4

Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i.I.?.*aeeianueeiai

OAeE 785.1+787.1

NAIAIssE I?IA IEOAEE?AIA

OAI?AOE*I?INIIAE NENOAIII-OOIEOe?IIAEUeII? I?AAI?CAOe?? I?IOeANO
CAOEIOOAI?AIIss IA NE?EIOe?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 17.00.03 – Ioce/ia ienoaoeoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ioce/ii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i.I.?.*aeeianueeiai

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

Eice?i Aaea??e Eineiiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e
ioce/ii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e

Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie ?i.I.?.*aeeianueeiai

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani?

Aeaaeaeia Ieeiea Aiae??eiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ia?iaeieo
?ino?oiaio?a

Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie ?i.I.?.*aeeianueeiai

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,
i?ioani?

Uaeeaiiaoeaaa Ieaia Ieoaee?aia,

eaoaae?a no?oiieo ?ino?oiaio?a

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
?inoeoooo ienoaoeoa

?i.?.I.Eioey?aanueeiai

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Aeuee aea?aeaaiee ioce/iee ?inoeooo
?i.I.A.Eenaiea,

eaoaae?a ne?eiee (Euea?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29” aa?aciy 2000 ?ieo i 15 aiae.30oa. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.005.01 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe o
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e ioce/i?e aeaaeai?e Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai ca
aae?anith: i.Ee?a, aoe.A?oeoaeoi?a Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, 1/3, 2-e iiaa?o,
aoae.36.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “25” ethoiai 2000 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa
?.I.Eioaiee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ? NO?OEOO?A ?IAIOE

?iaioa iaeaaeeoue aei iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai iai?yieo ioce/ii?
iaoee, o iniia? yeiai ? aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oiia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo ?ino?oiaioae?no?a, ye aaaeeeai?
neeaaeiai? /anoeie ?icaeoeo aeeiiaanueei? iaenoa?iino?. O ?iaio?
aea/a?oueny oa /anoeia aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo, ui caaacia/o?
caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ?ino?oiaio? — ?iaioo i?aai? ?oee ne?eiaey e nie/ea,
ine?eueee caoe ? iaeiei c iniiaieo ye?nieo e?eoa???a aeeiiaanoaa.

A e o o a e ue i ? n o ue oaie, ui ?ic?iaeyeany, ie aaa/a?ii:

— a iaiao?aeiino? ocaaaeueiaiiy aii??e/iiai oa oai?aoe/iiai aeina?aeo,
iaeiie/aiiai ne?eieiaeie aeeiiaanueeeie oeieaie ieioeiai, a oaeiae
aeine?aeaeaii? oa iaa?oiooaaii? oaoiieia?? caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? ia
no/aniiio ??ai? ?icaeoeo iaoee;

— o iaiao?aeiino? iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a
ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa, ?, oaeei /eiii, caaacia/aii? iaae?eiino?
?a?iaeo ?oo?a ne?eiaey;

— o iaiao?aeiino? iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai i?oeano
iaa/aiiy a?e ia ne?eioe? c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo oaoiiea?e.

? i c ? i a e a oaie cae?niaia o ?aieao iaoeiai? i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo
aeeiiaanueei? iaenoa?iino? Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
?i.I.?.*aeeianueeiai.

I a o a ?iaioe iieyaa? a oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?, ?ic?aooieao
oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? caeiiii??iinoae ?aaaoaaiiy ne?eieiaeo
no?oi ia eiinoaioi? oa aaeaeaaoi? ae?? ia ieo ne?eieiaiai nie/ea a
??cieo oiiaao eiai ?iaioe, ? anoaiiaeaii? aeioe?eueiino? oi?ioaaiiy
oaoiieia?? ?oo?a caoeiaeaeiaoaath/i? /anoeie aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo
ne?eiae?a. Iaoeiaiai i?aea?oioy aeiaaathoue on? aniaeoe aeeiiaanoaa:
oaoiieia?y i?ioan?eieo ?oo?a, ineoieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy oa
?icaeoeo aeeiiaanueeiai oa iaa/aeueiiai i?ioean?a, i?aai?caoe?y
i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

C a a ae a i i y :

n aecia/eoe ??aaiue oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee oaie ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa a
?? ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iiio aniaeo?;

n i?iaiae?coaaoe, yeei /eiii noia?a/eea?noue oai?aoe/ieo aeniiae?a
iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue aieeaa? ia no/aniee noai ?a?iaiai aia?aoo
ne?eiae?a;

n aea/eoe ??aaiue ineoieia?/iiai aieeao ia noai oa oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eii aeioe?eueieo ?oo?a ne?eiaey;

n aecia/eoe oai?aoeei — iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy;

n ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c
canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo iaoeiaeo oaoiieia?e;

n i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? ca aeiiiiiaith
nie/ea, ui a?eueii ? iacaeaaeii a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeiiaanueeeo
iniaeeainoae ?ooa?oueny ii no?oiai o ??cieo ?a?iaeo oiiaao;

n ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeoe aeniiaee oa
iaaeaoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa;

n aecia/eoe oeyoe oa caniae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aenoie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o
aeeiiaanueeo i?aeoeeo.

Ne?eieiaa aeeiiaanoai ? ia’?eoii iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a i?ioean
caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? nie/eii — i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?iioaoe/ii iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oiia
oi?ioaaiiy aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo ne?eiaey ia?aaeaa/a?:

— cia/ia ni?iuaiiy i?ioeano iaieiae?iiy ?a?iaeie ?ooaie ?
oaoiieia?/ieie i?eeiiaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai? ?oee ne?eiaey;

— onoiaiiy ia?aaeoiia aeieeiaiiy iiieeie o iiaoaeia? ?a?iaiai
i?ioeano,

— aaeineiiaeaiiy ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa a oe?eiio;

— noai?aiiy oiia aeey ao?eaiiy o oai?/ee oa iaa/aeueiee i?ioeane
aeinyaiaiue no/anieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia, eiii’thoa?ieo
oaoiieia?e.

I a o e i a a i i a e i a aecia/aia naia iai?yieii
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ooo aia?oa:

n i?iaeaii? ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?a?iaiai aia?aoo
ne?eiaey aena?oeai? ye iane?aeie ?noi?e/ii-oai?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo;

n aeeiiaanueeee aia?ao ne?eiaey ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oe?e?nia nenoaia, ?c
aeaniith no?oeoo?ith, ?? ooieoe?yie oa oaoiieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie;

n aeey ae??oaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue uiaei aeeiiaanueeiai
i?ioeano ne?eiae?a canoiniaaii no/ani? eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia??;

n cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ye?nieo oa e?euee?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?;

n iaoeiai aecia/ai?, oiai/iai? oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ?aaeoe??
ne?eieiaeo no?oi ia eiinoaioi? ? oioiaei? oiiae ?o caoaeaeaiiy.

E??cue i?ecio oaei? nenoaiiino? iaoeiai iaa?oioiao?oueny i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai? ?oee ne?eiaey ? nie/ea. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o ??cieo aaeocyo i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?

ne?eiae?a, cie?aia, aeeiiaanueeiio i?ioean?, iaa/aeuei?e i?aeoeoe?,
eaeoe?eieo eo?nao oai?aoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i c ?noi??? ne?eieiaiai
aeeiiaanoaa oa iaaeaaia?ee oa c iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy a?e ia ne?eioe?;
iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii? oaoiieia?? aeeiiaanueeiai i?ioeano ia ??cieo
ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaioao, ianaiia?aae, no?oiii-nie/eiaeo; noai?aii?
aeiiii?aeieo iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo nenoai ia iniia? eiii’thoa?ieo
oaoiieia?e oa e?aa?iaoe/iiai nenoaiiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

I ? a e o e / i a c i a / a i i y aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio,
ui eiai aeniiaee ni?eythoue iaoeia?e i?aai?caoe?? aeeiiaanueeiai ?
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioean?a (a on?o eaieao) ?, oaeei /eiii, caaacia/othoue
aeioe?euei?noue ?o oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy, a oaeiae aena?oeyoue
no/aniee iiaeyae ia ?noi?e/ii-oai?aoe/iee ?icaeoie ne?eieiaiai
aeeiiaanoaa oa aeaye? ineoieia?/i? i?iaeaie i?ioeano, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? i i o a e ? e i a a i ? o 4 noaooyo a
oaoiaeo ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. .

