeaiinoae AI ia aoiiao a ?ciaeaeo?iiieo NI2 oa AI2- iieacaa, ui
a?aei?iiino? a aeae-o?iii?e aoaeia? aoii?a N oa A ?i?oe?ththoue
??ciini?yiiaaiee aieea NI2 oa AI2- ia o?eueee ia ciai?oi? aoiie
eeanoa?a aeiaco, aea ? ia eeanoa? a oe?eiio. sseui i?enooi?noue ai?iio
AI2- a?ey iiaa?oi? eeanoa?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?a?iciiae?eo aeaeo?iiii?
aonoeie a N1-5 ia?aaaaeii ca a- iaoai?ciii, aeeeeeath/e ia?aiin ca?yaeo
c AI2- ia N1-5, oi aeey aeiaaeeo c iieaeoeith NI2 oa?aeoa?iei ? (
-iaoai?ci i?a?aoe?? aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a N1-5, yeee aeeeeea? iaa?iaiee
ia?a-iin ca?yaeo c aoii?a aeiaco ia NI2. Oaea ci?ia aeaeo?iiii?
no?oeoo?e eean-oa?a aeiaco i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai ciaioaiiy aaee/ei
aia?a?e ca”yce?a N-N, caa?iaieo aei ?icieaao, aeeeeeaiiai ciaioaiiyi
nooiaiy aeaei-eae?caoe?? aaeaioieo aeaeo?ii?a oa noi?iaiaeaeaiiai
ciaioaiiyi aaee/ei ?o eiaaeaioieo aiane?a a iiaio aia?a?th aca?iiae??.
Oea iaeiicia/ii aeaco? ia ia-?ao?ae iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o aeiaco a ?ioee
o?ce/iee noai. I?e?iaeiei ?acoeue-oaoii oeueiai, ia iniia? ciiii? oai???
oaa?aeeo o?e, iio??aii aaaaeaoe ciai-oaiiy oe?eie caai?iiaii? ciie,
?icae?eyth/i? ciie aaeaioiino? ? i?ia?ae-iino?, aei i?i?iaeueii?
aaee/eie, a, iiaeeeai, ? ?o ia?ae?eaaiiy, ui aeaco? ia iiaeeea?noue
ca?eueoaiiy i?ia?aeiino? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o aeiaco aei aaee/ei,
a?aeiia?aeath/eo iai?ai?ia?aeieeo aai, iaa?oue, i?ia?aeieeo.

Aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeieeiaiiy aiaeia?/ieo aoaeo?a
c ae?-

— 26 —

aeaeo?eeii, caio?aiei a ?io? ?icieaae, aoei i?iaaaeaii iiaeaethaaiiy
i?ae-oaciaeo iaae aeiac(?icieaa ?c ai?noii noeueoao?a oa ai?acii
/eoa?/iee i?o?eae ai?o/ ( ?icieaae ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a ? ai?o.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aca?iiae?y ai?iia ((42- //anoeiee, yea iaeiiai?oa
oa?aeoa?eco? o?ceei-o?-i?/i? aeanoeaino? ?icieaao ?c ai?noii noeueoao?a/
c eeanoa?ii aeiaco i?ec-aiaeeoue aei a?eueo cia/ii aeyaeaiiai, i?ae a
iiia?aaeiueiio aeiaaeeo, ia?a?ic-iiae?eo ca?yaeo ana?aaeei? eeanoa?o.
Aeyaeaia iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy iiaa?o-iaai? i?ia?aeiino?
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny i??i?eoaoii ( -eiiiiiaioe a i?a?aoe?? aeaeo?iiii?
aonoeie o eeanoa??, aca?iiae?th/iio c ((42-. Anoaiiaeaii a?eueo aaaiiee
aianie ( -eiiiiiaioe, a ii??aiyii? c oaeei ae i?e aca?iiae?? eea-noa?a
c iieaeoeith NI2, yeee iiyniaii iayai?noth a ai?iia oao?a?ae?e/ii?
aoaeiae ((42- 3?- oa 3(- i?a?oaeae, ye? ? aeoeaioi?aie aeaeo?iiii?
aonoeie.

Aca?iiae?y eeanoa?a ai?aciio A4(4 c /anoeieaie NI2 oa AI2-
aeyaeea, iaaiaee, nooo?aee i??i?eoao a -neeaaeiai? a i?a?aoe??
aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a eeanoa?? iiaa?oi?, yeee ?i?oe?th? ia?aaoaeiao
aeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?o iiaa?oi? ai?aciio, aea ia noai?th? oiia aei
ca?eueoaiiy iiaa?oiaai? i?ia?aeiino? i?o?eaea ai?o. Iaea?aeaiee
?acoeueoao iaeiicia/ii aeaco? ia caeaaei?noue ci?-ie iiaa?oiaai?
i?ia?aeiino? ae?aeaeo?eea ia o?eueee a?ae aeaeo?iiii? aoaeiae
no?oeoo?ieo /anoeiie ?icieaao, aea a?ae aeaeo?iiii? oa aaiiao?e/ii?
no?oeoo?e naii? iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo. I?e/iio ni?aiaaeaiiy aaaaoueio
iae?i-neii?/ieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeiaco oa ai?aciio ia
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oioiaeiino? aeanoeainoae ?o i?aeoaciaeo iaae c
?icieaaii.

