AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO “EUeA?ANUeEA IIE?OAOI?EA”

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EAEEIII ss?ineaa Aiae??eiae/

OAeE 661.248;661.213

OAI?AOE*I? INIIAE ? OAOIIEIA?? I*EUAIIss AAC?A

? ??AeEI A?Ae NOEUeO?AeII? N??EE

05.17.01. Oaoiieia?y iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EUeA?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia

a Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

ssai?nueeee A?eoi? Oaio?eiae/

AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?i?? ? oaoiieia??
iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiaieei Ieaen?e sseiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, eaoae?co oa aeieia??;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieyoeoe Eaii?ae Aeieo?iae/,

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii?
aeieia?? oa aaciaee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

Iaeueiaaiee Ie?ineaa Noaiaiiae/,

AAO ”A??O?II?II”, i.Euea?a,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii o?i?/ii? ?iaeaia??? oa i?iieneiai? aeieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie
“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, eaoaae?a COO ? OI?, i.Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “7” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.09 i?e Aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ca aae?anith : 290646, i.
Euea?a-13, ie. Na. TH?a, 3/4, ei?ion 9, aoae.214.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “29” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

?aaee, e.o.i., aeioeaio ss.?.Aaooea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. N??ea a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue a i?e?iae?, aeeoo?
aeeaeo i?aai?ci?a, ia? ?yae aeeaieo iniaeeainoae, ia aeanoeaeo ?ioei
aeaiaioai. Iniiaia e?euee?noue n??ee a caii?e ei?? ciaoiaeeoueny a
o?i?/ii ca’ycaiiio noai?, a eiioeaio?iaaiiio aeaeyae?, o oi?i? niieoe
noeueoaoii? oa noeueo?aeii? i?e?iaee. ?acii c oei cia/ia ?? /anoeia
aoiaeeoue ye aeii?oea aei neeaaeo aaaaoueio i?ia?ae?a, ?oae, ei?enieo
eiiaeei i?aai?/ii? ? i?ia?aeueii? i?e?iaee. A ?acoeueoao? i?iieneiaiai
ia?a?iaeaiiy i?ia?aeueii? oa i?aai?/ii? ne?iaeie, ia?aa?ao i?e?iaeieo
o?i?/ieo oa a?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a aeacaia n??ea ia?aoiaeeoue a
n??eiaiaeaiue, yeee cae?a?oueny a aacao aai ?ic/eiy?oueny a ??aeeiao,
/anoeiai ia?aoiaey/e a noeueo?aee. Aaeeea e?euee?noue n??eiaiaeith
i?noeoueny a i?e?iaeieo, oaoiieia?/ieo, aaioeeyoe?eieo oa ?ioeo aacao.
??aee? noiee ? ae?aiaaei? aiaee o?i?/ii?, a??ie/i-aeiaoaii? oa ?ioeo
aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa caa?oaeiai? n??eiaiaeiai ?
noeueo?aeaie. Noeueo?aee caaaeaee i?noyoueny a ae?aiaaeieo ? ieanoiaeo
aiaeao, ui eiioaeoothoue ?c n??/aieie ?oaeaie, a oaeiae o?aieythoueny a
ieanoiaeo aiaeao oeo ?aeii?a, aea a?aenooi? n??/ai? ?oaee. I?ae /an
aeaeiaoaaiiy ei?enieo eiiaeei (aeiac?a, cieioa, ?oae eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a
oiui) ieanoia? aiaee, caa?oaeiai? n??eiaiaeiai ? noeueo?aeaie,
aeoiaeyoue ia iiaa?oith. E?euee?noue n??eiaiaeaiueai?nieo noie?a ?
aaciaeo aeeeae?a, aeaeiaooie n??eiaiaeaiueai?nieo i?e?iaeieo aac?a oa
n??/enoeo iaoo oiui iaaieiii c?inoathoue. Aiane?aeie aeniei? oiene/iino?
n??eiaiaeith i/euaiiy aac?a ? ??aeei a?ae niieoe noeueo?aeii? n??ee ?
aeeoo?ai iaiao?aeiei ?, e??i oiai, oni?oii ae??oeaoe i?iaeaie ?o
i/euaiiy, iiaeia aei iaaii? i??e caaacia/eoe ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai
n??eith.

A e?oa?aoo?? iienaia aaeeea e?euee?noue ??cieo iaoiae?a i/euaiiy aac?a ?
??aeei a?ae n??eiaiaeith, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny o?ceei-o?i?/iith
nooi?noth, oaoiieia?/iei ? aia?aoo?iei ioi?ieaiiyi, oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie
iieacieeaie. Caeaa?eueoiai an? aiie ? cao?aoieie. Na?aae a?aeiieo
iaoiae?a i/euaiiy aac?a ? ??aeei a?ae n??eiaiaeith iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an
noaiiaeyoue iie?? o?i?/i?. Iniiaiei aeey ?o oni?oiiai ? oe?ieiai
canoinoaaiiy ? aea?? aoaeoeaiiai, aeinooiiiai ? aeaoaaiai ieenieea
n??eiaiaeith, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/ia ioi?ieaiiy i?ioean?a, yea a
a?aeiia?aeaei ?o o?ceei-o?i?/iei iniiaai. Oni?oia ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue
aeicaieeoue caanoe aei i?i?ioio ia?aa?a iia?/ieo, iaaaaeaieo ?aaeoe?e,
??cei i?aeaeueoe ?ioaineai?noue ? iie?aueoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?
iieacieee i/euaiiy. Naia ia ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue ni?yiiaaia aeaia
aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei iai?yie?a Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
i?ia?aie 04.14.07 «?ic?iaea iiaeo oaoiieia?e ? aia?aoo?iiai ioi?ieaiiy
n??ee ?c n??eiaiaeiaaeo i?e?iaeieo, oaoiieia?/ieo oa ?ioeo aac?a»
(Iinoaiiaa Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue iaoee ? oaoiieia?e ?
52 a?ae 18.06.1993 ?), iaeaco I?i?noa?noaa o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino? N?N?
(? 110 a?ae 24.02. 1972 ?), a oaeiae ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
eaoaae?e o?i?? ? oaoiieia?? iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea».

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei ?ic?iaeaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo iniia ? oaoiieia?e aoaeoeaiiai ? aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueiiai
i/euaiiy aac?a ? ??aeei a?ae noeueo?aeii? n??ee iie?eie o?i?/ieie
iaoiaeaie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe oae? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe e?iaoe/i? eiinoaioe oaiini?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith ?c aaco
o?iiiiei iiaeeiaeueiei ?ic/eiii oa ?aaaia?aoe?? oeueiai ?ic/eio a
ianiiai?iieo aia?aoao, ye? iaeneiaeueii a?aeiia?aeathoue o?ceei-o?i?/iei
iniiaai i/euaiiy, ? ?ic?iaeoe iai?yiee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i/euaiiy;

— i?ae?a?aoe aeoeaiee, aeinooiiee oa iaaei?iaee ieeniee oaiini?aiaaiiai
n??eiaiaeith;

— aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? oiiae i?ioeano i/euaiiy aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith iiaeeiaeueiei ?ic/eiii c iiaei, cai?iiiiiaaiei iaie
aeoeaiei ieenieeii oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith;

— ?ic?iaeoe o?ceei-o?i?/i? iniiae ooee?caoe?? a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio;

— cai?iiiioaaoe oaoiieia?th aeae?eaiiy n??ee ?c iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ?
ia?a?iaeaiiy ?? o oiaa?i? ni?oe;

— aecia/eoe e?iaoe/i? iieacieee i?ioeano aeani?aoe?? o?aoeie
n??eiaiaeith ?c ieanoiaeo oa ae?aiaaeieo aiae ? aani?aoe?? ieie
aeaiieneaeo n??ee;

— ciaeoe e?iaoe/i? eiinoaioe ieeneaiiy n??eiaiaeith i?e iecueeiio ai?no?
eiai o n??eiaiaeaiueiia?o?yi?e noi?o? ? ieeneaiiy noeueo?ae?a
aeaiieneaeii n??ee a ??aee?e oac?;

— aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e cai?iiiiiaaieo i?ioean?a,
noai?eoe a?aeiia?aei? oaoiieia?/i? noaie, aeaeaoe aeo?aei? aeai? ia
i?iaeooaaiiy aeine?aeieo ? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaie oa
aei?iaoaaoe ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? i/euaiiy ia ?aaeueieo i?iieneiaeo
n??eiaiaeaiueai?nieo aacao ? aiaeao;

— ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?aooie?a iniiaieo oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a
?ic?iaeaieo oaoiieia?e ioe?ieoe ?o aoaeoeai?noue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa iaea?aeai? oa
noi?ioeueiaai? oae? ?acoeueoaoe:

— anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? oiiae i?eaiooaaiiy ia iniia? o?ia?ae?iio
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio aeey oaiini?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith, yeee ? iaaaaaoi
aeoeai?oei a?ae ?ioeo a?aeiieo iiaeeiaeueieo ?ic/ei?a;

— caaaeyee aenie?e ieeni?e aeoeaiino? iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio,
i?eaioiaaiiai ia iniia? o?ia?ae?iio, ? aeei?enoaiith ianiiai?iii?
aia?aoo?e, ui a?aeiia?aea? o?ceei-o?i?/iei oiiaai i/euaiiy aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith, aaeaeinue aeinyaoe aeniei? oaeaeeino? oaiini?aoe??
n??eiaiaeith ? eiai ieeneaiiy aei n??ee iaa?oue ca iecueeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e ieenieea a ??aee?e oac?;

— anoaiiaeai? oiiae (a?ae?iaeeiai?/iee ?aaeei aca?iiae?? oac, neeaae
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio, oaiia?aoo?a), ca yeeo i?ioean i/euaiiy aac?a
a?ae n??eiaiaeith a?aeaoaa?oueny c iaeneiaeueiith oaeaee?noth, a i?e
i/euaii? eeniaai?nieo aac?a an? noaae?? ?aae?cothoueny a iaeiiio
aia?ao?;

— iaea?aeai? aeai? c ?ic/eiiino? a nenoai? Na2CO3-Na2S2O3-H2O ca ??cieo
oaiia?aoo?;

— iieacaii, ui ieeneaiiy ?ic/eiaiiai n??eiaiaeith ? noeueo?ae?a
aeaiieneaeii n??ee a ??aee?e oac? aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe ia
onoaiiaoe? eeoa a oeo i?noeyo, aea ca oaoiieia??th iiaeeeaa eenea
na?aaeiaeua; a iaeo?aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? ieeneaiiy aeioe?eueii
aeeiioaaoe ca iaaeaie onoaiiaee, aeei?enoiaoth/e o?oaii?iaiaee,
a?aee?eo? aiaeieie oiui;

— anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo n??eiaiaeith ?
aeaiieneaeo n??ee iaae ieanoiaeie aiaeaie a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?e aeacaieo
niieoe, oaiia?aoo?e ? ?I na?aaeiaeua.

Iaea?aeai? iia? iaoeia? aeai? neeaee oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeey aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ie?aieo noaae?e ? noai?aiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a i/euaiiy ??aeei, eeniaai?nieo ? aaceeniaaeo aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith oa noeueo?aeii? n??ee.

Iaoa??aee aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
aeiiiaiaiiy aeia?aeeiai? e?oa?aoo?e aeaieie i?i aaoa?iaaiio ??aiiaaao
nieueiaeo nenoai o aiaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Ei?eni?noue ? iiaecia iaea?aeaieo a ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
6-ia aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? i/euaiiy aaioeeyoe?eieo ? i?e?iaeiiai aac?a, a
oaeiae ieanoiaeo aiae a?ae n??eiaiaeith. Aeaeai? aeo?aei? aeai? ia
i?iaeooaaiiy:

1) oeaoo aeey i/euaiiy aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith ia
ssai??anueeiio AeAOI «N??ea» i?iaeoeoeai?noth 278 000 i3 iia?o?y ca
aiaeeio;

2) i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey i/euaiiy aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith ia ?icaeieuenueeiio AeAOI «N??ea» i?iaeoeoeai?noth 200000
i3 iia?o?y ca aiaeeio;

3) i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey i/euaiiy aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith ia ssai??anueeiio AeAOI «N??ea» i?iaeoeoeai?noth 30000 i3
iia?o?y ca aiaeeio;

4) i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey i/euaiiy ieanoiaeo aiae a?ae n??eiaiaeith
Aao?aeaoeueeiai n??/aiiai caaiaeo (Oo?eiai?y) i?iaeoeoeai?noth 1700 i3
ieanoiai? aiaee ca aiaeeio;

5) aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey i/euaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco a?ae
n??eiaiaeith ?iaeiaeua Aaeeea Ai?iaeaiea (Euea?anueea iae.)
i?iaeoeoeai?noth 12000 i3 ca aeiao.

?c aeuaiacaaieo i’yoe ia’?eo?a ni?iaeoiaai? ia?o? /ioe?e, iiaoaeiaai?
ia?o? o?e, aenieoaoothoueny ia?o? aeaa.

An? ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? cae?eniththoue a noaiaea?oiiio iaeaaeiaii? ca
aeiyoeii ne?oaa?ieo eaia? c eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i’yae?noth oaoiieia?/iiai ?aaeeio ? ?aae?cothoueny a
i?ino?e aia?aoo??. Aeeiiaiee aiae?c ca oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie
iieacaa aacoiiaio ia?aaaao ? ia?niaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaieo iiaeo
i?ioean?a ii??aiyii c ?nioth/eie i?ioioeiaie o?aaeeoe?eii? iai?aai?/ii?
oaoiieia??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ??oioo?oueny ia
iaoa??aeao iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, aeeiiaieo aaoi?ii ca aeaniith
?i?oe?aoeaith, ye? aa?eoee a ieaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/a
AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» ca 1979-1998 ?.?. Aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue
iinoaiiaea iaoe ? caaaeaiue aeena?oaoe??, aeeiiaiiy, ia?iaea, aiae?c oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? oa oi?ioethaaiiy aeniiae?a. Caeiaoaa/ i?eeiaa
aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o aeine?aeieo oa aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo
aei?iaoaaiiyo ?ic?iaeaieo oaoiiei??e, ?ic?iaeaii? aeo?aeieo aeaieo ia
i?iieneiaa i?iaeooaaiiy onoaiiaie.

*anoeia ?ia?o aeeiiaia ca ainiiaea?nueeeie ? aea?aeaaieie caiiaeaiiyie,
aea aeena?oaio aoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiei aeeiiaaoeai. Eiio iaeaaeeoue
?ic?iaea i?ia?ai ? ieai?a oeeo ?ia?o oa ?o aaciina?aaei? aeeiiaiiy.

O ni?eueieo ioae?eaoe?yo iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a ?iaioe ? aieiaiei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo c oaoiieia?? iai?aai?/ieo
?a/iaei (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1976, Iiai/a?eanuee, 1978, *eieaio, 1981,
Ai?ueeee, 1985, Euea?a 1988, Eacaiue, 1991), Ananithci?e ia?aae?
«Ia?niaeoeae ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa iiiooii? n??ee» (Iineaa, 1978),
?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ioi?iia i?e?iaee ? ?aoe?iiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a» (Ee?a, 1978), Ananithciiio nai?ia??
«Ia?niaeoeae ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa iiiooii? n??ee» (Euea?a, 1982),
Ananithci?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
oaieiianiiai?iieo ? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o oaenoeeuei?e
i?iieneiaino? ? ae?iaieoeoa? o?i?/ieo aieieii» (Iineaa, 1985),
Ananithciiio neiiic?oi? «No/ani? i?iaeaie i?iaiicoaaiiy eiio?ieth yeino?
aiaee aiaeiei ? iciioaaiiy» (Oaee?i, 1985), VII ?anioae?eainuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?
aia?ao?a o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa» (Euea?a, 1988), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Noai, i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iaooiaaciaiai
eiiieaeno Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie” (Euea?a, 1995), iaeani?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Euea?anuee? o?i?/i? /eoaiiy» (Euea?a, 1997),
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo AeO»Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» (1976-98)
oiui.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 27
noaoae, 20 oac aeiiia?aeae ? iaea?aeaii 6 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 12
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 328 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, cie?aia 55
?enoie?a, 63 oaaeeoeue ? 5 aeiaeaoe?a, a oaeiae 256 iaca aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue e?eoe/iee aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a i/euaiiy
aac?a ? ??aeei a?ae n??eiaiaeith oa noeueo?aeii? n??ee. Iaa?oioiaaii, ui
iaeia?niaeoeai?oeie ? iie?? o?i?/i? iaoiaee, ieenieeaie a yeeo aeey
i/euaiiy aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith aeei?enoiaothoue eoaei? ?ic/eie o?iiio
? eiai iio?aeieo, a aeey i/euaiiy ??aeei a?ae n??eiaiaeith ?
noeueo?aeii? n??ee – aeaiieneae n??ee.