A e n i i a e e aeine?aeaeaiue aoee a i ? i a a ae ae a i ? a
i?aeoeeo a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao i.Ee?aa oa Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? oa
oai?/iio eieaeoea? – neioii?/iiio i?eano?? “?aianain” i.Ee?a (aeea.
AeIAeAOEE A, A, A) oa i?ioiaeeee a i ? i a a oe ? th :

· i?ioyaii aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe ia eaoaae?? ioce/ii-
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e IIAO;

· ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-oai?/a
eiioa?aioe?y “I?iaeaie ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?”, Ee?a, 1994;
Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-oai?/a eiioa?aioe?y “ Ooaeiaeiy eoeueoo?a:
i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae”, Ee?a, 1995; OOV??? ca?oia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a EAe?E,
Ee?a, 1997; Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “No/ania ienoaoeoai: i?iaeaie
iaoeiai? oa aeeiiaanueei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??”, Ee?a, 1999.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeeeaaeai? o ?iaio?, a?oioothoueny ia
aeinyaiaiiyo no/anieo iaoe: a?iiaoai?ee, eiii’thoa?ieo caoeiaeo
i?ia?aiao, eiii’thoa?ii? a?ao?ee, oaoi?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, a oaeiae
i?aoeyo c i?iaeai ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai aeeiiaanoaa, caaaeueii? oai??? oa
ioce/ii? ineoieia??. Oea ?iaioe E.Oeaoa, O.Ooaeiaaocaia, A.No?oaa,
A.Noaoeaiea, I.I?aae?, A. Iaia, I. Aiio?ia, I. Aeaaeaeiaa,
?.Eioey?aanueeiai, TH.Iieyinueeiai, A.Eice?ia, TH.Aay, I. A?iyei oa ?i.

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
a?ae?ia?ao?? oa aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya ?iaioe aei??aith? 165 noi??iie, a oiio
/ene? 14 noi??iie a?ae?ia?ao?? (181 i?ei??iee ) oa 5 noi??iie
aeiaeaoe?a. Oaeno aeena?oaoe?? i?noeoue 21 iaethiie, 8 oaaeeoeue, 3
noaie, 1 oioia?ao?th, 4 iioieo i?eeeaaea.

CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ANOOI? aeeeaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? oaie aeena?oaoe??,
aeacaii ia ?? ca’ycie ?c iaoeiaith i?ia?aiith caeeaaeo, aea
aeeiioaaeanue ?iaioa, aecia/ai? iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaa?oioiaaia ?? iaoeiaa iiaeia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iiaeaii a?aeiiino?
i?i ioae?eaoe?th o iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, ai?iaaoe?th oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ICAe?E 1. ?NOI?E*I? ANIAEOE I?IOeANO CAOEIOOAI?AIIss IA NE?EIOe?.
A ?icae?e? 1.1 aeena?oaoe?? aeaii aiae?c ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo oai???
oi?ioaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa. Iii?e
onth ei?eni?noue iaaooiai aii??e/iei oeyoii i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo,
ie?aneaii eiei iayaieo /eneaiieo noia?a/iinoae o iaoiaeeoe? iaa/aiiy,
iniaeeainoyo oo?eoiai? oaoi?ee,oiui. Eiaeai c aaoi??a iaoiaee/ieo,
oai?aoe/ieo, iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoeue aeaeea?oaaa iane?aeee aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, niinoa?aaeaiue, ocaaaeueiaiue, ia iaa?oioiaoth/e ?o
iaoeiaeie aeniiaeaie.

O ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?noi?e/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ne?eieiai? iinoaiiaee. Caoaaaeaii, ui aoee
ni?iae nenoaiaoecoaaoe ye yaeua aaiethoe?ei? ci?ie o iinoaiiaoe?,
cie?aia, i?aai? ?oee ne?eiaey. Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee oaei?
nenoaiaoecaoe??, o ye?e aecia/aii 3 aai 5 ia??iae?a o ?icaeoeo oa
o?ainoi?ioaaii? niinia?a niieo/aiiy i?aai? ?oee ne?eiaey ?c nie/eii. sse
oa?aeoa?ia iniaeea?noue aaaaoueio eiioeaioe?e ? aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
?niothoue, oa ia??iaeecaoe?? a aaiethoe?eiiio i?ioean? iinoaiiaee
aecia/aii, ui aaoi?e i?eeiaee ca iniiao ciai?oi? ?ica?aeiino? o o?eiaii?
nie/ea, a?aeaeaaaee ia?aaaao oi iaoai?/iiio, oi
aiaoii?/ii-o?c?ieia?/iiio i?aeoiaeo o iaoiaeeoe? ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
oi?ioaaiiy aeaiaio?a iinoaiiaee i?aai? ?oee ne?eiaey, i?e oiio eiaeai c
ieo ea?oaaany o nai?o aeniiaeao aeanieie e?eoa??yie ioe?iie (neoo,
aeina?ae). Oiio ae?eoe caiaee, aecia/eoe i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy
noia?a/iinoae ca aeiiiiiaith ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ? cania?a aeine?aeaeaiue
aoei i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? aeoieo, ui o ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo
ioce/ii-oai?aoe/ii? iaoee ianoaa oaeee ia??iae, eiee iaiao?aei?
eiioeaiooaeueii iia? i?aeoiaee o aeine?aeaeaii? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?
?icaeoeo ?? i?ioean?a, aei ae??oaiiy ?? i?iaeai. Aaoi? o nai?io
aeine?aeaeaii? ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano ?icaeoeo oai??? iinoaiiaee i?aai?
?oee ne?eiaey i?iiiio? aeanio ia??iaeecaoe??: ca?aeii ?c caaaeueii —
?noi?e/iei ?icaeoeii iaoee, o oai??? ne?eieiai? iinoaiiaee
cai?iaaaeaeo?oueny o?e ia??iaee. Aiie aecia/ai? ye aeiiaoeiaee,
aii??e/ii? iaoee oa iaoeiaee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaae? ia?oiai — caeaaeii
a?ae iai?yieo iaoee — cae?i/othoueny o OVI — ia ii/aoeo XVIII noi??//y;
ae?oaiai — o na?aaeei? 50-o ?ie?a XX noi??//y, c oeueiai ae /ano
?icii/eia?oueny o?ao?e ? iaaoaa? ?icaeoeo o iao /an.

Ia?oee, aeiiaoeiaee ia??iae ia caeeoea iai ii nia? aeaui cia/ieo
oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iai’yoie. On? aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?oaiai ia??iaeo
oe?eeii a?aeiia?aeathoue ??aiaa? ?icaeoeo iaoee ia oeueiio aoai? ??
?icaeoeo – aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeniiaee iathoue aii??e/iee oa?aeoa? ?,
aiane?aeie a?aenooiino? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo e?eoa???a ioe?iie, ?i
i?eoaiaiiee noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?, ui a?aeia?aaea? ??cieoeth o oeyoao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a ia o nooiino? i?ioean?a.

I?ioa iaeaaeeoue a?aei?oeoe, ui ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie oaeeo iaoe ye
aiaoii?y, o?c?ieia?y, o?ceea (cie?aia, iaoai?ea, aeonoeea,
iaoa??aeiciaanoai) iaaeaee aeine?aeieeai ciiao caaeeaeoe ? ?icoe?eoe
iaae? iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeie o aaeoc? ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa, aea
caaaeueiei iaaeie?eii on?o oeeo ?ia?o aoea a?aenooi?noue iiaeeeaino?
io?eiaoe ia’?eoeai? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. E eeoa
c ii/aoeii 3-ai, ca aecia/aiiyi aeena?oaoe??, ia??iaeo, eiee
iaaoaathoue oe?ieiai ?icaeoeo oae? iaoee ye e?aa?iaoeea, oai??y nenoai,
eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia??, aeine?aeieee io?eiaee iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoe
a?oioiai? iaoeia? aeniiaee.

Ioiae, ?nioth/? iaoiaee/i?, oai?aoe/i?, iaaeaaia?/i? i?aoe?, ye?
i?enay/ai? aea/aiith oai?aoe/ieo iniia ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa, i?noyoue
o nia? /eneaii? noia?a/iino?, ?o aeniiaee c?iaeaii aii??e/iei oeyoii,
aeiaaathoue iaoeiai? ia?aa??ee oa ni?inooaaiiy aai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy.
*a?ac ii??aiyiiy aoai?a, ui ?niothoue o ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo oai???
ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa ?c ia??iaeecaoe??th caaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iaoee,
aeyaeaii oioiaei?noue o ci?no? oeeo ?noi?e/ieo aoai?a ?icaeoeo, ui
iaaea? iiyniaiiy ?noi?e/iei iniaeeainoyi eiaeiiai ia??iaea. Ca
aecia/aiiyi i?aoe?, ?o 3 – aeiiaoeiaee, aii??e/ii? iaoee, aeaii??ii?
iaoee – o oeoia/aii? ?a?iaeo i?ioean?a ? oi?i ?a?iaeo ?oo?a ne?eiaey.

