20

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO OE?A?IE

«EE?ANUeEEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO»

IIEUeOAEIA AAEA??E ?AAIIAE*

OAeE 621.923.6:621.9.025

OAI?AOE*I? ? I?AEOE*I?

INIIAE AENIEII?IAeOEOEAIIAI OI?OeAAIAI OE?OOAAIIss AAAEEIIA?IAETHAAIEO
IAOA??AE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.08 — «Oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy»

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

E e ? a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a *a?i?a?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee e
oi?aae?iiy.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaa?eo Aiaoie?e Iaaeiae/ – caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,
eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oaoiieia??
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IOOO «EI?».

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aiiaea?aiei Eaii?ae
?aaiiae/ – caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, eao?aao
Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, aaia?aeueiee eiino?oeoi? ANI – aaia?aeueiee
aee?aeoi? Aea?aeaaiiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oeaio?o
A?oeea??enueei-no??eaoeueeiai ica?i?iiy (AeIOOe ANI);

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaaaae?a Aieiaeeie? Aai?a?eiae/ –
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? iaoae?a Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eoie?i Ai?en Aieiaeeie?iae/, eao?aao
Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee eiinoeueoaio-?iniaeoi?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea», eaoaae?a «Oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy».

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny » 21 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 1500
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.002.11 o
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo» ca aae?anith: 256056, Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae,
37, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?1, aoaeeoi??y 214.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo»:
256056, Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 19 » eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iao?aeia TH.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a aeiacii-aa?aceaii?
ia?iaee ae?ia?a c iaai?oioaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a, oaa?aeeo nieaa?a, ea?ai?ee
cia/ii aieeaa? ia i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa yeino? ia?iaee
aeaoaeae, oa?i?io neoaeae iaoei ? iaoai?ci?a oa noeioeth? ?icaeoie
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy oa ?ioeo aaeocae i?iieneiaino?.

Oiio, noai?aiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? caaaeueii? oaoiieia?/ii?
nenoaie aeiacii-aa?aceaii? ia?iaee oeeo iaoa??ae?a ? aeooaeueiith
iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith, iiceoeaia ??oaiiy yei? ia? aaeeea
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy aeey iaoeiaiai ? i?iieneiaiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
iia`ycaia c 8 ainiaeiaiai?ieie ? aea?aeathaeaeaoieie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie i?aoeyie, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue ca ieaiaie aaeocaaeo
i?i?noa?noa.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? oa aeine?aeaeaii? iiaeo
oaoiieia?/ieo nenoai ieineiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo
iaoa??ae?a ? i?aeaeuaii? eiai aoaeoeaiino?; ?o no?oeoo?ii-ia?aiao?e/ii?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa iioei?caoe??; ?icoe?aiiy iaeanoae canoinoaaiiy
oeueiai aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai i?ioeano ? aeinyaa?oueny ia iniia?:

— anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?iiooai?aiiy iiaa?oi? i?e aeaiiio
niinia? oe?ooaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaee iaoeiaeo iniia aeaiiai i?ioeano oeyoii: eiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iioeaie ia?iaee oa oeyo?a ?o e?ea?aeaoe??,
aecia/aiiy oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oi/iino? ? yeino? ia?iaee,
cieaeaiiy aeo?ao aeiac?a, ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a, ui i?aeaeuothoue
oaoiieia?/io iaae?ei?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue ?ino?oiaioa oa iaeaaeiaiiy
i?ioeano ieineiai oi?oeaaiai aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai oe?ooaaiiy –
?ii?aaioaaiiy oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a, ia?a?ea/anoa oe?ooaaiiy,
aeei?enoaiiy i?oaeiiaeaiio??ieo aeaiaio?a, oi?aae?iiy (noaa?e?caoe?y)
?iai/iai i?io?eth oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa, neeiaa aaeainoaaiiy caaioiaie o
cii? ??caiiy, ui i?aeaeuothoue eiai eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaanoe nenoaiiee aiae?c i?ioeano oi?oeaaiai ieineiai oe?ooaaiiy
aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a.

2. Aiae?oe/ii anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioeano
oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy a?ae ?aaeeiieo oaeoi??a aeey eiai ??ciiiai?oieo
e?iaiaoe/ieo noai.

3. ?ic?iaeoe niiniae ?aaoethaaiiy (noaa?e?caoe??) ??caeueii? caeaoiino?
oi?oeaaeo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a oa aeine?aeeoe ?o aoaeoeai?noue.