EAAIOIAIO?I?*IA IOe?IEA NOAAe?EIINO?

AAAAOIAEAEO?IIIEO I?IOeAN?A

A?AeIIAEAIIss A ?IIIEO ?ICIEAAAO

I?e aea/aii? aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a a?aeiiaeaiiy a
?icieaaao ca-

— 27 —

aaeueiii?eeiyoei aei aeaiiai /ano ? i?eiouaiiy i?i iinoaae?eia
i?e?aeiaiiy aeaeo?ii?a aei AA*. ?acii c oei iaea?aeaiiy iiaeo
?ioa?iaoae?/ieo oa ooai-ieaaeeo niieoe iaoiaeii aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai neioaco c ?iiieo ?icieaa?a iiaeeeai o?eueee i?e
?aae?caoe?? aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy, ye?
iiaeooue aooe cae?eniai? o?eueee o aeoaea aocueeiio ?i-oa?aae?
iioaioe?ae?a, i?aeoe/ii a iaeio noaae?th.

Inoaii? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy a ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii aieueo?aiao?a oa iie?aaeao?a
i?ecaaee aei oaiiiaii-eia?/iiai noaa?aeaeaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue
i?io?eaiiy aaaaoiaeaeo?iiiiai i?ioeano a iaeio noaae?th. Ine?eueee
iiey?ecaoe?y aeine?aeaeoaaieo nenoai ?c oaeaeeinoyie ci?ie iioaioe?aeo
aei 10 A/n ia aeicaieeea aeyaeoe noaae?ei?noue noia?iiai
aaaaoiaeaeo?iiiiai i?ioeano, a caaea/a aecia/aiiy noaae?eiino?
aa-aaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a a?aeiiaeaiiy ? aeooaeueiith, ?aeeiei
iaoiaeii ae??-oaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie iiaeooue aooe ei?aeoii i?iaaaeai?
eaaioiaio?i?/i? ia/eneaiiy. Ia caaaeath/e ia oa, ui noeioeii aei
aea/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie noaee oaiiiaiieia?/i? i?eiouaiiy ca
?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiue o ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii
aieueo?aiao?a oa iie?aaeao?a, ca niaoe?aeue-ii ?ic?iaeaiith aeey
ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie iaoiaeeeith aoei i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy
aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a iinoaae?eiiai oa iaeiinoaae?eiiai a?aeiia-eaiiy
anoaiiaeaieo ?ai?oa AA* iioeiaeueieo neeaaeo ? oi?ie a ?icieaaao ?c
ai?noii ea?aiiao?a, i?o?ao?a, ooi?eae?a oeoaio oa ai?o, ui aeicaieeoue
anoa-iiaeoe, ia iao iiaeyae, caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? oa a?aei?iiino? o
aea/aii? aeueoa?iaoeae noaae?eiino? aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a
a?aeiiaeaiiy a ?iiieo ?icieaaao.

I?iaaaeai? ia/eneaiiy aeicaieeee aeyaeoe ia?aaaao i?ioeano
iinoa-ae?eiiai aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aae iaeiinoaae?eiei a ?icieaaao ?c
ai?noii ea?aiiao?a ? i?o?ao?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeoeaaoe?eiee aa?”??
iinoaae?eiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy iieaeoee NI2 i?e /ioe?ueioaeaeo?iiiiio
ia?aiin? ca?yaeo

— 28 —

iaioa ia 445 eAeae/iieue a ii??aiyii? c oaeei aea aeey iaeiinoaae?eiiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy. Aeey iaoaeieiiieaen?a {Li2+ [NO3]-}+ oa {Be32+ [NO3]-}5+
i?e iinoaae?eiiio aeaioaeaeo?iiiiio ia?aiin? ca?yaeo aa?”??e iaioa i?ae
oae? a ii??aiyii? c i?ioeanii iaeiinoaae?eiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy,
a?aeiia?aeii, ia 105 eAeae/iieue oa 746 eAeae/iieue.Iaea?aeaiee
?acoeueoao iiyniaii i?iaaaeaiiyi ii-??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aaee/ei
canaeaiinoae AI ii/aoeiaeo oa a?aeiiaeaieo oi?i AA*, yeee iieacaa
i??i?eoao a-neeaaeiai? a -, ( -iaoai?cio i?a?aoe?? aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo AA* aeey i?ioeano iinoaae?eiiai a?aeii-aeaiiy a
ii??aiyii? c iaeiinoaae?eiei.