O ?icae?e? 1.2 aaoi? aea? aeieeaaeiee aiae?c noaio i?aeoe/iiai
aeeiiaanoaa, ui ooai?eany aiane?aeie iaaieo iniaeeainoae, ui iathoue
i?noea o ne?eieia?e oai??? aeeiiaanoaa oa iaoiaeeoe?. Aaoi? i?iaeiaaeo?
aiae?c iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, o ye?e a?aeia?aaeaii i?eeeaaee, ui
na?ae/aoue i?i iayai? iane?aeee iiieeie o iinoaiiaoe? aeeiiaanueeiai
aia?aoo ne?eiae?a, ye? iathoue iaaaoeaiee aieea ia ?iaioo ia ?ino?oiaio?
o oai?/?e a?ia?ao?? a?aeiieo ne?eiae?a. I?iaiaeeoue iieooaaiiy oe?ieiai
caaaeo ne?eiae?a–i?aeoee?a, ye? o a?aeiia?aeyo “iieooaaeueieo a?eoo?a”
iaeiinoaeii ae?eoee caiaee, ui iiieeee o ooieoe?iioaaii? aeeiiaanueeiai
aia?aoo ne?eiae?a ?niothoue, cia/ii aaeueiothoue, a ?iiae?
oiaiiaeeeaeththoue ?icaeoie i?ioan?eii iaiao?aeieo ?oo?a,
iaaeineiiae?noue o ooieoe?iioaaii? ?a?iaiai aia?aoo noi?iaiaeaeo?
ne?eiaey i?ioyaii onueiai ia??iaeo eiai iaa/aiiy ? iiaeaeueoi?
i?ioan?eii? ?iaioe. Aeoiee ?aniiiaeaio?a ?ic?eoeeny eeoa o aecia/aii?
oa?i?io iiaeeeaino? onoiaiiy iaaeie?e?a: iaaia /anoeia aaa/a?
iaiao?aei?noue aii?yaeeoaaoe noai aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo ia ??ai?
na?aaeiuei? eaiee ioce/ii? ina?oe, ?aooa aaaaeathoue i?iaeaio oaeith, ui
aiia ia i?aeeyaa? ae??oaiith. Aea i?ooi ia aeneiaeth? aeoiee i?i oa, ui
oaeeo iiieeie o iinoaiiaoe? ia iiaeiii ?nioaaoe acaaae?, ? aeey ?o
i?io?eaeoeee iaiao?aeii ooeaoe i?e/eie, ui ni?eythoue aeieeiaiith.

O ?iaio? cina?aaeaeaii oaaao ia iayaieo iiieeeiaeo aeaiaioao
?ooiaeo ae?e ne?eiaey, ui c’yaeeenue ia i?aea?oio? a?aenooiino?
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ?, aieiaia, caoeia?aeoai?aiiy
ia ne?eioe?. Aaoi? aeaco? ciai?oi? i?e/eie ? oa?aeoa?i? i?eciaee oeeo
iiieeie o i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy ia ne?eioe?. Iaaeineiiae?noue ne?eieiai?
iinoaiiaee iiaea iaoe iano?eueee iaaaoeai? iane?aeee, ui aiie noathoue
i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ea??a. I?i oea na?ae/aoue oaa?aeaeaiiy
oao?aoe?a, ui caeiaeeny aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?ioan?eieo caoai?thaaiue
ioceeaio?a, ine?eueee ne?eiae? ia o ciic? iiaeieaoe i?iaeaie iaoieia??,
ui aeieeathoue o aia?ao? i?e iayaiino? iiieeie o eiai iiaoaeia?. Aaeaea
eiaeiee oaoiieia?/iee aeaiaio ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa ? i?iaeaiiei
aiane?aeie a?aenooiino? eiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iaaeine?aeaeai?noue oaoiieia?? ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa
? ia’?eoeaia iani?iiiaei?noue aei oeueiai /ano ciaeoe oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia?/iei iniaeeainoyi caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?, ?
i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy iiieeie o i?aai?caoe?? ?a?iaiai i?ioeano, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeieeiaiiy i?ioan?eieo caoai?thaaiue. Aoaeue-yea
iaaeineiiae?noue oaoiieia?? ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia
ye?ni? iieacieee caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ia ?ino?oiaio?, ioaea, ine?eueee
ye?noue caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ? iaeiei c iniiaieo ioe?ii/ieo e?eoa???a
aeeiiaanueei? iaenoa?iino?, oe? i?ioeane i?aeeyaathoue aeine?aeaeaiith o
ia?oo /a?ao.

?icae?e 2. OAI?AOE*I? INIIAE NO*ANIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe
CAOEIOOAI?AIIss IA NE?EIOe?. O ?icae?e? 2.1 aeena?oaoe?? aeaia
o?aaeeoe?eia, aeoaea aeieeaaeia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeania?
caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy oa caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?, eiai ia?aiao?e oa
aeo?aei? aeai?, aecia/aii eiai iniaeeaino?. I?aee?aneaii, ui
caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ia ne?eioe? iiaeeeai cae?enithaaoe aeaiia niiniaaie –
ca aeiiiiiaith nie/ea ? ueieii. Uiaei caoeia?aeoai?aiiy, aiii
a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa ca aeiiiiiaith eieeaiiai i?ioeano no?oie.
Iaoiiaeaii, ui o ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny eeoa caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ca
aeiiiiiaith nie/ea, ine?eueee a?a ueieii ia? aaea aeineoue a?oioiaia
iaoeiaa i?aea?oioy o inoaii?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo oaoiieia??
?ino?oiaioaeueiiai aeeiiaanoaa ia ueieiaeo ?ino?oiaioao (a?oa?? oa
aaiaeo??).

Ai?ioeny c iaaeie?eaie o oaoiieia?? aeeiiaanueeeo ?oo?a ne?eiaey –
oea icia/a? iaiaaaoeny onoiooe eeoa iane?aeie iaaiiai yaeua, yeei ?
a?aenooi?noue iaoeiaai iaa?oiooaaiiy ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanueeiai
i?ioeano, caoeiooai?aiiy cie?aia.O?aaeeoe?ei?, caaaeueiia?aeii? ye?ni?
oa e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? ia a ciic?
iaa?oiooaaoe oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue ne?eieiaa
aeeiiaanoai a?ae ii/aoeiaeo iinoaiia/eo aeaiaio?a aei aeiaaeueieo
i?iaeai eiioea?oiiai aeeiiaanoaa. Aeooaeueiei iinoa? ieoaiiy iiooe?a
iiaeo iaoeiaeo iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ne?eieiaiai
aeeiiaanoaa.

O ?icae?e? 2.2 aeeiiaanueeee aia?ao ne?eiaey aia?oa aecia/aii ye
a?iiaoai?/io nenoaio, neeaaeia? /anoeie yei?: a?ieia?/ia – aeeiiaaaoeue
? iaoai?/ia, ui neeaaea?oueny, o naith /a?ao, c aeaio /anoei – ne?eiee
oa nie/ea. Nie/ie ? oith neeaaeiaith a?iiaoai?/ii? nenoaie, ui ia?aaea?
on? ae?? a?ieia?/ii? neeaaeiai? nenoaie — aeeiiaanuee? ?ooe, coneeey, ui
ni?yiiaai? ia a?aeoai?aiiy aeo?aeii? ooieoe?? nenoaie – caoeo. O
aeine?aeaeaii? nenoaii?noue o aecia/aii? i?ioeano ne?eieiaiai
aeeiiaanoaa ia iaiaaeo?oueny eeoa aecia/aiiyi aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo
ne?eiaey ye nenoaie. ?? ?icoi?iiy nyaa? a?ae ona?aeiieaiiy yaeua
nenoaiiino? i?e iaa/aii? ii/aoeiaeo iaa/aeueieo ?oo?a, i?ioyaii onueiai
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, c aeoiaeii ia e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao –
aeeiiaanueeee oai?/ee i?ioean.

Iaeaea, eiioeaiooaeueii iiaa oeoia/aiiy i?ioean?a
caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy oa caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?– ye aeo?aeii?
ooieoe?? e?aa?iaoe/ii? a?iiaoai?/ii? nenoaie iaaea? iaoeiaa i?aea?oioy
ne?eieiaiio aeeiiaanoao a oe?eiio.

?icae?e 2.3 aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea? ineoieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy
? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?. Aecia/eoe i?iaeaio
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?a?iaeo ?oo?a, noai?eoe
ia’?eoeai? oiiae ?o iiaoaeiae ? i?aeoe/ieo ae?e, ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe
?acoeueoaoe o aeeiiaanueeo i?aeoeeo, iiaeeeai eeoa ca oiiae
ineoieia?/iiai ona?aeiieaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ia?ainieneaiiy ?nioth/eo
oaoiieia?e ? ?a?iaeo ?oo?a, a oaeiae noai?aiiy ineoieia?/ieo ia?aaeoiia
aeey caii/aoeoaaiiy iiceoeaiiai i?aea?oioy aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeiiaanueeiai i?ioeano a oe?eiio. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co
no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? ineoieia?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy, c?iaeaii
ni?iao i?iaiicoaaiiy ia?aaeoiia caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? ia iniia?
iniaeeainoae ineoieia?/ieo noa?aioei?a, ui ia? nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeniiae?a c ieoaiiy.