4. Ciiaeaethaaoe iniiai? noaoe/i? e aeeiai?/i? iioeaee
i?ioeano iaeiinoi?iiiueiai oa aeainoi?iiiueiai oe?ooaaiiy ? iicia/eoe
oeyoe ?o ciaioaiiy, aiae?oe/ii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeoe iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? aieeao aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?oaeii? oaoiieia?/ii?
nenoaie i?e iaeiinoi?iiiueiio ? aeainoi?iiiueiio oe?ooaaii? ia iniiai?
oaoiieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?ooaaiiy oa aecia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
iano?ithaaeuei? ia?aiao?e noaie?a ? ?aaeeie ia?iaee.

5. ?ic?iaeoe ? ciiaeaethaaoe ia AII nenoaio aaoiiaoe/iiai aaeainoaaiiy
caaioiaee a cii? ??caiiy oa anoaiiaeoe ?? iniiai? aeeiai?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

6. ?ic?iaeoe iniiai? iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

7. Aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeeoe iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aaaae
aeainoi?iiiueiai ia?a?ea/anoiai ?ii?aaiiaaiiai oe?ooaaiiy i?e ia?iaoe?
ae?ia?a ?c aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a.

8. Ae??oeoe caaea/o aaaaoioaeoi?ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo caeaaeiinoae
aeainoi?iiiueiai ? ia?a?ea/anoiai oe?ooaaiiy, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
iiaeia aoei a i?e/eiii iienaoe aca?iiae?th i?ae aeiaciei ?ino?oiaioii oa
ia?iaethaaiith iiaa?oiath; iia`ycaoe ??ciiiai?oi? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano
oe?ooaaiiy c oaoiieia?/ieie oiiaaie caaacia/aiiy caaeaii? oi/iino? ?
yeino? ae?ia?a ?c aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae i?ae?a?aoe
iaiao?aei? ?iai/? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai ?ino?oiaioa oa
oiiae eiai ?aoe?iiaeueii? aenieoaoaoe??.

9. ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia aeei?enoaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? oi?oeaaiai
oe?ooaaiiy aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a, ? ai?iaaaeeoe ?o o
ae?iaieoeoai.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Oai?aoe/i? e aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaea i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?iaiaeeeeny ia
iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeaiue oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, ??caiiy
iaoa??ae?a, oai??? ieanoe/iino? ? i?oaeiino?, oai??? iaoaiaoe/iiai
ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaio?a, aiae?oe/ii? aaiiao???, cania?a iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy ia AII. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny c
aeei?enoaiiyi no/anii? iioe/ii? aia?aoo?e, aia?aoo?e aeey
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co ? c aeei?enoaiiyi na??eieo i?eeaae?a ?
iaeaaeiaiiy, a oaeiae niaoe?aeueieo i?ea?iaeueieo i?eeaae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Noai?aia iaoeiaa iniiaa aeey
nenoaiaoe/iiai oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ae??oaiiy aaaaoiieaiiai?
i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oe?ooaaiiy aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo
iaoa??ae?a.

Cai?iiiiiaai?, ?ic?iaeai? oa aeine?aeaeai?:

1. Iiaee niin?a ieineiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy, ui caaacia/o?
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? ca?eueoaiiy oi/iino? i?e
iaeiinoi?iiiueiio ? aeainoi?iiiueiio oe?ooaaii? iaoa??ae?a, ui
aaco?oueny:

— ia e?iaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeyo i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy aeey ??ciiiai?oieo noai
iiaea/? caaioiaie aeey aecia/aiiy aeiaaeeie aeoae eiioaeoo eiea c
aeaoaeeth, yea ? aieiaiei eiiiiiaioii i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ioeano oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi?;

— ia iaoaiaoe/ieo noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo iiaeaeyo i?ioean?a
iaeiinoi?iiiueiai ? aeainoi?iiiueiai oe?ooaaiiy, ia iniia? yeeo
noi?ioeueiaai? aiae?oe/i? ??aiyiiy ?ici?uaiiy oa ?ooo ?ino?oiaioa ?
caaioiaee a ieiuei? ? i?inoi?? oa aecia/ai? iniiai? iioeaee ia?iaee.

2. Iiaee niin?a noi?nii? ia?iaee iaiaeiiai ?ino?oiaioo oe?ooaaeueieie
e?oaaie c ea?oth/ith (noaa?e?ciaaiith) ??caeueiith caeaoi?noth ?o
?iai/i? iiaa?oi? oeyoii ci?iaiiy inueiai? aei?noeino? ae?eyiie ?iai/i?
iiaa?oi? ?ino?oiaioa, ui caaacia/o? aenieii?iaeoeoeaia oe?ooaaiiy aac
canaethaaiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa.