oa iieaeoee ((3 iaioa , a?aeiia?aeii, ia 47 eAeae/iieue oa 53
eAeae/iieue a ii??aiyii? c oaeeie ae i?e iaeiinoaae?eiiio. ?acii c oei,
aeey iaoaei-eiiieaen?a ((4m+ (((4(-((4m-1)+ ((m+ ( ((+( ((+( ((2+) oey
caeiiii??i?noue ii?ooo?oueny. I?e oeueiio aeoeaaoe?ei? aa?”??e
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e aeaioaeae-o?iiiiio iaeiinoaae?eiiio ia?aiin? ca?yaeo
ieae/a oaeeo aea, a ii??aiyii? c iinoaae?eiei ia?aiinii, ia 18
eAeae/iieue, 5 eAeae/iieue oa 20 eAeae/iieue aeey ai?iia((((4- , a
ioi/aii? /ioe?ueio eao?ii?a iao??th, e?o?th oa iaai?th a?aeii-a?aeii.
Iaea?aeaiee ?acoeueoao aoei iiyniaii i?iaaaeaiiyi ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
aaee/ei canaeaiinoae AI a?aeiiaeaieo oi?i AA* i?e iinoaae?eiiio oa
iaeiinoaae?eiiio i?ioeanao aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
i??i-?eoao iinoaae?eiiai aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy aeey ((3 oa ((4-
iaoiiaeaiee ia?aaaaith a -neeaaeiai? a iaoai?ci? ia?a?iciiae?eo
aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a oeeo AA* aiane?aeie i?e?aeiaiiy aeaeo?ii?a, a
i??i?eoao iaeiinoaae?eiiai a?ae-

iiaeaiiy aeey eiiieaen?a {M4m+ [BF4]-}(4m-1)+ oao?aaae?e/ii? aoaeiae,
aee-eeeaiee aoaeoii ciai?oiueinoa?ii? eao?ii?caoe?? ai?iia ((4- , yea
noeioeth? ia?a?iciiae?e aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie ia eao?iie, a iniiaiiio, ca
( -iaoai?c-iii, aiane?aeie iayaiino? aaeaioieo 2? — oa 3( — i?a?oaeae
eao?ii?a.

— 29 —

O ooi?eaeieo ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii oeoaio ia”?eoaie aea/aiiy
aoee iaoaeieiiieaene oao?aaae?e/ii? aoaeiae {M4m+ [TiF4]o}4m+ oa
-ieoaaae?e/ii? aoaeiae {M6m+ [TiF6]2-}(6m-2)+ (Mm+= Na+, Li+, Mg2+) —
AA*, ooai?ai? a ?acoeue-oao? eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??. I?iaaaeaiee
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aaee/ei aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a i?e
/ioe?ueioaeaeo?iiiiio a?aeiiaeaii? aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
i??i?eoao iaeiinoaae?eiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aae iinoa-ae?eiei. Oae, aeey
iaoaeieiiieaen?a iieaeoee oao?aooi?eaeo oeoaio niin-oa??aa?oueny
ciaioaiiy aeoeaaoe?eieo aa?”???a a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e /ioe-?ueioaeaeo?iiiiio
iaeiinoaae?eiiio a?aeiiaeaii? a ii??aiyii? c iinoaae?eiei ia 320
eAeae/iieue, 60 eAeae/iieue oa 400 eAeae/iieue, a?aeiia?aeii aeey 4
eao?ii?a ((+, ((+ oa ((2+. Aiaeia?/iee ?acoeueoao aoei iaea?aeaii ?
aeey ai?iia (((62- a ioi/aii? 6 eao?ii?a ((+, ((+ oa ((2+ / 30
eAeae/iieue, 20 eAeae/iieue oa 60 eAeae/iieue/. I?iaaaeaiee
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c canaeaiinoae AI ??cieo a?ae-iia?aeieo oi?i AA* i?e
iinoaae?eiiio oa iaeiinoaae?eiiio /ioe?ueioaeae-o?iiiiio a?aeiiaeaii?
aeicaieea aeyaeoe i??i?eoao ( -neeaaeiai? a i?a?aoe?? aeaeo?iiii?
aonoeie ia aaeaioi? 2? — oa 3( — i?a?oae? eao?ii?a, aeeeeeaiee aoaeoii
ciai?oiueinoa?ii? eao?ii?caoe??. I?e oeueiio iio??aii a?aecia/eoe
ia?aaaao oao?aaae?e/ii? aaiiao??? AA* a ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii ooi?eae?a
oeoaio a ii??aiyii? c ieoaaae?e/iith aeey noai?aiiy a?eueo iioeiaeueieo
oiia cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano a?aeiiaeaiiy a iaeio noaae?th.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE

1. Ia canaaeao eaaioiai? o?i?? a iaaeao iiaeae?
eao?ii-ai?iiieo aca?iiae?e ?ic?iaeaii i?e?ineii?/io oai??th
i?ae/anoeiaeo aca?iiae?e oa i?ioean?a aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy a ?iiieo
?icieaaao ?c caeo/aiiyi aecia-/ath/eo oaeoi??a aieeao:
eeneioii-iniiaieo aeanoeainoae ?icieaao, aaeni?-

aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

— 30 —

2. Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii? i?e?ineii?/ii? oai??? ?icaeiooi
ooiaeaiaioaeueiee i?eioeei eeneioii-iniiaiiai eaoae?co, yeee
aeiaiaeeoue i??i?eoaoiee aieea eao?ii-ai?iiieo aca?iiae?e ia iaoai?ci
oi?ioaaiiy AA* a ?iiieo ?icieaaao oa aecia/a? iai?aaeaii?noue i?ioean?a
aeaeo?i-a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?ii?a ? caniae oi?aae?iiy oeeie i?ioeanaie.

