30

Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie

Nieoa? Aieiaeeie? Ia?ooniae/

OAeE 669.187.3

OAI?AOE*I? INIIAE, ?IC?IAEA ? AI?IAAAeAEAIIss

?ANO?NICAA??AATH*I? OAOIIEIA?? AEIEAAEE NOAE?

A EENEEO AEAEO?IIA*AO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.02 —

“Iaoaeo?a?y /i?ieo iaoae?a”

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaai?e iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie oa AAO “Noaiaea?oaeaeo?i”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaio?:

Aeaaeai?e Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaeaeae Aieiaeeie? Eaiio?eiae/

(O?ceei — oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a oa nieaa?a IAI

Oe?a?ie , aee?aeoi?)

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eoiueia Aaeaioei Aaneeueiae/

(Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith)

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*a?iyoaae/ Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/

(Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? ?i. C.?. Iae?aniaa
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 12-30 ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.084.03 i?e Aea?aeaai?e
iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320635, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,

i?. Aaaa??ia, 4.)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320635, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,

i?. Aaaa??ia, 4.)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

ae.o.i., i?ioani? A.E.Oeaiei

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeiiii?y iaoa??aeueieo,
o?oaeiaeo ? iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a, cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe?? c caaacia/aiiyi ?? aeniei? yeino?, i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?.

Cia/i? ?aca?ae a aaeoc? aeiiii?? iaoa??aeueieo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a,
cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino?, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? iie?ioaiiy
yeino? i?eoiaothoueny a oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa noae? a eeneeo
aeaeo?iia/ao, ye? oe?iei canoiniaothoueny a i?iieneiaino?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A NIAe i?aoeththoue 1000 aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueieo
ia/ae (o oiio /ene? iiiaae 250 a Oe?a?i?), c ieo a?eueoa 60% — ia/? c
eeneith oooa?iaeith. Oaeoe/ii eenea aeaeo?ii?/ ? iniiaiei ieaaeeueiei
aa?aaaoii o noaeaieaaeeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? NIAe, yea aeioneaei aei 1990
?ieo a?eueoa 6 iei. oii noaeueiiai eeoaa ia ??e, o oiio /ene? a?ey 30%
i?eiaaeaei ia aeieth Oe?a?ie, yea caeiaea ae?oaa i?noea a na?o? c
ae?iaieoeoaa noaeueiiai eeoaa, aeia?aaeaeath/e oae? aeniei?icaeiai?
e?a?ie, ye O?I, O?aioe?y, Aiae?y, ?oae?y. Oe?iea canoinoaaiiy eeneeo
aeaeo?iia/ae iiynith?oueny ?o a?eueo aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth (a 1,3 —
1,5 ?ac?a aeua, i?ae iniiaieo aeaeo?iia/ae), iacia/ieie oaieiaeie
ao?aoaie /a?ac eeaaeeo, ni?iuaiei oaoiieia?/iei i?ioeanii ieaaee,
iaioeie aeo?aoaie aeaeo?iae?a ? aeaeo?iaia?a??, a?eueo aenieith
no?ee?noth ? iaioith aa?o?noth oooa?iaee.

Ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ieaaeeueieo aa?aaao?a o
noaeaieaaeeueieo oeaoao, yeino? noae?, no?eeino? oooa?iaee, iie?ioaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? noae? ? iaaecae/aeii
aeooaeueieie. O oeueiio ieai? o?aaeeoe?ei? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane
aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao (aeoeaiee, e?aii??a?aeiiaethaaiee,
iai?ae?aii??a?aeiiaethaaiee) iio?aaothoue ei??iiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ia
i?aenoaa? aeeaieeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Oey ?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c Ananithciith i?ia?aiith AeEIO
N?N? 0.16.05, caaaeaiiy 22o ? aaeocaaeie ieaiaie IAe? oa IE?
I?iaeaeo?ioaoi?eeaaea N?N?, Aea?aeaaii? iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie,
AIAe? “Noaiaea?oaeaeo?i” oa ?yaea i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ica’ycaiiy aaaeeeai? caaea/? — noai?aiiy eiiieaeno
iiaeo ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa
eenei? aeaeo?inoae? (ieaaee, ?iceeaee, oooa?iaee), ye? caaacia/othoue
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?, aeiiii?/iino? ? yeino?.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe:

1.Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy:

· aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? ? aeiiii?/ii? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo
aeoaiaeo aeaeo?iia/ao c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?;

· oaoiieia?? ?iceeneaiiy oa?iia?aaioeai o eiao? eenei? noae?,
aeieaaeaii? a aeoaiaeo aeaeo?iia/ao, o aca?iica’yceo c oaiia?aoo?iei
?aaeeiii ?iceeaee;

· ?aoe?iiaeueii? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee eenei? noae? a ?iaeoeoe?eieo ia/ao
na?aaeiuei? /anoioe;

· iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ? noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a.

2.Ooi/iaiiy aeiia aei o?i?/iiai neeaaeo noae?, iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
a?aeeeaie ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee eiiieaenii? ioe?iee iaai?oieo
aeanoeainoae noae?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a ocaaaeueiaii? ? ?ic?iaoe? iecee
aoceiaeo i?iaeai oai??? ? i?aeoeee eeneiai i?ioeano aeaeo?iieaaee ?
?ic’ycaiiy ia oe?e iniia? caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy aeiiii?/ii? oaoiieia??
aeieaaee eenei? aeaeo?inoae?. Cae?eniaii oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a ?iceeneaiiy eenei? noae?. Ia aac?
oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a caeaaeiino? eiioeaio?aoe?? ? aeoeaiino?
eenith a noae? a?ae ai?noo a i?e e?aii?th cae?eniaii oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy iiai? oaoiieia??. Iaoiaeaie na?oeiaiai ? iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy ia o?ce/ieo iiaeaeyo aeine?aeaeaia oaieiaa ?iaioa eenei?
iaaeaii? oooa?iaee no?i aeoaiaeo aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae o
caeaaeiino? a?ae aaiiao??? ia/? oa aia?aioaoi?/ieo oaeoi??a.

Oia?oa aeyaeaii oae? aca?iica’ycee i?ae:

· ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo? ? a oiae? ieaaee a eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao ?
ye?noth eeoi? noae?, a ia?oo /a?ao c ?? ?aneeneaiiyi oa
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith;

· o?i?/iei neeaaeii noae?, oaoiieia??th ieaaee ? iaai?oieie
aeanoeainoyie eeoi? noae?; ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee eiiieaenii? ioe?iee oeeo
aeanoeainoae;

· aia?aioaoiieia?/ieie oaeoi?aie ieaaee (aaiiao??y ia/ae, o?ceei-o?i?/i?
? oaiia?aoo?i? oiiae ieaaee) ? no?ee?noth iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee;

· o?i?/iei oa a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii eaa?oeaaeo i?ne?a oa ?o
aiaiao?eae?noth;

· o?i?/iei oa a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii, ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi eiiiiiaio?a
ian ? aiaiao?eae?noth oa oaoiieia?/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Ia iniia? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? oai?aoe/ieo
ocaaaeueiaiue cai?iiiiiaaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia i?ea?iaeueia oaoiieia?y
aeieaaee noae? aeey a?aeeeaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi a?aeoiae?a
aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo noaeae ? aeei?enoaiiyi e?aii?th oeooe cai?noue
oa?inieaa?a, a oaeiae iiiie?oia oooa?iaea no?i aeoaiaeo ia/ae ?
noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a. ?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaen aeiiii?/ieo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a ia? ?ano?nicaa??aath/ee oa?aeoa? ? caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? noaeueiiai eeoaa.

Cai?iiiiiaaia oaoiieia?y noai?th? oae? iiaeeeaino? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy:
aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy a oeoo? aeey aeieaaee eenei? aeaeo?inoae?
a?aeoiae?a a?ae ooaiiiaee aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo noaeae; aeiiii?y
oa?inee?oe?th ca ?aooiie a?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy e?aii?th oeooe;
aeiiii?y oa?iia?aaioeth ca ?aooiie ?iceeneaiiy noae? oa?iia?aaioeai o
eiao?; aeiiii?y aeao?oeeoieo aiaiao?eaeeo ae?ia?a ca ?aooiie
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee no?i aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae
? noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a; nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao aeaeo?iaia?a?? ca ?aooiie
iiaeeeaino? ia?aoiaeo ia oeee?iae?e/i? eiaeooe aeoaiaeo ia/ae cai?noue
eii?/ieo i?e canoinoaaii? oaoiieia?? iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee; cieaeaiiy
o?oaeii?noeino? ?aiiioieo ?ia?o ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy iiiie?oieo
oooa?iaie.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe a ieai? i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eenei?
aeaeo?inoae? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, noaeueieo a?aeeeaie iieyaa? a oaeiio:
iaioee ai?no o aioia?e noae? eenith ? iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue; a?eueo
aenieee ai?no caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th a noae? ? ca ?aooiie oeueiai
i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino?, oaea?ii? a’yceino? noae? ? ciaioaiiy
noeeueiino? noaeueieo a?aeeeaie aei ooai?aiiy a ieo neoiaeaeii?
ii?enoino?; a?eueo noaa?eueiee neeaae noae?; caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo
iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae noae?; iie?ioaiiy yeino? iiaa?oi? a?aeeeaie.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
cai?iiiiiaaieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ia 78 caaiaeao, o oiio /ene? ia
Oa?e?anueeiio caaiae? “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao”, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio
aeaeo?iaiciaoae?aaeueiiio, Iiaiaieeinueeiio eeaa?iiio oa ?i. Cieaeaiiy
nia?aa?oino? iaei??? oiie eeoaa neeaaea? a noi? 6,8 %, caaaeueiee
aeiiii?/iee aoaeo — 2,25 iei. ea?aiaaioeaa? o ??e o oe?iao 1990 ?ieo,
ui aea?aaeaioii 4,31 iei. aeiea??a NOA a ??e (ii eo?no 1990 ?ieo 0,6
eii. ca 1 aeiea? NOA).

Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaeaii ? caoaa?aeaeaii aaeocaaee
noaiaea?o, i?eeiyoee aei aeeiiaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiai? na??? iaeeo
aeoaiaeo ia/ae ? i?e ia?aaiae? ae?th/eo ia/ae ia eeneo iiiie?oio
oooa?iaeo.

Iniaenoee aianie iiooeoaa/a. On? ioae?eaoe?? oa aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa
(3 iiiia?ao??, 2 a?ioo?e, 42 noaoae ? 4 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa), ui
aena?oeththoue iniiai? iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??,
iaienai? ca ?acoeueoaoaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, o yeeo aoee
caeeaaeai? ?aea? aaoi?a ? ye? aoee aeeiiai? ca ?i?oe?aoeaith ? i?ae
iaoeiaei ea??aieoeoaii aeena?oaioa. Ni?aaaoi?aie noaoae, ye i?aaeei,
aoee ni?a?ia?oieee aaoi?a, ye? a?aee o/anoue o ?iaio? ye ni?aaeeiiaaoe?.

Ai?iaaoeey ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo,
ananithcieo, aaeocaaeo eiia?anao, c’?caeao, eiioa?aioe?yo ? ia?aaeao, o
oiio /ene? ia Ananithcieo ia?aaeao noaeaieaaeeueiee?a (1957,1964); ia
Ananithcieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo c eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa a
Oa?eia? (1973), ?inoia?-ia-Aeiio (1990); ia i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea aneio?iiieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a ? ?ic?iaea
aneio?iiieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a o i. Aieiaeeie?? (1978); ia XXI nan??
iaoeiai? ?aaee AI N?N? c i?iaeaie “O?ceei-o?i?/i? iniiae iaea?aeaiiy
iiaeo aea?ino?eeeo iai?aai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a” o i. Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo
(1980) ? ia Ananithci?e ia?aae? “Iai?aai?/i? aea?ino?ee? iaoa??aee, ?o
canoinoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai” a i. Eaia?iai
(1982); ia Ananithcieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo c’?caeao eeaa?iee?a o i.
Eai?ia?aae? (1983) ? a i. Aieaia?aae? (1989); ia ?anioae?eainueeeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo c aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
a i. Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo (1983, 1989); ia i?aeia?iaei?e ia?aae? c
aeoaiaeo ia/ae o i. Aoaeaiaoo? (1985); ia Ananithcieo ia?aaeao c
aiaiao?eaeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a i. Ai?iae/? (1985) ? a i. Caii??aeae?
(1986); ia VIII eiioa?aioe?? AI N?N? “Iia? aenieii?iaeoeoeai?
oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane, aenieiye?ni? nieaae ? iaeaaeiaiiy a eeaa?iiio
ae?iaieoeoa?” a i. I?inueeo (1990); ia Ananithci?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
ia?aae? “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy a’yaeo/eo aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
aiaiao?ea?a” o

i. Naa?aeeianueeo (1990); ia Anana?oiueiio eiia?an? eeaa?iee?a o i.
Inaea (ssiii?y,1990); ia Ana?in?enueeiio c’?cae? eeaa?iee?a o i.
Aieiaeeie?? (1997) ? ia ia?aae? c ?iaeoeoe?eieo ia/ae o i.Aei?oioiae?
(I?ia//eia, 1997); ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a??
(1986,1990, 1994, 1996, 1997) ? i?iaeaiii? eaai?aoi??? iiaeo
iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a (1987, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998) Aea?aeaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie.