Caaeeaeaia anaa?/ia ineoieia?/ia ?iaioa ? iaiao?aeiith
ia?aaeoiiaith oni?oiiai oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo ?oo?a ne?eiaey,
oaoiieia?/ii aeioe?eueieo ii/aoeiaeo aeaiaio?a caoeiooai?thth/i? nenoaie
?a?iaiai aia?aoo, ui ? i?aea?oioyi aeey io?eiaiiy ye?nieo caoeiaeo
ia?aiao??a aeeiiaanoaa. Ineoieia?/ia i?iaiicoaaiiy uiaei caeaaeiino?
yeino? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeeiiaanoaa a?ae iayaieo ?en
ineoieia?/iiai noa?aioeio, ae?aaiinoeea cae?aiinoae oa i?ioan?eiiai
noaio aeeiiaaoey ? acaaae? ineoieia?y inieneaiiy aeeiiaanueeiai
i?ioeano, ia? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey oni?oiiai iiaioaaiiy i?ioeanii
iiaioaaiiy ?a?iaeo ?oo?a a oe?eiio.

?icae?e 3. IAOIAeEEA AECIA*AIIss AeEIAI?*IEO OA?AEOA?ENOEE
CAOEIOOAI?AIIss IA NE?EIOe?. A ?icae?e? 3.1 aeeeaaeaii
aenia?eiaioaeueio iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy oa caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? ca
aeiiiiiaith nie/ea. O ?icae?e? 2.2. ie ?icaeyaeaee nie/ie ye neeaaeiao
/anoeio a?iiaoai?/ii? nenoaie. Aeey oiai, uia oyaeoe oe?e?nio ea?oeio
oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie, ui aecia/aia iaie, iaeaaeeoue
aeine?aeeoe ? iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iaioe eiaeii? c ??
neeaaeiaeo /anoei.

Ooieoe?th aeaeiaoaaiiy caoeo a nenoai? aeeiio? aea? neeaaeiaeo
nenoaie — a?ieia?/ia – aeeiiaaaoeue, i?aaa ?oea yeiai c’?aeiaia ?c
iaei??th ?c iaoai?/ieo neeaaeiaeo — nie/eii. Oiaoi ia ia?aiao?e ?iaioe
caoeiaeaeiaoaath/i? /anoeie a?iiaoai?/ii? nenoaie aeeiiaaaoeue ia?
iiaeeea?noue aieeaaoe aaciina?aaeiuei. Ine?eueee eiaeiiio aeeiiaaoeaa?
aeanoea? iaai? noa’?eoeai? o?ce/i? ? ineoieia?/i? yeino?, iacaaaeath/e
ia eiinoaioi? (o iaaieo ?a?iaeo oiiaao) yeino? iaoai?/ii? neeaaeiai?
caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy – nie/ea, ne?ae aanoe ?iciiao i?i iaeiinoaioi?noue
i?ioeano ye caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy o aecia/ai?e iaie nenoai?.

Ooieoe?th caoeia?aeoai?aiiy aeeiio? eeoa iaoai?/ia neeaaeiaa –
no?oia, ui c’?aeiaia oaeiae c iaoai?/iith neeaaeiaith – ei?ionii
ne?eiee, ? ye?ni? aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e caoeia?aeoai?aiiy caeaaeaoue a?ae
o?ce/ieo (aeonoe/ieo, iaoai?/ieo) aeanoeainoae ?ino?oiaioo, eiai
ei?iona, no?oi, i?aenoaaee oiui oa aeonoe/ieo iiaeeeainoae i?ei?uaiiy,
aea a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean aeeiiaanoaa. Oiaoi ia’?eoeaii,
caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia? aooe i?ioeanii eiinoaioiei. Aea a?aoiaoth/e, ui
caoaeaeaiiy eieeaiiai i?ioeano no?oi – eiinoaioii? neeaaeiai? nenoaie,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaeiinoaioii? neeaaeiai? – aeeiiaaoey,
iaeaaeeoue i?aee?aneeoe iaaecae/aeio i?ieea?noue oa neeaaei?noue
i?ioeano caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy oa caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?. Aei oiai
ae, a neeo ia’?eoeaieo ?noi?e/ieo i?e/ei oeae i?ioean ? iaeiaio
aeine?aeaeaiei.

Iaiao?aei?noue aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae o aaaaoiieiueiiiio
i?ioean? caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy oa caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?, niiioeaea
ian aei i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a, ye? neeaaeathoueny c /eneaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa aeine?ae?a, ui aeicaieeei aecia/eoe ia’?eoeai?
ioe?ii/i? e?eoa??? uiaei caoeiaeaeiaoaiiai oa caoeia?aeoai?thaaeueiiai
i?ioeano o ne?eieiaiio aeeiiaanoa?, i?aeoaa?aeeoe aai ni?inooaaoe
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy iaaieo ?a?iaeo i?eeii?a, aeey /iai ciyoe o
??ciiiai?oieo ?a?iaeo oiiaao, cao?enoaaoe oa i?aeaeaoe c??aiyeueiiio
aiae?co eiai caoeia? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oeeo oa?aeoa?enoee, ye? iaaea? nie/ie i?ae /an
aeeiiaiiy ia ne?eioe?, iai iaiao?aeii a?aeie?aieoe eiai a?ae nenoaie e
aeine?aeeoe o aeeiai?oe? ?a?iaeo ?oo?a. Aei oiai ae iaeaaeaei
caaacia/eoe aaniethoii oioiaei? oiiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iaiao?aeii?
e?eueeino? aenia?eiaio?a, i?e aaeaeaaoieo aeo?aeieo ia?aiao?ao. Aeey
oeueiai iio??aii noai?eoe oaee oiiae, i?e yeeo nie/ie i?a ooieoe?iioaaoe
noaa?eueii ? iacaeaaeii a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae a?ieia?/ii?
nenoaie. ?a?ia? ?ooe aoei a?aeoai?aii ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai
i?eeaaeo iino?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio. I?eeaae ooieoe?iioaaa oaeei
/eiii, ui ia?aae ii/aoeii aeine?aeaeaiue aeo?aei? aeai? aoee oaeeie:

-nie/ie a?eueii eaaeaa ia no?oi? ? ae?ya ia ia? eeoa i?ae aieeaii
aeanii? aaae;

— ?oo nie/ea a?aeaoaaany ca aeiiiiiaith ?ooiii? ieaooi?ie, ui
i?eaiaeeeanue o ae?th aeaeo?iiioi?ii iino?eiiai no?oio;

— iai?yiie ?ooo nie/ea ei?aaoaaany ca aeiiiiiaith iaiaaeoaa/?a, ui
caiia?aaee ia ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio eiai ?ooia? uiaei no?oie.

A aeine?aeao aiae?co i?aeaeaaaeeny iiai? oeeeee ?ooo nie/ea. Ca iiaiee
oeeee ?ooo nie/ea a iaoeo aenia?eiaioao, aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aeine?aeao
i?eeiaee eiai ?oo a?ae e?ioey (niena) aei eieiaeee (aaa?o) ? a?ae
eieiaeee aei e?ioey (niena) (aiec). Aoei caaacia/aii aaniethoii oioiaei?
oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy an?o aenia?eiaio?a. I?oaei?noue aieino ia nie/eo ia
ci?ithaaeanue, no??e no?oie iino?eii ia?aa??yany ca aeiiiiiaith
eiii’thoa?ii? i?ia?aie. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo iiia?aaeiee?a eiio?ieueiei
?ino?oiaioii aeey aei??thaaiiy ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee caoeiaeo eieeaaiue
ne?eieiai? no?oie aoei aooi. Aaeaea ine?eueee oaeee ??aaiue ioe?ii/iiai
e?eoa??th ? aeinoaoiuei noa’?eoeaiei, iai caeaeiny iaiao?aeiei
i?aeaeaoe oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e caoeia?aeoai?aiiy aeine?aeaeaiith ia “
i?e?ino?oeoo?iiio” ??ai?. Ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ii? caoeiai? “ Cool
Edit Program ” /a?ac i?e?ioii caienoaaee caoe, ui aeaeiaoaaany nie/eii,
yeee a?eueii ?ooaany o iaaieo oiiaao ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?ii?eeaaeo, oa
a?aeoai?thaaany no?oiith, anoaiiaeaiith ia ne?eioe?. Aeey /enoioe
aenia?eiaioo ia ne?eioe? caeeoaee iaeio no?oio.

Noai?thaaeenue ??ciiiai?oi? oiiae ?iaioe nie/ea ? aecia/aany ?o
aieea ia ye?noue caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ia ne?eioe?.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue iieacieee ci?i oaeeo ia?aiao??a:

n i?noey niieo/aiiy nie/ea ?c no?oiith;

n oaeaeeino? ?ooo nie/ea;

n neee oeneo ia nie/ie;

n i?noey niieo/aiiy i?aai? ?oee ?c nie/eii ;

n caeaaei?noue aeeiai?ee ci?i ia aeacai? eiiiiiaioe a?ae i?aeaeine?aeii?
no?oie.