3. Iaoiaeaie eaaioiai? o?i?? aia?oa noiniaii aei ?icieaa?a
?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a oa i?o?ao?a iaa?oioiaaii eeneioii-iniiaiee
iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA*, yeee caiaeeoueny aei aeaio aeueoa?iaoeaieo
aeae?a eao?ii-ai?iiii? aca?iiae??: aai aei ooai?aiiy
eao?ii?ciaaieo ai?ii?a aeaeyaeo

{Mnm+[NO3]-}(mn-1)+, aai aei aeenioe?aoe?? ea?aiiao-?iia c ooai?aiiyi
NI2. Iieacaii, ui iiaa?oiy aeaeo?iaeo ? aeaeo?e/ia iiea i?aeoe/ii ia
aiee-aathoue ia oa?aeoa? eao?ii-ai?iiieo aca?iiae?e, i?ioa cieaeothoue
aenioo aeoe-aaoe?eieo aa?”???a a?aeiiaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a eao?ii-ai?iiii?
aca?iiae??. Anoa-iiaeaii, ui iioeiaeueio a?aeiiaio caeaoi?noue iathoue
/anoeiee {Li2+ [NO3]-}+ oa {Be32+ [NO3]-}5+.

4. I?iaaaeaii o?aooaaiiy eieeaaeueieo aeanoeainoae
aca?iiae?th/eo /anoie ?icieaao ii ?acoeueoaoai ?ic?aooieo iiaiiai iaai?o
neeiaeo noaeeo ieneai?ii?a NO3- , CO32- , WO42- , MoO42- o iie?
iaeii-oa aeaooca?yaeieo eao?ii?a ii a?aeiiei /anoioai ?*-oa E?-
niaeo??a ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?icieaa?a.

Iieacaii, ui eao?ii-ai?iiia aca?iiae?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
neeiaeo

noaeeo ?icoyao ca»yce?a N-O, W-O, Mo-O, aai noai?th? iai?aaeaii?noue
aei ciaioaiiy oaeeo aeey ca»yce?a N-I ieneai?ii?a, ui iaa?oioiao? oa
aeiiia-ith? eaaioiaio?i?/i? ? aeaeo?io?i?/i? ?acoeueoaoe ii nooo?aiio
aieeao eao?-iiiiai neeaaeo ?icieaao ia iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA* a
?icieaaao ?c ai?n-oii eenith.

5. Aia?oa ia iniia? eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue noiniaii aei
ooi-?eaeieo ?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii oeoaio oa ai?o iaa?oioiaaii
eeneioii-iniia-

iee iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA*, yeee caiaeeoueny aai aei ooai?aiiy eao?ii?-

— 31 —

ciaaieo ai?ii?a aeaeyaeo {Mnm+ [TiF6]2-}(mn-2)+ oa {Mnm+ [BF4]-}(mn-1)+
, aai aei aeenioe?aoe?? ai?ii?a (((62- oa ((4- c ooai?aiiyi iiaeo AA*.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaa?oiy aeaeo?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/ia iiea ia /eiyoue
nooo?aiai aieeao ia iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA*, aea ca?eueoothoue
?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue AA* oeyoii cieaeaiiy aenioe aeoeaaoe?eieo
aa?”???a a?aeiiaeaiiy, ui aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe ?o iioeiaeuei? neeaae ?
oi?io:

{M6m+ [TiF6]2-}(6m-2)+ , {M4m+ [TiF4]o}4m+ , TiF4 oa
{M4m+[BF4]-}(4m-1)+ ,

{M2m+ [BF3]o}2m+ , BF3 , {Li+[BF3Cl]-}o.

6. Oai?aoe/ii aeiaaaeaii caeaaei?noue aeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?a
iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ? a?aei?iiinoae
a aoaeia? i?aeoa-ciai? iaae? ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?iae-?icieaa, ui aeicaieeei
aia?oa iiynieoe ia aeaeo?iiiiio ??ai? iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy iiaa?oiaai?
i?ia?aeiino? aeiaco a ?icieaa? ?c ai?noii ea?aiiao?a caaaeyee
cai?iiiiiaai?e iiaeaeuei?e noai? i?a?aoe?? aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a
eeanoa?? aeiaco, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue oe?ea-ni?yiiaaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy
aiaeia?/ieo aoaeo?a a ?ioeo ?icieaaao, ni?e-yth/e iiooeo oeyo?a
oi?aae?iiy aeaeo?io?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo
aeaeo?iae-?icieaa.

7. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo eaaioiaio?i?/ii? ioe?iee
aeueoa?-iaoeae noaae?eiino? aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a a?aeiiaeaiiy a
?iiieo ?ic-ieaaao, yea aeicaieeea aeyaeoe i??i?eoao iaeiinoaae?eiiai
ia?aiino aeaeo?i-

i?a aeey eao?ii?ciaaieo oi?i AA*, aeeeeeaiee ciai?oiueinoa?iith
eao?ii?-caoe??th, yea noeioeth? ia?a?iciiae?e aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie ia
eao?iie ia?aaaaeii ca ( — iaoai?ciii ? noai?th? iioeiaeuei? aia?aaoe/i?
ia?aaeo-iiae aeey i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano a?aeiiaeaiiy a iaeio noaae?th.

8. ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen i?ia?ai aeey eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ia/eneaiue
iieaeoe, yeee ?aae?co? iaoiae NOI II EEAI ca ??cieie iiaeeo?eaoe?yie oa
caniae iiaeaethaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey oa

— 32 —

eeanoa?ieo oi?i iiaeaeae iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo ia aia?aaoe/i? oa
aeaeo?iii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ii-iieaeoey?ieo nenoai. Noai?ai? eiii”thoa?i?
i?ia?aie aeicaieythoue i?iaeiaaeeoe aea/aiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo yaeu a ?iiieo ?icieaaao, ui cia/ii iieaaoo? aeine?aeaeaiiy
? aea? iiaeeea?noue, ia i?ea?aath/e aei aenia?eiaioo, i?iaiicoaaoe
?aae?caoe?th ??cieo o?ceei-o?-i?/ieo i?ioean?a a ?iiieo ?icieaaao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAII A ?IAIOAO:

1. Oaiiaae A.E., Nieiaueaa A.A., Eaa?eiaiei-Iiaoeeineay
A.Ae., Eoo- oia O.A. Eaaioiaioeie/aneia eco/aiea aeeyiey aiaoiaai
yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey ia i?ioeannu yeaeo?iainnoaiiaeaiey ((3- e NI32-
// Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1985. — o. 51, ? 9 . — n. 951-956.

2. Nieiaueaa A.A., Eoooia O.A., Oaiiaae A.E. Eaaioiaioeie/aneia
eco/aiea acaeiiaeaenoaey ieo?eo-eiia n eaoeiiaie ((+ e Aa2+ a
?anieaaao ai aiaoiai yeaeo?e/aneii iiea // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1989. —
o. 55, ? 1.-n. 37-42.

3. Oaiiaae A.E., Nieiaueaa A.A., Eiaaeaiei I.O., Eoooia O.A.
Aeeyiea eaoeiiia uaei/iuo iaoaeeia ia neeiaua iinoiyiiua nayce (((
ieo?ao-eiia a eiiiuo ?anieaaao //Oai?ao. e yenia?ei.oeiey. — 1989.-o.
25, ? 2.- n. 230-234.

4. Nieiaueaa A.A., Eiaaeaa A.A., Oaiiaae A.E., Eoooia O.A.,
Aeaaeaeai-

ei E.I. Eaaioiaioeie/aneia eco/aiea aeeyiey iaca?yaeaiiie iiaa?oiinoe
yeaeo?iaea ia ia?aiao?u acaeiiaeaenoaey ea?aiiao-eiia n eaoeiiaie ((+ e
Aa2+ a ?inieaaao //Oe?.oei.aeo?iae — 1989. — o. 55, ? 10. — n.
1017-1022.

5. AEiaieaa Ae.A., Nieiaueaa A.A. Eaaioiaioeie/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey iieaeoe ieene oaea?iaea n aoiiaie e eiiaie
yeaiaioia aoi?iai ia?eiaea. II. ?an/ao eiiieaenia Aa2+ -NI e
Aa-Ni//AEo?i.no?.oeiee.-

— 33 —

1980.-o.21, ?4.-n.53-60.

-NI //AEo?i. no?.oeiee.-1981.-o.22, ? 5.-n. 45-50.

7. Nieiaueaa A.A., Aeaaeaeaiei E.I., Oaiiaae A.E., Eoooia O.A.,
Eiaa- eaa A.A. Oai?aoe/aneia eco/aiea aeeyiey yeaeo?e/aneiai
iiey e eaoeiiia ((+ e Aa2+ ia acaeiiaeaenoaea ea?aiiao-eiia n
iiaa?oiinoueth oaea?iaea a ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1990. — o.
56, ? 5, — n. 466-470.