3. Iiaee niin?a ia?a?ea/anoiai aeeaeiiiai oe?ooaaiiy, ui
aecia/a?oueny niaoe?aeueiith aaiiao???th eaiaaie ia ?iai/?e iiaa?oi?
oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ? a?aeiioaiiyi iniiaieo ?aaeeiieo oaeoi??a
(iiacaeiaaeiuei? iiaea/? oa aeeaeie ??caiiy) a oiiaao naiicaaino?aiiy
oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ? caaacia/o? aenieii?iaeoeoeaia oe?ooaaiiy.

4. Iiaee niin?a i?aaee aeiaciiai oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa aa?aceaiei,
oeyoii iaianaiiy oo?eoiai? ?aeue?oii? n?oee ia ?iai/o iiaa?oith e?oaa,
ui caaacia/o? ??aiii??ia i/euaiiy aeiacieo ca?ai c on?o aie?a.

5. Iiaee niin?a aeainoi?iiiueiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy c aeeiai?/iei
neeiaei aaeainoaaiiyi caaioiaee a cii? ??caiiy, yeee cae?enith?oueny
nenoaia aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy (NAE), ui caaacia/o? iie?auaiiy an?o
oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioeano.

6. Iiaee niin?a ?ii?aaiiaaiiai oe?ooaaiiy iaai?o?a, yeee
?aae?co?oueny oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a i?ini/aieo
a?ao?oiaith ??aeeiith, i?oaeiiaeaiio??ieo aeaiaio?a oa iioeiaeueieo
?aaeei?a oe?ooaaiiy, ui caaacia/o? iie?ioaiiy yeino? ia?iaeaii?
iiaa?oi?.

7. Aeai?eoie ?ic?aooieo ? i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy ?ic?aooieo iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a oaoiieia?/ieo nenoai ieineiai iaeiinoi?iiiueiai ?
aeainoi?iiiueiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eythoue
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, iia`ycaiiai c
aeiacii-aa?aceaiei oe?ooaaiiyi aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaia, ?ic?iaeaia ? ?aae?ciaaia:

1. Eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano ieineiai
oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy, ui aaco?oueny:

— ia eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ??oaiiyo ca??ieo ia?a?ea/anoeo oe?ooaaeueieo
e?oa?a ?c ?aaoethth/ei ?iai/ei i?io?eai aeey noi?nii? ia?iaee noae? ?
oaa?aeiai nieaao;

— ia eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ??oaiiyo ia?a?ea/anoeo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a, ye?
iathoue o?aiaoea?aeaeueio oi?io eaiaaie a iiia?a/iiio ?ic??c? ?
iaiaeiaeiao ?o aeeaeio ii ?aae?ono e?oaa;

— ia ?ii?aaiiaaieo oe?ooaaeueieo ? i?oaeiiaeaiio??ieo aeaiaioao, ui
canoiniaothoueny i?e ia?iaoe? e?eoeeo aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a;

— ia iioei?ciaaieo oaoiieia?/ieo noaiao aeainoi?iiiueiai ia?a?ea/anoiai
?ii?aaiiaaiiai oe?ooaaiiy aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a, aeeth/ath/e
nenoaie caaaioaaeaiiy caaioiaie.

2. Nenoaia aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, yea ?aae?co? niin?a
aaoiiaoe/iiai neeiaiai aaeainoaaiiy caaioiaie o cii? ??caiiy i?e
aeainoi?iiiueiio oi?oeaaiio oe?ooaaii? ca ?aooiie ae??aithaaiiy neeiaiai
aieeao oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a c aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo noi??i ia?iaethaaii?
caaioiaee, ui caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?, oi/iino? ? ye?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy.

3. Iaoiaeieia?y ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ciino
oe?ooaaeueiiai ?ino?oiaioa, nee ??caiiy, inoaoi/ieo iai?oa ia?oiai
?iaeo, oi?noeino? ? oi/iino? ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi?, iano?ithaaeueieo
ia?aiao??a noaie?a ye i?e iaeiinoi?iiiueiio, oae ? i?e aeainoi?iiiueiio
ieineiio oi?oeaaiio oe?ooaaii? aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a, oeyoii
noaoe/ii? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? iiaoaeiae i?inoi?iaeo
iiaeaeae aeicaieeee:

— aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie ia?iaee i?e ??cieo noaiao oe?ooaaiiy;

— anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeuei? iano?ithaaeuei? ia?aiao?e aa?noao?a (eooe
iiai?io?a e?oa?a) ? ?ino?oiaio?a (inueiaa aei?noe?noue naaiaio?a);

— i?aeaeueoe ciinino?ee?noue iiaa?oi? ia?iaeaii? aeaoae? ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy;

— iie?aueoe ye?noue ia?iaeaieo iiaa?oiae aeaoaeae.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeai? oe?ooaaeueiee e?oa c
noaa?e?ci-aaiiei ?iai/ei i?io?eai ? oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ia?a?ea/anoiai
oe?ooaaiiy iaiaeieo ??coe?a ? III ao?eai? ia *a?i?a?anueeiio
?ino?oiaioaeueiiio caaiae?.