I?noea niieo/aiiy nie/ea ?c no?oiith, o ?iaio? iicia/aii
e?oa?ith Ln, aea L — a?aenoaiue a?ae aa?oiueiai e?ath a?eoa aei
aioo??oiueiai e?ath no??/ee aieino ia nie/eo. Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue
o naioeiao?ao. A?aeiia?aeii aei oiia aeine?ae?a nie/ie ia?ai?uaany
aeeae/a aai aeae? a?ae a?eoo, aeeae/a aai aeae? a?ae i?aenoaaee.
Aea/aeenue ?aaeoe?? an?o /ioe?ueio ne?eieiaeo no?oi ia ci?io ia?aiao?o
L. Ioaea L1 = 1,1 ni., L2 = 2,8 ni., L3 =5ni.

Oaeaee?noue, c yeith nie/ie ?ooa?oueny ii no?oi?, o ?iaio?
iicia/aii e?oa?ith V. Ine?eueee aei??thaaiiy aaniethoii? aaee/eie
oaeaeeino? aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeeiiaanoaa ia ia? nooo?aiai cia/aiiy ? ?
ii noo? aano?aeiei, ian oe?eaaeee ia?aiao?e a?aeiiniiai cia/aiiy
ca?eueoaiiy aai ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? ia?anoaaiiy nie/ea ii no?oi?. Aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaee aeanoea?noue aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai i?eeaaeo ?c
iino?eiei no?oiii ca aeiiiiiaith aaoio?ainoi?iaoi?a ci?ithaaoe oene
aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio o aeaeo?e/i?e ia?aae? i?eeaaeo ? oaeei /eiii
ci?ithaaoe oaeaee?noue ?ooo ieaooi?ie ?c cae??ieaiei ia i?e nie/eii. Ca
iaeeieoeth aei??o oaeaeeino? ?ooo nie/ea ii no?oi? i?eeia?ii oiiai?
iaeeieoe? (o.i.), ui a?aeiia?aeathoue /eneiaei cia/aiiyi iaeeieoeue
aei??o iai?oae aeaeo?ino?oio i?e ?on? nie/ea ?c iaaiith oaeaee?noth,
i?e:

U=25 a, V1=25 o.i., ui aei??aith? = 44 Largo, U=50a, V2=50 o. i. ui
aei??aith? = 112 Allegretto, U=75a, V3=75 o. i., ui aei??aith?
= 184 Presto.

Ie iaee iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaoe ? anoaiiaethaaoe oaeaee?noue iaci?iii
i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeaiiy, aai, iaaiaee, ci?ithaaoe oaeaee?noue i?ioyaii
aenia?eiaioo, aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeine?aeo caaaeath/e ia oiiae ?o
i?iaaaeaiiy. Aei oiai ae o iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ciaoooaaee /eneiaeie
cia/aiiyie nee oa?oy nie/ea ia no?oio oa neee iii?o no?oie, ine?eueee
aiie ? oioiaeieie, eiinoaioieie i?ioyaii eiaeiiai c aenia?eiaio?a.

Neea oeneo nie/ea ia no?oio iicia/aia e?oa?ith G. Aiia aei??aith?
nee? iii?o no?oie. Cia/aiiy G iiaea aooe eiinoaioiei aai ci?iiei,
caeaaeii a?ae caaaeaiue oa oiia i?iaaaeaiiy o eiaeiiio c oioiaeieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. G iiaea aei??aithaaoe eeoa aac? nie/ea, aai
ca?eueooaaoenue /a?ac aeiaeaoeiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith aaae
cacaeaeaa?aeue a?aeiiiai cia/aiiy. Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o a?aiao (
a?. ). Ioaea: G1 =00 a?., G2 = 05 a?., G3 =10 a?. , G4 =25 a?.

I?noea niieo/aiiy nie/ea ?c oa?i??ii ?ooiii? ieaooi?ie, uiaei
a?iiaoai?/ii? nenoaie, yeith aeciaii aeeiiaanueeee aia?ao ne?eiaey, oea
— i?noea o?eiaiiy nie/ea i?aaith ?oeith. Iaoith aenia?eiaioo aoei
aecia/aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii aieeao ia ye?noue caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy
ciaioaiiy iea/a neee, yeei ? aeiaaeeia nie/ea i?e caa?aaeaii? neee
oeneo, ui ae?? ia no?oio /a?ac nie/ie. O iao?e ?iaio? oeae iieaciee
iicia/aii e?oa?ith I ? a?aeiia?aea? a?aenoai? a?ae eieiaeee aei i?noey
niieo/aiiy nie/ea ?c oa?i??ii ia ?ooii?e ieaooi?i?. Nie/ie
cae??ieth?oueny aei oa?i??a o o?aaeeoe?eiiio i?noe? o?eiaiiy — a?ey
eieiaeee, aai, ca oiiaaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, oeth a?aenoaiue a?ae eieiaeee
aei oa?i??o ca?eueoaii. Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o naioeiao?ao.
Ioaea, I1 = 00 ni., I2 = 05 ni., I3 =10 ni.

Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue ca oaeith noaiith:

anoaiiaethaaee ia aeaeo?ii?eeaae? iaeaaeio iai?oao aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio,
ia oa?i??? ?ooiii? ieaooi?ie anoaiiaethaaee nie/ie, ui iaa ciiao a?eueii
?ooaoeny ii no?oi?. Iaoyae?iiy aieino aoei iaci?iiei. Eiaeai aeine?ae o
aeine?aeaeaii? oa aenia?eiaio? i?iaaaeeany ii 10 ?ac?a, ?acoeueoaoe
o?enoaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ii? i?ia?aie. Ia?ana?ae/eaoenue o
aaniethoi?e oioiaeiino? on?o caien?a, ie caeaoaee aeey ca?oo eeoa aeaa.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe aoei aeyaeaii ?nioaaiiy cii
“aeoeaii?” oa “ianeaii?” ?aaeoe?e ne?eieiaeo no?oi ; eiaeia ne?eieiaa
no?oia ?aaao? ia eiinoaioi? ? oioiaei? ?ooe nie/ea ii-??ciiio;
iniaeeainoyie ?aaeoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny ne?eieiaa no?oia ?3 – D; ci?ia
oaeaeeino? ?ooo aieeaa? ia ao/i?noue ne?eieiaiai caoeo – i?enei?aiiy
oaeaeeino? ?ooo nie/ea i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy ao/iino?:
a?ae ci?ie oeneo ia nie/ie ao/i?noue ia ci?ith?oueny, oene ia? iiceoeaia
cia/aiiy eeoa aeey onoiaiiy (i?e iaiao?aeiino?) “ciie ianeaii?
?aaeoe??”; iaee?au? oiiae caoeia?aeoai?aiiy aeieeathoue i?e ci?uaii?
i?aai? ?oee ne?eiaey ia 5 ni. a?ae eieiaeee nie/ea.

O ?icae?e? 3.2 aecia/aii i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo aeniiae?a c
aenia?eiaio?a. Aoaeue-yea oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?ino?oiaioaeueiiio
aeeiiaanoa? ? aei?aaaeaiei, ia? nain, yeui eiai ?acoeueoaoe ciaoiaeyoue
aeo?ae ia iaai? aaeoc? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?
ioiieththoue ne?eieiaa aeeiiaanoai o iiaiiio ianyc? — ?noi??th,
oai??th, i?aeoeeo.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?iaioe aeieea? iiaeeea?noue ciaeoe ia’?eoeaia
oeoia/aiiy ?noi?e/iei i?ioeanai, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue aaaaoia?eiaee oeyo
?icaeoeo ?ino?oiaioo, iaaeaoe c iaoeiaeo iiceoe?e oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia?? ?a?iaeo ?oo?a, a oaeei /eiii aianoe /eneaii?
ci?ie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy a aeeiiaanueeee oa, cie?aia, a iaa/aeueiee
i?ioeane, i?aeianoe ia iaeaaeiee ??aaiue ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe, ui
iathoue i?noea o ne?eieiaiio aeeiiaanoa?.

Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui oi?eathoueny oaoiieia?? aeeiiaanoaa,
ie??i aaaaoueio i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue, caaaeaee, aai, iiaeeeai, a ia?oo
/a?ao, iathoue iiceoeaiee aieea ia iaa/aeueiee i?ioean, iaeaea ci?ie /e
aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? iiaioaaiiy ?ino?oiaioo aai aeeiiaiiy iaaieo
?a?iaeo i?eeii?a caeeaaeathoueny c iniia iaenoa?iino?. Aaeaea
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui cai?iiiiiaai? iaie o ?iaio?, ?
iaea?aeai? c ?o aeiiiiiaith ?acoeueoaoe ni?eyoeiooue ao?eaiith a on?
iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e, ui
iaaeanoue eiio iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy, ia’?eoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa
i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano iiaioaaiiy iaeiiai c? neeaaei?oeo ioce/ieo
?ino?oiaio?a ia on?o i?ioan?eieo ??aiyo.