8. Oeeeeao?e I.A., Nieiaueaa A.A., Oaiiaae A.E., Aa?aiia A.TH.
Eaai-oiaioeie/aneia eco/aiea aeeyiey eaoeiiia ia yia?aaoe/aneea
oa?ae-oa?enoeee e yeaeo?iiiia no?iaiea aieiia ((4- a eiiiuo ?anieaaao //
Oe?. oei.aeo?i. — 1990. — o. 56, ? 11. — n. 1123-1129.

9. Nieiaueaa A.A., Oaiiaae A.E., Eoooia O.A.,Ei?ioeee A.A.
Aeeyiea eaoeiiia uaei/iuo iaoaeeia ia neeiaua iinoiyiiua nayce N-I
ea?aiiao-eiia a ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1991. — o.57, ? 6- n.
572-576.

10. Eoooia O.A., Nieiaueaa A.A., Aeaaeaeaiei E.I.,Oaiiaae A.E.
Eaaioiaioeie/aneia eco/aiea iniaaiiinoae
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiae-oaeueiuo i?ioeannia ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea
aeiac-ieneaeiue ?anieaa // Oe?.oei. aeo?i. — 1991. — o. 57, ? 12. —
n. 1235-1239.

11. Nieiaueaa A.A., Eiaaeaiei I.O. , Eoooia O.A.,
Oaiiaae A.E.

Aeeyiea eaoeiiia ((+( ((+( ((2+( ((2+ e Na2+ ia neeiaua iinoiyiiua
naycae (-I e Ii-I aieiiia (I42- e IiI42- a ?anieaaao // Oai?ao. e
yenia?ei. oeiey. — 1991. — o. 27, ? 1. — n. 120-123.

12. Nieiaueaa A.A., Eoooia O.A., Oaiiaae A.E., Aaoouaaeia E.N.,
Noaaeieeia A.I. Eaaioiaioeie/aneia eco/aiea acaeiiaeaenoaey aeeieneaea
oaea?iaea n ?anieaaeaiiuie aaeiaaieaeaie uaei/iuo iaoaeeia //Oe?.oei.
aeo?i.-1991.-o.57, ? 2.-n.115-119.

— 34 —

13. Nieiaueaa A.A., Oeeeeao?e I.A., Oaiiaae A.E., Aeaaeaeaiei
E.I. Eaaioiaioeie/aneia eco/aiea aeeyiey eaoeiiia ((+, ((+ e ((2+ ia
yia?aaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee e yeaeo?iiiia no?iaiea aieiia (((62- a
?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1992.- o. 58, ? 1. n. 7-12.

, ((2+ ia iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey yeaeo?i-oeie/anee aeoeaiuo /anoeoe a
oeoainiaea?aeaueo ooi?eaeiuo ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1992. — o.
58, ? 2. — n. 131-136.

15. Nieiaueaa A.A., Oeeeeao?e I.A., Oaiiaae A.E.
Eaaioiaioeie/an-eee ?an/ao aeeyiey aiaoiaai yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey ia
iaoaieci oi?ie-?iaaiey yeaeo?ioeie/anee aeoeaiuo /anoeoe a
oeoainiaea?aeaueo ooi?eaeiuo ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1992. — o.
58, ? 3. — n. 199-208.

16. Nieiaueaa A.A., Eoooia O.A., Oaiiaae A.E. Aeeyiea
iaca?yaeaiiie iiaa?oiinoe yeaeo?iaea ia acaeiiaeaenoaea aieiia ((3- n
eaoeiiaie ((+ e ((2+ a ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1993. — o.59, ?
8. — n. 828-833.

17. Nieiaueaa A.A., Eoooia O.A., Oaiiaae A.E. Aeeyiea
yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey e eaoeiiia ((+ e Aa2+ ia acaeiiaeaenoaea ieo?ao-eiia
n iiaa?oiinoueth yeaeo?iaea a ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1993. —
o.59, ? 9 — n. 903-907.

18. Oaiiaae A.E., Iaeuoaa A.A., Iiainaeiaa E.A., Eoooia
O.A.,

Nieiaueaa A.A. Iiiaiyeaeo?iiiua ?aaiiaaney e i?ioeannu
yeaeo?i-ainnoaiiaeaiey ieneaieiiia ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeeia OI-A a?oiiu e
iaia-oaeeia a eiiiuo ?anieaaao //Oe?.oei.aeo?i.-1994.-o.60, ?
7.-n.483-493.

19. Nieiaueaa A.A., Oaiiaae A.E. Eaaioiaioeie/aneia eco/aiea
aeeyiey iiaa?oiinoe oaea?iaeiiai yeaeo?iaea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
yeaeo?i-oeie/anee aeoeaiuo /anoeoe a oeoainiaea?aeaueo ooi?eaeiuo
?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i.- 1995. — o. 61, ? 5, -n.30-35.

— 35 —

20. Oaiiaae A.E., Nieiaueaa A.A., Aeaaeaeaiei E.I.
Iiaeaeueiay noaia aicieeiiaaiey iiaa?oiinoiie i?iaiaeeiinoe aeiaca a
eiiiuo ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei. aeo?i. — 1995. — o. 61, ? 7, — n. 3-7.