?iaioe c aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a a aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? a?aecia/ai? n??aieie
iaaeaeyie AAeIO N?N? o 1974 ? 1987 ??.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 3 iiiia?ao?yo, 2
a?ioo?ao, 42 noaooyo o iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao ? a 23
ca??ieeao oac aeiiia?aeae iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?e ? ia?aae.
Iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe caoeuaia 4
aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie N?N?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??: anooi, 6 ?icae?e?a iniiaiiai oaenoo, aeniiaee,
aeiaeaoee. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 330 noi??iie oaenoo, 93 ?ethno?aoe??,
63 oaaeeoe?, 11 aeiaeaoe?a, 250 iaca aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Aiae?c no/aniiai noaio o?ceei — o?i?? eeneiai

noaeaieaaeeueiiai i?ioeano ? iniiai? iai?yiee

i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? noae? ? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy

Eeneee i?ioean aeaeo?iieaaeaiiy noae? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?aeaeuaiei
ai?noii SiO2 a oeaeo, yeee aei e?ioey ieaaeaiiy aeinyaa? 50%, noia
eiioeaio?aoe?e ieneae?a cae?ca ? ia?aaioeth noaiiaeoue, ye i?aaeei,
30-50%. Neeaae eeneiai oeaeo a cia/i?e i??? aeinyaa? 57% i?e ai?noo CaO
a oeaeo 12%. Aeey eeneeo oeae?a oa?aeoa?ia oe?ea aaia e?aiiaeeniaaeo
eiiieaen?a, iniiaith yeeo ? oao?aaae? c ?ici?uaiei o eiai oeaio?? ?iiii
e?aii?th oa ?iiii eenith a /ioe?ueio aa?oeiao.

?c ca?eueoaiiyi eeneioiino? neeaaei?noue eiiieaen?a c?inoa?, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy ayceino? oeaeo. I?e?iaeo eeneeo oeae?a
a?eueo iiaii a?aeaeaa? iieaeoey?ii-?iiia oai??y, yea aeiionea?
iayai?noue ye ?iiiiai, oae ? eiaaeaioiiai cayceo, yeee ia? ia?aaaao a
?icieaaao, caaaa/aiieo e?aiiacaiii.

Ia??iae ieaaeaiiy a eene?e aeaeo?iia/? iacaeaaeii a?ae aa??aioo
oaoiieia?? aaaeaiiy ieaaee (aeoeaiee /e e?aii??a?aeiiaiee) ia?aaeaa/a?
i?aeoe/ii iiaia ieeneaiiy ia?aaioeth ? e?aii?th.

O oie aea /an, a?aoiaoth/e ae?ae iecueeo acioi-? aiaeii?iieei?noue
eeneeo oeae?a, iio?aaa i?iaaaeaiiy ieenethaaeueiiai ia??iaeo aeey
aeaaacaoe?? aaiie ia ? iano?eueee iaiao?aeiith, ye i?e iniiaiiio
i?ioeann?. Oiio i?e eene?e ieaaoe? noai?ththoueny iiaeeeaino?
aeeeth/aiiy ciaaoaeaoethaaiiy ? oei naiei a?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ia?aaioeth ? e?aii?th oeooe aac iia??oaiiy yeino? iaoaeo.

E??i aaciiane/aiino?, ye?noue eenei? noae? aecia/a?oueny ai?noii o i?e
eenith, yeee aaaaoi aea a /iio caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aaeeio e?aii?th a oiae?
ieaaee, ?iceenethaaeueia caeaoi?noue yeiai c?inoa? c iiieaeaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e:

[Si] + 2[O] = (SiO2)
(1)

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???u?????????»????-????????
???u???Oe???u?th??????I?e iaiaaeaii? ieeneaiiy e?aii?th oeooe,
oiaoi i?e aeeeth/aii? ieenethaaeueiiai ia??iaeo, noai?ththony iaea?eueo
ni?eyoi? oiiae aeey ?iceeneaiiy noae? e?aii??i oaea a ia??iae ieaae?iiy,
eiee oaiia?aoo?a aaiie a?aeiinii iaea. A?aeiia?aeii aeeeth/a?ony
iaiao?aei?noue o cae?eniaii? e?aii??a?aeiiaiiai i?ioeano, ui iiaeiii
iiceoeaii aieeaeoe ia no?ee?noue oooa?iaee.

Aaaeeeaeie ye?nieie iiecieeaie eenei? noae? ? e?euee?noue, ii?oieia?y ?
?iciiae?e iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue (ieneae?a ? noeueo?ae?a), a?aenooi?noue
neoiaeaeii? ii?enoino? o a?aeeeaeao ? iaea?aeaiiy ae??aiiai ca?ia i?e
oa?iiia?iaoe?. Iioeiaeueia cia/aiiy oeeo iieaciee?a aeinyaa?oueny
caaaeyee aeeaieiio ?iceeneaiith noae? aethi?i??i:

2[Al] + 3[O] = (Al2O3)
(3)

wmetafile8? ??+???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?????? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-?????ue???ueae???u?th?????? I?enaaeee
aethi?i?th aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia ?ic/eii?noue noeueo?ae?a o
noae?, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae ai?noo a i?e eenith. Aca?iica’ycie
caeeoeiaiai ai?noo aethi?i?th o noae? ? oeio noeueo?ae?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iaea?aeaieie iaie aeaieie ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai
aiae?co ca aeiiiiiaith i?e?iaiae?caoi?a MS-46. Ae??oaeueio ?ieue o
oi?ioaaii? ca?ia aonoai?oo a eeo?e noae? a?ae?a?athoue i?o?eaee
aethi?i?th. Aeniea ?iceenethth/a caeaoi?noue aethi?i?th aeyaey? oaeiae
ae??oaeueiee aieea ia ciaioaiiy noeeueiino? noaeueieo aeeeaie aei
o?aaeaiiy ?o neoiaeaeiith ii?eno?noth, ui iia’ycaii ?c cieaeaiiyi
aethi?i??i ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo ieeno aoaeaoeth a iaoae? (a ?acoeueoao?
a?eueo iiaiiai eiai ?iceeneaiiy) ? eiiiainaoe?? ca ?aooiie oeueiai oeneo
aiaeith, yeee iaaeoiaeeoue ?c oi?ie a iaoae. E?ioeaaa ?iceeneaiiy iiaea
a?aeaoaaoeny e ?ioeie aeaiaioaie — ?iceenethaa/aie (Zr, Ca, Ce, La, Ti
oa ?i.). Iie?ioo? ye?noue noae? eiiieaenia ?iceenethaaiiy neeueieie
aeaiaioaie — ?iceenethaa/aie.

Aeeiiaiee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio o?ceei-o?i?/iiai eeneiai
noaeaieaaeeueiiai i?ioeano iieaco?, ui iniiaieie iai?yieaie
oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? eeneiai aeaeo?iieaaeaiiy ? aeeeth/aiiy
ia??iae?a ieeneaiiy aoaeaoeth ? a?aeiiaeaiiy e?aii?th, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea
? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee noaeaieaaeeueieo i?ioean?a.

Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea

?ano?nicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo

aeaeo?iia/ao

Iniiaiith o?ceei-o?i?/iith ia?aaeoiiaith iiaiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao ? aeniea ?iceenethth/a caeaoi?noue
e?aii?th i?e cieaeaieo oaiia?aoo?ao. Oeyoii ?iceeneaiiy noae? e?aii??i
i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ia??iaeo ieaae?iiy iiaeia aeinyaoe, aeineoue iecueeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e eenith, ?ic/eii?noue yeiai o ??aiiaac? c e?aii??i
i?aeaeuo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e(a?ae 0,01 aei 0,3% i?e 0,2% Si
?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?ae 1500 aei 1700N). Aeey caiia?aaiiy
ieeneaiiy eeniai ?icieaao ? ?oeioth/i? ae?? ieneae?a ia oooa?iaeo ia/?
aeioe?eueii ca?eueoeoe e?euee?noue Si a oeoo?, a oiio /ene? oeyoii
aaaaeaiiy a?aeoiae?a, ui ai?uothoue oeae aeaiaio.

Aiae?c o?ceei — o?i?/ieo oiia i?iaaaeaiiy ieaaee ia oeoo? c i?aeaeuaiei
ai?noii e?aii?th iieaco?, ui a ia??iae ieaae?iiy a?aeaoaa?oueny
?iceeneaiiy iaoaeo, caaaeyee /iio ai?no eenith o iaoae? i?ney
?icieaae?iiy ciaioo?oueny ? caa??aa?oueny cieaeaiei i?ioyaii on???
ieaaee ? a aioiaiio iaoae? (ii??aiyii c ieaaeith ia aoaeaoeaaiio
a?ooo?).

C iaoith i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeeo iieiaeaiue iaie i?iaaaeaia
oa?iiaeeiai?/ia ioe?iea caeaaeiino? eiioeaio?aoe?? oa aeoeaiino? eenith
a noae? a?ae ai?noo a i?e e?aii?th. C ??aiyiiy (2) i?ney ia?aoai?aiiue
iaea?aeo?ii:

wmetafile8? ??E???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¬yyya

?? ?? ???&? ?MathType??p? ???u?????????»????-?????T?
???¤???T?O???¤e???T?o???¤???u?th??????Ine?euee
e wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @
???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyya????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??y???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??o?? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u?????????»????-?????t?u???Ae
???t?????Ae????u?th???????acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a (?en.1)
iieacaee, ui i?i?iaeuei? eiioeaio?aoe?? ? aeoeai?noue eenith a
e?aii??ai?uoth/?e noae? iiaeooue aooe aeinyaioo? a oiiaao eeneiai
i?ioeano i?e ii??aiyii iaaenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao, iayaieo o ia??iae
ieaae?iiy. I?e eiaei?e aeai?e oaiia?aoo?? i?i?iaeueiiio ai?noo eenith o
iaoae? a?aeiia?aea? iioeiaeueiee ai?no e?aii?th, yeee yaey? niaith oei
iaioo aaee/eio, /ei ieae/a oaiia?aoo?a ?icieaao.

?en.1 Caeaaei?noue eiioeaio?aoe?? oa aeoeaiino? eenith a noae? a?ae
ai?noo e?aii?th.

Aenia?eiaioe ? ianooiiee aea??eiaee aiae?c ieaaie i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ca iiaith oaoiieia??th (120 ieaaie i?ioyaii 1995-1997??.),
iieacaee ui ii??aiyii c aeoeaiei i?ioeanii ai?no eenith a iaoae? o oiae?
ieaaee aoa ieae/ei ia 0,010-0,012%ian, a a aioiaiio iaoae? noaiiaea
0,002% i?ioe 0,003%.

?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy caeeoeiaiai [Al] a i?iaaaeaieo ieaaeao noaeae 25
E ? 35E, iaea?aeaieo a 5-oiiieo ia/ao c eeneith oooa?iaeith ?
aeei?enoaiiyi o oeoo? e?aii??ai?uoth/eo a?aeoiae?a o ia??iae ii 1997?.,
iieacaee, ui i?e aeieaaoe? noae? c aeei?enoaiiyi o oeoo?
e?aii??ai?uoth/eo a?aeoiae?a ? ?iceeneaii? 0,15% aethi?i?th 99% iaoaeo
ai?uo? 0,02% Al caeeoeiaiai , a 87% iaoaeo — 0,04%, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
aeia?a ?iceeneaiiy noae?.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeaeuaiee ai?no Si a oeoo? aeey ieaaee aoaeaoeaai? noae?
a aeoaia?e ia/? c eeneith oooa?iaeith i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ai?noo
[O] ? i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th a noae?.

Aeeiiai? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ?ic?aooiee e aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaee iaoeiaith iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee eiie?aoii? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee

noae? a eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?.

C iaoith onoiaiiy iaaeie?e?a o?aaeeoe?eieo niinia?a aeieaaee noae? a
eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao ?ic?iaeaiee, aeine?aeaeaiee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiee iiaee
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean, nooue yeiai caiaeeoueny aei ianooiiiai. A oeooo
aeey ieaaee aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae a aeoaiaeo ia/ao c eeneith oooa?iaeith
aaiaeyoue e?aii?e (aai o aeaeyae? a?aeoiae?a a?ae ooaiioaaiiy
aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo noaeae, aai o aeaeyae? oa?inee?oe?th) c oaeei
?ic?aooieii, uia eiai ai?no i?ney ?icieaaeaiiy aoa ia aa?oi?e /e
na?aaei?e iaae? caaeaii? ia?ee noae?. *ei aeuee ai?no e?aii?th i?ney
?icieaaeaiiy, oei aeuee a?i ? ia?aae ?iceeneaiiyi. I?ney ?icieaaeaiiy,
eiee ai?no aoaeaoeth ciaoiaeeoueny ia ieaei?e iaae? caaeaii? ia?ee
noae?, nei/othoue i?eaeecii iieiaeio oeaeo, ina?aeathoue eiai
i?enaaeeaie i?neo e aaiia ? c?aco ae i?enooiathoue aei iaa??aaiiy
iaoaeo. Ia oea aeo?a/a?oueny 25 oaeeei. Eiee iaoae iaa??oee aei
oaiia?aoo?e aeioneo (1700-1730N), ai?no e?aii?th a iueiio ciaoiaeeoueny
ia ieaei?e iaae? caaeaii? ia?ee noae?. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy ai?noo e?aii?th
a aioiaiio iaoae? aeecueei aei aa?oiuei? iaae? i?enaaeaeothoue 2-3 ea/o
noae? 45%-ai oa?inee?oe?th. Iio?i iaoae aeioneathoue o e?ao, aea a
i?ioean? ceeao ?iceeneythoue eiai oa?iia?aaioeai oa aethi?i??i (0,15%).