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean
ia?a?ea/anoiai aeainoi?iiiueiai aeiaciiai oe?ooaaiiy ieiuei iii?ieo ?
??aeo/eo aaaaoia?aiieo iaia?aoi/oaaieo ieanoei ?c oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ?
ea?ai?ee ai?iaaaeaeai? ia caaiaeao «Iiaaaeeo» (i.I?aeaeii?e?aeca) ?
eiia?iao? oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ? ooaiieaaeeo iaoa??ae?a (i.Na?oeiaiaenuee).

Oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ?ii?aaiiaaiiai oe?ooaaiiy aeca?eaeueieo
iaai?o?a ai?iaaaeaeai? ia caaiae? «Iaaieo» (i.I?aeaeii?e?aeca).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ?
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia:

I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo:

«Aeaeay aaoiiaoecaoeey» (CSER, Bratislava, 4-6 ea?oiy 1990 ?.),
«Aaoiiaoecaoeey e aeeaaiinoeea a iaoaiiia?aaioea» (Eooeuee, 20-22
aeiaoiy 1993 ?.), «I?ia?aneaia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?
caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa» (Ee?a, IOOO, 25-28 o?aaiy 1998 ?.),
«Mechanics-98» (Poland, Rzeszow: Rzeszow University of Technology, Kiev
Polytechnical Institute, 27-30 /a?aiy 1998 ?.), «Iaoeiino?iaiea e
oaoiinoa?a ia ?oaaaea XXI aaea» (5 iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
eiioa?aioeey, Neioa?iiieue, 8-11 naioya?y 1998 a.).

Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo:

«Oaoiieiae/aneia oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii ia?aaioee e yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie
naienoaaie aeaoaeae iaoei» (Eeaa, 9-11 naioya?y 1980 a.),
«Eiino?oe?iaaiea e i?iiecaiaenoai naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei»
(?inoia-ia-Aeiio 1985 a.).

?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo:

«Naa?ooaa?aeua iaoa?eaeu e eino?oiaiou a ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo
oaoiieiaeyo» (Eeaa, 23-25 iiya?y 1989 a.), «Oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa ?aaiou
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee» (Eooee, 17-20 ieoya?y 1991 a.).

Ananithcieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo nai?ia?ao:

«Iiaua iaoiaeu ia?aaioee ?acaieai eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia e
yenieoaoaoeey ?aaeoueo eino?oiaioia» (Iineaa, IAeIOI, 1998 a.),
«?aoeeiiaeueiay yenieoaoaoeey ?aaeouaai eino?oiaioa a oneiaeyo AIN e
noaieia n *IO» (Iineaa,IAeIOI,1989 a.), «*enoiaay ia?aaioea iaoa?eaeia
?acaieai» (Iineaa, IAE, 1990 a.), «Iiaa?oiinoiue neie, oi/iinoue e
yenieoaoaoeeiiiua naienoaa aeaoaeae iaoei» (Iineaa, IAeIOI, 1990 a.).

Aocianueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo:

«Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eiioa?aioeey, iinayuaiiay 50-eaoeth NEAIE»
(I?aeaeiieeeaeca, 1981 a.), «Oeiiaua iaoaieciu e oaoiieiae/aneay
inianoea noaieia-aaoiiaoia, noaieia n *IO e AIN» (Noaiee-91: *a?ieaia,
14-15 iay 1991a.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 35-oe
ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo, o oiio /ene? 4 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
9-oe ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e,
aeiaeaoea. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c 275 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
149-oe ?enoie?a, 29-oe oaaeeoeue, 190 iaeiaioaaiue e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae, 4-o aeiaeaoe?a ia 41 noi??ieo. Ianya ?iaioe 408 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

O anooiia? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ?ic?iaethaaii? oaie,
iinoaaeaia iaoa ? aecia/ai? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi no/aniee noai aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a
aa?aceaiiai ? aeiaciiai oi?oeaoe?ooaaiiy aeaoaeae c aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo
iaoa??ae?a — iaai?oioaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a oaa?aeeo nieaa?a, ea?ai?ee.
I?iaaaeaii nenoaiiee aiae?c ?nioth/eo noai oe?ooaaiiy caaioiaie oi?oeai
oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa c ia?aoiaeii a?ae i?ioeano iaeiinoi?iiiueiai
oe?ooaaiiy aei aeainoi?iiiueiai.