21. Nieiaueaa A.A., Oaiiaae A.E. Eaaioiaioeie/aneee ?an/ao
aeeyiey o?ao iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia ia i?ioeann yeaeo?iainnoaiiaeaiey aieiia
// Oe?. oei.aeo?i. — 1995. — o. 61, ? 8, — n. 100-106.

22. Nieiaueaa A.A., Aeaaeaeaiei E.I., Oaiiaae A.E.
Oai?aoe/aneia eco/aiea aicieeiiaaiey iiaa?oiinoiie i?iaiaeeiinoe aeiaca
a noeueoao-niaea?aeauai ?anieaaa // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1995. — o. 61, ?
11.- n. 3-6.

23. Nieiaueaa A.A., Eocueie/ I.A., Oaiiaae I.A.
Eaaioiaioeie/aneay ioeaiea noaaeeeiinoe iiiaiyeaeo?iiiuo i?ioeannia
yeaeo?iainnoaiiaeaiey a ea?aiiao- e ieo?aoniaea?aeaueo ?anieaaao //
Oe?.oei.aeo?i.-1996.- o. 62, ? 4. — n. 94-98.

24. Nieiaueaa A.A., Eocueie/ I.A., Oaiiaae A.E.
Eaaioiaioeie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea noaaeeeiinoe iiiaiyeaeo?iiiuo
i?ioeannia yeaeo?iain-noaiiaeaiey a ai?niaea?aeaueo ooi?eaeiuo ?anieaaao
// Oe?.oei.aeo?i.-1996.-o.62, ? 5. -n.11-14.

25. Nieiaueaa A.A., Oaiiaae A.E., Eocueie/ I.A.
Eaaioiaioeie/aneay ioeaiea noaaeeeiinoe i?ioeannia yeaeo?iainnoaiiaeaiey
a oeoainiaea?aeaueo ooi?eaeiuo ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1996. — o.
62, ? 6. — n. 106-108

26. Nieiaueaa A.A., Oeeeeao?e I.A., Oaiiaae A.E., Aa?aiia A.TH.

Eaaioiaioeie/aneay ioeaiea aeeyiey aieiiia oiiiaiai yeaeo?ieeoa ia
i?ioeann yeaeo?iainnoaiiaeaiey ((4- a ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. —
1996. — o. 62, ? 9. — n.21-23.

27. Nieiaueaa A.A., Aeaaeaeaiei E.I., Oaiiaae A.E., Eoooia O.A.
Eaaioiaioeie/aneay ioeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey eneonnoaaiiiai aeiaca n
/anoeoeaie NI2 e AI2- a ?anieaaao // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1996. — o. 62,
? 10,- n. 73-76.

— 36 —

28. Nieiaueaa A.A. Aeeyiea eaoeiiia ?anieaaa ia iaoaieci
oi?ie?iaaiey YA* a ai?niaea?aeaueo ooi?eaeiuo ?anieaaao // Oe?.
oei.aeo?i. — 1997. — o. 63, ? 4,- n. 123-125.

29. Nieiaueaa A.A. Eaaioiaioeie/aneia eco/aiea aeeyiey
iiaa?iinoe yeaeo?iaea ia iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey YA* a
ai?niaea?aeaueo ooi?eaeiuo ?anieaaao. // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. — 1997. — o.
63, ? 5, — n. 39-43.

30. Nieiaueaa A.A. Eaaioiaioeie/aneee ?an/ao aeeyiey o?ao
iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia ia oi?ie?iaaiea YA* a ai?niaea?aeaueo ?anieaaao //
Oe?. oei.aeo?i. — 1997.- o. 63, ? 6, — n. 110-115.

31. Nieiaueaa A.A. I?ia?aiia aeey iieoyiie?e/aneeo ?an/aoia
iiea-eoe n ioe?uoie iaiei/eie ai aiaoiai yeaeo?e/aneii iiea // Iieoaaa,
1988. ?oe. aeai. a Oe?. IEEIOE 30.08, ? 2135 — Oe?.88.

32. Nieiaueaa A.A. I?ia?aiia aeey iieoyiie?e/aneeo ?an/aoia
iieaeoe, niaea?aeaueo aoiiu ia?aoiaeiuo yeaiaioia, a yeaeo?e/aneii iiea
// Iieoaaa, 1993. ?oe.aeai. a Oe?. IEEIOE 11.01.93a. ? 34- Oe?.93.

— 37 —

Nieiaeia A.A. Oai?aoe/i? i?eioeeie aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo
i?ioean?a a?ae-iiaeaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy AA* a ?iiieo ?icieaaao.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?i?/ieo
iaoe ca oaoii 02.00.04. — o?ce/ia o?i?y, Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y iaoe
Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i??, Ee?a, 1998.