I?e oaeiio niinia? ieaaee iiaeia eaaei oieeiooe ye a?aeiiaeaiiy
e?aii?th, o oiio /ene? ? aei SiO, oae ? ieeneaiiy aoaeaoeth, ui noai?th?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey cia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? oooa?iaee, aeiiii??
oa?inieaa?a, aeaeo?iaia?a??, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia/ae oa
iieeioaiiy aeieia??. E??i oiai, nei?i/aiiy o?eaaeino? “??aeeeo”
ia??iae?a ieaaee (a?aenooi?noue ieenethaaeueiiai ia??iaeo) aeyaey?
iiceoeaiee aieea ia no?ee?noue oooa?iaee ? ca ?aooiie nei?i/aiiy /ano
ae?? ia oooa?iaeo a?aee?eoi aei?ii?ithth/eo aeaeo?e/ieo aeoa.

I?e aeieaaoe? noae? c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo? i?enaaeea
oa?inee?oe?th a e?ioe? ieaaee caaaeaia aei i?i?ioio, oiio cia/ii
ciaioo?oueny iiaeeea?noue caa?oaeiaiiy noae? aeeth/aiiyie e?aiiacaio, ui
noai?th? e?au? oiiae aeey ?iceeneaiiy noae? oa?iia?aaioeai o eiao?

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iaoaeo?a?eieo oaeoi??a ia

eiiieaen aeanoeainoae eenei? aeaeo?inoae?

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy noae?, yea iiai?noth
a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai AINO 977-88 ? oaoiieia?/ieo oiia, o oiio /ene?
noaa?eueiiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii oaeiae, ui a noae?, aeieaaeai?e c
i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo e?aii?th a oeoo?, ai?uo?oueny cia/ii iaioa ?
aeeth/aiue e?aiiacaio oa aeeiicaio, i?ae o noae?, aeieaaeai?e aeoeaiei
i?ioeanii (a?aeiia?aeii 0,0015% ? 0,0022% SiO2, 0,0025% ? 0,0039%Al2O3).
Iayai? a?aeiia?aei? a?aei?iiino? ? o ai?no? caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th a
noae? i?e iaeiaeia?e eiai i?enaaeoe?. oea i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/a? ooai?aiiy
eaioethaiiiae?aieo aeeth/aiue II oeio. A?eueo no?eei ooai?ththoueny a
noae? noeueo?aei? aeeth/aiiy III oeio, ye? caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae noae?, ye? aeiaaathoueny aeey a?aeeeae?a. Aeey
iaae?eiiai ooai?aiiy oaeeo noeueo?ae?a o noae?, ui aeieaaey?oueny c
i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?, i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao, iio??aia
iaioa e?euee?noue aethi?i?th, i?ae i?e ieaaoe? aeoeaiei i?ioeanii.
Iaioei ai?noii eenith ? iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue, a?eueo aenieei ai?noii
caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th ? no?eeei ooai?aiiyi noeueo?ae?a III oeio
iiyniththoueny i?aeaeuaia oaea?ia a’yce?noue ? ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino?
noae?, aeieaaeaii? ca iiaith oaoiieia??th, ii??aiyii c aiaeia?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie cae/aeii? noae? (a?aeiia?aeii 74% ? 19% ieaaie c
aaee/eiith oaea?ii? a’yceino? 491 eAeae/i2; 29% ? 18 % ieaaie c
a?aeiiniei iiaeiaaeaiiyi 29%).

Ieaaee, aeieaaeai? c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?, iathoue
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, ye? caaeiaieueiythoue iio?aae AINO 977-88 a
onueiio ?ioa?aae? ai?noo ia?aaioeth ? e?aii?th.

Ai?no [H] ? [N] o noae?, aeieaaeai?e ca iiaith oaoiieia??th, i?aeoe/ii
ia ia?aaeuo? ai?no oeeo aac?a o eene?e na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaa?e noae?,
aeieaaeai?e ca o?aaeeoe?eiith oaoiieia??th. Oae i?e iaeeiaeiaiio
na?aaeiueiio ai?no? aoaeaoeth, ui aei??aith? 4,6*10-4 %ian, iaae?
eieeaaiiy neeaee a?aeiia?aeii (3,2-5,6)*10-4 % ? (3,3-5,5)*10-4 %.
Na?aaei?e ai?no acioo aei??aith? 6,9*10-3 % ? 6,1*10-3 % i?e eieeaaiiyo
(49)*10-3 % (59)*10-3 %.

Ioe?iea a?aeo ca neoiaeaeiith ii?eno?noth i?iaiaeeeany ca ?acoeueoaoaie
iaeyaeo a?aeeeae?a i?ney iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee. Ca aeaieie iaeyaeo a?eueo
i?ae 100 oen.o eeooy a?ae ii neoiaeaei?e ii?enoino? i?e aeieaaoe? ca
iiaith oaoiieia??th ? ?iceenethaaii? 0,1% aethi?i?y cieaeo?oueny a 2,4
?aca, a i?e 0,15% — i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e. ?c oeeo aeaieo aeieeaa?, ui
noaeue, aeieaaeaia c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?, ia? cia/ii
iaioo noeeuei?noue aei a?aaeaiiy a?aeeeae?a neoiaeaeiith ii?eno?noth, ui
iiynith?oueny a?eueo aenieei ai?noii caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th.

Oaeei /eiii, noaeue, aeieaaeaia c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?,
ia? ii??aiyii c? noaeeth, aeieaaeaiith o?aaeeoe?eiei i?ioeanii, iaioee
ai?no eenith ? iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue, a?eueo aenieee ai?no caeeoeiaiai
aethi?i?th i?e eiai iaeiaeia?e i?enaaeoe?., a?eueo aenie? ieanoe/i?
aeanoeaino? oa oaea?io a’yce?noue, iaioo noeeuei?noue aei ooai?aiiy
neoiaeaeii? ii?enoino? o a?aeeeaeao ? a?eueo noaa?eueiee o?i?/iee
neeaae.

Na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaao eeoo eeneo noaeue i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe aenieiye?niith
i?e ai?no? a i?e caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th 0,02-0,08%, Oeae iieaciee
aaaaeaiee o oaoi?/i? oiiae ia noaeueia eeoai, ye iaeaaaeeea?oa
oa?aeoa?enoeea eiai yeino? (c uiieaai/iei eiio?ieai noae? ia ai?no
caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th).

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae iieacaee, ui iioeiaeueiee ai?no
e?aii?th o aoaeaoeaa?e noae? c oi/ee ci?o neoiaeaeii? ii?enoino? o
a?aeeeaeao ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao 0,3-0,5%, ui oaeiae aaaaeaii a
oaoi?/i? oiiae ia noaeueia eeoai.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ae?th/eo noaiaea?o?a aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae eeoi? noae?, ye i?aaeei, i?iaiaeyoue ia c?aceao, acyoeo ?c
i?iaieo a?one?a, eiio?ao?aoe?y, ?ici??e ? noaie a?aeeeaee yeeo oeacai?
noaiaea?oii. Iaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iaa?oue i?e iaeiaeia?e
oiauei? no?iie a?aeeeaee ? i?iaiiai a?onea iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?
a?aeeeaie (ia?o ca ana ieanoe/i?), ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
noae?, eiio?ao?aoe?? a?aeeeaie, eeaa?ii? oaoiieia??, oiia e?enoae?caoe??
oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a, iiaeooue nooo?ai a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae a?one?a. I?eeeaaeii iiaea aooe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae o ??cieo ia?a??cao a?aeeeae?a u?e iiethn?a
a?ae?iaaia?aoi??a. Aea/aiiy ae?enieo iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae noaeueieo
a?aeeeaie, iniaeeai i?e caioneo iiaeo a?aeiia?aeaeueieo a?aeeeaie o
ae?iaieoeoai, ? anoaiiaeaiiy ia’?eoeaieo aeiia aei ieo i?noeoue o nia?
aaeee? ?aca?ae. O ca’yceo c oeei aeioe?eueii oaeiae aea/aiiy iiaaae?iee
eeoeo aeaoaeae i?e aenieoaoaoe?? ae?ia?a. Oae? ?iaioe aaaaeai? a
i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeieo neoaea ?yaeo iaoeiiaoae?aieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaai?oia ?iaeoeoe?y na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeae ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
niiniao aaaaeaiiy a ia? e?aii?th. Noaeue, aeieaaeaia c i?aeaeuaiei
ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo? ? ca cae/aeiith oaoiieia??th, iaea iaeiaeiaee
??aaiue iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? a onueiio aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ?ioa?aae?
iai?oae iaai?oiiai iiey.

Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ye? aieeaathoue ia iaai?oi? aeanoeaino? eeoeo
aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae, ? iai?oaa iaai?oiiai iiey, i?e ye?e aecia/a?oueny
iaai?oi? aeanoeaino? ? ai?no aoaeaoeth a noae?.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee aeey
ae?ia?a iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy aeiaaathoueny iniaeeai aeniea iaai?oia
?iaeoeoe?y iane/aiiy (iai?eeeaae, ia iaioa 1,60 Oe i?e 2500A/i), aai
iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa ii?aeiaiiy oeeo aeanoeainoae, iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iecueei aoaeaoeaao noaeue c ai?noii aoaeaoeth 0,03% ?
niaoe?aeuei? ?aaeeie oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee, ye? caaacia/othoue iaiao?aeio
aaee/eio ca?ia.

Iaie ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee eiiieaenii? ioe?iee iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae
aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae. Iaeei c iaoiae?a yaey? niaith noio a?aeiinieo
ioe?iie iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? iane/aiiy ? caeeoeiai? ?iaeoeoe??. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae ii ?iaeoeoe??
i?e iaai?e iai?oc? iaai?oiiai iiey a?noa?acenieo oeeee?a i?iaiaeyoue ca
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi (A/Amax)100 %, aaea A — ?iaeoeoe?y a?noa?aceniiai
oeeeeo i?eaeai?e iai?oc? iaai?oiiai iiey (HS) aeine?aeaeoaaii? noae?,
Oe; Amax — iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy ?iaeoeoe?? iane/oaaiiy na?aae on?o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae aeaiiai a?noa?aceniiai oeeeeo, Oe (?en.2).
Aiaeia?/ii ii caeeoeie ?iaeoeoe?? (Br) eiiieaeniee iieaciee iaai?oieo
aeanoeainoae Eaoe aeeth/a? a naaa ii??aiyeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee noaeae ii
?iaeoeoe?? ? caeeoeia?e ?iaeoeoe??:

?en.2 Caeaaei?noue iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? (A) a?ae iai?oae iaai?oiiai iiey
(I) a eeoeo aoaeaoeaaeo noaeyo ia?ie 15E oa45E.

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
Aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy ??u?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????5???–???’???O???u?th??????
Aeiiae iaeii/anii aenieeo cia/aiue ?iaeoeoe?? iane/aiiy ? caeeoeiai?
?iaeoeoe?? caiaeyoueny, iaaiei /eiii, aei iaea?aeaiiy iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaiai cia/aiiy EAOe, yeee a ?aeaae? i?aaia aei 200%.

Ae?oaei eiiieaeniei iieacieeii, ui ca’yco? ?icaeyaeoaai?
aeanoeaino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoa??ae?a, iiaea neoaeeoe oae caaia
ona?aaeiaia iaai?oia i?iieei?noue. Aiia ae?aoiao?oueny ?c
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

= iaiaai. – ?aciaai. , aai
(7)

wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??u?? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????ue*???ueI???u?th??????
?icaeyaeoaaiee eiiieaeniee iieaciee iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a
a?aoiao? ye aieea caeeoeiai? ?iaeoeoe?? Br (a i/aaeaei?e oi?i?), oae ?
?iaeoeoe?? iane/aiiy Br(iiina?aaeeiaaii, /a?ac Hs).

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae noaeae aeei?enoiaoaaee
ia?niaeoeaiee iaoiae eaacenoaoe/iiai iaiaai?/oaaiiy (aecia/aiiy
noaoe/ieo iaai?oieo oa?aeoa?enoee o eaacenoaoe/iiio ?aaeei?
ia?aiaai?/oaaiiy).