Iniiaieie /eiieeaie, ye? aaeueiothoue oe?iea canoinoaaiiy o?iiiieo
iaoiae?a i/euaiiy, ? ii??aiyii iaaeniea aeoeai?noue o?iiiieo ieeniee?a
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith ? ia?aa?a iia?/ii? ?aaeoe?? c ooai?aiiyi
o?inoeueoao?a (aei 35% oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith ia?aoiaeeoue a
o?inoeueoao). Oea aeiaaa? aeaaaeaiiy /anoeie iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ?c
oeeeeo, cai?ie eiai na?aeei, ui cia/ii cieaeo? aeiiii?/i?noue i?ioeano ?
noai?th? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie. Iieacaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino?
ieeneaiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith aei n??ee — iaeaoaeoeai?oee
iaoiae caaaeaiiy aei i?i?ioio i?ioiaeaeaiiy iia?/ii? ?aaeoe??,
aaeineiiaeaiiy ? cia/iiai caeaoaaeaiiy i?ioeano caaaeii. Naia oeae oeyo
aea?aiee aeey ?ic?iaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e i/euaiiy aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith.

Aeey ciaoeiaeaeaiiy H2S ? noeueo?aeii? n??ee a ??aeeiao canoiniaothoue
aaaaoi ??cieo ieeniee?a (oei?, icii, a?iioei?eoe, aeaiieneae n??ee
oiui), na?aae yeeo aeineoue aeaoaaei ? aeinooiiei ? aeaiieneae n??ee.
Iaeiae iaea oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy n??eiaiaeith aeaiieneaeii n??ee a
??aee?e oac? neoaeeea na?eiciei canoa?aaeaiiyi aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
canoinoaaiiy oeueiai ieenieea. Ia i?aenoaa? aeeaieiai ? ananoi?iiiueiai
aiae?co n??eiaiaeaiueai?nieo noie?a, ?o iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy, caa??aaiiy oiui
iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy SO2 aeey ieeneaiiy n??eiaiaeith a ??aee?e oac?
iiaea aooe aeioe?eueiei ? aenieiaeiiii?/iei eeoa ca oiiae iaea?aeaiiy
SO2 aaciina?aaeiuei a naiiio i?ioean? i/euaiiy ieeneaiiyi n??eiaiaeith,
aeani?aiaaiiai ?c aiaee, ? i?iaaaeaiiyi aca?iiae?? SO2 c H2S ia a
niaoe?aeueieo aia?aoao, a a o?oaii?iaiaeao oa aanaeiao. Oey eiioeaioe?y
noaea iniiaith ?ic?iaeaiiy i?ioeano i/euaiiy noie?a a?ae H2S ?
noeueo?aeii? n??ee.

A i?aenoieia?e /anoei? iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e aecia/aia iaoa aeena?oaoe?? oa
caaaeaiiy, ye? iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe aeey ?? aeinyaiaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo oiiaii iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia aea? aaeee? /anoeie:
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaeaiiy i?ioean?a i/euaiiy eeniaai?nieo oa
aaceeniaaeo aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith niaeiaei ?ic/eiii o?ia?ae?iiiiai
eaoae?caoi?a (?icae?ee 2…7 ? 12); aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaeaiiy
oaoiieia?? i/euaiiy ??aeei a?ae n??eiaiaeith ? noeueo?aeii? n??ee
iaoiaeii «iie?iai Eeaona» (?icae?e 8…12).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia
oe?oiiai?e eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe? oaiini?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith ?c
i?e?iaeiiai aaco niaeiaei ?ic/eiii o?iiio a ne?oaa?i?e eaia?? c
eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie oa ?aaaia?aoe?? iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio
eeniai iia?o?y a oeueiio ae aia?ao?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? e?ioe?a
eiaoa ?ica?eceoaa/a a?ae 5 aei 8 i/n cia/ii c?inoa?, aeae? c?inoaiiy
niia?eueith?oueny ? ca Ve?i > 12 i/n i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny. ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? ?ica?eceoaa/?a eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/?
i?iii?oe?eii c?inoa?. Oaeee oa?aeoa? io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae iiyniaii
oei, ui ca iaei? e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? e?ioe?a eiaoa ?ica?eceoaa/?a ( ~ 5
i/n) ooai?ththoueny e?oii? e?aie? oa i?ioean oaiini?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith
e?i?oo?oueny iii?ii c aieo ??aeeiii? ie?aee. C? c?inoaiiyi e?i?eii?
oaeaeeino? e?ioe?a eiaoa ?ica?eceoaa/?a ?ici?? e?aiaeue ??cei
ciaioo?oueny, oaeaee?noue ?o ?ooo c?inoa?, iineeth?oueny «oaea?iee
aoaeo» ? ii?? c aieo ??aeeiii? ie?aee iaaea?, iaaeeaeath/enue aei iii?o
c aieo aaciai? oace. sseui V e?i > 12 i/n, ae??oaeueio ?ieue a?ae?a?a?
ii?? c aieo aaciai? oace.

Iaoaiaoe/ia ii?aoethaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue aeaei iiaeeea?noue
anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue ieoiii? aeo?aoe aia?a?? ia iiaeeiaiiy H2S (Nn,
eAo aiae/ea I2S) a?ae ?ioaineaiino? ?ica?eceoaaiiy

(1)

Oi?ioea (1) ni?aaaaeeeaa aeey cia/aiue S a?ae 1 aei 12 oo/i ? Ve?i a?ae
5 aei 20 i/n. A?aeiinia iioeaea i?ae aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie ?
?ic?aoiaaieie ca oi?ioeith (1) ia ia?aaeuo? 5 %.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/eoue, ui ca oiiae noaei?
aeo?aoe aia?a?? eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? i?yii i?iii?oe?eii c?inoa? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? ?ica?eceoaa/?a. Oea oaa?aeaeaiiy i?aaeeueia aeey
aia?ao?a iaaaeeeiai ae?aiao?a (aei 2 i). A aia?aoao ae?aiao?ii 3 i ?
a?eueoa ca iaeeo Ve?i e?aieeie ia aeie?oathoue aei aa?oo eaia?e ?
aani?aa? i?aoeth? iaaoaeoeaii. I???iooth/enue ia aia?aoe aaeeeiai
ae?aiao?a (4…5 i), an? ianooii? aeine?aeaeaiiy ie i?iaiaeeee c Ve?i =
= 12 i/c ? S = 4 oo/i.

Oaeaee?noue aaciaiai iioieo aea/aee a iaaeao (2,5…15) ·10-3 i/n aeey
cia/aiue ia?oe?aeueieo oene?a H2S a aac? 1013 ? 2026 Ia. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? aaciaiai iioieo a ?ioa?aae? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? i?iii?oe?eii c?inoa?. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ?ai?oa c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui oaiini?aoe?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeeooc?ei?e iaeano? ? eiio?ieth?oueny iii?ii c aieo
aaciai? ie?aee.

Io?eiai? caeaaeiino? nooiaiy oaiini?aoe?? ((, %) ? eiao?oe??ioa
ianiia?aaea/? (E, ea H2S/i3·n·Ia) a?ae eiao?oe??ioa iaaeeeoeo ?ic/eio
((), ye? ai?ieneiothoueny ??aiyiiyie

(2)

(3)

Oi?ioee (2) ? (3) ni?aaaaeeea? aeey cia/aiue ( a?ae 0,5 aei 5.

I?ae eiao?oe??ioii iaaeeeoeo ?ic/eio ?icoi??ii a?aeiioaiiy oaeoe/ii?
e?eueeino? niaee, ui iiaea?oueny a aani?aa?, aei oai?aoe/ii iaiao?aeii?
ca ??aiyiiyi

I2S(a) + Na2NI3(?) = NaIS(?) + NaINI3(?) (4)

Iioeiaeueia cia/aiiy ( iiaea aooe anoaiiaeaia c a?aooaaiiyi cao?ao ia
?aaaia?aoe?th ?ic/eio, aii?oecaoe?th iaeaaeiaiiy oiui.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?ioean oaiini?aoe?? I2S ?c
aaceeniaaeo aac?a niaeiai-o?iiiiei iaoiaeii a eaia?? c eiaoiiiae?aieie
?ica?eceoaa/aie a?aeaoaa?oueny c aeinoaoiueith oaeaee?noth ? ? ?aaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? eiai iiaeaeueoi? ?ioaineo?eaoe??, cie?aia ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? aaciaiai iioieo.

Oaeaee?noue ?aaaia?aoe?? iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio oa nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith a n??eo — ye ?acoeueoao ae?? aeaio
oaeaeeinoae — ieeneaiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith aei n??ee ? aei
o?inoeueoaoo iao??th, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iiio c?inoathoue
ca caeaaeiinoyie

(? = k·N + (o (5)

% (6)

aea (?, (o — oaeaee?noue a?aeiia?aeii ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ic/eio ? ieeneaiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith aei o?inoeueoaoo iao??th, ea/i3.n;

k — eiinoaioa oaeaeeino? ieeneaiiy, n-1;

N — eiioeaio?aoe?y o?iiio a ?ic/ei?, ea/i3;

Ps — nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith a n??eo, %.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iiio a iiaeeiaeueiiio
?ic/ei? ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c?iaeai? ?ic?aooiee, a
yeeo a?aoiaai? aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c ao?aoaie eaeueoeeiiaaii? niaee oa
o?iiio i?e /anoeia?e cai?i? ?ic/eio ? ao?aoaie eaeueoeeiiaaii? niaee ia
ia?aa?a iia?/ii? ?aaeoe??, a oaeiae i?eaooie a?ae ?aae?caoe?? io?eiaii?
n??ee. Iioeiaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y o?iiio a ?ic/ei? ciaoiaeeoueny a
iaaeao 12…15 ea/i3 .

Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui eaia?a c
eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? o?ceei-o?i?/iei
caeiiii??iinoyi ye oaiini?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith c aaco, oae ? aani?aoe??
eenith c iia?o?y, aea? iiaeeea?noue ia?aa?ao iaeii/anii ?aaeoe?e i?ae
oaiini?aiaaiei n??eiaiaeiai ? o?iiiii oa ?ic/eiaiei eeniai ?
a?ae?io?iiiii. Iaeiae oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith
aei n??ee ca iaeeo ? na?aaei?o eiioeaio?aoe?e o?iiio ae?ae iaea ? ye
iane?aeie, aaeeea /anoeia oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith ia?aoiaeeoue a
o?inoeueoao iao??th, ao?a/a?oueny niaea ? oaeaeei iaa?iiaaeaeo?oueny
o?inoeueoao a ?ic/ei?. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? cai?ie cia/ii?
e?eueeino? iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ia na?aeee oa ao?ao ?aaaaio?a.
Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iiio a iiaeeiaeueiiio ?ic/ei? ? aeiiii?/ii
iaaeioe?eueiei. ?aaeeeaeueiee oeyo i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa
aeiiii?/iino? i/euaiiy — oea iiooe iaoiae?a ?noioiiai ca?eueoaiiy
oaeaeeino? ieeneaiiy ?ic/eiaiiai n??eiaiaeith aei n??ee.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo
ia iiooee aeoeaiiai ieenieea oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith. Ia iniia?
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue iaoee i?i eaoae?c, aeiia aei eaoae?caoi??a oiui
aoei a?ae?a?aii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii a?eueo i?ae noi ?a/iaei. Iiooeiaeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie oey e?euee?noue aoea ciaioaia aei 19, ye? e aoee
aei?iaoaai? ia eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?yae ?a/iaei (aio?ao?iii, aeo?io?iii, oao?aoei?-i-o?iii)
ieeneththoue n??eiaiaeaiue i?eaeecii oae, ye ? i-aaicio?iii. Aeyaeaii,
ui niaeiaee ?ic/ei o?ia?ae?iio iaaaeaeaaoiee niaeiai-o?iiiiiio ca
aoaeue-yeiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o?iii : a?ae?io?iii ?, cie?aia 1:1, a
oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith o o?ia?ae?iiiio
?ic/ei? ? caaaeaee a?eueoith, i?ae o o?iiiiiio. Aeoeai?noue o?ia?ae?iio
ye ieenieea oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith caeaaeeoue a?ae oaoiieia??
i?eaiooaaiiy iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio.

A eoaeiiio ?ic/ei? o?ia?ae?ii cacia? iie?ia?ecaoe??, oi/i?oa
ie?aiia?ecaoe??. Ooai?th?oueny aeineoue oe?ieee niaeo? ?a/iaei
(«o?ia?ae?iiia niiea»), ye? a?ae??ciythoueny iieaeoey?ieie ianaie oa
o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie. Iaie anoaiiaeai? oiiae ie?aiia?ecaoe??
o?ia?ae?iio, ca yeeo oaiini?aoe?eia caeaoi?noue iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ?
iaea?eueoith. Oea ianiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Na2CO3 : o?ia?ae?ii 2,0…3,0 ?
aa?aiooaaiiy iia?o?y /a?ac ?ic/ei i?ae /an ie?aiia?ecaoe??. *an
aa?aiooaaiiy caeaaeii a?ae aeo?aoe iia?o?y, noaiiaeoue a?ae 8 aei 24
aiae, a ieoiia aeo?aoa iia?o?y — a?ae 7,2 aei 12 e/a o?ia?ae?iio.
Aeoeai?noue o?ia?ae?iiiiai eaoae?caoi?a, io?eiaiiai a ?ic/eiao iao??th
a?ae?ieneaeo ? iao??th ea?aiiaoo, ? a?eueoith, i?ae caiie?ia?eciaaiiai
a ?ic/ei? NaHCO3. Ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e iie?ia?ecaoe?? a iaaeao 288…313 E
ia aieeaa? ia aeoeai?noue iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio, a i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aeua
a?ae aeacaii? iaae? i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaae?iiy aeoeaiino?. Aeyaeaii, ui a
ieeneaii? oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith aei n??ee aa?a o/anoue i?iaeoeo
ie?aiia?ecaoe?? o?ia?ae?iio — naieo?iii.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?iiia?iaeaiiy iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio a iaaeao
248…393 E ia ci?ith? aeoeaiino? ieenieea, oiaoi iie?ia?i? niieoee
o?ia?ae?iio o aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? i?ae ae??th oaiia?aoo?e ia
?ano?oeoe?ecothoueny, a yeui oea a?aeaoaa?oueny, oi ia? cai?ioiee
oa?aeoa?. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue ?aaaia?oaaoe eaoae?caoi? ? ooee?coaaoe
ie?ai? eiiiiiaioe ?c aeaaaeaiiai c oeeeeo iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?noyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano
i/euaiiy eeniaai?nieo aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith iiaeeiaeueiei ?ic/eiii,
i?eaioiaeaiei ia iniia? o?ia?ae?iiiiai eaoae?caoi?a. Aieea ia
oaiini?aoe?th H2S eiioeaio?aoe?? o?ia?ae?iio a ?ic/ei?, aeo?aoe
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio, oaiia?aoo?e, eiioeaio?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith a aac?
? oaeaeeino? ooai?aiiy o?inoeueoaoo aea/aee a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao, a
aieea e?eueeino? ?ica?eceoaa/?a, e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? e?ioe?a
?ica?eceoaa/?a ? oaeaeeino? aaciaiai iioieo — ia caaiaenuee?e
aeine?aei?e onoaiiaoe?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao eiioeaio?aoe?? o?ia?ae?iio a ?ic/ei?,
i?iaaaeai? i?e Ve?i = 12 i/n, S = 4 oo/i; O = 293 E, ia?oe?aeueiiio
oeneo H2S a aac? 1013 Ia ? oaeaeeino? aaco a aani?aa?? 1,37·10-2 i/n
iieacaee, ui aei cia/aiue eiioeaio?aoe?? o?ia?ae?iio 4…5 ea/i3
eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/?, nooi?iue oaiini?aoe?? ? nooi?iue ieeneaiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith aei n??ee ??cei c?inoathoue, aeinyaath/e
a?aeiia?aeii 1,1·10-6 ea H2S/i3·n·Ia, 92 % ? 90 %, a aeae? ia
ci?iththoueny, oiaoi eiioeaio?aoe?th o?ia?ae?iio a ?ic/ei? 5 ea/i3
iiaeia aaaaeaoe iioeiaeueiith. An? ianooii? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? c
oaeith eiioeaio?aoe??th eaoae?caoi?a a iiaeeiaeueiiio ?ic/ei?.