Iiae?aia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaia? aiaeia?a i? a Oe?a?i?, i? ca ??
iaaeaie. Iai?eeeaae, oeueiio na?ae/aiiyi ? aea/aiiy aeina?aeo ?iaioe,
ci?noo iaa/aeueieo ieai?a, a oaeiae i?iiiceoe?e uiaei ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, /eai?a i?ia?aie
“Nie?ao”, ae?yeuei?noue yei? iieeeeaia eii?aeeioaaoe i?ioan?ei? iiooee ?
?iaioo ii aaeineiiaeaiith i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
aeeeaaea/?a-no?oiiee?a. Eeoa a A?eaeoienuee?e aeu?e ioce/i?e oeie?
(Aiae?y) ?nio? aeenoeeie?ia “Eiii’thoa? ? ioceea”, ni?yiiaaia ia
caaeiaieaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo aeiia uiaei ?iaioe ia ?ino?oiaio? ?c
canoinoaaiiyi eiii’thoa?a – caien, i?ineooiaoaaiiy aeaniiai aeeiiaiiy
ioce/ieo oai??a ? aianaiiy ia i?aenoaa? oeeo caien?a iaaieo ei?aeoea?a
oa aaeineiiaeaiue. O aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae i?iiiio?oueny canoinoaaiiy
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e i?aeoe/ii a on?o noa?ao ne?eieiaiai
aeeiiaanoaa, aea a ?ioiio, aeneethceaiiio aniaeo?, aaaaeaiiy o
aeeiiaanueeo ina?oo iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo eo?n?a: “Eiii’thoa?ia ei?aeoe?y
ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanueeiai i?ioeano”, “Ineoieia?y ne?eieiaiai
aeeiiaanoaa”, “?noi??y ne?eieiai? iaaeaaia?ee”, oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo
eo?no “ ?noi??y nie/eiaiai ienoaoeoaa”.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy a?aenioeiaiai ??aiy a?aeoai?aiiy
caoeo ia ne?eioe? eiaeiith ae?eueieoeath eiaeii? no?oie ca aeiiiiiaith
nie/ea iaaeaea iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoe iaoeiaee aiae?c oaoiieia?? aeeiiaiiy
ioce/iiai oai?o. (I?e iaiao?aeiino? iath iiaeia nei?enoaoeny aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?e ia ne?eioe? ueieii). Aeeiiaaoeaa? ia iio??aii
aeo?a/aoe aaaaoiaiaeeii? caiyooy ia “iiooee” (ia neoo!) ia?aiao??a
caoeiooai?aiiy. Ei?enooth/enue /eneiaeie a?aenioeiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie,
iiaeia na?aeiii ?aaoethaaoe coneeey aeeiiaaoey aeey ei?aeoe?? caoeo
aeo?aeii? ooieoe?? ?iaioe aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo.

Aeieea? iiaeeea?noue neeanoe (onii aai ienueiiai) “oaoiieia?/io
ea?oo” oai?o – iai?yiie oa oaeaee?noue ?ooo, nooi?iue oeneo nie/ea,
ia?ainieneeoe eiai ?iciiae?e oiui. Aea ei?enooaaoeny i?e oeueiio ia
o?aaeeoe?yie, ui anoaiiaeeenue i?ioyaii aaaaoia?eiaiai ?nioaaiiy
ne?eiee, aiane?aeie yeeo ia caaaeaee iiaeia io?eiaoe aaaeaiee
?acoeueoao, a aaccaia?a/eeaeie iaoeiaeie ?ic?aooieaie, ye?
aeicaieythoue cacaeaeaa?aeue ia?aaeaa/eoe aeo?aei? ia?aiao?e. ? i?ae /an
caiyoue coneeey ne?eiaey iathoue aooe ni?yiiaai? eeoa ia a?aeoai?aiiy
iiia?aaei?o ?ic?aooie?a a i?aeoe/iiio aeeiiaii?, c iaeyaeo ia
oaoiieia?th oa aiioe?eia iaiiaiaiiy oai?o, ui aeeiio?oueny. Aei oiai ae
a?eueoa /anoeia oaaae oa coneeue iiaea aooe neiioeaio?iaaia ia
aeeiiaanueeiio ?ioa?i?aoaoi?nueeiio aniaeo?, ooaeiaeiueiio a?aeoai?aii?
aaoi?nueeiai caaeoio.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei aeaeia?aaeathoueny ia ye?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. Oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ?iaioe ia
?ino?oiaio? aeicaiey? aeeiiaaoeaa? io?eiaoe aaaeai? iei ?acoeueoaoe
yeino? aeeiiaiiy, iaaea? iiaeeea?noue aeineiiae?oa ao?ethaaoe a ioceoe?
ci?no, ui eiai aeeaaeaii eiiiiceoi?ii. Oa, ia?aoo?, a?aenooi?noue
oaoiieia?/ieo aaae iaaea? aeeiiaaoeaa? (ia aoaeue-yeiio i?ioan?eiiio
??ai? – a?ae o/iy-ii/aoe?aoey aei i?ioan?iiaea) aiaaiaiino?,
ineoieia?/ii? no?eeino? oa ??aiiaaae i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy, ui o naith
/a?ao a?aee?eaa? i?ino?? aeey aacia?aoeiaeiiai neooaoeueeiai ni?eeiaiiy
oai?o, ui aeeiio?oueny.

Noai?aiiy oaeeo “oaoiieia?/ieo ea?o” ioce/iiai oai?o iaaoaa?
aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy o i?aeoeoe? aeeiiaiiy i?eano?iaeo ne?eieiaeo ia?o?e.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe
a?aenioeiaee ??aaiue cao/aiiy eiaeii? c? neeaaeiaeo no?oiii? a?oie
i?eano?iai? ia?oeoo?e, ui noai?th? oiiae yne?aaiai aeeiiaiiy ioce/iiai
oai?o, aeaeiaoaaiiy iaeneiaeueii ye?niiai caoeo. A?aeoai?aiiy
iaiioeiaeueieo caoeiaeo ia?aiao??a ?ino?oiaioo o nieueiiio aeeiiaii?
ioce/iiai oai?o ia ia? iii?oieo iaaaoeaieo ye?nieo ?acoeueoao?a ? /anii
ona?aeiieth?oueny eeoa naiei aeeiiaaoeai, aea a i?eano?iaiio cao/aii?
(eiee a?oia a?aeoai?th? i?aeoe/ii ??ci? ca ye?noth caoeia? ia?aiao?e
?ino?oiaioo) oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai iia??oaiiy aeeiiaanueeiai
??aiy i?eano?o.

Ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? iayaia iniaeea?noue ?aaeoe??
ne?eieiai? no?oie ?3 – aecia/aiiy i?e?iaeii? “ciie aeoeaii? ?aaeoe?? “,
ui o?eaa? i?ioyaii onueiai oa?i?io ?ooo nie/ea a?ae e?ioey aei eieiaeee
— aaa?o, oa a?ae eieiaeee aei e?ioey – aiec, ui ia? nooo?aa cia/aiiy
aeey aecia/aiiy ciie ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey canai?iiy ii/aoeiaeo ?a?iaeo
?oo?a ne?eiae?a. Oae? oiiae caoeiaiaeoai?aiiy ia aeiaaathoue a?ae
ii/aoe?aoe?a aeiaeaoeiaeo coneeue aeey iiaeieaiiy “ciie ianeaii?
?aaeoe??”, yea ?nio? ia ?ioeo no?oiao oa o ?ioeo ?a?iaeo oi/eao no?oie
D, ui iiaea ni?eyoe aeieeiaiith iaaaaeaii? neooino? o aia?ao? ne?eiaey.
Iaiaaii, c /anii iaoeia nain iaienaiiy no/anii? “Oeiee a?e ia ne?eioe?”
c o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca?ac ia i?aeoeoe? aeiionoeii
aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/eo iin?aiee?a aeey ii/aoe?aoe?a aaoi??a I.
Eenaeianueeiai, I.Ia?oiiaiei ? A.Caeueae?na, E. Oaooaaeae??aa, ca??ie
i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th I.?iae?iiiaa, I.Aa?eeoeueeiai oa ?ioeo ?c cae/aeiei
o?ainiiioaaiiyi i’?n, ui iaienai? aeey aeeiiaiiy ia no?oi? A, A, G ia
no?oio D. Iaaeaaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei o?eaaeino? ia??iaeo a?e ia
no?oi? D ia aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia, ine?eueee oeae oa?i?i oe?eeii
caeaaeaoeia a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo aeeiiaanueeiai
aia?aoo eiaeiiai ii/aoe?aoey, iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? oa
aeina?ae/aiino? aeeeaaea/a. Aaaeeeaei caeiaooeii aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe ? aecia/aiiy oiia iae??ai?oiai caoeia?aeoai?aiiy i?e ci?uaii?
i?aai? ?oee ia 5 naioeiao??a a?ae eieiaeee. Oaea ci?uaiiy cia/ii
iieaaoo? ia eeoa canai?iiy ii/aoeiaeo ?a?iaeo ?oo?a, a ? iiaeaeueoo
i?ioan?eio ?iaioo. I?e iiae?aiiio niieo/aii? i?aai? ?oee ?c nie/eii
aaea?oueny iicaaaeoeny iaiao?aeiino? ei?enooaaiiy “ia?a?iaith ciiith”
nie/ea, ui aoea aeyaeaia a ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaio?a ? ciaoiaeeoueny
a?ey eieiaeee. Aeey aeio?eiaiiy “cii” ?aaeoe?? ne?eieiaeo no?oi (ia
i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue), iaiao?aeii iicia/eoe oe? “ciie” ia ?a?iaeo
/anoeiao ne?eieiaeo no?oi a?ae a?eoa aei i?aenoaaee, ca aeiiiiiaith
eieuei?iaeo, aai i?inoi yne?aaeo nioaeie, ye? aei??aiththoue oe?ei?
aieina ia nie/eo.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ?c ci?iith oeneo ia nie/ie oa oaeaeeino?
eiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaee uiaei i?e?iaee
ne?eieiaeo oo?eo?a. O?aaeeoe?ei? ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee a?aeia?aaeathoue
ooaeiaei? i?ecia/aiiy, a ia oaoiieia?th aeeiiaiiy eiaeiiai ?c oo?eo?a.
Ine?eueee a?aeiii, ui i?e?iaei?noue caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?
iieyaa? o iaaeaii? ne?eieiaei no?oiai ai?eciioaeueieo eieeaaiue ? a?ae
aaee/eie aiie?ooaee caeaaeeoue eiai ao/i?noue, a o?eaae?noue i?e
caoeiaeaeiaoaaii? nie/eii caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?i?io caoaeaeaiiy no?oie,
iaeaaeeoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui on? eeane/i? ne?eieia? oo?eoe iathoue
ni?eueia iioiaeaeaiiy – aiie a?aeoai?ththoueny /a?ac iaaeaiiy no?oi?
ai?eciioaeueieo eieeaaiue ??cieo ca o?eaae?noth ? neeith, a?ae /iai
caeaaeeoue o?eaae?noue ? ye?noue oo?eoa. Aeine?aeaie anoaiiaeaii
i?e?iaeia i?aaiaiiy nie/ea, ui a?eueii ?ooa?oueny ii no?oi?, aei
a?aeoai?aiiy “crescendo” i?e iai?yieo ?ooo aei eieiaeee, ? “diminuendo”
i?e iai?yieo ?ooo aei e?ioey nie/ea. O ne?eieiaeo ia?o?yo /eneaiieo
ioce/ieo oai??a anoaiiaeaii i?ioeeaaei? i?e?iaeiei iai?yiee ?ooo nie/ea,
ui oaeiae aeiaaa? a?ae aeeiiaaoe?a iaiaa?oioiaaieo ?, /anii, iaaei??ieo
coneeue aeey iiaeieaiiy iii?o no?oie, noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey
aeieeiaiiy iaaaoeaii? i’yciai? ?aaeoe??. O?aaeeoe?eiee ?iciiae?e nie/ea
ia ?a?ia? /anoeie – ??ai? aa?oiy, ieaeiy iieiaeia, ia ??ai? /anoeie
nie/ea, e?iaoeue, na?aaeeia, “eieiaeea” – aea aeey on?o no?oi
iaeiaeiaee, ao?a/a? nain c iaeyaeo ia ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
ine?eueee eiaeia no?oia i?e eiinoaioieo ? oioiaeieo oiiaao caoaeaeaiiy
ooai?th? aaniethoii ?io? ?a?ia? ciie ia nie/eo ? a?aeiia?aea?
eieeaaiiyie, ui iathoue ia oioiaei? ??ai? aiie?ooaee. Aeey i?aeoeee
aeeiiaanoaa aecia/aiiy “cii ?aaeoe?? no?oi” a?ae?a?a? nooo?aa cia/aiiy,
ine?eueee aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe ?iciiae?e ?a?iaeo coneeue.

Ao?eaiiy a i?aeoeeo aeeiiaanoaa ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a nooo?ai
oi?ea?oueny an?o eiai noa? – ii/aoeiaeo aeaiaio?a iinoaiiaee, ?iciiae?eo
nie/ea, aenieiye?niiai aeeiiaiiy oo?eo?a /a?ac aecia/aiiy ?o i?e?iaeiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, yne?aaiai aeeiiaiiy ithain?a, aeicaiey? caeiaoeny
aeeiiaanueeei i?ioeanii ia ne?eioe? ia nooe?eueii iiaeo canaaeao.

Aeniiaee

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy nie/eii ? – aia?oa –
cai?ioiiai eiio, i?ioeano caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? ca aeiiiiiaith
no/anieo eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

· aaaaoia?eiaa ?noi??y ?icaeoeo oai??? ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa i?noeoue
o nia? iaaecae/aeii noia?a/eea? aeniiaee uiaei oaoiieia??
caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy eeoa oiio, ui iath/e ni?eueiee ?icaeoie ?c caaaeueieie
caeiiaie ?icaeoeo iaoee, eeoa ca?ac iaaoea iiaeeeaino? iaea?aeoaaoe
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? e?eoa??? ioe?iee eiaeii? ?c neeaaeiaeo
aeeiiaanueeiai i?ioeano, caoeia?aeoai?aiiy, cie?aia;

· iaoeiaa i?aea?oioy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa,
iniiae yeiai caeeaaeathoueny aeaiith i?aoeath, aeiiiiiaea ia eeoa
oni?oii aeieaoe iayai? iiieeee o oaoiieia?? aeeiiaanoaa, a e iaoeia
nooo?aa i?io?eaeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey caiia?aaiiy ?o aeieeiaiiy;

· ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe i?ioeano caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ia ne?eioe? –
i???iooaaiiy, ae?aaiinoeea, i?iaiicoaaiiy, ia?ainieneaiiy iaoiaeeee
aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo aeaiaio?a ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa ?c a?aooaaiiyi
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iathoue ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey
iiaeaeueoiai ia?niaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo ? oni?oiiai ao?eaiiy o aeeiiaanueeo
i?aeoeeo no/anieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue;

· aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ?
caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? ca aeiiiiiaith nie/ea, ui i?aoeth?
iacaeaaeii a?ae iniaeno?niiai aieeao aeeiiaaoey, oiai/ieei oa aeyaeei
aein? iaa?aeii? ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ino?oiaioo ? iaaeaei iaoeiaiai
i?aea?oioy aaaaoueii oaoiieia?/iei iniaeeainoyi ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa;

· ye na?ae/eoue i?aeoeea, canoinoaaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo ?a?iaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee ne?eiee cia/ii ni?iuo? i?ioeane iaieiae?iiy iaaieie
aeeiiaanueeeie i?eeiiaie caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy, iie?auo? caoeia?aeoai?aiiy,
caaaeyee oaeineiiaeaiith oaoiieia?? cia/ii i?enei?th? i?ioean
iaieiae?iiy iaae/eaie a?e ia ne?eioe?, i?aeaeuo? aeioe?euei?noue ?a?iaeo
?oo?a o oe?eiio.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo:

1.Oai??y iinoaiiaee caoeiaeaeiaoaath/i? /anoeie aeeiiaanueeiai
aia?aoo ne?eiaey a eiioaeno? ?noi?e/ii-oai?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo // I?iaeaie
no/aniiai ienoaoeoaa ? eoeueoo?e: Ca.iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — Oa?e?a,1998. —
N.41-45.

2. Ineoieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo
ne?eiaey. // I?iaeaie aca?iiae?? ienoaoeoaa, iaaeaaia?ee oa oai??? ?
i?aeoeee ina?oe: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- Aei.3.- Oa?e?a,1999. —
N.47-53.

3.Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ne?eieiaiai aeeiiaanoaa // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie. Ioce/ia aeeiiaanoai.- Aei.1.-
Ee?a, 1999. — N.106-112.

4.Aeeiiaanueeee aia?ao ne?eiaey ye nenoaia // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie. Ioce/ia aeeiiaanoai.- Aei.2.-
Ee?a, 1999.- N.113-126.

AIIOAOe??

Naiaiye I?ia Ieoaee?aia Oai?aoe/i? iniiae nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano caoeiooai?aiiy ia ne?eioe?.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.03.- Ioce/ia ienoaoeoai.-
Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai, Ee?a,
1999.