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y, yea aeeeth/a? ieenethaaeueiee ia??iae, noai?th?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey a?eueo oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy a noaeaeeaa?ieo oeaoao
?iaeoeoe?eieo ia/ae na?aaeiuei? ? aaeeei? i?noeino?, ui aeiiiiiaea
?ica’ycaoe aaaeeea? nioe?aeuei? caaaeaiiy caeo/aiiy eaae??a o eeaa?ia
ae?iaieoeoai ? caoenoo ioi/oth/i? aoiinoa?e.

Iienaiee aeua oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aeieaaee noae? a aeoaiaeo ia/ao c
i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo? iiai?noth i?eaeaoi?e aeey
?iaeoeoe?eii? ia/?. I?e oeueiio /a?ac cia/ii iaioee oaa? iaoaeo a
?iaeoeoe?ei?e ia/? ii??aiyii c aeoaiaith aeey aeinyaiaiiy oaeeo aea
iieaciee?a o?aaa iaaaaaoi iaioee ai?no e?aii?th a oeoo?. Oea iieiaeaiiy
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ii??aiyeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae noae?, aeieaaeaii? a aeoaia?e oa ?iaeoeoe?ei?e ia/?.

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ? ?ic?iaea ?ano?nicaa??aath/i?

iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee eeneeo aeoaiaeo ia/ae

Iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy a aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ao oeo /e
?ioeo aiaiao?eaeeo iaoa??ae?a cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny oaieiaei
aieeaii aeaeo?e/ieo aeoa ia oooa?iaeo. O ca’yceo c oeei aeine?aeaeaii
aieea aeaeo?e/ieo aeoa ia eeneo iaaeaio oooa?iaeo aeoaiaeo ia/ae
iaaaeeei? ?iiino?, Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia na?oeiaeo oa
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeyo. C iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aeieeaa?, ui ii?ii?iaiiy
no?i ciaioo?oueny ?c i??o a?aeaeaeaiiy ?o a?ae aeoa ii aenio? ia/?:
iaea?eueoa ii?ii?iaiiy ia ??ai? iaoaeo(0,165-0,195 1/i2), iaeiaioa — ia
aa?oiueiio ??ai? no?i(0.01-0,02 /i2). Ia ??ai? 200ii ? ia ??ai? aaiie
iaoaeo, o i?noeyo iaea?eueoiai ciioaiiy oooa?iaee, aecia/aeueiei
oaeoi?ii ? a?aenoaiue a?ae aeoae aei no?ie(?en.3).

?c ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeieeaa?, ui ia no?ee?noue
oooa?iaee nooo?ai aieeaa? /an ae?? ia oooa?iaeo a?aee?eoeo aeoa(?en.4).
O oeueiio ca’yceo cia/iee ?ioa?an ia? iienaiee aeua oaoiieia?/iee
i?ioean aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii
e?aii?th a oeoo?, cia/ii nei?i/oth/ee /an aieeeao aeoa ia oooa?iaeo.
Nooo?aee aieea ia no?ee?noue oooa?iaee aeyaey? oaeiae iiooaeia
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeoa. I?e aeiaaio?eaaeiio aieeaia? a?aee?eoeo aeoa
no?ee?noue oooa?iaee caeaaeeoue a?ae aaiiao??? ia/?, cie?aia a?ae
a?aenoai? i?ae aeoaith ? no?iith.

I?iaaaeaii ?iaioe ii ae?iao oa aeine?aeaeaiith ca?iiai? iniiae ian aeey
iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee ia/?. Anoaiiaeaii. Ui aeey oe??? iaoe iaea?eueo
aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe na?aaeiueica?ienoee eaa?oeaaee i?nie a?oi
016-03(AINO 2138-91) ?c ai?noii SiO2 ia iaioa 96% ie?oaei? oi?ie ca?ai.
Aeine?aeaeaii aieea o?i?/iiai neeaaeo i?ne?a ia ?o aiaiao?eae?noue,
iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a iaea?aeaia oaea caeaaei?noue:

t = 1785,15 16,87 (%Al2O3) 22,66 (% TiO2), N (9)

Iaaaoeaiee aieea Al2O3ia aiaiao?eae?noue e?aiiacaio iaea?aeaa
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a inoaii?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.?.Caeoeaaa oa ?i.**), o
yeeo iieicaii ui a nenoai? SiO2- Al2O3 c aieo e?aiiacaio i?e 5,4%
aeeiicaio ooai?th?ueany aaoaeoeea c oaiia?aoo?ith ieaaee 1553N.

**) — A.E. Caeoeaa e ae?. “Iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea”, — 1997 — ?2 — N.18 —
26.

?en.3 Aith?e a?aeiiniiai ii?ii?iaiiy ii aenio? no?i (Ino) a caeaaeiino?
a?ae eooa ?o iaoeea () oa a?aenoai? i?ae aeoaith ? no?iith (a) o
aeoaiaeo i?/ao.

eoo iaoeeo no?i a?aenoaiue i?ae aeoaith ? no?iith, ii

a) 0,
550;

a) 6,
475;

a) 12,
625;

a) 14,
498.

?en.4 Caeaaei?noue a?aeiin-ii? no?eeino? iaaeaii? oooa?iaee 5-6 o ia/ae
a?ae /ano aieeao aeoa.

I?iaaaeaii oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaiao?eaeino? e?oiii-?
ae??aiica?ienoeo eaa?oeaaeo i?ne?a: aieea ca?iiaiai neeaaeo ? oi?ie
ca?ai i?ne?a ia ?o aiaiao?eae?noue, aecia/aiiy noa?e canoinoaaiiy
iaea?aeaii? caeaaeiino? aiaiao?eaeino? i?ne?a a?ae ?o o?i?/iiai neeaaeo,
ioe?iee iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aacii?iieeiino? i?ne?a ye iia?aeii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?o aiaiao?eaeino?. O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiue
anoaiiaeaii, ui e?oii? eaa?oeaa? i?nee iathoue a?eueo aenieo
aiaiao?eae?noue, i?ae i?ee?, oaeiae ye i?nee c iai?ae?oaeith oi?iith
ca?ai ii??aiyii c i?neaie c aino?ieooiith oi?iith ca?ai. Aiaiao?eae?noue
e?oiiica?ienoeo eaa?oeaaeo i?ne?a iiaeia aecia/eoe ca ?o o?i?/iei
neeaaeii c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaaaeaiiiai aeua ??aiyiiy (9), iaea?aeaiiai
aeey na?aaeiueica?ienoeo i?ne?a. C iaoith oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ia caaiaeao Oe?a?ie
iaie aeine?aeaeaii aeanoeaino? eaa?oeaaeo i?ne?a ?yaeo oe?a?inueeeo
ea?’???a (Aeoiaanueeiai, I?ao?anueeiai, Noa?iaa??anueeiai oa
Iiaiaiaeieaaenueeiai).

O ?acoeueoao? ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee eiiieaeno oa?aeoa?enoee i?ne?a
oeacaieo ?iaeiaeu (ca?iiaee ? o?i?/iee neeaae, aacii?iieei?noue,
aiaiao?eae?noue, oa?iino?ee?noue) anoaiiaeaii, ui iaee?aua ii?aeiaiiy
oeeo aeanoeainoae iathoue i?nee Aeoiaanueeiai ?iaeiaeua, ye?
ai?iaaaeaeai? ye ca?iiaa iniiaa oooa?iai/ieo ian ia ?yae? i?aei?e?inoa
Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?anuee? caaiaee “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao” ? aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aeaeo?iaiciaoae?aaeueiee caaiae oa ?i.).

Acyoa a yeino? caycoth/aai eaa?oeaaeo i?ne?a ??aeea neei, ye
iieacaa aiae?c o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, caaacia/o? ci?oeiaiiy
aiaiao?eaei? iane ? oooa?iaee i?e oaiia?aoo?ao iaaeieeoiiai na?aaeiaeua
ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy aaeth, yeee yaey? niaith neaeao c aa?aaaoiaaieo
noa?e/ieo /anoeiie iie?e?aii??ai? eeneioe. Onaaeea aaeth i?e aenoooaaii?
i?eaiaeeoue aei aeiaeaoeiaiai ci?oeiaiiy oooa?iaee. Ni?eaiiy aeiaoe
aaeth aeoeaii ?icaeaa?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 700-800 N c ooai?aiiyi
neeiaeuiiai oa?o nee?eaoo ia ?o iiaa?oi?. *ei aeua aeo?aeia i?oei?noue
noi?o?, oei a?eueoee nooi?iue ni?eaiiy.

I?e iaa??a? aei a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo? a?aeaoaa?oueny
o?eaeei?oecaoe?y oooa?iaee ca ?aooiie i?ia?ae?coth/iai aieeao ieneaeo
iao??th.

Iao?ia?ao?/iee aiae?c c?ace?a, a?ae?a?aieo c iiaeeie 5-oiiii? eenei?
aeoaiai? ia/?, ui i?noeoue ??aeea neei, iieaco?, ui i?ney 5000 ieaaie,
aiie i?noyoue 30-40% o?eaeei?oo, a i?ney 10000 ieaaie oey aaee/?ia
aeinyaa? 60-70%.

Ni?eaiiy iane ? ooai?aiiy o?eaeei?oo caaacia/o? aenieo no?ee?noue
oooa?iaee no?i i?e oaiia?aoo?ao o ia??iae caaaeee, yea, ye iieacaee
cai??e, ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao 790-1040 N.

Ia oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ian, o yeeo iayaia ??aeea neei, iniaeeai ia
aeo?eaae?noue o ne?iio noai?, cia/ii aieeaa? o?eaae?noue ci?ooaaiiy a
a?aoiao. A?eueiee e?aiiacai, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a ??aeeiio nee?, oaea i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? iane aca?iiae?? c aiaeith iacaeaaeii a?ae i?ioeano
?iceeaaeaiiy nee?eaoo iao??th, aeeeeeath/e caoaa?ae?iiy iane. *ei aeiaoa
ia?ai?ooaaiiy, oei aei iaaii? iaae? a?eueoa i?oei?noue iane o ne?iio
noai?. I?e iaaei??i?e o?eaaeino? ia?ai?ooaaiiy iana ia ciai?oi?e aeaeyae
noa? nooith, ao?a/a? ieanoe/i?noue ? aeoiaeeoue ?c a?aoi?a
?icnei/anoith.

Aeeia, yea aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo aiaiao?eaei? noi?oe, ni?ey? ni?eeeaino?
iane i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao; oea iiynith?oueny a?aeiiei iieiaeaiiyi
oai??? ni?eaiiy i?i aieea ia ni?eaiiy caaaeueii? eiioaeoii? iiaa?oi?
/anoeiie, yea c?inoa? c ?o aeenia?ni?noth. Aeey aiaiao?eaeeo ian
aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe eaie?i?oia? aeeie ? a?ae?inethaee, ye?
iiaeeiathoue aiaeo ca ?aooiie aaeni?aoe?? ?? iiaa?oiath.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? iane aiaiao?eae?noue aeo?aeiiai eaa?oeiaiai i?neo
cieaeo?oueny a i??o aaaaeaiiy aeiaeaoe?a. Ia ?en.5 iaaaaeaia ae?aa?aia
noaio nenoaie SiO2 — Na2O -CaO ? iaea?aeaia iaie aenieie?aiiacai?noa
ae?eyiea, ui aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe oaeee iioeiaeueiee o?ie/iee neeaae
aiaiao?eaei? iane aeey iaaeaii? oooa?iaee eeneeo aeoaiaeo
noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae: SiO2 -95 97%; Na2O -1,0 1,1%; CaO + MgO 0,8%
; ?aooa — Al2O3 + FeO, ye? ia aieeaathoue ia aiaiao?eae?noue iane.

?ic?iaea, aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia??

iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ae

? noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a.

Aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy i?oeiino? oooa?iaee, oaoiieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ? aiaiao?eae?no? ian aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe ?aoe?iiaeueiee
neeaae aiaiao?eaeeo ian aeey ??cieo oiia ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? aiaiao?eaeeo ian, aeey yeeo aeei?enoiaothoueny o? ae
iaoa??aee (eaa?oeiaee i?nie, ??aeea neei, aiaiao?eaea aeeia, ?aeeee
iao?), ui ? aeey i?eaiooaaiiy iaeeoethaaeueieo oi?iiai/ieo noi?oae o
noaeaieaaeeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, a?aoiao?oueny ca?iiaee ? o?i?/iee neeaae
canoiniaoaaieo eaa?oeiaeo i?ne?a, iiaeoeue ? u?euei?noue ??aeeiai neea,
i?ia?aeia?/iee, aeenia?niee neeaae ? eiei?aeaeuei?noue aiaiao?eaei?
aeeie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiei neeaaeii iane ia
iniia? na?aaei?o i?ne?a ? oae?: 88% eaa?oeiaiai i?neo, 6% ??aeeiai neea,
4% aiaiao?eaei? aeeie, 2% ?aeeiai iao?o.Oe? iane iathoue i?oei?noue o
ne?iio noai? 0,019 — 0,025 IIa, a nooiio noai? 2,0 — 2,1 IIa,
aacii?iieei?noue 198-226 iae., aieia?noue 3,2 — 3,4%, aiaiao?eae?noue
1740N.