sseui eiioeaio?aoe?y o?ia?ae?iio a ?ic/ei? 5 ea/i3 ? a?eueoa, oi
iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei, ui aeo?ea? ?c aani?aa?a, ia i?noeoue noeueo?ae?a.
Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe iiia?aaei?o aeathoue i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oaiini?aoe?y n??eiaiaeith ?c eeniaai?niiai aaco
niaeiaei ?ic/eiii “o?ia?ae?iiii? niiee” c ?? eiioeaio?aoe??th 5 ea/i3 ?
a?eueoa iaeaaeeoue aei oaiini?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a, ye?
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny oaeaeeith o?i?/iith ?aaeoe??th. Aeaia oaa?aeaeaiiy
a?oioo?oueny ia a?aeiia?aeieo ?ic?aooieao c aeei?enoaiiyi caeiio O?ea,
ae?enieo cia/aiue e?iaiaoe/ieo eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc?? n??eiaiaeith ?
eenith a iia?o?? oiui. ?ic?aooieaie i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui aeniea
aeoeai?noue o?ia?ae?iio aeinyaa?oueny eeoa caaaeyee aaaaoi?aciaiio
(12…20 ?ac) ia?aoiaeo eiai c ieenii? oi?ie o a?aeiiaio ? iaaiaee a
aani?aoe?eiiio aia?ao?. Eiioeaio?aoe?eiee i?io?eue oaiini?aoe??
n??eiaiaeith ca?aeii c aeaiie?aeiaith iiaeaeeth aani?aoe?? A.O?oiaia ?
A.Eueth?na iieacaiee ia ?en.1.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? ca iioeiaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe?? o?ia?ae?iiii?
niiee 5 ea/i3 ? ??cieo cia/aiue eiao?oe??ioa iaaeeeoeo ?ic/eio
iieacaee, ui a ?ioa?aae? ci?ie eiao?oe??ioa iaaeeeoeo ?ic/eio 0,3…3
nooi?iue oaiini?aoe?? H2S ? eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? caeeoathoueny
noaeeie. Oea iiaeeeai eeoa ca oiiae, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y ieeneaii? oi?ie
ie?aiia?o ? noaeith ? aeinoaoiueith aeey ieeneaiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai
n??eiaiaeith.

Aeeiiai? aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeeo iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei i?ney
aani?aoe?? (aac ?aaaia?aoe?? eiai iia?o?yi, aea c aeiaaaeaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? Na2CO3 aei 10 ea/i3) iiaeaaaee ciiao a aani?aa?,
i?aeoaa?aeeee aeuaneacaia ? iieacaee, ui i?ae /an i/euaiiy iia?o?y c
ai?noii H2S aei 2 %ia. o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii a eaia?? c eiaoiiiae?aieie
?ica?eceoaa/aie ? iiaeeea?noue iaeii/anii ?aae?coaaoe o?e iniiai?
noaae?? i?ioeano — oaiini?aoe?th H2S ?c aaco, ieeniaiiy n??eiaiaeith aei
n??ee ? ?aaaia?aoe?th iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio.

?en.1. Eiioeaio?aoe?eiee i?io?eue

oaiini?aoe?? H2S ?c eeniaai?niiai aaco

aeey eiioeaio?aoe?e o?ia?ae?iio a ?ic/ei?

5 ea/i3 ? a?eueoa

?acoeueoaoe aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee oaeiae, ui nooi?iue
aani?aoe?? ? eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae ii/aoeiai?
eiioeaio?aoe?? H2S a aac?, a oaeaee?noue aani?aoe?? ca?eueoo?oueny i?yii
i?iii?oe?eii ai?noo n??eiaiaeith a aac?, ui iaaeoiaeeoue ia i/euaiiy.
sse a?aeiii, oaeei oa?aeoa? caeaaeiinoae ? o?eueee i?ae /an ia?aa?ao
iacai?ioieo ?aaeoe?e ia?oiai ii?yaeeo.

Aeey oaiini?aoe?? inaaaeiia?oee ii?yaeie oa?aeoa?iee, yeui i?ioean
a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeeooc?ei?e iaeano? (ine?eueee oaeaee?noue aeeooc??
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? a ia?oiio noaiai?) oa a?aenooi?e
ia?oe?aeueiee oene ni?aoeao iaae iiaa?oiath ni?aaioo.

Oaiini?aoe?y n??eiaiaeith ?c eeniaai?niiai aaco aeine?aeaeoaaeany a
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? (280…333)E. Aeine?aee aeeiioaaee ca
ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo H2S a aac?, ui iiaeaaaany ia i/euaiiy, 1013 Ia;
oaeaeeino? aaco a aani?aa?? 1,37·10-2 i/n; Ve?i = 12 i/n; S = 4 oo/i,
eiioeaio?aoe?e Na2CO3 — 10 ea/i3 ? Na2S2O3 — 200 ea/i3 . ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui i?ioean i/euaiiy ?ioaineo?eo?oueny ?c
c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e. Iai?eeeaae, ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?ae 283
E aei 333 E nooi?iue oaiini?aoe?? c?inoa? a?ae 87 aei 96%, a eiao?oe??io
ianiia?aaea/? a?ae 8,1·10-7 aei 14,3·10-7 ea H2S/i3·n·Ia. Iaeiae c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ciaioo?oueny nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai H2S a n??eo. Oae, ca 283 E a n??eo ia?aoai?th?oueny 93,
i?e 293 E — 90, a ca 333 E — o?eueee 56 % oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith.
Oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io aaoa?iaaiiiai i?ioeano ia?aoai?aiiy H2S a
Na2S2O3 — 1,47, a aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? — 30200 Aeae/iieue. A?aoiaoth/e
??ce?oa c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? iia?/ii? ?aaeoe?? c i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e, i?ae nooiaiy oaiini?aoe?? ? eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/?,
i/euoaaoe iia?o?y a?ae H2S o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii aea?aei?oa ca
oaiia?aoo?e 288…298 E. Oaea oaiia?aoo?a i?eeiyoia ? c oi/ee ci?o
aeo?aoe oaieioe — iaia? iaiao?aeiino? iaa??aaoe aac ? iiaeeiaeueiee
?ic/ei.

?c ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? Na2S2O3 a ?ic/ei? nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith a o?inoeueoao iao??th ciaioo?oueny. Oae, ca
a?aenooiino? Na2S2O3 a iiaeeiaeueiiio ?ic/ei? oeae nooi?iue noaiiaeoue ~
18, yeui eiioeaio?aoe?y Na2S2O3 — 100 ea/i3 ~ 14, a yeui 200 ea/i3 ~ 10
%. Nooi?iue oaiini?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith aei eiioeaio?aoe?? Na2S2O3 a
?ic/ei? 200 ea/i3 i?aeoe/ii ia ciaioo?oueny, a ca aeueo eiioeaio?aoe?e —
iaaea?. Aeey iiyniaiiy aeaieo caeaaeiinoae iaie aea/ai? a’yce?noue ?
aonoeia iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ca ??cieo ai?no?a Na2S2O3 a iueiio ?
?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc?e eenith ? n??eiaiaeith a iiaeeiaeueiiio
?ic/ei?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui oaeaee?noue aani?aoe?? eenith e?i?oo?oueny
iii?ii c aieo ??aeeiii? ie?aee, a oaeaee?noue aani?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith —
c aieo aaciai? ie?aee. Oiio i/euaiiy eeniaai?niiai aaco a?ae
n??eiaiaeith a oiiaao, ca yeeo ii?? c aieo ??aeeiii? ie?aee aeoaea
iaeee, ? iaaeioe?eueia, ai i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy nooiaiy
ia?aoai?aiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith a o?inoeueoao iao??th.

Aea/aia ci?ia ?I o?ia?ae?iiiiai ?ic/eio i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? c
eiiiainaoe??th ao?ao niaee, ui ia?aeoea a o?inoeueoao iao??th,
aeiaeaaaiiyi a ?ic/ei na?aei? eaeueoeeiiaaii? niaee. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
e?eueeino? oeeee?a i/euaiiy ?I iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio nii/aoeo
cieaeo?oueny ??cei, a iio?i iia?eueii ? i?ney 7-ie oeeee?a
noaa?e?co?oueny. O ia?oeo o?ueio oeeeeao (?I = 10,2…9,5) i?aeoe/ii
aanue oaiini?aiaaiee n??eiaiaeaiue ia?aoiaeeoue a o?inoeueoao iao??th ?
n??ea ia ooai?th?oueny. ??cea ciaioaiiy nooiaiy ia?aoai?aiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith a Na2S2O3 niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney 4-ai
oeeeeo (?I = 9,0) ? noaa?e?co?oueny i?ney 7-ai (?I = 8,8), aeinyaath/e
i?i?ioio. Nooi?iue oaiini?aoe?? ?c ci?iith cia/aiiy ?I a iaaeao
(10,2…8,8) i?aeoe/ii caeeoa?oueny iino?eiei. Oea ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
i?aaeeuei?noue eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai i?io?eth i?ioeano oaiini?aoe??
n??eiaiaeith, cia?aaeaiiai ia ?en. 1.

Ioaea, iioeiaeueiei ? oaeee neeaae iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio, (ea/i3):
o?ia?ae?iiia niiea — 5; Na2S2O3 — 190…200; Na2CO3 — 10. Ii??aiyii ?c
niaeiaei ?ic/eiii o?iiio cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei aea? ciiao
ca?eueoeoe nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith a n??eo c
67 aei 90 %, eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? c 5·10-7 aei 11·10-7 ea
H2S/i3·n·Ia ? nooi?iue oaiini?aoe?? c 73 aei 92 %.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaie aoee ?ic?iaeai?
? aeaeai? aeai? aeey i?iaeooaaiiy aeine?aeii? onoaiiaee i/euaiiy a?ae
H2S aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a ?icaeieuenueeiai AeAOI «N??ea». Ca iaoith
o/anoth aoea ni?iaeoiaaia ? ciiioiaaia caaiaenueea onoaiiaea
i?iaeoeoeai?noth 5000 i3 iia?o?y/aiae.

Oaoiieia?/ia noaia neeaaeaeanue ?c aani?aa?a, oeioaoi?a, o?eueo?a,
aaioeeyoi?a, ianina, a?eceiaeiaethaa/a ? cae?aeueii? i?noeino?. I/euaiiy
a?aeaoaaeinue oae. Iia?o?y, ui i?aeeyaaei i/euaiith, aaioeeyoi?ii
i?ioyaoaaeinue /a?ac ne?oaa?io eaia?o c S-iiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie (c
/anii S-iiae?ai? ?ica?eceoaa/? aoee cai?iai? ia eiaoiiiae?ai?).
I?ieoiaoe a?eceiaeiaethaa/, i/euaiee aac aeeeaeaany a aoiinoa?o.

Iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei iaaeoiaeea a eaia?o ?c iai??ii? i?noeino? ? ?ooaany
i?ioeno?oiaiaai aei ?ooo aaco. N??ea ?c ?ic/eio aeae?eyeany o
oeioaoe?eiiio aia?ao?. Noeioiaaia n??ea o aeaeyae? i?ie iiaeaaaeanue ia
o?eueo?. ?ic/ei ?c oeioaoe?eiiai aia?aoa ? o?eueo?a cae?aany a
i?noeino?, ca?aeoe ianinii iiaeaaaany a iai??io i?noe?noue.

Ia caaiaenuee?e onoaiiaoe? aea/aii aieea e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? e?ioe?a
o?oaie ?ica?eceoaa/a a iaaeao 8,1…14,4 i/n, e?eueeino? ?ica?eceoaa/?a
— 2,8…4,0 oo/i ? oaeaeeino? aaco — 0,5…2,5 i/n. Aeine?aee i?iaaaeai?
c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo,
oaiia?aoo?e 293-295 E ? ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo H2S a aac?-50…80 Ia.
?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaee ciiao anoaiiaeoe a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? aieea oaeaeeino? aaciaiai iioieo, ooi/ieoe aieea e?i?eii?
oaeaeeino? e?ioe?a ?ica?eceoaa/?a oa ?o e?eueeino? ia i?ioean
oaiini?aoe?? ? aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee a?ae?iaeeiai?/iee ?aaeei
oaiini?aoe??, yeee aeinyaa?oueny ca oaeeo cia/aiue: Ve?i =12 i/n, S =
3,3 oo/i ? oaeaee?noue aaco a aani?aa?? 2…2,5 i/n. Ca oaeeo oiia
eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? (1,0…1,05)·10-5 eaH2S/i3·n·Ia; yeui /an
eiioaeooaaiiy 6,7…9,9 n, nooi?iue oaiini?aoe?? noaiiaeoue 99,0…99,9
% ? i/euaiee aac iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? nai?oa?iei aeiiaai.

I?iaaaeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ia caaiaenuee?e onoaiiaoe? i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
iniiaio ia?aaaao o?ia?ae?iiiiai iaoiaeo — aenieo oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith aei n??ee ?, a?aeoae, iiaeeea?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy an?o i?ioean?a iaeii/anii a iaeiiio aia?ao?. Ia eaai?aoi?i?e
? caaiaenuee?e onoaiiaeao anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? oiiae i/euaiiy
eeniaai?nieo aac?a a?ae H2S o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii. Iaeiae aeey
i?iieneiai? ?aae?caoe?? iaoiaeo iaiao?aeii aeine?aeeoe aeae?eaiiy n??ee
?c iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ? ooee?caoe?? o?ia?ae?iio, niaee, o?inoeueoaoo
?c a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai ?ic/eio. Oe? ieoaiiy ?icaeyaeathoueny o ianooiieo
?icae?eao aeaii? ?iaioe.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeae?eaiiy n??ee
?c iiaeeiaeueiiai o?ia?ae?iiiiai ?ic/eio ? ia?a?iaeaiiy ?? o oiaa?i?
ni?oe.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui n??ea, ooai?aia a i?ioean? i/euaiiy, ia? ?ici?? /anoeiie
2…3 iei, ca?yae –0,14…-0,15 A, aeoaea iia?eueii in?aea?
(0,01…0,03 i/aiae) ? i?aeoe/ii ia oeioo?oueny. Iiooeiaeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?ae?a?aiee iaaei?iaee ? aeoeaiee eiaaoeyio n??ee —
aee?enoeueo?o iao??th. Aecia/aii «ii??a» eiai eiaaoeyoe?? (0,125 ea/i3),
eiai ieoiio aeo?aoo (2,5 ea/o n??ee) ? oaeaee?noue inaaeaeaiiy
eiaaoeueiaaii? n??ee (3 i/aiae). Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? ia
eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe? ? a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao ia aeine?aei?e onoaiiaoe?
i/euaiiy aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a ?icaeieuenueeiai AeAOI «N??ea».