C?iaeaii aiae?c iniiaieo niinia?a, ye? i?aeaeuothoue
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa oi/i?noue ? iie?auothoue ye?noue ia?iaee ieineeo
iiaa?oiiue: ?icaeyiooi aieea aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia iniiai?
iieacieee ieineiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy, ?icaeyiooi ia?a?ea/anoa
oe?ooaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy nenoai aaeaioeaiiai ea?oaaiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? ia?iaee iiaa?oiiue, ?icaeyiooi ea?oaaiiy ??caeueii? caeaoiino?
ae?eyiie ?iai/i? iiaa?oi? oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a, ?icaeyiooi oe?ooaaiiy
?ii?aaiiaaieie oe?ooaaeueieie e?oaaie iaai?oioaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ? aeina?aeo i?iieneiaino? aeiiii?a
anoaiiaeoe:

1. Aeiacia oi?oeaaa oe?ooaaiiy ? iaea?eueo i?ia?aneaiei iaoiaeii ia?iaee
ae?ia?a ?c aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a.

2. Iniaeeaino? ia?iaee oi?oe?a caaioiaie ?c aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo
iaoa??ae?a (iaai?o?a, oaa?aeeo nieaa?a, ea?ai?ee) ia a?aei?io a?ae
?aooe, iia`ycai? c ?o a?eueoith e?eoe?noth ? ii?ooaiiyi aaiiao?e/ii?
oi?ie ae?ia?a i?ney nia/aiiy.

3. Aiae?c ?nioth/eo noai oe?ooaaiiy iieacaa, ui iaoiae aeainoi?iiiueiai
oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy ieiuei caaioiaie ?c aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a
? iaea?eueo i?ia?aneaiei, a ?nioth/? eiai noaie ia aoaeoeai? i?e
ia?iaoe? caaioiaie ?c aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a.

4. Aiae?c iniiaieo niinia?a, ye? i?aeaeuothoue aoaeoeai?noue aeiaciiai
oe?ooaaiiy i?e ia?iaoe? aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a, aeiiii?a
anoaiiaeoe iniiai? c ieo: ia?a?ea/anoa oe?ooaaiiy, aaeainoaaiiy
caaioiaie o cii? ??caiiy, oe?ooaaiiy c ea?oaaiiyi ??caeueii? iiaa?oi?
oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a, ?ii?aaioaaiiy oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a, aeei?enoaiiy
i?oaeiiaeaiio??ieo aeaiaio?a o i?ioean? oiieiai /enoiaiai oe?ooaaiiy
e?eoeeo iaoa??ae?a, iioei?caoe?y iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee oe?ooaaeueieo
e?oa?a, ciauoaaeueii-ioieiaeaeoth/iai oaoiieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua (CION)
oa ?aaeei?a oe?ooaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaiaoeee
i?ioeano aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai oe?ooaaiiy c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy aeiaaeeie
no?oaeee, yea ci?ia?oueny c caaioiaee, aeey ??ciiiai?oieo noai
oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy.

Ia`?i iaoa??aeo, ui ci?ia?oueny iaeeie/iei ca?iii ?c caaioiaee:

wmetafile8? ??th????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????aea L – aeiaaeeia eiioaeoo ??caeueiiai ca?ia
c ia?iaethaaiith aeaoaeeth; az – oiaueia oa?o, ui ci?ia?oueny iaeiei
ca?iii; b – oe?eia c??co iaeiiai ca?ia.

?ic?aooiie ?ici??o L cae?enith?oueny ua ana ae oaee i?eaeecii.

Ia aeiaaeie i?yiie?i?eiiai ?ooo caaioiaee ia?aiao?e/i? ??aiyiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue o?a?eoi??th ?ooo ??caeueiiai ca?ia A ia ciai?oiueiio
ae?aiao?? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa (?en.1) a eii?aeeiaoao XOY c ii/aoeii a
oeaio?? iaa?oaiiy e?oaa, eiee caaioiaea ?ooa?oueny i?yiie?i?eii,
caieoooueny:

wmetafile8? ??n???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy`??f?? ???&?
?MathType??????uthY????? aea R1 — ciai?oi?e ae?aiao?
oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa; e? — /anoioa iaa?oaiiy e?oaa; t — iioi/ia ci?iia
/ano; V — iinooiaeueiee i?yiie?i?eiee ?oo caaioiaee.