?en.5 Ae?aa?aia noaio nenoaie SiO2-Na2O-CaO (a) oa iaea?aeaiee iaie
aenieie?aiiacai?noa ae?eyiea (a).

O ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui naia ii nia?
a?oia i?neo, ui oa?aeoa?eco? eiai ca?iiaee neeaae ca AINO 2138-91, ia
aecia/a? e?eueeino? aeiaaaie aiaiao?eaei? aeeie ? ??aeeiai neea.
Ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii ? aaniethoia /anoea na?aaei?o ? e?oiieo ca?iiaeo
o?aeoe?e. Ii oeueiio i?eioeeio ?ic?iaeaii ?yae aiaiao?eaeeo ian ia
iniia? ae??aieo ? e?oiieo i?ne?a.

I?iaaaeai? ?iaioe ? iaeiie/aiee aeina?ae c ?ic?iaee neeaaeo
aiaiao?eaeeo ian aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe ? aeaeaoe aaeocaaee noaiaea?o
“Eene? aiaiao?eae? iane aeey iaaeaii? oooa?iaee no?i aeoaiaeo
noaeaieaaeeueieo ? /aaoiiieaaeeueieo ia/ae. Aeaioiaeaiiy” — INO
16.0.886.034-82, yeee aaaaeaiee a ae?th c 01.07.83. sse eeaneo?eaoe?ei?
iciaee iaoa??ae?a noaiaea?oii ia?aaeaa/a?oueny eean eaa?oeiaiai
oi?iiai/iiai i?neo (ia ieae/a E3), ui aecia/a?oueny ianiaith /anoeith
e?aiiacaio (ia iaioa 96%); i?ia?aeia?/iee neeaae aiaiao?eaei? aeeie
(eaie?i?oe ? a?ae?inethaee); iiaeoeue (2,5 — 3,0) ? u?euei?noue
(1,48-1,52 a/ni3) iao???aiai niaeiaiai ??aeeiai neea; u?euei?noue (1,11
— 1,12 a/ni3) aiaeiiai ?ic/eio oaoi?/iiai iao?o.

Aaeocaaei noaiaea?oii ii?iothoueny oae? iieacieee aeanoeainoae
aiaiao?eaeeo ian aeey iaaeaii? oooa?iaee no?i: iaaea i?oeiino? i?e
noeneaii? a ne?iio noai? 0,015 — 0,024 IIa; iaaea i?oeiino? i?e
?icoyaoaaii? a nooiio noai? ia iaioa 1,0 IIa; aacii?iieei?noue aei 250
iae.; aieia?noue 3,0-4,0%.

?ic?iaeai? iane ioe?iai? ye aiaiao?eae? iaoa??aee ii??aiyii c
aeaeo?iaeeianii. Aiaiao?eae? iane ca a?eueo?noth iieaciee?a iathoue yai?
ia?aaaae ia?aae aeaeo?iaeeianii ? oe?eeii iiaeooue aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaai?
ye aiaiao?eae? iaoa??aee aeey oooa?iaee noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia ia
?yae? i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo aaeocae iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oaoiieia?y
i?aeaioiaee aeo?aeieo iaoa??ae?a, i?eaiooaaiiy aiaiao?eaeeo ian,
oooa?iaee oeeie ianaie eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ?
aeiaeyaeo ca iiiie?oiith oooa?iaeith. A ?aieao Ananithcii? i?ia?aie
0.16.05 caaaeaiiy 22O ?ic?iaeaii ? ?ic?neaii i?aei?e?inoaai “Oeiiaee
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean. Iaaeaia oooa?iaea eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaea — ?
/aaoiiieaaeeueieo ia/ae” ? “Ii?yaeie i?aai?caoe?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaaeaii? oooa?iaee no?i eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaea — ? /aaoiiieaaeeueieo
ia/ae”.

Iiiie?oia oooa?iaea no?i eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae
ai?iaaaeaeaia ia 78 i?aei?e?inoaao (ia 222 ieaaeeueieo aa?aaaoao)
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai , aaaeeiai, o?ainii?oiiai, aoae?aaeueii —
oeyoiaiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, a oaeiae aaoiiia?eueii?, aoa?eueii?,
aeaeo?ioaoi?/ii?, noaieiaoae?aaeueii? i?iieneiaino? ? ia i?aei?e?inoaao
I?i?noa?noaa oeyo?a niieo/aiiy.

Iniiaiei ?acoeueoaoii oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?
iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee no?i eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ?
cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?o no?eeino? ii??aiyii c oeaaeyieie (c 30-60 aei
800-40000 ieaaie); ia/? c iaaeaiith oooa?iaeith iiaeooue i?aoethaaoe aac
eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo i?ioyaii 20 ?ie?a.

Iiiie?oia oooa?iaea a on?o aeiaaeeao ia? a?eueoo no?ee?noue i?ae
oeaaeyia, ca ?aooiie caaaeueieo ia?aaaa. Aiae?c ?iaioe 86 ia/ae c
eeneith iaaeaiith oooa?iaeith iieacaa, ui aieiaiei oaeoi?ii, ui aecia/a?
no?ee?noue oooa?iaee, ? nai?/ania ? ye?nia a?aeiiaeaiiy ?? ?ici???a o
i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??. Ia no?ee?noue oooa?iaee aieeaathoue oaeiae
aiaiao?eae? iane, aaiiao??y ia/?, oaiia?aoo?a aeioneo, ci?no N.

I?iaaaeaii oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo oooa?iaee ?iaeoeoe?eieo ia/ae
na?aaeiuei? ?iiino? a NIAe ia iniia? eaa?oeeoo Ia?ooeueeiai ea?’??o
AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano? ? e?oiiiai eaa?oeiaiai i?neo Ai?eoaenueeiai
ea?’??o Eeoae a ii??aiyii? c ianith ia iniia? aeaeo?iei?oiaeo ?
ieaaeaiiai iaaiaceoo. Ii??aiyiiy oeeo ian iieaco?, ui iana ia iniia?
aeaeo?iei?oiaeo ? ieaaeaiiai iaaiaceoo ia? a?eueo aenieo oyaio
ii?eno?noue i?ney aeiaethaaiiy, aeiaeaoeiaa e?i?eia c?inoaiiy,
aiaiao?eae?noue, oaiia?aoo?o iiaiiai ?oeioaaiiy, iaioo oa?iino?ee?noue.
Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo caaiae?a NIAe aeicaieeei aeyaeoe oiiae iaae?eii?
?iaioe oooa?iaee eeneeo ?iaeoeoe?eieo ia/ae.

Ia iniia? aiae?co eiino?oeoe??, neeaaeo, aeanoeainoae, oaoiieia??
aeaioiaeaiiy, ii??aiyeueii? no?eeino?, noa?e canoinoaaiiy, aieeao ia
ye?noue iaoaeo, oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee
noaeaieaaeeueieo eiao?a cai?iiiiiaaia iioeiaeueia oaoiieia?y,
ai?iaaaeaeaia ia ?yae? iaoeiiaoae?aaeueieo caaiae?a (Oa?e?anueeee caaiae
“Aeaeo?iaaaeiao”, Aaaeeoeueeee noaeaieaaeeueiee oa ?i.).

Aecia/aii iioeiaeueio ?ie?noue eiao?a aeey noaeaieaaeeueieo oeao?a
(iii?iaeueia ?ie?noue ia/? + 4o).

Ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae iaoaeo?a?eieo oa iaoeiiaoae?aaeueieo caaiae?a
NIAe ii ai?iaaaeaeaiith iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a ?
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aeioe?euei?nue aeaioiaeaiiy aiaiao?eaeeo ian
aaciina?aaeiuei ia i?noeyo.

Oaoi?ei — aeiiii?/i? iieacieee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiieaeno ?ic?iaeaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa eenei? aeaeo?inoae?

Eiiieaen aeiiii?/ieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo
aeaeo?iia/ao ai?iaaaeaeaiee ia Oa?e?anueeiio caaiae? “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao”.

Aeei?enoaiiy a oeoo? e?aii??ai?uoth/eo a?aeoiae?a aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo
noaeae, ui ooai?ththoueny i?e ooaiiiaoe? o aeaniiio ae?iaieoeoa?,
aeicaieeei caaiaeo iiai?noth a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae i?ea?ciiai noaeueiiai
a?oooo ? cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue oiiie eeoaa ca ?aooiie caeaoaaeaiiy oeooe
ia 3,6%.

I?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo e?aii?th a iaoae? ia?aae ?iceeneaiiyi (ii??aiyii c
ieaaeith ia aoaeaoeaaiio noaeueiiio a?ooo?) aeicaieeei ca ?aooiie
ciaioaiiy aeo?ao 45%-ai oa?inee?oe?th (c 9-12 ea/o aei 2-3 ea/o) cieceoe
nia?aa?o?noue oiiie eeoaa ia 0,2 %.

Ciaioaiiy a?aeo a?aeeeaie /a?ac neoiaeaeio ii?eno?noue i?eaaei aei
cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? ia 0,6%.

?iceeneaiiy noae? oa?iia?aaioeai o eiao? ca ?aooiie nei?i/aiiy eiai
aeo?aoe c 12-16 ea/o aei 8-9 ea/o aeicaieeei o ii?aeiaii? ?c
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a ?aoe?iiaeueii? ?ieino? ca ?aooiie
noaa?eueiino? oaiia?aoo?e ?iceeae noae? cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue oiiie
eeoaa ia 1,4%.

Caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae (?iaeoeoe?? iane/aiiy)
noae? aeicaieeei aeaioiaeoe a?aeeeaee iaai?oii?iaiae?a oaieiaiai
aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy ?c noae? 25E cai?noue noaeae 15E ? 20E . O
?acoeueoao? nei?ioeeany e?euee?noue ia?ie noae?, ui aeieaaeyeeny a
iaeiiio oeaoo, iie?ioeeany i?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa, ciaioeeenue ao?aoe
iaoaeo (0,7% cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino?).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaeaii? oooa?iaee noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a a oiiaao
Oa?e?anueeiai caaiaeo “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao” aeicaieeei cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue
1 oiie noaeueiiai eeoaa ia 0,3%.

Caaaeueia cieaeaiiy nia?aa?o?no? noaeueiiai eeoaa neeaei 6,8%, ui
caaacia/eei aeiiii?/iee aoaeo 329 oen. ea?aiaaioe?a o oe?iao 1990 ?ieo.

Caaa?oaii aeeiiaiiy caoaa?aeaeaii? Iinoaiiaith AEIO ananithcii?
i?ia?aie ii oe?ieiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith iaaeaii? oooa?iaee ieaaeeueieo
aa?aaao?a. Iaaeaia oooa?iaea no?i eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae
ai?iaaaeaeaia ia 78 caaiaeao (ia 222 ae?th/eo ia/ao ?ie?noth a?ae 0,5
aei 6 oiii). O ?acoeueoao? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeo?aoa aeeianiai? oeaaee
nei?ioeeany ia 58 oen. oiii ca ??e (65 oiii ia 1 oiiio iii?iaeueii?
?ieino? ia/?), aea?eueiaiiy /enaeueiino? i?aoethth/eo neeaei 66 /ieia?e,
nooo?ai aea?eueiythoueny iiooaeiino? aiaiao?eaeeo caaiae?a,
aeiiiieyoueny aeeaaeaiiy ia ?o noai?aiiy. No?ee?noue oooa?iaee c?inea c
30-200 aei 800-40000 ieaaie. O noaeaieaaeeueieo oeaoao cia/ii
nei?ioeeeny ieiu?, a?aeaaaeai? ?ai?oa aeey caa??aaiiy aiaiao?ea?a,
iie?ioeeiny iinoa/aiiy oi?iiai/ieo a?aeae?e?a ??aeeei iaoaeii. Nooo?ai
cieceeany o?oaeii?noe?noue ?aiiioieo ?ia?o ii oooa??aoe? ia/ae. Oiiae
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe aeey oe??? iaoe ia ?yae? caaiae?a nei?i/aii a 1,5-2
?ace. Canoinoaaiiy aiaiao?eaeeo ian ?aoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo aeeeth/a?
aaaeeo ?o/io iia?aoe?th — uiieaai/io aa?y/o cai?aaeo no?i aeoaiaeo
noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae.

C?iaeaii aeiiii?/iee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiiie?oii?
oooa?iaee no?i aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae (ca aeaieie ?ic?aooie?a,
aeeiiaieo ia oaeeo caaiaeao: Oa?e?anueeee “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao”, Eoiyinueeee
eeaa?iee caaiae, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aeaeo?iaiciaoae?aaeueiee,
Iiaiaieeinueeee caaiae NOI, E?aiaiue/ooeueeee aaoicaaiae oa ?i.); a?i
iieacaa, ui a oe?eiio ??/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiiie?oii?
oooa?iaee no?i 222 ae?th/eo aeoaiaeo ia/ae i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie, ?in??
oa ?ioeo e?a?i NIAe neeaa 1,42 iei.e?a. o oe?iao 1990?.