?iaioa iaeaaeeoue aei iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai iai?yieo ioce/ii? iaoee,
o iniia? yeiai ? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
aeioe?eueiino? oi?ioaaiiy oa oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo
?ino?oiaioae?no?a, cie?aia caoeiaeaeiaoaath/i? oa caoeia?aeoai?thth/i?
nenoaie aeeiiaanueeiai aia?aoo ne?eiaey. I?inoaaeaii ?noi?e/iee oeyo
?icaeoeo oe??? i?iaeaie, iaaeaii aiae?c noaio i?aeoe/iiai aeeiiaanoaa ia
no/aniiio aoai? eiai ?icaeoeo, aeine?aeaeaii ineoieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae
oi?ioaaiiy ?a?iaeo ?oo?a i?aai? ?oee ne?eiaey ? iniaeeaino?
caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ia ne?eioe?. Aeeiiaanueeee aia?ao ne?eiaey aecia/aii
ye a?iiaoai?/io nenoaio, ?, ca?aeii oeueiio aecia/aiith, iiaoaeiaaii ona
iiaeaeueoa oeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Noai?aii aeaeo?iiii-iaoai?/iee i?eeaae,
ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai aoei aeeiiaii aenia?eiaioaeueio /anoeio
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui caaacia/eei io?eiaiiy ia’?eoeaieo
?a?iaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ne?eieiaiai nie/ea oa no?oi. ae. Ca aeiiiiiaith
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy oa
caoeia?aeoai?aiiy ia ne?eioe? o ??cieo ?a?iaeo oiiaao, aiane?aeie /iai
io?eiaii aein? iaa?aeii? ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ne?eieiaeo no?oi oa
nie/ea. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioo iaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o
canoinoaaiiy o i?aeoeeo iaa/aiiy a?? ia ne?eioe? oa i?aeoe/ia
aeeiiaanoai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeiiaanueeee aia?ao ne?eiaey ye nenoaia,
caoeia?aeoai?aiiy oa caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy, ciie ?aaeoe?? ne?eieiaeo no?oi.

Semenyak Nina. Theoretical basis the system-functionary
organization of the process of sound-making on violin.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate of art degree by speciality 17.00.03. – Musical
art.- National Tchaikovsky Academy of Music, Kyiv, 1999.

In the introduction it is underlined, that the work belongs to is
scientific – theoretical direction of a musical science in which basis —
research and theoretical substantiation of expediency of formation and
conditions of functioning of the performing device violinist’s, in
particular sound-extraction and sound-reproduction system of the
performing device of the violinist, as by a major component in
development of performing of skill. In work is studied the performing
device of the violinist, which is considered as the system phenomenon,
however to detailed research is exposed its that part, which provides
sound-extraction and sound-reproduction on violin : work of the right
hand of the violinist, bows, and also — for the first time — answer-back
reaction of strings.

The study of violinist’s technology of playing, in opinion of the
author, represents interest for research in two aspects:

— for improvement actually of process of performing;

— as way to an explanation of technological processes from the point of
view of technique of teaching of playing on violin.

In the chapter 1.1 of the dissertation the author makes the analysis of
the literature — methodical, theoretical, pedagogical — in which the
problem of formation of playing movements of the violinist, in
particular, its right hand is to some extent covered. As a result of
study and analysis of the literature, the author comes to a conclusion
that the theory of violin’s performing was improved according to
whole-historical laws of development of a science and in a history of
its development the author allocates three periods – out-scientific,
impirical and scientific, when deduce of all researches receive deeply
scientific substantiation. However, as a whole in a science, this period
is beginnings in the middle of the 50-th years of the 20-th century. In
a musical science, the works concerning this direction, have appeared in
the 80-th years.

In the chapter 1.2 of work the author pays attention to a practical
condition of violin performing. Supervision thirty-years of practical
activity, the continuation of the analysis of the literature,
questionnaire of a wide circle of the persons, why take part in
pedagogical practice and in violin performing, results in a conclusion,
that the presence of the contradictions in the theory, and accordingly,
and technique of teaching of sound-extraction technology on a violin,
negatively has an effect for the certain moments of practice. The author
studies examples of performing activity of the outstanding musicians of
modernity, teachers, when the mistakes in functioning a right-hand part
of the performing device, early or late gave about themselves to know
and compelled to stop work on the tool for their elimination. The
performing device of the violinists becomes a subject of attention by
doctors, as in time the not corrected mistake in the device in due
course can become the reason of occupational disease. The author comes
to a conclusion, that it is necessary to search the reason
not-perfection of the performing device of the violinists in
not-perfection of knowledge of technological processes of violin
performing and offers the ways of its research.

In chapter 2 the description of methodological bases of research is
given.

In section 2.1 authors stop on features of sound-extraction on a violin.

In section 2.2 dissertations are offered author’s definition of the
performing device of the violinist, as bio-mechanical system consisting
of two cooperating parts: biological, as the executor whish is, both
mechanical — violin and bow.

In section 2.3 authors stop on the psychological preconditions of
successful formation and functioning of system sound — reproduction on a
violin. Perspective in this direction the author considers in
psychological diagnostics and forecasting of conditions of
sound-extraction on a violin, and also creation of a positive
psychological atmosphere at initial formation of performing movements
and further mastering as complexities of violin technology.

In chapters 3.1, which is experimental, are given the detailed
description of a technique, which purpose was definition of the
qualitative and quantitative characteristics sound-extraction and
sound-reproduction on a violin. For this purpose the
electronic-mechanical device is made, by the purpose of which creation
was exclude individual influence of the executor on technological
processes of work of a violin bow, and to receive thus objective
characteristics of its influence on a string in various game conditions
and, accordingly, objective characteristics of reproduction of a sound
by a violin string. The task was put to take off the playing
characteristics at movements of a bow on all four violin strings with
moving along a playing part of each of them; influence on change of
parameters of such parameters as: change of speed of conducting a bow,
the forces of pressure on a bow, reduction are long canes by moving of a
point of holding on to a bow near the heel. As a result of the put
experiment with the help of the modern computer programs, it was
possible for the first time to receive the unknown qualitative
characteristics of violin strings and bow, that essentially has changed
our representations about technology of violin performing and gives
explanations to its many features.

In chapter 3.2 of the works are given to the recommendation to
practical application in a technique of training to play on a violin and
in to performing practice of theoretical results of experimental
researches, on examples from the musical literature demonstrates the
certain moments of violin technology of performance, which are subject
to reconsideration in light of results of the carried out experiment.

Finish work conclusions on each of sections of the dissertation.

Key words: the performing device of the violinist as system,
sound-extraction and sound-reproduction, zone of reaction of violin’s
strings.

Naiaiye Ieia Ieoaeeiaia Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau nenoaiii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeanna caoeiia?aciaaiey ia ne?eiea.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa eneonnoaiaaaeaiey
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.03 — Iocueaeueiia eneonnoai .- Iaoeeiiaeueiay
iocueaeueiay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu ei. I.E.*aeeianeiai, Eeaa, 1999.

?aaioa i?eiaaeeaaeeo e iai?aaeaieth a iocueaeueii-oai?aoe/aneie
iaoee, eioi?ia caieiaaony enneaaeiaaieai e oai?aoe/aneei iainiiaaieai
oeaeaniia?aciinoe oi?ie?iaaiey e oneiaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
eniieieoaeueneiai aiia?aoa eino?oiaioaeenoia, a eiaiii,
caoeiaini?iecaiaeyuae nenoaiu eniieieoaeueneiai aiia?aoa ne?eia/a.
I?ineaaeai enoi?e/aneee iooue ?acaeoey yoie i?iaeaiu, aeai aiaeec
ninoiyiey i?aeoe/aneiai eniieieoaeuenoaa ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey,
enneaaeiaaiu ineoieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee oi?ie?iaaiey ea?iauo
aeaeaeaiee ne?eia/a e iniaaiiinoe caoeiaini?iecaaaeaiey ia ne?eiea.
Aeaii ii?aaeaeaiea eniieieoaeueneiai aiia?aoa ne?eia/a eae
aeiiaoaie/aneie nenoaiu, e, niioaaonoaaiii yoiio ii?aaeaeaieth,
iino?iaii ana aeaeueiaeoaa enneaaeiaaiea. Ecaioiaeaii
yeaeo?iiii-iaoaie/aneee i?eai?, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai i?iaaaeaia
yenia?eiaioaeueiay /anoue enneaaeiaaiey, /oi iaania/eei iieo/aiea
iauaeoeaiuo ea?iauo oa?aeoa?enoee ne?eie/iiai niu/ea e no?oi. N
iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu enneaaeiaaiu i?ioeannu
caoeiia?aciaaiey ia ne?eiea a ?acee/iuo ea?iauo oneiaeyo, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai iieo/aiu oieeaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ne?eie/iuo no?oi e niu/ea. Ii
?acoeueoaoai yenia?eiaioa aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e eo i?aeoe/aneiio
i?eiaiaieth a eniieieoaeueneie e o/aaiie i?aeoeea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eniieieoaeueneee aiia?ao ne?eia/a eae nenoaia,
caoeiaini?iecaaaeaiea e caoeiecaea/aiea, ciiu ?aaeoeee ne?eie/iuo no?oi.

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