Aeiaaeeia o?a?eoi???, ui iieno?oueny iaeeie/iei aa?aceaiei ca?iii
aoaea aecia/aoeny:

wmetafile8? ??I???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? 2???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy`2??6?? ???&? ?MathType??°
???u?????????»????-?????…????…–
???…AE???…????u¤yY????? aea wmetafile8?
??A??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyyA ??§?? ???&?
?MathType???? ???u?????????»????-?????eAe???Io ???u??
???????»????-????Oo???!<???-?????!D???a?c???a ?c???a?[ ???u?th?????? aea t1 – iiiaio aoiaeo ??caeueii? e?iiee o ae??a; t2 – iiiaio aeoiaeo ??caeueii? e?iiee c ae?iao; I – oe?eia caaioiaee; d – ci?uaiiy caaioiaee. Ia aeiaaeie e?oaiaiai (iiiooiiai ? cono??/iiai) oe?ooaaiiy (?en.2) ??aiyiiy o?a?eoi??? ??caeueii? oi/ee: wmetafile8? ?????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy ??¶?? ???&? ?MathType?????uYyY????? aea wmetafile8? ??Oe???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy@???? ???&? ?MathType??p????u?th?????? ??aiyiiy aeiaaeeie aeoae eiioaeoo aeey cono??/iiai ? iiiooiiai oe?ooaaiiy: wmetafile8? ??`??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ?$???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyyA#??Oe?? ???&? ?MathType??a????uthY????? aea wmetafile8? ??7??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy???/?? ???&? ?MathType??P????uthY????? Ia ?en.1 ? ?en.2 i?aaenoaaeai? a?ao?ee caeaaeiino? (5) aeiaaeei aeoa eiioaeo?a a?ae iniiaieo e?iaiaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. ?o aiae?c aeicaiey? aea?aoe aaaeai? iaeano? ?o ci?iaiiy. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaaeeia aeoae eiioaeoo iaeeie/iiai ca?ia i?e oiia?, ui caaioiaea ?ooa?oueny i?yiie?i?eii, a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaia ?ic?iaea ia?a?ea/anoeo ca??ieo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a ?c noaa?e?ciaaiith ??caeueiith caeaoi?noth ?iai/i? iiaa?oi?. Ciioaiee i?io?eue oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa aecia/a?oueny neeaaeiith iae?i?eiith iiaa?oiath. ?iaioa oa ciioaiiy a eiaei?e oi/oe? e?oaa: wmetafile8? ?? aea wmetafile8? ??™??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyya???? ???&? ?MathType??p????u y?????? ?ic?iaeaiee oe?ooaaeueiee e?oa (?en.3) c ea?oth/ei ?iai/ei i?io?eai iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiee aeey noi?niiai oe?ooaaiiy oaa?aeiai nieaao ? noae? (iaiaeieo ??coe?a) ? neeaaea?oueny ?c aeiacieo naaiaio?a 1, ei?iona 2, i?oaeieo aeaiaio?a 3. Iaiaeiee ??caoeue iiaea ?ooaoeny ii i?yiie?i?ei?e aai e?oaia?e o?a?eoi???. Aeiaci? naaiaioe, ye? cae?eniththoue i?ioean ia?a?ea/anoiai oe?ooaaiiy ia oe?ooaaeuei?e aieiaoe?, ?icoaoiaai? ii 3-o eiioeaio?e/ieo eieao ? iathoue ??cio inueiao aei?noe?noue - iaeneiaeueio a oeaio?? ? aei?noe?noue, ui ciaioo?oueny aei ia?eoa??? e?oaa. AEi?noe?noue aeey eiaeiiai ?yaeo i?oaeieo aeaiaio?a, ?icoaoiaaieo ii eiioeaio?e/iiio eie?, aecia/a?oueny ca?aeii caeaaeiino?: wmetafile8? ??U??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @@ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy? ??oe?? ???&? ?MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-????? D??? '???u?th?????? aea Jyo - aei?noe?noue oieiaeaeueiiai aocea a inueiaiio iai?yieo; R - ?aae?on eiioeaio?e/ii? iiaa?oi?, ia ye?e ?icoaoiaaiee i?oaei?e ? oe?ooth/ee naaiaioe; a, b, n - eiao?oe??ioe, ui a?aoiaothoue iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ? ia?iaethaaiiai iaoa??aeo. Iai?eeeaae, i?e aeiaci?e ia?iaoe? a?oie oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ia caoi/oaaeueieo aa?noaoao, eiao?oe??io a ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao 185,5...1,51943105, b a iaaeao 0,58...2,47, n a iaaeao 1...3, inueiaa aei?noe?noue oieiaeaeueiiai aocea Jyo=7...9107I/i. Aeey caiia?aaiiy oaea?o i?e a??caii? oe?ooaaeueieo naaiaio?a o caaioiaeo inoaii? ?icoaoiaai? i?ae eooii aei ai?eciioaeueii? ieiueie a ?aae?aeueiiio iai?yieo. I?e/iio, ?ici?? eooa