Aea/aii aeae?eaiiy n??ee ?c iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio iaoiaeii oeioaoe??.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oeioi?aaaaioaie iiaeooue aooe ni?ithaa/ O-66 oa
?aaaaio-cae?a/-aan. Iioeiaeueiith eiioeaio?aoe??th ni?ithaa/a a ?ic/ei?
? 0,01 ea/i3 ? ?aaaaioo-cae?a/a — 0,03 ea/i3 . Ca oeeo ia?aiao??a
e?euee?noue n??ee, ui ia?aoiaeeoue a i?iiee i?iaeoeo, noaiiaeoue 90-92
%, a eiioeaio?aoe?y ?? o i?i? o 30 ?ac?a a?eueoa a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ??
o ?ic/ei? i?ney oeioaoe??. Ieoiia aeo?aoa oeioi?aaaaio?a noaiiaeoue:
ni?ithaa/a 7 ea/o n??ee, ?aaaaioo-cae?a/a — 20 ea/o n??ee. Aiane?aeie
i?iieaaiiy oeioaoe?eii? n??ee ni?ithaa/ i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth ia?aoiaeeoue
o i?iieai? aiaee ? iiaea aooe iiaa?iooee a i?ioean i/euaiiy, a
?aaaaio-cae?a/ — o?eueee yeui aiia ia?a?iaey?oueny a ??aeeo, a?oaeeiao
/e e?enoae?/io n??eo. Iayai?noue ni?ithaa/a ? ?aaaaioo-cae?a/a a
iiaeeiaeueiiio ?ic/ei? i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia oaiini?aoe?th
n??eiaiaeith.

Ioaea, aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui n??eo i?ae /an i/euaiiy
aaco a?ae n??eiaiaeith o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?c
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ye inaaeaeaiiyi ca aeiiiiiaith eiaaoeyio?a, oae ?
oeioaoe??th, yeui a iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei aaiaeyoueny oeioi?aaaaioe.
Aea?? niiniao aecia/a?oueny ai?noii n??eiaiaeith a aac?,
i?iaeoeoeai?noth onoaiiaee, eii’thieoo?ith ?eieo oiui.

I?iaaaeaii eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaino?
ia?a?iaeaiiy aeae?eaii? ?c iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio n??ee a oiaa?i? e
niaoe?aeuei? ni?oe. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy ye?nii? ??aeei?,
a?oaeeiai? ? e?enoae?/ii? n??ee ?c a?aeo?eueo?iaaiiai inaaeo oa
caouaiiai oeioaoe?eiiai eiioeaio?aoo. Iaeiae, iaeaeioe?euei?oa
ia?a?iaeyoe ae??aiiaeenia?nio n??eo o «80 %-e cii/oaaeueiee ii?ioie» /e
«eiei?aeio ianoo», ui aea? ciiao ??cei caeaoaaeoe i/euaiiy ca ?aooiie
iaea?aeaiiy aei?iaiai ? aeao?oeeoiiai oiaa?iiai i?iaeoeoo.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooa ooee?caoe?y iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio,
aeaaaeaiiai ?c oeeeeo i/euaiiy. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iae?aoe?iiaeuei?oei
niiniaii ooee?caoe?? ? aeae?eaiiy o?ia?ae?iio ? iiaeaeueoa
e?enoae?caoe?eia ?icae?eaiiy niaeiai-o?inoeueoaoiiai ?ic/eio. Ni?aaioii
aeey aeae?eaiiy o?ia?ae?iio c ?ic/eio ? aa?aciaa aeoeaiaaia aoa?eey
(AAA). Anoaiiaeai? ?cioa?ie ni?aoe?? o?ia?ae?iio aeoeaiaaiei aoa?eeyi ca
293, 303 ? 373 E iathoue i?yiie?i?eiee oa?aeoa? ? iienothoueny ??aiyiiyi

C*= (. N (7)

aea N*, N — eiioeaio?aoe?y o?ia?ae?iio a?aeiia?aeii a aeoeaiaaiiio
aoa?ee? oa o ?ic/ei?, ea/ea;

( — eiinoaioa.

Cia/aiiy eiinoaioe ( aei??aiththoue ca 293, 303 ? 373 E a?aeiia?aeii
45,83 ? 41,67 ? 1,09. ??cea ciaioaiiy eiinoaioe ( ?c c?inoaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e aea? ciiao i?ae /an aeani?aoe?? io?eioaaoe eiioeaio?iaai?
?ic/eie o?ia?ae?iio. Ni?aoe?eia ?ii?noue AAA ca e?iiaoii? oaiia?aoo?e
noaiiaeoue 0,16…0,20 ea o?ia?ae?iio/ea AAA. I?ae /an aenieoaoaoe??
aoa?eey ni?aoe?eia ?ii?noue eiai ciaioo?oueny iacia/ii. Oae, /a?ac 124
oeeeee (8 i?nyoe?a) ni?aaio ao?a/a? o?eueee 26 % ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino?.

Aea/aia e?iaoeea ni?aoe?? o?ia?ae?iio aeoeaiaaiei aoa?eeyi. Iieacaii, ui
ni?aoe?y o?ia?ae?iio AAA a?aeaoaa?oueny o aioo??oiueiaeeooc?ei?e
iaeano?. ?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc?? ca ??cieo oaiia?aoo? (293,
303 ? 373 E) ? aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? aeeooc?eiiai i?ioeano, yea noaiiaeoue
12465 Aeae/iieue. Aecia/ai? oaeiae eiao?oe??ioe ianiia?aaea/? ca ??cieo
oaiia?aoo? ? eiioeaio?aoe?e o?ia?ae?iio a aeoeaiaaiiio aoa?ee?. C
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ia 10i eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? c?inoa? a?ae
1,1 aei 1,3 ?aca.

Aeine?aeaeaia ?ic/eii?noue a nenoai? Na2S2O3-Na2CO3-H2O a ?cioa?i?/ieo
oiiaao ca oaiia?aoo? 298, 323 ? 373 E. Aiae?c ae?aa?aie ?ic/eiiino? aea?
ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui eiiiiiaioe iiaeia ?icae?eeoe, cae?enithth/e
iine?aeiaii aeia?thaaiiy ? e?enoae?caoe?th. Caeaaeii a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae Na2CO3 ? Na2S2O3 cai?iiiiiaaii aeaa aa??aioe
e?enoae?caoe?eiiai ?icae?eaiiy niaeiai-o?inoeueoaoii? noi?o?.

Ca ia?oei aa??aioii, yeui eiioeaio?aoe?y Na2CO3 a ?ic/ei? 10 ea/i3 ?
Na2S2O3 — 200 ea/i3, aeia?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeyoue ca 373 E. Aeae? ?ic/ei
ioieiaeaeothoue aei 298 E ? a inaae aeiaaea? Na2S2O3·5H2O. Nooi?iue
aeeo/aiiy Na2S2O3 ?c ?ic/eio aeinyaa? 80,6%. ?ic/ei, ui caeeoeany,
iiaa?oathoue o oeeee i/euaiiy. Ca ae?oaei aa??aioii aeo?aeiee ?ic/ei, ui
i?noeoue 50 ea/i3 Na2CO3 ? 200 ea/i3 Na2S2O3, aeia?iaothoue o
o?eei?ioni?e onoaiiaoe? ca 373…323 E, aeae? ca 323 E a?aeae?eythoue
inaae Na2CO3·I2I, ?ic/ei ioieiaeaeothoue aei 298 E ? a?aeae?eythoue
inaae Na2S2O3·5H2O, a ?ic/ei iiaa?oathoue a oeeee i/euaiiy. Ca ae?oaei
aa??aioii nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy Na2S2O3 noaiiaeoue 93,1 %, a Na2CO3 — 88,6
%.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i/euaiiy
aaceeniaaeo aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith cai?iiiiiaaiei iiaeeiaeueiei
?ic/eiii. Ia ii/aoeo ?icae?eo iaa?oioiaaii, ui oaeaee?noue oaiini?aoe??
n??eiaiaeith ?c aaceeniaaeo aac?a niaeiaei ?ic/eiii o?iiio ? o?ia?ae?iio
? oaeoe/ii iaeiaeiaith. Oiio aea/aia iaie oaiini?aoe?y I2S ?c
i?e?iaeiiai aaco niaeiaei ?ic/eiii o?iiio a ne?oaa?i?e eaia?? c
eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie (?icae?e 2) ? aeiiiaiaia
aeine?aeaeaiiyie, aeeiiaieie iaie ?ai?oa, noai?ththoue iiaio ea?oeio
oaiini?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith ?c i?e?iaeiiai oa ?ioeo aaceeniaaeo aac?a o
aia?ao? aeacaiiai oeio.

A?oiooth/enue ia aeine?aeaeaiiyo i/euaiiy eeniaai?nieo aac?a a?ae I2S,
cia/aiiy iaaieo /eiiee?a (?ioaineaiino? ?ica?eceoaaiiy, oaiia?aoo?e, ?I
?ic/eio, eiioeaio?aoe?? o?ia?ae?iio a ?ic/ei?) ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey
i/euaiiy aaceeniaaeo aac?a aac i?iaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.
Aea/aiiy aieeao aeo?aoe iia?o?y iieacaei, ui oaeaee?noue ?aaaia?aoe??
?ic/eio ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ieoiii? aeo?aoe iia?o?y i?eaeecii aei 20 i3/ea
H2S c?inoa?, a aeae? ??cei niia?eueith?oueny. Oaeaee?noue ?aaaia?aoe??
?ic/eio (V?aa ) caeaaeii a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? oaiini?aiaaiiai
n??eiaiaeith (CH2S) ai?ieneio?oueny ??aiyiiyi

V?aa = 8,25.10-4.CH2S0,22 (8)

?ic?aooiee na?ae/aoue, ui aeece?noue aei ioey ii?yaeeo ?aaeoe?? ?
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi aaeeeiai noao?iiao?e/iiai iaaeeeoeo n??eiaiaeith uiaei
nai?o?iiio i?ae /an ?aaaia?aoe??.

I?e i/euaii? i?e?iaeiiai oa ?ioeo aac?a ?acii c n??eiaiaeiai iiaeeeaa
aani?aoe?y aeayei? e?eueeino? aeaiieneaeo aoaeaoeth, yeui inoaii?e
i?enooi?e a aac?, c ooai?aiiyi NaHCO3. ?iceeaae ooai?aiiai NaHCO3 ia
noaae?? ?aaaia?aoe?? aea? ciiao ia o?eueee i?aeo?eioaaoe ni?aoe?eio
?ii?noue ? iioeiaeueia cia/aiiy ?I ?ic/eio, aea ? noi?noeoe i/euaiiy
aaco a?ae H2S ? NO2 .

Aeaea?aii?caoe?y iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio aea/aia ca oaiia?aoo? 303…325
E a ne?oaa?i?e eaia?? c eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie. Iieacaii, ui ia
oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeo aecia/aeueiee aieea iathoue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy NaHCO3
? Na2CO3 a ?ic/ei?, oaiia?aoo?a ? aeo?aoa iia?o?y. Eiao?oe??io
ianiia?aaea/? oeueiai i?ioeano (k, iieue/i3·n·Ia) iieno?oueny
oaiia?aoo?iith caeaaei?noth

(9)

ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeeooc?eio iaeanoue aeaea?aii?caoe?? ?ic/eio NaHCO3
iaaenieeo oaiia?aoo?. Iioeiaeueiith aeo?aoith iia?o?y ia
aeaea?aii?caoe?th ? 100…120 i3/i3 ?ic/eio, ui i?eaeecii a 4…6 ?ac
a?eueoa i?ae ia ieeneaiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith.

Oaeei /eiii, iaaaaeai? a ?icae?eao 2…7 ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
noaee oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee i?ioean?a i/euaiiy
eeniaai?nieo ? aaceeniaaeo aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith o?ia?ae?iiiei
iaoiaeii. A?oiooth/enue ia oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ?ic?iaeee oaoiieia?/i?
noaie i/euaiiy aaioeeyoe?eieo ? i?e?iaeieo aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith,
ei?ioea iienaiiy ? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea yeeo iaaaaeai? a ?icae?e?
12. O ianooiieo ?icae?eao aeaii? ?iaioe iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ie?aieo noaae?e i/euaiiy aiae a?ae n??eiaiaeith ?
noeueo?aeii? n??ee iaoiaeii “iie?iai Eeaona”: aeani?aoe?y /anoeie
n??eiaiaeith ?c aiaee, ieeneaiiy eiai aei aeaiieneaeo n??ee, iiaeeiaiiy
aeaiieneaeo n??ee aiaeith ? aca?iiae?? i?ae H2S ? SO2 o aiaeiiio
?ic/ei?.

Ainueiee ?icae?e i?noeoue ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeani?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith ?c ieanoiaeo ? ae?aiaaeieo aiae ssai??anueeiai,
Aao?aeaoeueeiai n??/aieo i?aei?e?inoa, sseoonueeiai ?iaeiaeua aeiac?a.
I?ioyaii ?ieo aea/aany eao?iiii-ai?iiiee neeaae oeeo aiae, nieaai?no,
aonoeia, ?I oa ?io? iieacieee. Ieanoia? aiaee Aao?aeaoeueeiai
i?aei?e?inoaa ? sseoonueeiai ?iaeiaeua aeiac?a ? aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaieie
(90 ? 140 ea/i3 a?aeiia?aeii), a ssai??anueeiai — iaeii?ia?ae?ciaai? (~3
ea/i3), a?ae??ciythoueny ca ai?noii I2S, ye?niei ? e?euee?niei neeaaeii
nieae, oaiia?aoo?ith. Ai?no o?ce/ii ?ic/eiaiiai n??eiaiaeith noaiiaeoue
20-80 % a?ae caaaeueiiai ai?noo. I?aeeeneaiiy oeeo aiae aei ?I =
5,1…6,5 aea? ciiao caaacia/eoe eaaea a?aeaeoaaiiy o?aoeie
n??eiaiaeith. Aeey i?aeeeneaiiy aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aiaeo, ui
i?noeoue aeaiieneae n??ee, yeee iaea?aeo?oueny a naiiio i?ioean?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?oe?aeuei? oenee I2S iaae ae?aiaaeieie aiaeaie
Aao?aeaoeueeiai n??/aiiai caaiaeo i?eaeecii a 1,45…1,5 ?aca, a iaae
ieanoiaeie aiaeaie sseoonueeiai ?iaeiaeua aeiac?a a 1,2…1,25 ?aca
aeu?, i?ae iaae /enoith aiaeith c oaeith ae eiioeaio?aoe??th I2S.
Ia?oe?aeueiee oene I2S iaae yai??anueeith aiaeith oaeoe/ii oaeee, ye ?
iaae iai?ia?ae?ciaaiith n??eiaiaeaiueai?niith aiaeith.

Aeine?aeaeaii aeani?aoe?th n??eiaiaeith ?c ae?aiaaeieo aiae
Aao?aeaoeueeiai n??/aiiai caaiaeo ia eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe? a eieii? c
ianaaeeith. Iioeiaeueia cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa eeneioiino?, yeee ?
a?aeiioaiiyi e?eueeino? SI2, ui iaaeoiaeeoue ?c “n??/enoith” aiaeith (a
ia?a?aooieo ia I2S) aei caaaeueii? e?eueeino? n??eiaiaeith o aiae? aei
?? i/euaiiy, aeey iaeo?aeueieo n??eiaiaeaiueai?nieo aiae noaiiaeoue
30-50 % ? aeo?aoa iia?o?y 2,5 i3/i3. Ca oaeeo oiia aeinyaa?oueny
iio??aiee nooi?iue aeani?aoe?? (33…35 %), a eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? ?
iaeei (6,3·10-8 ea/i3·n·Ia). Aeani?aoe?y n??eiaiaeith a eieii? c
i?iaaeueieie oa??eeaie (ae?aiao? eieiie 0,5 i ? aenioa 4 i) aea/aia ia
aeine?aei?e onoaiiaoe? a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao Aao?aeaoeueeiai n??/aiiai
caaiaeo. Aecia/aii aieea ieoiii? aeo?aoe iia?o?y, aonoeie c?ioaiiy
eieiie, a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiia. sseui ?I(5,7 n??eiaiaeaiue c oeeo
aiae a?aeaeoaa?oueny c aeinoaoiueith oaeaee?noth ? iiaiioith aac
i?aeeeneaiiy (nooi?iue aeani?aoe?? noaiiaeoue 57…60 %, a eiao?oe??io
ianiia?aaea/? – 2,2·10-7 ea I2S/i3·n·Ia).