Caoeuathoueny 32 iaoeia? ?iaioe, o yeeo aeeiiaii eiiieaen
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?noyoue o nia? aeaoaeueia
eaaioiaio?i?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy AA* ?
aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a a?aeiiaeaiiy a ?iiieo ?icieaaao. Oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy AA* o ?icieaaao ?c ai?noii i?o?ao?a,
ea?aiiao?a oa ooi?eae?a ai?o ? oeoaio. Aeiaaaeaii aecia/ath/ee aieea
eeneioii-iniiaieo aeanoeainoae ?icieaao ia iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy AA*,
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee ?acoeueoaoaie aeae-o?io?i?/ieo aei??thaaiue aeey
?icieaa?a ?c ai?noii i?o?ao?a ? ea?aiiao?a ? ia/eneaieie aaee/eiaie
neeiaeo noaeeo ieneai?ii?a. Anoaiiaeaia iioe-iaeueia oi?ia AA*,
a?aeiiaia caeaoi?noue yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae eao?iiiiai neeaaeo ?icieaao,
aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo oa aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.
Aeiaaaeaii caeaaei?noue aeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?o iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo a?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae oa a?aei?iiinoae a aoaeia? iaae?
?iciiae?eo ?icieaa-aeaeo?iae, ui aeicaieeei iaa?oiooaaoe iaoai?ci
aeieeiaiiy iiaa?-oiaai? i?ia?aeiino? aeiaco o ?icieaa? ?c ai?noii
ea?aiiao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea eaaioiaio?i?/ii? ioe?iee
aeueoa?iaoeae noaae?eiino? aaaaoi-aeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a a?aeiiaeaiiy a
?iiieo ?icieaaao, yea aeicaieeea aey-aeoe i??i?eoao iaeiinoaae?eiiai
ia?aiino aeaeo?ii?a aeey ciai?oiueinoa?ii eao?ii?ciaaieo oi?i AA*.

EETH*IA? NEIAA

Eao?ii, ai?ii, eeneioii-iniiai? aeanoeaino?, AA*, eeanoa?,
iiaa?oiy aeaeo?iaeo, aeaeo?e/ia iiea.

— 38 —

Nieiaueaa A.A Oai?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu iiiaiyeaeo?iiiuo
i?ioeannia ainnoaiiaeaiey e oi?ie?iaaiey YA* a eiiiuo ?anieaaao.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.04. — oece/aneay oeiey, Iaoeeiiaeueiay
Aeaaeaiey iaoe Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo iauae e iai?aaie/aneie oeiee, Eeaa,
1998.

Caueuathony 32 iao/iua ?aaiou, a eioi?uo auiieiai eiiieaen
oai-?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, aeeth/athueo aeaoaeueiia
eaaioiaioeie/aneia ii-aeaee?iaaiea iaoaiecia oi?ie?iaaiey YA* e
iiiaiyeaeo?iiiuo i?ioean-nia ainnoaiiaeaiey a eiiiuo ?anieaaao.
Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaai iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey YA* a ieo?ao-,
ea?aiiaoniaea?aeaueo e ai?-, oeoainiaea?-aeaueo ooi?eaeiuo ?anieaaao.
Aeieacaii ii?aaeaeythuaa aeeyiea eeneioii-iniiaiuo naienoa ?anieaaa ia
iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey YA*, iiaeoaa?-aeaeaiiia ?acoeueoaoaie
yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo ecia?aiee aeey ieo?ao- e ea?aiiaoniaea?aeaueo
?anieaaia e ?an/aoiuie aaee/eiaie neeiauo iinoi-yiiuo ieneaieiiia.
Onoaiiaeaia iioeiaeueiay oi?ia YA*, ainnoaiiae-oaeueiay niiniaiinoue
eioi?uo caaeneo io eaoeiiiiai ninoaaa ?anieaaa, aae-ni?aoeeiiiuo naienoa
iiaa?oiinoe yeaeo?iaea e yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. Aeieacaia caaeneiinoue
yeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?a iiaa?oiinoe yeaeo?iaea io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae e ?acee/ey a no?iaiee a?aieoeu ?acaeaea ?anieaa-yeaeo?iae,
iicaieeaoay iainiiaaoue ia yeaeo?iiiii o?iaia iaoa-ieci aicieeiiaaiey
iiaa?oiinoiie i?iaiaeeiinoe aeiaca a ea?aiiao-niaea?aeauai ?anieaaa.
I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea eaaioiaioeie/aneie ioeaiee aeueoa?iaoeau
noaaeeeiinoe iiiaiyeaeo?iiiuo i?ioeannia ainnoaiiaeaiey a eiiiuo
?anieaaao, iicaieeaoay onoaiiaeoue i?ei?eoao iaeiinoaaeeeiiai ia?aiina
yeaeo?iiia aeey aiaoianoa?ii eaoeiiece?iaaiiuo oi?i YA*.

EETH*AAUA NEIAA

Eaoeii, aieii, eeneioii-iniiaiua naienoaa, YA*, eeanoa?,
iiaa?-oiinoue yeaeo?iaea, yeaeo?e/aneia iiea.

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