ciaioo?oueny a?ae 5...8 ia?eoa??eieo aeaiaio?a aei ioey a eae?a?oth/?e cii?. O iai?yieo, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio aei ?aae?aeueiiai, oe?ooth/? aeaiaioe ?icoaoiaai? i?ae eooii , ui ci?ith?oueny a oaeeo aea iaaeao ? ca oei aea caeiiii, ui ? eoo . I?e iiaea/? iaiaeiiai ??coey a ciio oe?ooaaiiy i?e ia?iaoe? eiai ia?aaeiuei? iiaa?oi? a?i iiaeiai ?ooaoeny oeeueiith noi?iiith, o.o. nii/aoeo iiaeiia ia?iaeyoeny noaeueia aea?aeaaea c? noae? 50oOA, a iio?i oaa?aeinieaaia aieiaea c? nieaao O5E10. Oaa?ae?noue iaoa??aeo aea?aeaaee (HRC48) iaioa, i?ae o oaa?aeiai nieaao (HRA87), oiio ia?oo ciio oe?ooaaiiy iaeaooiaothoue ia ia?iaeo noaeueii? aea?aeaaee, a ae?oao - ia oe?ooaaiiy oaa?aeinieaaii? aieiaee, o?aoy ciia eae?a?oth/a. Inueiaa aei?noe?noue oe?ooaaeueiiai naaiaioa: Jy = f (HRC) /e wmetafile8? ??W??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @  ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy` ??ae?? ???&? ?MathType??A? ???u?????????"????-?????xw???? ???u?? ???????"????-????d????aei???-?????ae/???b?U??? b?U???b?$ ???`O???`D ???u?th?????? aea HRC - oaa?ae?noue caaioiaee; ( 1 ciia - Jy1 = 2 103 I/i, 2 ciia - Jy2 =2 104 I/i, 3 ciia - Jy3 = 4 107 I/i); n, k – eiao?oe??ioe, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee caaioiaee ? e?oaa; l - inueiaa i?oaeia ia?ai?uaiiy ??caeueiiai aeaiaioa. (I?e oiia? ieiueiiino? ??caeueiiai i?io?eth, l = const aeey on?o cii). ?aae?on ??caeueiiai aeaiaioa: wmetafile8? ??%??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy????? ???&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"????-??????E????o???u?th?????? aea f e - eiao?oe??ioe, ye? a?aoiaothoue iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ? caaioiaee. Ia ?en.4 iieacaia a?ao?/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aecia/aiiy aei?noeino? i?oaeiiai aeaiaioa ? aaiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaa?aeino? ia?iaethaaii? caaioiaee. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii ia?iaeyoe oe?ooaaeueieie e?oaaie c ea?oth/ei (noaa?e?ciaaiei) ?iai/ei i?io?eai ia?aaei? ? caaei? iiaa?oi? iaiaeieo ??coe?a. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?oaeieo oaoiieia?/ieo nenoai iaeiinoi?iiiueiai oa aeainoi?iiiueiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy c iaoith aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iioeaie oe?ooaaiiy ? ae?iaeoe niiniae ?o ciaioaiiy. Aiae?c iiaeae? (?en.5Aa,a,a) aeicaieea onoaiiaeoe noaoe/io iioeaeo aeeiiaiiy ?ici??o ca oiaueiith caaioiaee: wmetafile8? ??e??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyy ??)?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????@!???@????@<???@AE ???u™yY?????aea Px, Py, Pz - neeaaeia? neee ??caiiy, RKP - ?aae?on oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa, L - aeiaaeeia eiinie?, C - ci?uaiiy oi/ee i?eeeaaeaiiy neee ??caiiy a?ae ai?eciioaeueii? in?. ?ic?aooiie i?inoi?iai? i?oaeii? iaoai?/ii? nenoaie (?en.5a) aeicaieea aecia/eoe i?oaei? aeaoi?iaoe?? wmetafile8? ??I??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyya ??g?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uthY?????wmetafile8? ??o??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?a/???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy /??§?? ???&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????6??????‚???d??? U???» ???°'???’(???T???6???u?th??????wmetafile8? ??a??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a@(???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy?(??–?? ???&? ?MathType??A? ???u?????????"????-??????¶????????????????? ¦ ?????!???u?th?????? Aaee/eie V(y) ? U(y) aecia/athoue iaieiueii?noue ia?iaethaaii? iiaa?oi? caaioiaee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?? e?i?eieo ?ici???a ? o?a?eoi??? ?? ?ooo a?aeiinii ?iai/i? iiaa?oi? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa. Iioeaea aeeiiaiiy ?ici??o ii oiauei? caaioiaee: wmetafile8? ??