O aeaa’yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue e?iaoeee
ieeneaiiy n??eiaiaeith o n??eiaiaeaiueiia?o?yi?e noi?o?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue ia eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe?, a ?o ?acoeueoaoe ia?aa??ai? ia
aeine?aeieo onoaiiaeao, a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c
canoinoaaiiyi ianaaeee (oeaie?o, ea?aiceo, ea?ai?ea, eaa?oe, neei)
nooi?iue ? oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy ? aeueie, i?ae o ii?iaeienoiio ?aaeoi??
ca oeo naieo oiia. Ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie
oo?aoe?caoe?? aaciaiai iioieo ? oaeaeeiai iaa??aaiiy ?aaeoe?eii? noi?o?
aei oaiia?aoo?e ?aaeoe??. Iioeiaeueia ia’?iia oaeaee?noue aaco
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 1,7…2,2 n-1 .

Iieacaii, ui ca eiioeaio?aoe??th n??eiaiaeith a aacia?e oac? ii?yaeie
?aaeoe?? aei??aith? 1,1. Ioaea, nooi?iue ieeneaiiy n??eiaiaeith ca
iino?eii? oaiia?aoo?e iaeaea ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ii/aoeiai?
eiioeaio?aoe??, a oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy i?aeoe/ii i?yii i?iii?oe?eia
eiioeaio?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith a aacia?e noi?o?. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e
eiinoaioa oaeaeeino? c?inoa? iia?eueii ? oey caeaaei?noue iieno?oueny
??aiyiiyi A??ai?ona. Na?aaei? cia/aiiy aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? noaiiaeoue
28860 Aeae/iieue, a oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io oaeaeeino? i?ioeano
-1,05…1,08. Iaiao?aeia oaiia?aoo?a ieeneaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae
ii/aoeiaiai ai?noo I2S a aac? ? ca ii/aoeiaeo ia?oe?aeueieo oene?a I2S
100, 1000 ? 2000 Ia aei??aith? a?aeiia?aeii 783, 803 ? 813 E.

O aeanyoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy e?iaoeee aani?aoe??
aeaiieneaeo n??ee aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaieie aiaeaie. Ia ii/aoeo ?icae?eo
iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo aeaiieneaeo
n??ee iaae ?i?oaoaie ieanoiaeo aiae. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?oe?aeuei? oenee
SI2 iaae ?i?oaoii yai??anueeeo ieanoiaeo aiae aeoaea aeecuee? aei
cia/aiue ia?oe?aeueieo oene?a iaae iai?ia?ae?ciaaiith n??eiaiaeiaaith
aiaeith, ?ic?aoiaaieo ca a?aeiieie caeaaeiinoyie. Aeey
aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaieo ie?iainueeeo aiae cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo
aeaiieneaeo n??ee aeu?, i?ae ?ic?aooieia? aeey /enoi? aiaee a
na?aaeiueiio ia 3,2, a aeey aao?aeaoeueeeo aiae — 5,3 %.

?ic?aoiaaia e?euee?noue oai?aoe/ieo nooiai?a iiaeeiaiiy caeaaeii a?ae
ieoiii? aeo?aoe aiaee, oaiia?aoo?e, ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo SI2 a aac? ?
oeio ae?aiaaeieo aiae iieaco?, ui aeey aeinyaiaiiy iio??aiiai nooiaiy
aani?aoe?? SI2 ?c aaco iaiao?aeia cia/ia e?euee?noue (3,9…5,7)
oai?aoe/ieo nooiai?a iiaeeiaiiy. Aani?aa? iiaeiai caaacia/oaaoe iaeee
ii?? ye c aieo aaciai?, oae ? c aieo ??aeei? oac. A?aoiaoth/e aeacai?
aeiiae, iayai?noue iaoai?/ieo aeii?oie, ui iiaeooue aooe o aiae?, oa
?io? /eiieee, ie aea?aee aeey aeine?aeaeaiue eieiio c i?iaaeueieie
oa??eeaie.

E?iaoeea aani?aoe?? aeine?aeaeaia ia eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe? a eieii?
ae?aiao?ii 0,1 i c iaei??th i?iaaeueiith oa??eeith ? ia aeine?aei?e
onoaiiaoe? Aao?aeaoeueeiai n??/aiiai caaiaeo a eieii? ae?aiao?ii 0,5 i
c n?iiia i?iaaeueieie oa??eeaie. Aoaeoeai?noue i?iaaeueii? oa??eee
ioe?ithaaee ca eiao?oe??ioii ei?enii? ae?? (e.e.ae.), %; eiao?oe??ioii
ianiia?aaea/?, ea SI2/i2·n·Ia; nooiaiai aani?aoe??, % ? a?ae?aae?/iei
iii?ii, Ia.

O ?aaeei? cii/aii? oa??eee iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? aeoaea iecuee?. I?ney
ia?aoiaeo a aa?aioaaeiee ?aaeei oe? iieacieee ??cei c?inoathoue,
aeinyaath/e iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue ia iaae? aioeueaiaaiiai ? oaeeueiaiai
?aaeei?a. A iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei? ?c ciaioaiiyi ae?aiao?a ioai??a c
1·10-2 aei 8·10-3 i ca iino?eiiai a?eueiiai ia?a??co (11 %) e.e.ae.
oa??eee c?inoa? a?ae 63,0 aei 77,6 %, nooi?iue aani?aoe?? a?ae 52,8 aei
62,0 % ? eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? a?ae 8,34·10-6 aei 8,58·10-6 ea
SI2/i2·n·Ia. Ii?? oa??eee caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiei, oiaoi ae?aiao? ioai??a
iiaeiai aooe i?i?iaeueiei ? iaiaaeoaaoenue iaaaciaeith caaeaaiiy ?o
iaoai?/ieie aeii?oeaie.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aoaeoeaiino? oa??eie ?c a?eueiei ia?a??cii 10 %
? 15,3 % na?ae/eoue, ui a iioeiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi a?eueiiai ia?a??co nooi?iue aani?aoe?? ? eiao?oe??io
ianiia?aaea/? c?inoathoue, a a?ae?aae?/iee ii?? i?aeoe/ii ia
ci?ith?oueny. Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa??eee ciaoiaeyoueny
i?eaeecii ia 10 % aeua a?ae aa?oiuei? a?aie/ii? e?i??, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii?
Eanaoe?iei.

sse ? i/?eoaaeinue, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? oa??eie (ca an?o ?ioeo
iino?eieo ia?aiao??a) nooi?iue aani?aoe?? c?inoa? nii/aoeo ??cei, a
aeae? iia?euei?oa ? oey caeaaei?noue ae?aaea?oueny ??aiyiiyi

?n = ?i.exp(k.n) (10)

aea ?i , ?n — ia?oe?aeueiee oene SI2 o aac?, a?aeiia?aeii ia aoiae? a
aani?aa? ? ia aeoiae? i?ney n-? oa??eee, Ia;

k – iino?eia, caeaaeeoue a?ae a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ?aaeeio ia oa??eoe?,

n – e?euee?noue oa??eie.

Oaea iiae?ai?noue ae?aco (10) aei e?iaoe/iiai ??aiyiiy aiiiaaiii?
?aaeoe?? ia?oiai ii?yaeeo niinoa??aa?oueny oiae?, eiee a aaoa?iaaiiiio
i?ioean? e?i?ooth/ith ? aeeooc?eia noaae?y.

A iaeeiaaeoeyoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue e?iaoeee
ieeneaiiy noeueo?aeii? n??ee ?? aeaiieneaeii o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao ia ?i?oaoao ieanoiaeo
aiae, a oaeiae ia ?aaeueieo aiaeao i?ae /an aei?iaoaaiue aeine?aeieo
onoaiiaie a Ie?iiio, ssai?ia? ? Aao?aeaeo. Ii?aoethaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiaeaie a?ao?/iiai aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy oa neiieaeniei,
aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeaanoe e?iaoe/ia ??aiyiiy ieeneaiiy

(11)

— eiioeaio?aoe?y I2S ? SI2 a?aeiia?aeii a ??aee?e oac?, iieue/i3;

k — eiinoaioa oaeaeeino?;

( — /an, n.

Aeniea cia/aiiy ii?yaeeo ?aaeoe?? na?ae/eoue i?i cia/iee aieea ia
oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?aaaaio?a, ianaiia?aae,
n??eiaiaeith. Iniaeeai aaeeeee aieea ia oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy ia? ?I
?aaeoe?eii? noi?o?. ?c ciaioaiiyi cia/aiiy ?I a?ae 5,7 aei 3 eiinoaioa
oaeaeeino? ieeniaiiy ??cei c?inoa? (~ a 50 ?ac), a yeui ?I, ieae/a ca 3,
noaa?e?co?oueny.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe?? noaiiaeoue
1,6…1,7, a cia/aiiy aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? aei??aith? 40000 Aeae/iieue.
Iino?ei?noue ii?yaeeo ?aaeoe?? c? ci?iith ?I na?aaeiaeua (2…6) ?
oaiia?aoo?e (273…333 E) aeacothoue ia iaci?ii?noue iaoai?cio ieeneaiiy
a aeine?aeaeoaaieo oiiaao.

Iieacaii, ui oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy noeueo?aeii? n??ee ?? aeaiieneaeii
i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae i?ia?ae?caoe?? aiaee. Oea aea? i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui e?i?ooth/eie noaae?yie ieeneaiiy n??eiaiaeith ?
aeaiaioa?i? ?aaeoe?? i?ae iaca?yaeaeaieie /anoeieaie ? ia
a?aeaoaathoueny ?aaeoe??, a yeeo aca?iiae?thoue iaeiieiaiii aai
??ciieiaiii ca?yaeaeai? ?iie, iai?eeeaae IS- ? [ISO3·(n-1)I2I]-. Oea ?
aaaiiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oai??? i?i ia?iiiee oa?aeoa? e?i?ooth/eo
noaae?e i?ioeano ?, cie?aia, oai??? Aieeinueeiai.

A e?ioe? ?icae?eo iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?ici??o oa
oaeaeeino? inaaeaeaiiy n??ee, iaea?aeaii? ieeneaiiyi n??eiaiaeith ??
aeaiieneaeii o ??aee?e oac?. Iieacaii, ui ooai?aia n??ea — oea ae??ai?
/anoeiee ?ici??aie 1…3 iei. I?ae /an «noiyiiy» ?ic/eio ooai?ththoueny
aaeiia?aoe n??ee, oaeaee?noue inaaeaeaiiy yeeo ? aeinoaoiueith aeey
ina?oeaiiy i/euaii? aiaee a aanaei?-iaa?iiaaeaeoaa/?. Oeae i?ioean
iiaeia noi?noeoe c ?ioei iia?eueiei i?ioeanii — aeiieeneaiiyi
n??eiaiaeith.

O aeaaiaaeoeyoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeii? ia?aa??ee ?
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea cai?iiiiiaaieo oaoiieia?e i/euaiiy aac?a ?
??aeei a?ae n??eiaiaeith.

Ia iniia? aeaeaieo iaie aeo?aeieo aeaieo aoea ni?iaeoiaaia, aeaioiaeaia
? ciiioiaaia ia ?icaeieuenueeiio AeAOI “N??ea” onoaiiaea aeey i/euaiiy
iia?o?y a?ae I2S o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii, i?iaeoeoeai?noth 5000 i3
iia?o?y/aiae. Onoaiiaea aenieoaooaaeanue a?eueoa i?ae ??e. Aei?iaoaaiiy
a I.?icaeie? aeaee oae? ?acoeueoaoe: nooi?iue i/euaiiy 95…99,9 %;
eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? a iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei? 1,0 · 10-5 ea
I2S/i3·n·Ia; iioeiaeueia oaeaee?noue aaco a aani?aa?? 2…2,5 i/n;
i/euaiiy noaa?eueia ca oaiia?aoo? 283…308 E; iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei ca
an?o i?iaeoeoeaiinoae onoaiiaee ia iio?aaoaaa aeiaeaoeiai? ?aaaia?aoe??,
oiaoi an? noaae?? a?aeaoaaeenue iaeii/anii a iaeiiio aia?ao?.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue a eaai?aoi?ieo ? i?iieneiaeo
oiiaao ? aeaee ciiao ia caiiaeaiiy aaeocaaiai ia’?aeiaiiy «Nithcn??ea»
aeaeaoe aeo?aei? aeai? aeey i?iaeooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaie aeey
ssai??anueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy «N??ea» iiooaei?noth 30000 ? 278000 i3
iia?o?y/aiae; i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee ?icaeieuenueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy «N??ea»
iiooaei?noth 200000 i3 iia?o?y/aiae. An? o?e onoaiiaee aoee ni?iaeoiaai?
? iiaoaeiaai?. Ine?eueee aiie a?ae??ciythoueny oaeoe/ii o?eueee
?ici??aie iaeaaeiaiiy, iaaiaeeii iienaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? noaie ?
iaeaaeiaiiy onoaiiaee i?iaeoeoeai?noth 278000 i3 iia?o?y/aiae.
Oaoiieia?/ia noaia i?ioeano i/euaiiy aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith iaaaaeaia ia ?en. 2.

Aaioeeyoe?ei? aace iaaeoiaeyoue a ne?oaa?io eaia?o c S-iiae?aieie (c
/anii aoee cai?iai? ia eiaoiiiae?ai?) ?ica?eceoaa/aie. A oeueiio aia?ao?
iaeii/anii i?ioiaeyoue i?ioeane: oaiini?aoe?y n??eiaiaeith, ieeneaiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith a ??aee?e oac? ? ieeneaiiy a?aeiiaii? oi?ie
o?ia?ae?iio eeniai aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a. I?ney aani?aa?a iia?o?y /a?ac
e?aieaaeiaethaa/ (2) aaioeeyoi?ii (3) aeeeaea?oueny a aoiinoa?o.

Iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei ?c oee?eoeyoe?eii? i?noeino? (4) ianinii (8)
iiaea?oueny a aani?aa?, a ca?aeoe ciiao ceeaa?oueny a i?noe?noue (4),
yea iaeaaeiaia nenoaiith iiaeaiiy noeniooiai iia?o?y aeey oeioaoe??
n??ee. Oeioieiioeaio?ao nea?iao?oueny ia aaeooi-o?eueo? (5). *anoeia
ooai?aii? ae??aiiaeenia?nii? n??ee in?aea? a i?noeino? (4), oiio
ia??iaee/ii inaae ?c ia? ia?aaea?oueny ia o?eueo?aoe?th.
A?aeo?eueo?iaaia ia aaeooi-o?eueo?? n??/aia “ianoa” iai?aaey?oueny a
aaoieeaa aeey aeieaaeaiiy a?oaeeiai? n??ee, a o?eueo?ao – a
oee?eoeyoe?eio i?noe?noue.

Iniiaiei aia?aoii aeaii? onoaiiaee ? ne?oaa?ia eaia?a c eiaoiiiae?aieie
?ica?eceoaa/aie. Aeey ?? ?ic?aooieo aeei?enoaii oae? iieacieee ?
aaee/eie: oaeaee?noue aaco a aia?ao? — 2 i/n; /an eiioaeooaaiiy aaco — 9
n; ae?aiao? ?ica?eceoaa/a — 1,2 i, e?i?eia oaeaee?noue e?ioe?a o?oaie —
12 i/n; e?euee?noue ?ica?eceoaa/?a — 3,3 oo/i.