Canoinoaaiiy eenei? iaaeaii? oooa?iaee a eiino?oeoi?nuee?e
aeieoiaioaoe?? aeoaiaeo ia/ae AeNI-3 oa AeNI-5 noaei iniiaith aeey
cai?ie eii?/iiai eiaeooa ia oe?e?iae?e/iee, ai?iaaaeaeaiiai a oiiaao
caaiaeo — aeaioiaethaa/a ia/ae (Aae?inueeiai caaiaeo aeaeo?ioa?i?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy), oea aeicaieeei aeinyaiooe cia/ii? aeiiii?? aeaeo?iaia?a??
i?e aenieoaoaoe?? ia/ae(0,8iei.e?a. a ??e).

Caaaeueiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo ?
eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ic?iaie, ocaaaeueiaieo o oe?e ?iaio?, i?aeoaa?aeaiee
a?aeiia?aeiith aeieoiaioaoe??th, neeaa 2,59 iei.e?a. a ??e (o oe?iao
1990 ?ieo), ui aea?aaeaioii 4,31 iei.aeiea??a NOA.

Aeniiaee

Aieiaiee i?aenoiie oe??? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia iniia?
?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaieo oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue ? o?ceei — o?i?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii a ?yae? aaeocae i?iieneiaino?
iia? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane ae?iaieoeoaa eenei? aeaeo?inoae? (ieaaee,
?iceeao, oooa?iaee), ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?,
aeiiii?/iino? ? yeino? eeoaa. ?ica’ycaiiy oe??? aaaeeeai?
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeaie noaei iiaeeeaei caaaeyee ?ic?iaoe?
?yaeo eiie?aoieo oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo caaea/, aeeeaaeaieo o
iaaaaeaieo ieae/a aeniiaeao.

1. Aeeiiaii aiae?c o?ceei-o?i?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ieaaee noae? a
eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?, yeee
iieacaa, ui a ia??iae ieaae?iiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ?iceeneaiiy iaoaeo,
caaaeyee /iio ai?no e?aii?th a noae? ii ?icieaaeaiith ciaiueoo?oueny ?
caa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiei i?ioyaii on??? ieaaee oa a aioiaiio iaoae?
ii??aiyii c ieaaeith aeoeaiei i?ioeanii (0,002% cai?noue 0,003%).

Oe? iieiaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeai? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
caeaaeiino? eiioeaio?aoe?? oa aeoeaiino? eenith a noae? a?ae ai?noo a
i?e e?aii?th, c yeeo aeoiaeeoue ui i?ii?iaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e ?
aeoeaiino? eenith a e?aii??ai?uoth/?e noae? iiaeia aeinyaoe i?e iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao noaeaieaaeeueieo i?ioean?a (1600N).

Aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie i?aeoaaaeaeaii oai?aoe/i? aeoiee ?
iieacaii, ui i?e i?aeaeuaiiio ai?noo e?aii?th a oeoo? (0,6-0,8%)
ii??aiyii c o?aaeeoe?eiith oaoiieia??th ieaaee ai?no eenith a noae?
i?ney ?icieaaeaiiy (0,013% i?ioe 0,026%), ia?aae ?iceeneaiiyi (0,013%
i?ioe 0,023%), ia?aae aeioneii (0,012% i?ioe 0,020%) ? a aioiaiio iaoae?
(0,002% i?ioe 0,003%) iaaaaaoi ieae/ee, a ai?no caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th
i?e ??ai?e eiai i?enaaeoe? — cia/ii aeuee (a na?aaeiueiio 0,067% i?ioe
0,044% i?e ??ai?e eiai i?enaaeoe? 0,15%).

2. Ia aac? aeeiiaieo oai?aoe/ieo iaa?oiooaaiiue ?ic?iaeaii ?
ai?iaaaeaeaii ia Oa?ueeianueeiio caaiae? “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao” iiaee
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao i?noe?noueth
a?ae 0,5 aei 6,0o, yeee caaacia/o? aeeeth/aiiy i?ioeano iiiiaeaiiy
e?aii?th, ciaioaiiy o?i?/iiai aieeao ieenthaaeueieo oeae?a ia eeneo
oooa?iaeo ? cia/ia nei?i/aiiy /ano aieeao ia oooa?iaeo
a?aee?eoiaei?ii?ithth/eo aeaeo?e/ieo aeoa.

3. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia, ?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia o ae?iaieoeoai ia
oa?e?anueeiio caaiae? “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao” oaoiieia?y ?iceeneaiiy eeoi?
aoaeaoeaai? noae? oa?iia?aaioeai o eiao?, yea caaacia/o? cia/io
aeiiii?th oa?iia?aaioeth (c 12-16 aei 8-9 ea/o) ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy
eiai oaa?o c 42 aei 15%, nei?i/aiiy o?eaaeino? ieaaee, i?aeaeuaiiy
ai?noo caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th a noae? (i?e iaeiaeia?e eiai i?enaaeoe?),
ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae noae?, noaa?eueiino? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ?
iie?ioaiiy yeino? iiaa?oi? a?aeeeaea.

4. O ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ? aaaaeai? a
oaoi?/i? oiiae ia oa?e?anueeiio caaiae? “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao” aeiaeaoeia?
aeiiae aei eenei? aeaeo?inoae?: ca ai?noii o noae? caeeoeiaiai
aethi?i?th a iaaeao 0,02-0,08% ? ca ai?noii e?aii?th 0,3-0,5%. Iieacaia
iaiao?aei?noue i?e caioneo o ae?iaieoeoai iiaeo a?aeiia?aeaeueieo
a?aeeeaie eiio?ieth iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eeoi? noae? ia c?aceao,
ocyoeo aaciina?aaeiuei c a?aeeeaie, a oaeiae aea/aiiy iiaaae?iee eeoeo
aeaoaeae i?e aenieoaoaoe?? ae?ia?a.

5. O ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth noaiaea?o?a ia iaai?oi? aeanoeaino?
aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiaee eiiieaenii? ?o ioe?iee ( ca noiith a?aeiinieo
ioe?iie iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? ? ca ona?aaeiaiith iaai?oiith
i?iieei?noth). Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae canoiniaaii
ia?niaeoeaiee iaoiae eaacenoaoe/iiai iaiaai?/oaaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey ae?ia?a aeaeo?iiaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy c aeiiaaie iniaeeai
aeniei? iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? iane/aiiy, aeniei? caeeoeiai? ?iaeoeoe??
aai iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai ?o ii?aeiaiiy, iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaoe
iecueeiaoaeaoeaao noaeue ?c ai?noii aoaeaoeth 0,03% ? niaoe?aeuei?
?aaeeie oa?iiia?iaee, ye? caaania/othoue aaee/eio ca?ia, ui
aeiaaa?oueny.

6. O ?acoeueoao? na?oeiaiai ? iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oaieiaiai
aieeao aeoa ia eeneo iaaeaio oooa?iaeo no?i iiaoaeiaai? aith?e ?o
ii?ii?iaiiy ii aenio? ia/? a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiio?ao?aoe?? ?iai/iai
i?inoi?o ? ae?aiao?o ?iciaaeo aeaeo?iae?a ? caeaaeiino? no?eeino?
oooa?iaee a?ae /ano aieeao aeaeo?e/ieo aeoa ??cii? iiooaeiino?.

O oeueiio ca’yceo cia/iee aoaeo aea? ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y, yea
aeeeth/a? ia??iaee ieeneaiiy aoaeaoeth ? iiiiaeaiiy e?aii?th.

Iieacaii, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eooa iaoeeo no?i oaieia? ao?aoe ia/?
iaci?iii i?aeaeuothoueny, ia i?aenoaa? /iai a ii?aeiaii? c ?ic?iaeaieie
aiaiao?eaeeie ianaie ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ? i?eeiyoi i?e i?iaeooaaii? iiaeo
na??e ia/ae iaei? ?ieino? oeee?iae?e/iee eiaeoo cai?noue eii?/iiai, ui
caaania/o? nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao aeaeo?iaia?a??.

7. Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy
i?oeiino? iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee no?i eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo
ia/ae. I?e oaiia?aoo?? iaaeieeoiiai na?aaeiaeua ci?oeiaiiy aiaiao?eaei?
iane ? oooa?iaee a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy aaeth, yeee yaey?
niaith neaeao aa?aaaoiaaieo /anoeiie iie?e?aii??ai? eeneioe. Ni?eaiiy
oooa?iaee aeoeaii ?icaeaa?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 700-800 N c ooai?aiiyi
neeiaeaeiiai oa?o nee?eaoo ia iiaa?oi? aeiaoe aaeth. I?e iaa??aaii? aei
a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo? a?aeaoaa?oueny o?eaeei?oecaoe?y oooa?iaee, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ?acoeueoaoaie iao?ia?ao?/iiai aiae?co. O iiaeei? 5 o
ia/? i?ney 10000 ieaaie nooi?iue o?eaeei?oecaoe?? aeinyaa? 60-70%.

8. Iieacaii, ui iayai?noue o neeaae? ian aiaiao?eaei? aeeie ni?ey? ?o
ni?eeeaino? i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueii?
eiioaeoii? iiaa?oi?, yea c?inoa? c ?o aeenia?ni?noth. Anoaiiaeaii
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy eaie?iiaeo aeei ? a?ae?inethae, ye? ia
aaeni?aothoue aieiao, a oaeiae aeei (iai?eeeaae, *ania-ss?nueei?), a
yeeo iniiaiei ii?iaeiooai?thth/ei i?ia?aeii ? 2(K2,Mg,Ca)O*2,8SiO2*2H2O
(iiiioa?i?o), yeee yaey? niaith ia?ao?aeiee i?ia?ae a?ae eaie?i?oo aei
a?ae?inethae.

Aecia/aii aieea neeaaeo ian ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ci?ooaaeueiiai iaeaae-

iaiiy ? aieeao ia ?o aeanoeaino? o?eaaeino? ia?aieooaaiiy.

9. Anoaiiaeaiii, ui aiaiao?eae?noue ian caeaaeeoue aieiaiei /eiii a?ae

aiaiao?eaeino? ca?iiai? iniiae — eaa?oeaaeo i?ne?a. Iieacaii, ui aeey
aiaiao?eaeeo ian aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe eaa?oeaaee oi?ioaaiee i?nie
eeano ia ieae/a E3 (AINO 2138-91) ?c ai?noii e?aiiacaio ia iaioa 96%.
Anoaiiaeaii e?iaeio caeaaei?noue aiaiao?eaeino? eaa?oeaaeo i?ne?a a?ae
ai?noo a ieo e?aiiacaio, aeeiicaio ? ieneaeo oeoaio. Aeyaeaiii
aca?iicaeaaei?noue aiaiao?eaeino? i?eeeo i?ne?a ? ?o aacii?iieeiino?, ui
ca’ycaii c iayai?noth i?eeica?ienoeo o?aeoe?e, ye? ai?uothoue Al2O3 ?
TiO2. Anoaiiaeaii a?eueo aenieo aiaiao?eae?noue e?oiieo eaa?oeaaeo
i?ne?a, i?ae i?eeeo, a oaeiae i?ne?a c iai?ae?oaeith oi?iith ca?ai
ii??aiyii c i?neaie c aino?ieooiith oi?iith.

O ?acoeueoao? ii??aiyiiy eiiieaeno oa?aeoa?enoee i?ne?a ?yaeo ?iaeiaeu
Oe?a?ie iieacaii, ui iaee?aua ii?aeiaiiyi aeanoeainoae iathoue i?nee
Aeoiaanueeiai ?iaeiaeua, ye? ai?iaaaeaeai? ye ca?iiaa iniiaa
oooa?iai/ieo ian ia Oa?e?anueeeo caaiaeao “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao” ?
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiio, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aeaeo?iaiciaoae?aaeueiiio oa
?i.

Anoaiiaeaii iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiee o?i?/iee neeaae aiaiao?eaeeo ian
aeey iaaeaii? oooa?iaee eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae:

SiO2 -95 97%; Na2O -1,0 1,1%; CaO + MgO 0,8% ;

?aooa — Al2O3 + FeO, ye? ia aieeaathoue ia aiaiao?eae?noue iane.

10. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo iane ?
aaniethoia aeiey na?aaeieo ? e?oiieo ca?iiaeo o?aeoe?e i?neo.Ia iniia?
aeeiiaieo oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue ? aeyaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae noai?aii
i?eioeeie ?ic?iaee ian aeey eiie?aoieo oiia ae?iaieoeoaa. ?ic?iaeaii,
noai?aii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii aaeocaaee niaiaea?o INO 16.0.886.034-82 “Eene?
aiaiao?eae? iane aeey iaaeaii? oooa?iaee no?i aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo
? /aaoiiieaaeeueieo ia/ae. Aeaioiaeaiiy”.

I?iaaaeaia ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea neoaeaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee iieacaea
nooo?a? ia?aaaae ?ic?iaeaieo aiaiao?eaeeo ian ia?aae aeaeo?iaeeianii.