A ?iaio? iaaaaeaia iienaiiy aeo?aeieo aeaieo aeey i?iaeooaaiiy
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee i/euaiiy a?ae n??eiaiaeith i?e?iaeiiai
aaco ?iaeiaeua A.Ai?iaeaiea Euea?anueei? iaeano? i?iaeoeoeai?noth 12000
i3 aaco/aeiao.

Aeine?aeia ia?aa??ea onoaiiaie aeey i/euaiiy ae?aiaaeieo aiae a?ae
n??eiaiaeith ? noeueo?aeii? n??ee i?iaaaeaia a Ie?iiio, ssai?ia?,
Aao?aeaoe?. I?ae /an oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aiineeenue ei?aeoeae, ye a
oaoiieia?/io noaio, oae ? a iaeaaeiaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue
onoaiiaee ia Aao?aeaoeueeiio n??/aiiio caaiae? iieacaee, ui a aia?aoao
onoaiiaee ? a aanaei?-iaa?iiaaeaeoaa/? n??eiaiaeaiue iiai?noth
ieenethaaany. *anoea n??eiaiaeith ieanoiai? aiaee, ieeneaiiai aei n??ee,
noaiiaeea 90…94 %, aei aeaiieneaeo n??ee 5…9 % ? i?eaeecii 1 % o
aeaeyae? SI2 aeeeaeaany a aoiinoa?o.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo a eaai?aoi?ieo ? caaiaenueeeo
oiiaao, ia caiiaeaiiy aaeocaaiai ia’?aeiaiiy «Nithcn??ea»
(caiiaeaiiy-ia?yae I 121868600192) aeaeai? aeo?aei? aeai? aeey
i?iaeooaaiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee ia Aao?aeaoeueeiio
n??/aiiio caaiae?, noaia yei? iieacaia ia ?en. 3.

Ae?aiaaei? aiaee iiaeathoueny a aeani?aa? (10), aea n??eiaiaeaiue
/anoeiai (33,3…35%) aeani?ao?oueny iia?o?yi, ui iiaea?oueny
aaioeeyoi?ii (9). N??eiaiaeaiueiia?o?yia noi?o i?ney aeani?aa?a (10),
i?ioiaey/e oaieiiai?iiee (2), i?ae?a??aa?oueny i?/ieie aacaie ?
iaaeoiaeeoue a i?/ (1) ia niaethaaiiy. I?ney ia/? aace iiaeathoueny a
aani?aa? (3), a yeiio aeaiieneae n??ee iiaeeia?oueny oee?eoeyoe?eiith
aiaeith. Aiaea, ui aeo?ea? c aani?aa?a, ci?oo?oueny c aiaeith ?c
aeani?aa?a ? iiaea?oueny a iaa?iiaaeaeoaa/ (8). Ca /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy
o?oaii?iaiaeii (~22 ei) n??eiaiaeaiue o aiae? iiai?noth ieeneth?oueny
aei n??ee.

INCLUDEPICTURE «RIS\\R-12-1.TIF» \* MERGEFORMAT

?en 3. Oaoiieia?/ia noaia onoaiiaee aeey i/euaiiy ae?aiaaeieo aiae
Aao?aeaoeueeiai n??/aiiai i?aei?e?inoaa a?ae n??eiaiaeith ? noeueo?aeii?
n??ee

*anoeia i/euaii? aiaee i?ney ci?ooaa/a iiaea?oueny a ?aaeoi? (7), aea
ieeney?oueny n??eiaiaeaiue, ? aeae? ianinii (6) nea?iao?oueny ia
aani?aoe?th SI2 . Aaciaa oaca i?ney aani?aa?a iiaea?oueny a nai?oa?io
eieiio (5), yea c?ioo?oueny ainiiaea?nueeith aiaeith, i?ney /iai ca
aeiiiiiaith oainoiaiai aaioeeyoi?a (4) aeeeaea?oueny a aoiinoa?o. Ca
?aooiie aeii/euaiiy aeeeaeieo aac?a o nai?oa?i?e eieii? /anoea
n??eiaiaeith ieanoiai? aiaee, aeeeiooiai a aoiinoa?o o aeaeyae? SI2,
noaiiaeoue anueiai 0,02 %.

Aeey caioneaiiy onoaiiaee ? i?e iaae?ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith a
i/euai?e aiae? ieae/a a?ae 230…250 a/i3 a noai? ia?aaeaa/aii iiaeaiiy
iaoaio aai ?ioiai iaeeaa a i?/ aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy oaieiaiai ?aaeeio
ieeneaiiy n??eiaiaeith. Aeey i/euaiiy ae?aiaaeieo aiae c ?I ( 6,5 a
noai? ia?aaeaa/aii iiaeaiiy /anoeie aiaee c aani?aa?a ia i?aeeeneaiiy a
aeani?aa?.

Aeeiiaiee ?ic?aooiie aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaieo oaoiieia?e iieacaa, ui
canoinoaaiiy:

a) o?ia?ae?iiiiai iaoiaeo cai?noue o?iiiiiai aeey i/euaiiy
aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a ia’?iii 278000 i3/aiae c eiioeaio?aoe??th I2S 0,818
a/i3 o?eueee ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aeo?ao ia ?aaaaioe ? ca?eueoaiiy
aeoiaeo n??ee aea? aeiiii?/iee aoaeo 401 oen. a?i. a ??e;

a) o?ia?ae?iiiiai iaoiaeo cai?noue iiiiaoaiieai?iiaiai ? i?ioeano Eeaona
aeey i/euaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? iaea?aeaiiy n??ee i?e ??/i?e
i?iaeoeoeaiino? 1920 oen. o n??ee aea? i/?eoaaiee i?eaooie 9,158 iei.
e?a (oe?ie 1978 ?.)

a) cai?iiiiiaaii? oaoiieia?? i/euaiiy ae?aiaaeieo aiae ia’?iii 1700
i3/aiae cai?noue a?ae?io?iiiii-niaeiaiai iaoiaeo aea? aeiiii?/iee aoaeo
794,4 oen. e?a (oe?ie 1986 ?.).

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee

1. Aeey i/euaiiy aac?a ? ??aeei a?ae n??eiaiaeith oa noeueo?aeii? n??ee
iaeia?niaeoeai?oeie ? iie?? o?i?/i? iaoiaee, ieenieeaie a yeeo i?e
i/euaii? aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith neoaeaoue eoaei? ?ic/eie o?iiio ? eiai
iio?aeieo, a i?e i/euaii? ??aeei – aeaiieneae n??ee.

2. Iniiaiei iai?yieii ?noioiiai caeaoaaeaiiy o?iiiieo iaoiae?a i/euaiiy
? iiooee oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ieeneaiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai
n??eiaiaeith ?, ye iane?aeie, caaaeaiiy aei i?i?ioio ia?aa?ao iia?/ii?
?aaeoe??.

3. Canoiniaaia iaie ne?oaa?ia eaia?a c eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie
iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? o?ceei-o?i?/iei iniiaai o?iiiiiai iaoiaeo,
iaeiae, ia aea? ciiae ?aaeeeaeueii ca?eueoeoe oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy
oaiini?aiaaiiai n??eiaiaeith aei n??ee. Oeueiai iiaeia aeinyaoe o?eueee
aaaaeaiiyi a iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei aeoeai?oeo ieeniee?a.

4. Ia iniia? oe?ieeo iiooeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaiee aoaeoeaiee
? a?aeiinii iaaei?iaee eaoae?caoi? ieeneaiiy oaiini?aiaaiiai
n??eiaiaeith – “o?ia?ae?iiia niiea” ? ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y eiai
aeaioiaeaiiy.

5. Canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaiiai iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ?
aenieiaoaeoeaiiai ianiiai?iiiai aia?aoa — ne?oaa?ii? eaia?e c
eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie, aeaei ciiao aeey i/euaiiy iia?o?y c
ai?noii I2S aei 2 % ?aae?coaaoe a iaeiiio aia?ao? o?e iniiai? noaae??
i?ioeano — oaiini?aoe?th I2S ?c aaco, ieeneaiiy n??eiaiaeith aei n??ee ?
?aaaia?aoe?th iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio.

6. I/euoaaoe iia?o?y a?ae I2S o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii iaeaea?aei?oa ca
288…298 E, ine?eueee c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ?acii c i?enei?aiiyi
aaaeaieo i?ioean?a c?inoa? oaeaee?noue iia?/ii? ?aaeoe??.

7. Aoaeoeaiei niiniaii cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? iia?/ii? ?aaeoe?? ?
canoinoaaiiy iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ?c cia/iei ai?noii (190…200 ea/i3)
iao??th o?inoeueoaoo. Inoaii?e aaeueio? eiai ooai?aiiy ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy iii?o aani?aoe?? eenith c? noi?iie ??aeeiii? ie?aee ? ia
iia??oo? aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio.

8. Iioeiaeueiei neeaaeii iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio aeey i/euaiiy aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith ?: o?ia?ae?iiiee eaoae?caoi? – 5 ea/i3; eaeueoeeiiaaia
niaea – 10 ea/i3, o?inoeueoao iao??th – 200 ea/i3 , ?I — 8,8…8,9. Ca
oaeeo oiia oaiini?aoe?y I2S ?c eenaiueai?niiai aaco a ne?oaa?i?e eaia??
iaeaaeeoue aei i?ioean?a, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny oaeaeeith o?i?/iith
?aaeoe??th.

9. Aeey ne?oaa?ieo eaia? ae?aiao?ii 3…6 i iioeiaeueiee
a?ae?iaeeiai?/iee ?aaeei i/euaiiy eeniaai?niiai aaco a?ae n??eiaiaeith
aoaea, yeui e?i?eia oaeaee?noue e?ioe?a o?oaie ?ica?eceoaa/?a 12 i/n, ?o
e?euee?noue 3…3,5 oo/i ? oaeaee?noue aaco a aani?aa?? 2,0…2,5 i/n.

10. Aeey aeae?eaiiy ?c iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ae??aiiaeenia?nii? n??ee
(3…5 iei) iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe ye inaaeaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
eiaaoeyio?a, oae ? oeioaoe?th c aaaeaiiyi a iiaeeiaeueiee ?ic/ei
oeioi?aaaaio?a.

11. Ia?a?iaeyoe aeae?eaio ?c iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio n??eo iiaeia a
??aeeo, a?oaeeiao ? e?enoae?/io. Iaeiae, iaeaeioe?euei?oei ?
ia?a?iaeaiiy ?? o i?aia?aoe — «80 %-e cii/oaaeueiee ii?ioie», aai
«eiei?aeio ianoo».

12. Ooee?coaaoe o?ia?ae?ii ?c aeaaaeaiiai oee?eoethaaeueiiai
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio aeioe?eueii ni?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eiei iaoiaeii,
aeei?enoiaoth/e aa?aciaa aeoeaiaaia aoa?eey. Niaeiai-o?inoeueoaoio noi?o
iiaeia ?icae?eeoe, cae?enithth/e iine?aeiaii i?ioeane aeia?iaoaaiiy ?
e?enoae?caoe??. ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? oiiae ooee?caoe?? oeueiai
?ic/eio.

13. I/euaiiy aaceeniaaeo aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith neeaaea?oueny c aeaio
iniiaieo noaae?e: oaiini?aoe?? I2S ? ?aaaia?aoe?? iiaeeiaeueiiai
?ic/eio. Iaeaea? noaae?? aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe ie?aii a ne?oaa?ieo
eaia?ao c eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie. C oaoiieia?/iai ?
aeiiii?/iiai iiaeyaeo aeioe?eueiith ? aeeaiea ?aaaia?aoe?y
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio, ine?eueee ?? oaeaee?noue iaei caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? I2S a iiaeeiaeueiiio ?ic/ei?.

14. *anoeiao aeaea?aii?caoe?th iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio ca iaaenieeo
oaiia?aoo? (313…325 E) cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiaeeoe a ne?oaa?i?e eaia?? c
eiaoiiiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie, ie?aii a?ae noaae?? ?aaaia?aoe??
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio.

15. Aeei?enoaiiy aeaiieneaeo n??ee aeey i/euaiiy ??aeei a?ae
n??eiaiaeith iiaea aooe aeioe?eueiei ? aeiiii?/iei eeoa ca oiiae
iaea?aeaiiy eiai aaciina?aaeiuei a naiiio i?ioean? i/euaiiy i?e
ieeneaii? n??eiaiaeith, aeani?aiaaiiai ?c aiaee, ? i?iaaaeaiiy
aca?iiae?? i?ae SI2 ? I2S ia a niaoe?aeueieo aia?aoao, a a
o?oaii?iaiaeao, aanaeiao oiui.

16. Cia/ia /anoea o?ce/ii ?ic/eiaiiai I2S (20…90 %) a ae?aiaaeieo ?
ieanoiaeo aiaeao oa iaiao?aei?noue a?aeaeoaaiiy eeoa o?aoeie iayaiiai a
aiaeao I2S aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oeae i?ioean ?
oaoiieia?/ii i?inoei ? aoaeoeaiei.

17. Aaeeea oaeaee?noue aeani?aoe?? n??eiaiaeith ?c aiae aeinyaa?oueny,
yeui i?ioean i?iaiaeeoueny a eieiiao c neo/aoeie i?iaaeueieie oa??eeaie
a aa?aioaaeiiio ?aaeei? c ?I = 5,0…5,5. Aeey i?aeeeneaiiy aiae
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe n??/enoo aiaeo, ui iaea?aeo?oueny ia
ianooii?e noaae??.

18. Aecia/ai? e?iaoe/i? oa oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e ieeneaiiy I2S a
n??eiaiaeaiueiia?o?yi?e noi?o? iieacaee, ui oeae i?ioean aeioe?eueii
aanoe a ?aaeoi?ao c ianaaeeith. Iaea?aeai? aeai? aeathoue ciiao aeeiiaoe
an? iaiao?aei? ?ic?aooiee oeueiai i?ioeano.

19. I?ia?ae?caoe?y aiae iaei aieeaa? ia ia?oe?aeueiee oene SI2 iaae
ieie. Ia aoaeoeai?noue iiaeeiaiiy oeeie aiaeaie aeaiieneaeo n??ee na?aae
?ioeo /eiiee?a iaea?eueoee aieea ia? nooi?iue iane/aiiy aiaee
(iioeiaeueia cia/aiiy 40…50 %). Iaeaeioe?euei?oeie aia?aoaie aeey
aani?aoe?? aeaiieneaeo n??ee ? eieiie c neo/aoeie i?iaaeueieie oa??eeaie
? aioeueaiaaiee ?aaeei ?o ?iaioe.

20. Aca?iiae?th I2S c SI2 aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe a niaoe?aeueieo
aia?aoao eeoa ia 80-90 %, a aeae? a o?oaii?iaiaeao, aanaeiao oiui.

21. ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae i/euaiiy iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee aeey i/euaiiy
aiae c eiioeaio?aoe??th n??eiaiaeith, ia iaioith ca 50…60 a/i3. Ca
iaioeo eiioeaio?aoe?e n??eiaiaeith o aiae? aeaiieneae n??ee iio??aii
aaiaeeoe a i?ioean cciai?.

22. ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? i/euaiiy aac?a ? ??aeei a?ae n??eiaiaeith oa
noeueo?aeii? n??ee i?ieoee i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
i?inoioith, i’yae?noth oaoiieia?/iiai ?aaeeio, ?aae?cothoueny a i?ino?e
aia?aoo??. Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? ?ic?aooiee na?ae/aoue i?i ?o
aeiiii?/i?noue. Aeacaia aea? i?aenoaae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?o aeey oe?ieiai
i?iieneiaiai canoinoaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAIEE A ?IAIOAO:

Nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu i/enoee aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea /A.O.Iaeueiee,
A.O.ssai?neee , ss.A.Eaeuiii, ?.A.Ianoa?iae/.- I.: IEEOYOEI. 1978.- 31n.