11. O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aeyaeaii iniiai? oaeoi?e, ye?
aieeaathoue ia no?ee?noue iaaeaii? oooa?iaee (a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ici???a
oooa?iaee a i?ioean? ?? aenieoaoaoe??, aiaiao?eae?noue iane ia/?,
oaiia?aoo?a aeioneo noae? ? ai?no o i?e aoaeaoeth).

Ia iniia? aeeiiaieo oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue ? aeine?aeaeaiue
?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii ia 78 i?aei?e?inoaao e?a?i NIAe (ia 222
aeoaiaeo ia/ao) oaoiieia?th i?aeaioiaee aeo?aeieo iaoa??ae?a,
i?eaiooaaiiy aiaiao?eaeeo ian, oooa?iaee oeeie ianaie no?i eeneeo
aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ? aeiaeyaeo ca iiiie?oiith oooa?iaeith.
O ?aieao aeeiiaiiy Ananithcii? i?ia?aie 0.16.05 caaaeaiiy 22 o
?ic?iaeaii ? caoaa?aeaii ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe “Oeiiaee oaoiieia?/iee
i?ioean. Iaaeaia oooa?iaea no?i eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaea- ?
/aaoiiieaaeeueieo ia/ae” ? “Ii?yaeie i?aai?caoe?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaaeaii? oooa?iaee no?i eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaea- ? /aaoiiieaaeeueieo
ia/ae”.

Ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae i?aei?e?inoa e?a?ie ii ai?iaaaeaeaiith iaaeaii?
?ooa?iaee no?i aeoaiaeo ia/ae ? noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a ? iieacaii, ui
oeae iaoiae oooa?iaee iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee a oiiaao aoaeue-yeiai
noaeaieaaeeueiiai oeaoa aac aeiaeaoeiaeo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue. Iniiaiei
?acoeueoaoii oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a noaeaieaaeeueieo oeaoao
iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee no?i eeneeo aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ?
cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?? no?ee?no? ii??aiyii c oeaaeyiith (c 30-200 aei
800-40000 ieaaie). No?ee?noue iaaeaii? oooa?iaee eiao?a ii??aiyii c
oeaaeyiith c?inea c 10-12 aei 30-40 ieaaie.

12. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?ic?iaee ?aoe?iiaeueii? oaoiieia??
aeieaaee noae? aeey a?aeeeaie o eeneeo aeniei/anoioieo ia/ao ? oooa?iaee
oeeo ia/ae. Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue ?o oe?ieiai
canoinoaaiiy a noaeaieaaeeueieo oeaoao.

13. Caaaeueiee aeiiiie/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a (aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo aeaeo?iia/ao, oooa?iaee
noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ? noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a), ocaaaeueiaieo o oe?e
?iaio?, a oaeiae oaeineiiaeueiaiiy eiino?oeoe?? aeoaiaeo ia/ae neeaa
2,59 iei. e?a. a ??e o oe?iao 1990 ?ieo, ui aea?aaeaioii 4,31 iei.
aeiea??a NOA.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a oaeeo iiiia?ao?yo a?ioo?ao ?
noaooyo

1.Nieoa? A.I. Auieaaea noaee a eeneuo yeaeo?iia/ao // I.: Iaoaeeo?aey,
1987.-121 n.2.Nieoa? A.I., Eociaoeia E.I. Aeoaiaua ia/e a noaeaeeoaeiii
oeaoa // I.: Iaoaeeo?aey, 1989. — 175 n.3.Nieoa? A.I. Iaiaoii?u aeey
aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae iaeie aieinoe. I.: Iaoaeeo?aey, 1994.
-189 n.4. Nieoa? A.I. Iaaeaiay eeneay oooa?iaea aeoaiauo
noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae // I.: Eioi?iyeaeo?i, 1979. — 47 n.5. Nieoa?
A.I., Eaa?ia A.I. Auieaaea noaee aeey ioeeaie aeaoaeae yeaeo?e/aneeo
iaoei n i?eiaiaieai a oeooa iooiaeia yeaeo?ioaoie/aneeo noaeae // I.:
Eioi?iyeaeo?i, 1980. — 36 n.6.Nieoa? A.I., Aaeaiei E.O., ?oaeieoeeay
E.A. Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa eeneie oaea?iaeenoie yeaeo?inoaee aeey oaniiiiai
eeouey //Oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa a yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe-1969.-Aui.1.-C.28-327.Nieoa? A.I., Ethoay A.A.
E?aiiacaienoua iannu aeey iaaeaiie oooa?iaee aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo
ia/ae// Iaiaoii?u-1969.-? 2.-C.31-36.8.Nieoa? A.I. Auai? eaa?oeaaiai
ianea aeey iaaeaiie oooa?iaee eeneuo aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae //
Oaoiieiaey yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa-1969.-Aui.3. — C 5-6.
9.Aieyoianeee I.I., Nieoa? A.I., Oeo?ee N.E. Eioaineoeeaoeey i?ioeanna
ieaaee noaee aeey oaniiiiai eeouey a eeneuo yeaeo?iia/ao// Iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa. Na. — I.: IEEIAO,
*.1.-1969.-C. 373-381.10.Eeoaa? E.ss., Nieoa? A.I., Ee?e/aiei Ae.A.
Eaa?oeaaua oi?iiai/iua ianee ianoi?iaeaeaiee Oe?aeiu // Eeoaeiia
i?iecaiaenoai-1969.-?12.-C.12-13.11.Nieoa? A.I., Ethoay A.A. Iiuo
i?eiaiaiey iaaeaiie oooa?iaee a eeneuo aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ao
// Oaoiieiaey yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa-1970.- Aui.13. — C.
22-2412.Nieoa? A.I., Ethoay A.A. Eiio?ieue ea/anoaa iaiaoii?iuo nianae
aeey eeneie iaaeaiie oooa?iaee// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1970.-?8. — C.
4013.Nieoa? A.I., Ethoay A.A. I?eiaiaiea iaaeaiie oooa?iaee a eeneuo
aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ao// Oaoiieiaey , i?aaiecaoeey e
iaoaiecaoeey eeoaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Na. — I.:
IEEEIOI?IOssAEIAO-1970.-9-7-5- C. 15-19.14.Nieoa? A.I., Ethoay A.A.,
?aaeiiae/ A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea iaiaoii?iuo naienoa e?aiiacaienouo iann
aeey iaaeaiie oooa?iaee eeneuo aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae//
Iaiaoii?u,-1971.-?5. — C. 35-39.15.A?oeiia A.E., Niiey?aiei A.Ae.,
Nieoa? A.I., Ethoay A.A. Aiaeiioeaaeaeaaiua naiaeu aeoaiauo
yeaeo?iia/ae// Yeaeo?ioa?iey-1971.- Aui. 105.- C. 28-2916.Nieoa? A.I.,
Ethoay A.A. Nianue aeey iaaeaiie oooa?iaee noai aeoaiauo
yeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae// Nai?iee AIEEYI.- I.:
Eioi?iyeaeo?i-1971.- Aui. 235. — C. 6.17.Nieoa? A.I., Caeaineee A.I.,
Eeoaa? E.ss. Aeeyiea oeie/aneiai ninoaaa ia iaiaoii?iinoue
n?aaeiaca?ienouo eaa?oeaauo ianeia// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1970.- ? 7.
— C. 29. 18.Ee?ueyiia TH.I., Nieieia A.I., Aeeiia A.A., Nieoa? A.I.
Enneaaeiaaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna auieaaee aea?ii?i/iie
iaeiieeaeaaie noaee, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aaeeicaiaeueiuie iaoaeeaie,
aeey aeaoaeae yeaeo?ioa?ie/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey// Oaoiieiaey
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. O?oaeu AIOEyeaeo?i, Na. E.:
AIEEYEAEO?IMAO-1973.- ? 7. — C. 22-2319.Nieoa? A.I., Ia?ouiaiei A.O. e
ae?. Eiiieaenii-iaoaiece?iaaiiue oeao noaeueiiai eeouey a iaiei/eiaua
oi?iu// Oaoiieiaey yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa-1974.- Aui. 9. — C.
3-4.20Nieoa? A.I., Caeaineee A.I., Ii?ic E.E. Ieceieaae?iaaiiay noaeue
aeey ioeeaee eieeaeoi?iuo aooeie oaieiaiciuo yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeae//
Nai?iee Eioi?iyeaeo?i. I.: Eioi?iyeaeo?i-1976.- Aui. 4. — C. 1721.Nieoa?
A.I., Oaeaethe E.A. e ae?. Iiaaiii?oaeeiiua caaeeiu aeey aeoaiauo
noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae// Nai?iee Eioi?iyeaeo?i. I.: Eioi?iyeaeo?i1976.-
Aui. 4. — C.18.22.Nieoa? A.I. Iaaeaiay oooa?iaea eeneuo aeoaiauo
noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1977.- ? 10. — C.
35.23.Eaa?ia A.I., Nieoa? A.I. e ae?. Ii?aaeaeaiea ii?i ?anoiaea eeouey
ia ecaeaeey//Oaoiieiaey yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa-1979.-Aui.7.-C.1-2.24.Nieoa? A.I. Yeiiiiey aeeianiaiai
ee?ie/a ca n/ao caiaiu ee?ie/iie oooa?iaee noai aeoaiauo
noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae ia iiiieeoioth iaaeaioth / / ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Na. I.: OeIEEOYEIN, — 1979. —
Aui.- 9., n. 1-2.25.Nieoa? A.I. Iiuo i?eiaiaiey ianoiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey
iiiieeoiie iaaeaiie oooa?iaee// ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Na. I.: OeIEEOYEIN-1979.- Aui. 9. — C.
2-4.26.Nieoa? A.I., Aaeaiei E.O. Ieaaea oaea?iaeenoie noaee a eeneuo
eiaeoeoeeiiiuo ia/ao// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1979.- ? 12.-C.
25.27.Nieoa? A.I., Oi/eaeia I.TH. Iaiaoii?iua iannu aeey oooa?iaee
eiaeoeoeeiiiuo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae ca ?oaaaeii// Eeoaeiia
i?iecaiaenoai-1981.-? 7. — C. 24-25. 28.Nieoa? A.I., O?aeiaa A.E.
I?eiaiaiea a /oaoiieeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa aeoaiauo ieaaeeueiuo ia/ae//
Oaoiieiaey yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa-1981.-? 7. — C. 3-4.
29.Nieoa? A.I., A?euaiei I.A. e ae?. Iaiaoii?iay ianna ia
ieceiiiaeoeueiii aeeaeeii noaeea aeey iaaeaiie oooa?iaee aeoaiauo
ieaaeeueiuo ia/ae// Iaiaoii?u-1982.- ? 2. — C. 24-26.30.Nieoa? A.I.,
Aoieeia E.Ae. e ae?. Eeneay iaaeaiay oooa?iaea noai aeoaiauo
noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae ia caaiaeao NNN?// Iaiaoii?u-1982.- ? 4. —

C. 36-40.31.Nieoa? A.I., Oi/eaeia I.TH., ?iceioiay A.A. Oooa?iaea
eiaeoeoeeiiiuo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae ia caaiaeao NNN?// Eeoaeiia
i?iecaiaenoai- 1982.-? 4. — C. 27-29.32.

Nieoa? A.I., Iinieiaa e ae?. Iaiaoii?iua iannu ia iniiaa iaeeiai
eaa?oeaaiai ianea aeey iaaeaiie oooa?iaee noai iaeioiiiaaeiuo aeoaiauo
noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae// Iaiaoii?u 1982.- ? 10. — C. 43-45.33.Nieoa?
A.I., Iinieiaa I.E. e ae?. Iaaeaiay oooa?iaea eeneie aeoaiaie ia/e aeey
ieaaee na?iai /oaoia// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1983- ?1.-C. 3534.Nieoa?
A.I., Eiceiaa A.N., Iinieiaa I.E. Oooa?iaea aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo
ia/ae iaaeaiuie iannaie// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1983.- ? 3. — C.
31-33.35.Nieoa? A.I., Aeaniaa O.N. Iaiaoii?iua iannu aeey iaaeaiie
oooa?iaee ieaaeeueiiai iiyna aaa?aiie// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1983.- ?
7. — C. 27-28.36.Nieoa? A.I., ?iceioiay A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea iann ia
iniiaa ia?o/neiai eaa?oeeoa n aeiaaaeaie n?aaeiaai ianea e ai?iie
eeneiou aeey oooa?iaee eiaeoeoeeiiiuo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae//
Iaiaoii?u-1984.-? 5.-C.44-46. 37.Nieoa? A.I., Eiceiaa A.N., Iinieiaa
I.E. ?aoeeiiaeueiua ninoaau iaiaoii?iuo iann aeey oooa?iaee noai
aeoaiauo ia/ae// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1984.-? 7. — C. 27.38?yaoeaa
I.A., Nieoa? A.I., Eiceiaa A.N., Iinieiaa I.E. Noieeinoue eeneie
iaaeaiie oooa?iaee noai aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae// Eeoaeiia
i?iecaiaenoai-1987.-? 7. — C. 29-30.39.Nieoa? A.I., Iinieiaa I.E.,
Niiey?aiei A.Ae., Ieeieueneee E.A. Oaieiaia aicaeaenoaea yeaeo?e/aneeo
aeoa ia iaaeaioth oooa?iaeo aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae// Ecaanoey
aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey1988.-? 7. — C.
128-131.40.Nieoa? A.I., Ianeia TH.I., Eeieao E.C. Enneaaeiaaiea
iaaieoiuo naienoa iaoa?eaeia aeey iaaieoii?iaiaeia eiaeoeoi?iuo
aaia?aoi?ia// Ecaanoey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.
Yeaeo?iiaoaieea-1990.-? 6.,C. 46-49.41.Nieoa? A.I., Ieeeoe/ A.I.,
Aieeeia E.A. Ioeaiea iaiaoii?iinoe e?oiiuo e iaeeeo eaa?oeaauo ianeia//
Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai — 1990. — ? 9. — C. 10-11.42.Nieoa? A.I., Aiaeie
E.E., Ai?enaiei E.A. Io?aaioea oaoiieiaee auieaaee ieceioaea?iaeenoie
noaee n caaeaiiuie iaaieoiuie naienoaaie// Nai?iee «I?iaeaiu
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa»-1992.- Aui.108. -E «Oaoieea» — C.
35-40.43.Neaei?eia E.Ae., Nieoa? A.I. Aaciianiinoue i?iaeoeoeee
iaoeiino?iaiey// Noaiaea?ou e ea/anoai-1997.-? 1. — C.
55-56.44.Neaei?eia E.Ae., Nieoa? A.I. Na?oeoeeaoeey aaciianiinoe
ioeeaie// Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai-1997.- ? 5. — C. 59. 45.Neaei?eia
E.Ae., Nieoa? A.I. Iiuo na?oeoeeaoeee eeoaeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey// Eeoaeiia
i?iecaiaenoai-1997. — ? 5. — N.59-60.46.Neaei?eia E.Ae., Nieoa? A.I.
Na?oeoeeaoeey ioeeaie, iieiaie e ooaiiiaie// Noaiaea?ou e
ea/anoai-1997.- ? 7. — N. 66. 47.Neaei?eia E.Ae., Nieoa? A.I., ?yaia
N.I. Na?oeoeeaoeey eeoaeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e ioeeaie// Na?oeoeeaoeey
-1999.-?1. — N.30-32 48.A.n. 651588 NNN?, IEE N22 N21/02, Eeaaoo?a/
A?oia A.N.,

Oeeaoia A.I., Nieoa? A.I. e ae?. — ?2470996; Cayaeaii 06.04.77. Iioae.
05.03.79. Athe. ?9. — 217n.49.A.n. 857686, IEE F27 D1/02. Iaoaeee/aneee
aiaeiioeaaeaeaaiue naiae yeaeo?iia/e/ Iiiiia?aa A.I., Niiey?aiei A.Ae.,
Nieoa? A.I. e ae?. — ?2831685; Cayaeaii 19.10.79. Iioae. 23.08.81. Athe.
?31. — 193n.50.A.n. 1068499, IEE N21 N5/52. Iaiaoii?iay ianna aeey
oooa?iaee noai aeoaiauo ia/ae/ Nieoa? A.I., Eiceiaa A.N., Iinieiaa I.E.
e ae?. — ?3516550; Cayaeaii 22.10.82. Iioae. 23.01.84. Athe. ?3. —
84n.51.A.n. 1291276, IEE A22 N7/00. Eeoaeiay iinoiyiiay iiaeaeue/

ss?ooa A.I., Ai?ooeeia E.I., Nieoa? A.I. e ae?. — ?3898610; Cayaeaii
22.05.85. Iioae. 23.02.87. Athe. ?7. — 53n.AIIOAOe?ss

Nieoa? A.I. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae, ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ano?nicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo
aeaeo?iia/ao. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe.
Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.02 “Iaoaeo?a?y /i?ieo iaoae?a”. Aea?aeaaia
iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi noai?aiiy eiiieaeno iiaeo ?
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa eenei?
aeaeo?inoae? (ieaaee, ?iceeaaiiy, oooa?iaee), ye? caaacia/othoue
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?, aeiiii?/iino? ? yeino?. ?iaioa aeeth/a? a
naaa oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeo ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? ? aeiiii?/ii? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee noae? a eeneeo
aeoaiaeo aeaeo?iia/ao c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?, oaoiieia??
?iceeneaiiy oa?iia?aaioeai o eiao? eenei? noae?, aeieaaeaii? a aeoaiaeo
aeaeo?iia/ao o aca?iica’yceo c oaiia?aoo?iei ?aaeeiii ?iceeaaiiy;
?aoe?iiaeueii? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee noae? a ?iaeoeoe?eieo ia/ao
na?aaeiuei? /anoioe; iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ?
noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy yeino?
noae?, aeieaaeaii? ca o?aaeeoe?eiith (aeoeaiei i?ioeanii) ? iiaith (c
i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii e?aii?th a oeoo?) oaoiieia??th. Aenia?eiaioaeueieie
? o?aaeeoe?eieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e i?aeaeuaiiio
ai?no? e?aii?th a oeoo? e?euee?noue eenith ? iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue o
noae? iaaaaaoi iaioa, a ai?no caeeoeiaiai aethi?i?th ? iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? — aeuee.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee eiiieaenii? ioe?iee iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae noae?.
Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy oi?ioaaiiy i?oeiino?, oaoiieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ? aiaiao?eaeino? ian aeey iiiie?oii? oooa?iaee
aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ? noaea?iceeaieo eiao?a. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia 78
i?aei?e?inoaao NIAe (ia 222 aeoaiaeo ia/ao).

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eenea aeaeo?inoaeue, aeaeo?ii?/, e?aii?e, eenaiue,
aethi?i?e, iaai?oi? aeanoeaino?, iiiie?oia oooa?iaea.

Nieoa? A.I. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau , ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea
?ano?ninaa?aaathuae oaoiieiaee auieaaee noaee a eeneuo yeaeo?iia/ao.
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.02 «Iaoaeeo?aey /a?iuo iaoaeeia». Ainoaea?noaaiiay
iaoaeeo?ae/aneay Aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai nicaeaiey eiiieaena iiauo e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey nouanoaothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa
eeneie yeaeo?inoaee (ieaaee, ?aceeaee, oooa?iaee), iaania/eaathueo
iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, yeiiiie/iinoe e ea/anoaa noaee. ?aaioa
aeeth/aao oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea, enneaaeiaaiea, ?ac?aaioeo e
aiaae?aiea aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiie e yeiiiie/iie oaoiieiaee auieaaee
noaee a eeneuo aeoaiauo yeaeo?iia/ao n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaiey e?aiiey a
oeooa; oaoiieiaee ?aneeneaiey oa??iia?aaioeai a eiaoa ai acaeiinayce n
oaiia?aoo?iui ?aaeeiii ?aceeaee; ?aoeeiiaeueiie oaoiieiaee auieaaee
noaee a eiaeoeoeeiiiuo ia/ao n?aaeiae /anoiou; iiiieeoiie oooa?iaee
noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae e noaea?aceeai/iuo eiaoae. Auiieiai aiaeec
oeceei-oeie/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae ieaaee noaee a eeneuo yeaeo?iia/ao.
I?iaaaeaii n?aaieoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea ea/anoaa noaee, auieaaeaiiie ii
o?aaeeoeeiiiie (aeoeaiui i?ioeannii) e iiaie (n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai
e?aiiey a oeooa) oaoiieiaee. Yenia?eiaioaeueiuie e oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeie
enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e iiauoaiiii niaea?aeaiee e?aiiey a
oeooa niaea?aeaiea eenei?iaea e iaiaoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee a noaee
iaiiiai ieaea, a niaea?aeaiea inoaoi/iiai aethieiey e iaoaie/aneea
naienoaa — auoa, noaeue eiaao iaiueooth neeiiiinoue e ia?aciaaieth
neoiaeaeiie ii?enoinoe a ioeeaeao. Iiaay oaoiieiaey auieaaee noaee
iicaieeea cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue noieeinoue oooa?iaee, nie?aoeoue
i?enaaeeo oa??ineeeoeey, oiaiueoeoue ?anoiae yeaeo?iyia?aee, iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia/ae e nieceoue naaanoieiinoue noaee.

?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu eiiieaeniie ioeaiee iaaieoiuo naienoa noaee.
Onoaiiaeaii ii?aaeaeythuaa aeeyiea ia iaaieoiua naienoaa eeouo
oaea?iaeenouo noaeae iai?yaeaiiinoe iaaieoiiai iiey e niaea?aeaiey
oaea?iaea a noaee. ?aeiiaiaeiaaii i?eiaiaiea ieceioaea?iaeenoie noaee n
niaea?aeaieai oaea?iaea 0,03% e niaoeeaeueiua ?aaeeiu oa?iiia?aaioee. A
oaoie/aneeo oneiaeyo ia eeoue? ooi/iaiu o?aaiaaiey ii niaea?aeaieth
e?aiiey e inoaoi/iiai aethieiey, a i?aeoeeo caaiaeia aaaaeaii
ii?aaeaeaiea iaoaie/aneeo naienoa eeoie noaee ia ia?acoeao, acyouo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec ioeeaie.

Auiieiaii oai?aoe/aneia iaiauaiea oi?ie?iaaiey i?i/iinoe,
oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa e iaiaoii?iinoe iann aeey iiiieeoiie oooa?iaee
yeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae e noaea?aceeai/iuo eiaoae. Ia naaoiauo e
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeyo enneaaeiaaii aicaeaenoaea yeaeo?e/aneeo aeoa ia
eeneoth iaaeaioth oooa?iaeo aeoaiauo ia/ae; onoaiiaeaii, /oi
ii?aaeaeythueie oaeoi?aie yaeythony ?annoiyiea io aeoae aei noaiu e
a?aiy aicaeaenoaey ia oooa?iaeo ioe?uouo aeoa. Nicaeaiu i?eioeeiu
?ac?aaioee iaiaoii?iuo iann aeey eiie?aoiuo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa
?acee/iuo ?aaeiiia; onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii oi?ie?iaaiey
ninoaaa iannu yaeyaony aaniethoiay aeiey n?aaeieo e e?oiiuo ca?iiauo
o?aeoeee ianea. ?ac?aaioai e aiaae?ai io?aneaaie noaiaea?o “Eeneua
iaiaoii?iua iannu aeey iaaeaiie oooa?iaee noai aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo
e /oaoiiieaaeeueiuo ia/ae. Ecaioiaeaiea.” Iaiauai iiuo i?aaei?eyoee NIA
ii aiaae?aieth iaaeaiie oooa?iaee noai aeoaiauo ia/ae. Noieeinoue
oooa?iaee iiauoaia n 30-200 aei 800-40000 ieaaie. Aiaae?aii ecaioiaeaiea
aeoaiauo ia/ae n oeeeeiae?e/aneei eiaeooii. Iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue e
oeaeaniia?aciinoue oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey a noaeaeeoaeiuo oeaoao
eiaeoeoeeiiiuo noaeaieaaeeueiuo ia/ae. Iaiauai iiuo caaiaeia no?ai NIA
ii aiaae?aieth iiiieeoiie oooa?iaee noaea?aceeai/iuo eiaoae.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?iiuoeaiiia aiaae?aiea ia 78
i?aaei?eyoeyo NIA (ia 222 aeoaiauo ia/ao).

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeneay yeaeo?inoaeue, yeaeo?iia/ue, e?aiiee, eenei?iae,
aethieiee, iaaieoiua naienoaa, iiiieeoiay oooa?iaea.

Soyfer V.M. Theoretical basis, development and introduction of
resource saving technology of steel smelting in acid electric
furnaces.Thesis for a Doctor degree (Engineering ) on speciality
05.16.02 «Metallurgy of Ferrous Metals». State Metallurgy Academy of
Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, 1998.

The thesis is devoted to the questions of creating a complex of new and
updating the existing technological processes of acid electric steel
production (heats, castings, lining) providing the increase of
productivity, efficiency and quality. The work includes the theoretical
study, research, development and introduction of a high-productive and
economical steel smelting technology in acid arc furnaces with an
increased silicon content in charge; technologies of deoxidizing by
ferromanganese in the ladle of acid steel smelted in arc furnaces in
interconnection with the temperature regime of casting; a rational
technology of acid steel smelting in medium-frequency induction
furnaces; a monolithic lining of steel furnaces and steel-pouring
ladles. A comparative research was made for the quality of steel smelted
according to the traditional (active process) and new (with an increased
silicon content in the charge) technology. Experimental and
thermodynamic studies showed that with an increased silicon content in
the charge the content of oxygen and non-metallic inclusions in the
steel is much lower and the residual aluminium content and mechanical
properties — higher. Methods for a comprehensive estimation of magnetic
properties of steel were worked out. A theoretical generalization was
made for forming strength, technological properties and refractoriness
of the masses for monolithic lining of electric steel furnaces and
steel-pouring ladles. The main results of the work found their
industrial introduction at 78 enterprises in the CIS countries (in 222
arc furnaces).

Key words: acid electric steel, electric furnace, silicon, oxygen,
aluminium, magnetic properties, monolithic lining.

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