Eaeeiii ss.A. I/euaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco a?ae n??eiaiaeith o?ia?ae?iiiei
iaoiaeii c iaea?aeaiiyi n??ee //A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
aei 125-??//y o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. ? 333. O?i?y,
oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa ?o canoinoaaiiy. — Euea?a, 1998. — N. 48-51.

Eaeeiii ss.A. ?aaaia?aoe?y iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio a i?ioean? i/euaiiy
i?e?iaeieo n??eiaiaeiaaeo aac?a //A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
aei 125-??//y o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. O?i?y, oaoiieia?y
?a/iaei oa ?o canoinoaaiiy. — Euea?a, 1998. — N. 51-53.

Eaeeiii ss.A. Oeioaoe?y n??ee ?c iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio i?e i/euaii?
aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii //A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea”, ? 316. O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa ?o canoinoaaiiy. —
Euea?a, 1997. — N. 174-176.

Eaeeiii ss.A. Aeani?aoe?y n??eiaiaeith ?c ieanoiaeo aiae //A?niee AeO
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, ? 316. O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy. -Euea?a, 1997. — N. 176-178.

ss.Eaeeiii. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ? oaoiieia?y i/euaiiy eeniaai?nieo aac?a
a?ae n??eiaiaeith o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii // AEo?iae Oe?a?inueeiai
?iaeaia?iiai oiaa?enoaa “Oaoi?/i? a?no?. Technical News”. — Euea?a,
1998/1(6), 2(7). — N.23-25.

Eaeeiii ss.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee ieeneaiiy iao??th a?ae?inoeueo?aeo
a eoaeiiio ?ic/ei?. //A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, ? 339.
O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa ?o canoinoaaiiy. – Euea?a, 1998. – N.
155-157.

ssai?nueeee A.O., Eaeeiii ss.A., *aeei I.E. Aeani?aoe?y n??eiaiaeith a
ne?oaa?i?e eaia?? c S-iiae?aieie ?ica?eceoaa/aie. //A?niee AeO
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, ? 339. O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy. – Euea?a, 1998. – N. 163-165.

ssai?nueeee A.O., Eaeeiii ss.A., *aeei I.E. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeani?aoe??
n??eiaiaeith ?c ieanoiai? aiaee a eieii? c i?iaaeueieie oa??eeaie
//A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” aei 125-??//y
o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. ? 333. O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa
?o canoinoaaiiy. — Euea?a, 1998. — N. 53-55.

?aaaia?aoeey iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a i?e i/enoea aacia io
na?iaiaei?iaea n iieo/aieai yeaiaioa?iie na?u /A.O.ssai?neee,
I.A.Iaieianeee, A.O.Iaeueiee, ss.A.Eaeuiii, C.E.Eiiiaaeaiei //Oei.
i?ii.-noue.- 1978.- ? 7. — N.524-526.

Naiaiiaa A.E., ssai?neee A.O., Eaeuiii ss.A. Enneaaeiaaiea
?anoai?eiinoe a nenoaia Na2S2I3-Na2NI3-I2I e e?enoaeecaoeeiiiue iaoiae
?acaeaeaiey iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a i?e i/enoea aacia io
na?iaiaei?iaea oeiaeae?iiiui iaoiaeii //AEo?i. i?eee. oeiee, 1981. —
54, ? 5. — N. 1011-1017.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano i/enoee ieanoiaeo aiae a?ae n??eiaiaeith
iciiiaaiei iia?o?yi / ?.I.Eiaaeuenueeee, ss.A.Eaeeiii, A.?.E?ieaaiei,
C.E.Eiiiaaeaiei //A?niee Euea?anueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo, ? 130.
O?i?y oa o?i?/ia oaoiieia?y. — Euea?a: Aeua oeiea, 1979. — N. 21-24.

Eaeuiii ss.A., E?ieaaiei A.E., Eiiiaaeaiei C.E. Auaeaeaiea na?u ec
iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a i?e i/enoea aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea //Aanoiee
Eueaianeiai iieeoaoie/aneiai einoeoooa, ? 139. Oeiey, oaoiieiaey aauanoa
e eo i?eiaiaiea. — Eueaia: Auua oeiea, 1980. — N. 92.

Eaeuiii ss.A., E?ieaaiei A.E., *aeei I.E. Aeeyiea oeiaeae?iia ia
?anoai?eiinoue na?iaiaei?iaea a iiaeioeoaeueiii ?anoai?a // Aanoiee
Eueaia.iieeoaoi.ei-oa, ?161. Oeiey, oaoiieiaey aauanoa e eo
i?eiaiaiea.- Eueaia: Auua oeiea, 1982. — N.68-69.

Eaeuiii ss.A., Eo?io/ei E.I. Onoaiiaea aeey enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeanna
oaiini?aoeee na?iaiaei?iaea ec aaca uaei/iui ?anoai?ii oeiaeae?iia
//Aanoiee Eueaia.iieeoaoi. ei-oa, ?181. Oeiey, oaoiieiaey iai?aaie/aneeo
aauanoa e eo i?eiaiaiea.- Eueaia: Auua oeiea, 1984.- N. 81-82.

Eo?io/ei E.I., ssai?neee A.O., Eaeuiii ss.A. E aii?ino ia ii?aaeaeaiee
ia?aiao?ia iaonoaiiaeaoaainy aeaeaeaiey e?oiiuo eaiaeue //Aanoiee
Eueaia. iieeoaoi. Ei-oa, ? 191. Oeiey, oaoiieiaey iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa
e eo i?eiaiaiea. — Eueaia: Auua oeiea, 1985. — N. — 68-70.

*aeei I.E., Eaeeiii ss.A., *aeei I.A. E?iaoeea ieeneaiiy noeueo?aeii?
n??ee //A?niee Euea?anueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo.- ?241.- Euea?a:
Na?o, 1990. — N. 64-66.

Eaeuiii ss.A., *aeei I.E., Ieaiu/ ?.?. Aani?aoeey aeeieneaea na?e a
i?ioeanna i/enoee aiae io na?iaiaei?iaea //Aanoiee Eueaianeiai
iieeoaoie-/aneiai einoeoooa.- ?231. — Eueaia, 1989. — N. 70-72.

Eiaaeuenueeee ?.I., Eaeeiii ss.A., *aeei I.E. I?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy
?aeiino?oeiaaii? onoaiiaee aeey i/eoaiiy aaioaac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith ia
?icaeieuenueeiio AI «N??ea» // A?niee Euea?a. iie?oaoi. ?i-oo, N 260.
O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa ?o canoinoaaiiy. — Euea?a: Na?o, 1992. — N.
49-50.

ssai?nueeee A.O., Eo?eeaoeue I.A., Eaeeiii ss.A. I/euaiiy
n??eiaiaeiaaeo aaioeeyoe?eieo aac?a no?/ieie oeeieiai?nieie aiaeaie
//A?niee AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», N 270. O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei
oa ?o canoinoaaiiy. — Euea?a, 1993. — N. 84-86.

Eo?eeaoeue I.A., Eaeeiii ss.A. Aiae?c iecueeieiioeaio?iaaieo
n??eiai?nieo aac?a c aaioeeyoe?eieo aeeeae?a ae?iaieoeoaa. //A?niee AeO
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. Euea?a — ? 276. — 1994. — N. 87-88.

Eaeuiii ss.A., E?ieaaiei A.E., Eiiiaaeaiei C.E. Ii?aaeaeaiea oeiiia e
aai i?iecaiaeiuo a iiaeioeoaeueiii ?anoai?a i?e i/enoea aacia io
na?iaiaei?iaea //Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e i/enoea i?ii.aua?inia:
Yeni?ann-eioi?iaoeey IEEOYOEI. -Aui. 1. — I., 1981.- N. 32-34.

Canoinoaaiiy i?aai?/ieo ?aaaaio?a aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a
oaoiieia?? iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei /A.ssai?nueeee, O.Ia?aeoiei, E.Naa/oe,
C. Ciae, ss.Eaeeiii oa ?io. //Iaoeia? caienee iaoeiaiai Oiaa?enoaa ?i.
O.A.Oaa/aiea. — Euea?a, 1993. — N. 283-291.

A.n. 574223 NNN?, IEE2 A 01 D 53/16; N 01 A 17/04. ?anoai? aeey i/enoee
aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea /A.O.ssai?neee, ss.A.Eaeeiii, C.E.Eiiiaaeaiei
e ae?. — ? 2336594/23-26; Cayae. 22.03.76; Iioae. 30.09.77, Athe. ? 36.

A.n. 617883 NNN?, IEE2 A 01 D 53/15; N 01 A 17/04. Ninoaa aeey i/enoee
aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea /A.O.ssai?neee, ss.A.Eaeuiii, A.O.Iaeueiee,
C.E.Eiiiaaeaiei, A.O.A?anueei — ? 2122262/23-26, Cayae. 10.04.75.

A.n. 937349 NNN?, IEE3 N 02 F 1/74. Niinia i/enoee aiae io
na?iaiaei?iaea /A.O.ssai?neee, ss.A.Eaeuiii, A.E.E?ieaaiei,
A.O.Iaeueiee, A.O.A?anueei — ? 2911343/23-26, Cayae. 19.04.80, Iioae.
23.06.82, Athe. 23.

A.n. 1143444 NNN?, IEE4 A 01 D 53/14; N 01 A 17/64. Niinia
ia?a?aaioee io?aaioaiiiai iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a /A.O.ssai?neee,
A.E.Naiaiiaa, A.E.E?ieaaiei, ss.A.Eaeuiii. — ? 3495016/23-26, Cayae.
29.09.82, Iioae. 07.03.85, Athe. ? 9.

A.n. 1589459 NNN?, IEE5 A 01 53/16; N 01 A 17/04. ?anoai? aeey
i/enoee aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea /A.O.ssai?neee, C.I.Ciae, A.E.Eaaaoiaa,
ss.A.Eaeuiii. — ? 4617914/31-26; Cayae. 12.12.88.

A.n. 1607161 NNN?, IEE5 A 01 53/16; N 01 A 17/04. Ninoaa aeey
i/enoee aaca io na?iaiaei?iaea /A.O.ssai?neee, C.I.Ciae, A.E.Eaaaoiaa,
ss.A.Eaeuiii.- ? 4643398; Cayae. 30.01.89.

Eaeuiii ss.A., E?ieaaiei A.E., *aeei I.E. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna
i/enoee ieanoiauo aiae io na?iaiaei?iaea na?ienoui aiaeae?eaeii.-
*a?eannu, 1981.- 8n. Aeai. a IEEOYOEI .

Naiueeea N.E., Eaeuiii ss.A. E aii?ino i auai?a ianniiaiaiiiai aia?aoa
aeey inouanoaeaiey i?ioeanna i/enoee na?u io eaoo/eo i?aaie/aneeo
i?eianae . — *a?eannu, 1981.- Aeai. a IEEOYOEI. ? Aui. 2.

Aani?aoeey na?iaiaei?iaea ec aaca oeiiiiui iaoiaeii a eaia?a n
S-ia?aciuie ?aca?ucaeaaoaeyie. /A.O.ssai?neee, A.O.Iaeueiee,
ss.A.Eaeuiii, C.E.Eiiiaaeaiei, I.A.Iaieianeee — I., 1976. — Aeai. a
AEIEOE 22.03.76, ? 894-76.

Aani?aoeey na?iaiaei?iaea ec aaca oeiiiiui iaoiaeii a eaia?a n
S-ia?aciuie ?aca?ucaeaaoaeyie. /A.O.ssai?neee, A.O.Iaeueiee,
ss.A.Eaeuiii, C.E.Eiiiaaeaiei, I.A.Iaieianeee //AEo?i. I?eee. Oeiee. –
1976. — ? 9. – N. 2110. – E?ao. Niiau. i no., aeai. a AEIEOE 22.03.76, ?
894-76.

ssai?neee A.O., Eaeuiii ss.A., E?ieaaiei A.E. Oaoiieiae/aneay noaia
i/enoee i?e?iaeiuo aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea n iieo/aieai yeaiaioa?iie
na?u //Oac. aeiee. Ananithc. Niaau. “Ia?niaeoeau ?anoe?aiey i?-aa
iiiooiie na?u”. — I.: IEEOYOEI, 1978. — N. 28-31.

ssai?neee A.O., Eaeuiii ss.A., Eiiiaaeaiei C.E. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna
auaeaeaiey na?u ec iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a i?e i/enoea aacia io
na?iaiaei?iaea oeiaeae?iiiui iaoiaeii //Oac. aeiee. Ananithc. niaau.
“Ia?niaeoeau ?anoe?aiey i?-aa iiiooiie na?u”. — I.: IEEOYOEI, 1978. —
N. 91-93.

ssai?neee A.O., Eaeuiii ss.A., E?ieaaiei A.E. Oaoiieiae/aneay noaia
ooeeecaoeee auaiaeeiiai ?anoai?a i?e i/enoea aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea
//Oac. aeiee. Ananithc. niaau. “Ia?niaeoeau ?anoe?aiey i?-aa iiiooiie
na?u”. — I.: IEEOYOEI, 1978. — N. 93-95.

Eco/aiea ?aaaia?aoeee iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a i?e i/enoea
i?e?iaeiiai aaca io na?iaiaei?iaea //Oacenu aeieeaaeia O Ananithciie
iao/iie iaaeaocianeie eiio. ii oaoiieiaee iai?a. aauanoa e ieia?.
oaeia?aiee. — Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1976. — N. 154.

Ecaea/aiea eaoaeecaoi?a ec auaiaeeiiai ?anoai?a i?e i/enoea aacia io
na?iaiaei?iaea /A.O.ssai?neee, ss.A.Eaeuiii, A.E.E?ieaaiei,
C.E.Eiiiaaeaiei //Oacenu aeieeaaeia O? Ananithciie iao/iie
iaaeaocianeie eiioa?aioeee ii oaoiieiaee iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa e ieia?.
oaeia?aiee. — Iiai/a?eanne, 1978. — N. 183-185.

Eaeuiii ss.A., E?ieaaiei A.E., *aeei I.E. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna
ieeneaiey na?iaiaei?iaea na?ienoui aiaeae?eaeii a aeeaeeie oaca
//Iaoa?eaeu O?? Ananithciie iao/i.-oaoi. eiioa?. “Oaoiieiaey iai?a.
aauanoa. e iei..oaeia?aiee”. — *.11. — *eieaio, 1981. — N.489.

ssai?neee A.O., Eaeuiii ss.A., E?ieaaiei A.E. E aii?ino i oa?ie/aneii
?aceiaeaiee na?iaiaei?iaea //Oacenu aeieeaaeia 11 Ananithciiai niaauaiey
“Ia?niaeoeau ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iiiooiie na?u”.- Eueaia, 1982.- N.
57-58.

Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna i/enoee io na?iaiaei?iaea aacia, niaea?aeaueo
aiieae /A.A.Aeaenaaiei, N.A.Eieanieeiaa, ss.A.Eaeuiii e ae?. //Oacenu
aeieeaaeia 11 Ananithciiai niaauaiey “Ia?niaeoeau ?anoe?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa iiiooiie na?u”. — Eueaia, 1982. — N.27-29

Enneaaeiaaiea eeiaoeee ieeneaiey na?iaiaei?iaea i?e ieceii aai
niaea?aeaiee a nianyo /ss.A.Eaeuiii, A.E.E?ieaaiei, I.E.*aeei,
C.E.Eiiiaaeaiei //Oacenu aeieeaaeia O111 Ananithciie iao/iie eiio. ii
oaoiieiaee iai?a. aauanoa e ieia?. oaeia?aiee.- *.11.- Ai?ueeee, 1985. —
N. 17-18.

ssai?neee A.O., Eaeuiii ss.A., Eiiiaaeaiei C.E. Oaoiieiaey i/enoee
aaioeeyoeeiiiuo aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea //Oacenu aeieeaaeia 11
Ananithciie iao/-oaoi. eiio. “Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oaieiianiiai. e
aeae?iaeeiai. i?ioeannia a oaenoee.i?ii.-noe e i?iecaiaenoaa
oei.aieieii”. — Iineaa, 1985.- N. 113-114.

ssai?neee A.O., Eiaaeueneee E.I., Eaeuiii ss.A. I/enoea ieanoiauo aiae
io na?iaiaei?iaea iciie?iaaiiui aicaeooii // Oac. VII Ananithc. neiiic.
ii nia?aiaiiui i?iae. i?iaiice?iaaiey, eiio?iey ea/anoaa aiaeu aiaeiaiia
e iciie?ieaaiey . ?V naeoeey. — Oaeeei, 1985. — N. 124-125.

ssai?neee A.O., *aeei I.E., Eaeuiii ss.A. I/enoea noi/iuo aiae io
na?iaiaei?iaea aac?aaaaioiui iaoiaeii //Oac. VII Ananithc. neiiiceoia
ii nia?aiaiiui i?iae. i?iaiice?iaaiey, eiio?iey ea/anoaa aiaeu aiaeiaiia
e iciie?iaaiey. ??? naeoeey. — Oaeeei, 1985. — N. 114-115.

*aeei I.E., Eaeuiii ss.A., Ieaiu/ ?.?. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna
aeani?aoeee na?iaiaei?iaea ec ae?aiaaeiuo aiae //Oacenu aeieeaaeia O?V
Ananithciie iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. ii oaoiieiaee iai?a. a-a e ieia?.
oaeia?aiee. — *.I. — Eueaia, 1988.- N.88.

ssai?neee A.O., *aeei I.E., Eaeuiii ss.A. I/enoea ieanoiauo aiae io
na?iaiaei?iaea //Oacenu aeieeaaeia O?V Ananithciie iao/i.-oaoi. eiio.
ii oaoiieiaee iai?a. a-a e ieia?. oaeia?aiee. — *.I. — Eueaia, 1988.-
N.89.

*aeei I.E., Eaeuiii ss.A. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna aani?aoeee aeeieneaea
na?u i?e i/enoea aiae io na?iaiaei?iaea // Oacenu aeieeaaeia VII
?anioae. eiio. “Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe, niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ioeannia e
aiia?aoia oeie/aneeo i?iecaiaenoa.- *.II.- Eueaia, 1988.- N. 45-46.

*aeei I.E., Eaeuiii ss.A.,Ieaiu/ ?.?. Oaoiieiaey i/enoee aiae io
niaaeeiaiee noeueoeaeiie na?u // Oacenu aeieeaaeia OV Ananithci. eiio.
ii oaoiieiaee iai?a. aauanoa. — Eacaiue, 1991. — N. 139-140.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?aaiou i?iiuoeaiiie onoaiiaee aeey i/enoee
aaioeeyoeeiiiuo aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea /A.O.ssai?neee, ss.A.Eaeuiii,
E.I.Eiaaeueneee, I.E.*aeei //Oacenu aeieeaaeia OV Ananithci. eiio. ii
oaoiieiaee iai?a. aauanoa. — Eacaiue, 1991. — N. 140-141.

ssai?neee A.O., Eaeuiii ss.A., Eo?eeaoe I.A. E aii?ino oeo/oaiey
yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee ia Nieaeueneii caaiaea oeie/aneiai aieieia
//Oacenu aeieeaaeia OV Ananithci. eiio. ii oaoiieiaee iai?a. aauanoa. —
Eacaiue, 1991. — N. 153-154.

ssai?nueeee A.O., Eaeeiii ss.A., Ciae C.I. Aeae?eaiiy n??ee ?c
iiaeeiaeueiiai ?ic/eio i?e i/euaii? aac?a a?ae n??eiaiaeith. //Oace
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? aei 150-??//y «Euea?anueei? iie?oaoi?ee» «Noai ?
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo o?i?/ii? iaoee oa i?iieneiaino? a Cao?aeiiio
?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie». — Euea?a, 1994. — N. 171.

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ? oaoiieia?y i/euaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco a?ae
n??eiaiaeith o?ia?ae?iiiei iaoiaeii c iaea?aeaiiyi aeaiaioii? n??ee
/ss.A.Eaeeiii, A.O.ssai?nueeee, C.I.Ciae oa ?io.. //Oace aeiiia?aeae ?
iia?aeiie. iaoeiai- i?aeoe/ii? eiio. «Noai, i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo iaooiaaciaiai eiiieaeno Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie. — Euea?a,
1995. — N. 200-201.

ssai?nueeee A.O., Eaeeiii ss.A., *aeei I.E. E?iaoeea ieeneaiiy
n??eiaiaeith // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue V? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
“Euea?anuee? o?i?/i? /eoaiiy-97” — Euea?a, 1997. — N. 172.

Eaeeiii ss.A. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ? oaoiieia?? i/euaiiy aac?a ? ??aeei
a?ae noeueo?aeii? n??ee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.17.01 — oaoiieia?y iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.-
Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», Euea?a, 1999

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aeai?o ieeniee?a ?ic/eiaiiai
n??eiaiaeith oa oaoiieia?/iiai ioi?ieaiiy i?ioean?a i/euaiiy aac?a ?
??aeei a?ae noeueo?aeii? n??ee. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iai?yiie a oaoiieia??
aeeo/aiiy n??eiaiaeith ?c aac?a ? ??aeei, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia
canoinoaaii? aeoeaieo ? iaaei?iaeo ieeniee?a ?ic/eiaiiai n??eiaiaeith oa
aia?aoo?iiai ioi?ieaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea? o?ceei-o?i?/iei oiiaai
i/euaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii iia? aoaeoeai? iaoiaee i/euaiiy aac?a ? ??aeei
a?ae noeueo?aeii? n??ee ? iaaaaeaii aeai? uiaei ?o aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino?. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e
i?iaeooaaii? i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaie aeey i/euaiiy aac?a a?ae
n??eiaiaeith.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i/euaiiy, n??eiaiaeaiue, aani?aoe?y, aeani?aoe?y,
o?ia?ae?ii, aeaiieneae n??ee, noeueo?aee, n??eiaiaeaiueai?ni? aiaee.

Eaeuiii ss.A. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau e oaoiieiaee i/enoee aacia e
aeeaeeinoae io noeueoeaeiie na?u. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.17.01. — oaoiieiaey iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao «Eueaeanueea iieeoyoieea», Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai auai?a ieeneeoaeae ?anoai?aiiiai
na?iaiaei?iaea e oaoiieiae/aneiai ioi?ieaiey i?ioeannia i/unoee aacia e
aeeaeeinoae io noeueoeaeiie na?u. ?ac?aaioaii iiaia iai?aaeaiea a
oaoiieiaee ecaea/aiey na?iaiaei?iaea ec aacia e aeeaeeinoae, iniiaaiia
ia eniieueciaaiee aeoeaiuo e iaaei?iaeo ieeneeoaeae ?anoai?aiiiai
na?iaiaei?iaea e aia?aoo?iiai ioi?ieaiey, eioi?ia ioaa/aao
oeceei-oeie/aneei oneiaeyi i?ioeannia.

Onoaiiaeaiu iioeiaeueiua oneiaey i?eaioiaeaiey ia iniiaa oeiaeae?iia
iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a, eioi?ue yaeyaony aieaa aeoeaiui, /ai ae?oaea
ecaanoiua iiaeioeoaeueiua ?anoai?u. I?e oneiaee eniieueciaaiey
iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a, niaea?aeauaai 5 ea/i3 oeiaeae?iia e 10 ea/i3
eaeueoeeie?iaaiiie niaeu, oaiini?aoeey H2S a ne?oaaa?iie eaia?a n
eiaoaia?aciuie ?aca?ucaeaaoaeyie ioiineony e i?ioeannai,
nii?iaiaeaeathueieny auno?ie oeie/aneie ?aaeoeeae. Eniieueciaaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiiiai iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a e aunieiyooaeoeaiiai
ianniiaiaiiiai aiia?aoa — ne?oaaa?iie eaia?u n eiaoaia?aciuie
?aca?ucaeaaoaeyie aeaei aiciiaeiinoue i?e i/enoea aicaeooa n
niaea?aeaieai H2S aei 2 % i?iaiaeeoue iaeiia?aiaiii a iaeiii aiia?aoa
ana o?e aeaaiua noaaeee i?ioeanna.

Iioeiaeueiue aeae?iaeeiaie/aneee ?aaeei a ne?oaaa?iie eaia?a n
eiaoaia?aciuie ?aca?ucaeaaoaeyie nicaeaaony i?e eeiaeiie nei?inoe
a?auaiey eiioeia eiaoa ?aca?ucaeaaoaey 12 i/n e eiee/anoaii
?aca?ucaeaaoaeae 3…3,5 oo/i aeeeiu aaea. Iioeiaeueiie oaiia?aoo?ie
i?ioeanna yaeyaony 288…303 E. I?e ?I = 8,8…9,0 e eiioeaio?aoeee
Na2S2O3 a iiaeioeoaeueiii ?anoai?a 200 ea/i3 aeinoeaaaony ieieiaeueiay
nei?inoue i?ioaeaiey iiai/iie ?aaeoeee.

Na?a, ia?aciaaaoayny i?e i/enoea aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea oeiaeae?iiiui
iaoiaeii yaeyao ?acia? 2…3 iei, ca?yae -0,14…-0,15 A, i?aeoe/anee ia
oeeueo?oaony e iaaeeaiii inaaeaao. Auaeaeyoue na?o ec iiaeioeoaeueiiai
?anoai?a iiaeii aeaoiy iooyie: inaaeaeaieai e oeioaoeeae. Iiaeia?aiu
eiaaoeyiou e oeioi?aaaaiou, eioi?ua eniuoaiu a i?iiuoeaiiuo oneiaeyo.
Ia?a?aaaouaaoue auaeaeaiioth ec iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a na?o, iiaeii a
aeeaeeoth, eiiiaoth eee e?enoaeee/aneoth. Iaeiaei, iaeaieaa
?aoeeiiaeueiie yaeyaony ia?a?aaioea a? a i?aia?aou «80%-ue
nia/eaathueeny ii?ioie» eee «eieeieaeioth ianoo».

Eco/aia ooeeecaoeey iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a, auaaaeaiiiai ec oeeeea
i/enoee. Oeiaeae?ii i?aaeeiaeaii ecaeaeaoue ni?aoeeiiii-aeani?aoeeiiiui
iaoiaeii n iiiiuueth aeoeae?iaaiiiai oaey, a niaeiai-oeinoeueoaoioth
nianue ?acaeaeyoue, eniieuecoy i?ioeannu enia?aiey e e?enoaeeecaoeee.

Enneaaeiaai i?ioeann i/enoee aaceenei?iaeiuo aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea.
I?aaeeiaeaii aeaa aeaaiuo noaaeee i?iaiaeeoue ioaeaeueii a ne?oaaa?iuo
eaia?ao n eiaoaia?aciuie ?aca?ucaeaaoaeyie. Eco/aii aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u,
eiioeaio?aoeee ?annoai?aiiiai na?iaiaei?iaea e oaeaeueiiai ?anoiaea
aicaeooa ia i?ioeann ?aaaia?aoeee. *anoe/ioth aeaea?aiiecaoeeth
iiaeioeoaeueiiai ?anoai?a i?iaiaeeoue i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 313…323 E,
eniieuecoy ne?oaaa?ioth eaia?o n eiaoaia?aciuie ?aca?ucaeaaoaeyie.

Iieacaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea aeaoieneaea na?u aeey i/enoee aeeaeeinoae
io na?iaiaei?iaea iiaeao auoue oeaeaniia?aciui e yeiiiie/iui eeoue i?e
oneiaee iieo/aiey aai iaiin?aaenoaaiii a naiii i?ioeanna i/enoee e
i?iaaaeaiee acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo SO2 e H2S ia a niaoeeaeueiuo
aiia?aoao a a o?oaii?iaiaeao, aannaeiao e o.i. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
aeani?aoeeth H2S ec aiaeu a aani?aoeeth SO2 oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue a
nao/aouo eieiiiao n i?iaaeueiuie oa?aeeaie, a ieeneaiea
aeani?ae?iaaiiiai na?iaiaei?iaea a ia/ao n ea?aiceoiaie ianaaeeie.
I?ioeann acaeiiaeaenoaey H2S c SO2 a aeeaeeie oaca oeaeaniia?acii
i?iaiaeeoue a niaoeeaeueiuo aiia?aoao eeoue ia 80…90 %, a aeaeueoa a
o?oaii?iaiaeao e aannaeiao.

Aunieay nei?inoue aeani?aoeee na?iaiaei?iaea ec aiae aeinoeaaaony i?e ?I
= = 5,0…5,5 a aa?aioaaeiii ?aaeeia ?aaiou i?iaaeueiuo nao/aouo
oa?aeie. Ieia?aeecaoeey aiae iaei aeeyao ia ia?oeeaeueiia aeaaeaiea SO2
iaae ieie e ia nei?inoue acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo SO2 e H2S a aeeaeeie
oaca. Ia aooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna aani?aoeee aeaoieneaea na?u
ieia?aeeciaaiiuie aiaeaie iniaia aeeyiea ieacuaaao noaiaiue ianuuaiey
aiaeu, iioeiaeueiia cia/aiea eioi?ie ninoaaeyao 40…50 %. Iioeiaeueiay
oaiia?aoo?a i?ioeanna ieeneaiey na?iaiaei?iaea aei aeaoieneaea na?u
caaeneo io niaea?aeaiey na?iaiaei?iaea a na?iaiaei?iae aicaeooiie niane
e iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao 783…803 E.

Ia iniiaaiee i?eaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua aooaeoeaiua
oaoiieiaee i/enoee aacia e aeeaeeinoae io noeueoeaeiie na?u e i?eaaaeaiu
aeaiiua ioiineoaeueii eo yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe. Iniiaiua
?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee aiaae?aiea i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee i?iiuoeaiiuo
onoaiiaie aeey i/enoee aacia io na?iaiaei?iaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i/enoea, na?iaiaei?iae, aani?aoeey, aeani?aoeey,
oeiaeae?ii, aeaoieneae na?u, noeueoeaeu, na?iaiaei?iaeniaea?aeauea
aiaeu.

Kalymon Ya.A. Theoretic basis and technologies of gases and liquids
purification from sulphide sulphur.

Thesis for a doctor`s degree by speciality 05.17.01- technology of
inorganic substanses.- State University “Lvivska Polytechnica”,
Lviv,1999.

The dissertation is devoted to problem of dissolved hydrogen sulphide
oxidizer selection and technological mounting of liquids and gases
purification from sulphide sulphur. A new direction in technology of
hydrogen sulphide extraction from liquids and gases is elaborated, which
based on using of active and inexpensive oxidizers and apparatus
mounting which meet the phisico-chemical purification conditions.

The new effective methods of gases and liquids purification from
sulphide sulphur are proposed and the data concerning to their economic
effectiveness are submitted.

The results of the work have found an industrial utility in the design
of the industrial plants for gases purification from hydrogen sulphide.

Key words: purification, hydrogen sulphide, absorption, desorption,
quinhydron,sulphur dioxide, sulphide, hydrogen sulphide containing
water.

PAGE 6

I — a?aie/ia ie?aea aaco;

II — i?aeoacia iiaa?oiy;

III — a?aie/ia ie?aea ??aeeie.

PO2, PH2S — ia?oe?aeuei? oenee a?aeiia?aeii eenith ? n??eiaiaeith a
yae?? iioieo;

P’O2, P’H2S — ia?oe?aeuei? oenee, a?aeiia?aeii eenith ? n??eiaiaeith ia
iiaa?oi? ?icae?eo oac;

C’O2, C’H2S — eiioeaio?aoe?? a?aeiia?aeii eenith ? n??eiaiaeith a
??aee?e oac?.

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