/??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? Aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy®yyy ??n?? ???&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????`c???`???` aea RA - ?aaeoe?y iii?e A; RA - ?aaeoe?y iii?e B; jA - aei?noe?noue ia?aaeiuei? iii?e oieiaeaeueiiai aocea; jA - aei?noe?noue caaeiuei? iii?e oieiaeaeueiiai aocea A A A ?ic?aooiie eaac?noaoe/ii? iiaeae? (?en.5A) aeicaieea aecia/eoe aaee/eio (iaia?iaiaeeeoey?i?noue ia?iaeaieo oi?oe?a): wmetafile8? ??u??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/4yyy`??|?? ???&? ?MathType??????uthY????? aea Pz - a?aei?ii?noue oaiaaioe?aeueieo nee ??caiiy ia oe?ooaaeueieo e?oaao; B0 - a?aenoaiue i?ae oe?ooaaeueieie e?oaaie; t - a?aei?ii?noue a aeeaei? ??caiiy ?c ia?iaethaaieo oi?oe?a; t - na?aaeiy aeeaeia ??caiiy; H - aenioa ia?iaethaaii? aeaoae?; Kpy - eiao?oe??io noiaeino? nenoaie. ?ic?aooiie aeeiai?/ieo nenoai (?en.6A,A) aeicaieea aecia/eoe aeeiai?/io iioeaeo ia?iaee - oaeeyno?noue ia?iaeaiiai i?io?eth: wmetafile8? ?? aea Ca - eiao?oe??io, ui a?aoiao? ciaioaiiy aenioe oaeeynoino? ii oe?ei? ?iai/i? /anoeie oi?oey e?oaa; X1, X2 - ?ic?aooieia? aiie?ooaee ciooaieo eieeaaiue oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ? caaioiaee i?e iaeiinoi?iiiueiio oe?ooaaii? ? aeaio oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a i?e aeainoi?iiiueiio oe?ooaaii?, caeaaei? a?ae ?aaeeiieo oaeoi??a ? aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ION. ?ic?aooiie aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie (?en.6A) aeicaieea io?eiaoe i?inoi?iaa iae?i?eia aeeoa?aioe?aeueia ??aiyiiy aeiooaieo eieeaaiue oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa: wmetafile8? ??+ ??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A`+???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy +??r?? ???&? ?MathType??????uthY????? Iae?i?ei?noue ??aiyiiy aecia/a?oueny ia?aiao?ii L - iioi/iei ci?uaiiyi oeaio?a i?eeeaaeaiiy neee ??caiiy a?ae in? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa. ?ica`ycie oeeo ??aiyiue /eneiaei iaoiaeii ia AII aeicaieeei aecia/eoe ia?aiao?e Y1, Y2, Z1, Z2, a oaeiae ??cieoeth Y2 – Y1, Z2 – Z1, ye? aecia/athoue aeeiai?/i? iioeaee ia?iaee caaioiaie (iaieine?noue ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi?). Oaeiae aoee aecia/ai? aiie?ooaeii-/anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? aoa onoaiiaeaiee eiao?oe??io aeeiai?/iino? iaoai?/ii? nenoaie a aeaio n?/ieo ieiueiao: o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei?wmetafile8? ??e??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  @???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy???O?? ???&? ?MathType??a????uthY????? O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? aoei ?ic?iaeaii ? ciiaeaeueiaaii ia AII niin?a i?aaee aeiaciiai oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa (?en.7.) aa?aceaiei e?oaii oeyoii iaianaiiy ia ?iai/o ??caeueio iiaa?oith ?aaoey?ii? oo?eoiai? n?oee. Aoei ?ic?aoiaaii eoo i?aaee aaiiao?e/ii ??aiee eooo i?ae aeioe/ieie aei o?a?eoi??e aeaio oe?ooaaeueieo ca?ai, ?icoaoiaaieo ia a?aenoai? ia??iaeo ? acyoeo o oi/oe? ia?aoeio eieeaaiue: wmetafile8? ??o???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyya ??AE?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??AE??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?  ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy®yyy`??®?? ???&? ?MathType?? aea R - ?aae?on aaeoi? oi/ee ia iiaa?oi? aeiaciiai e?oaa, a ye?e aecia/a?oueny eoo . Aeey aa?noaoo 3343 = 62 - 180, oe?eia aeiaciiai e?oaa 100 ii. Oe?eia i?aaey/iai e?eueoey iiaeiia aooe yeiiiaa iaioith (5 - 10 ii), a iaeneiaeueiee ae?aiao? aeiaciiai oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ia iiaeiai ia?aaeuoaaoe 350 - 400 ii. Iaoa??ae aeiaciiai e?eueoey – ea?a?ae e?aii?th caeaiiai na?aaeiuei? oaa?aeino?. Eiai ca?ieno?noue iiaeiia aooe ??aiith aai o?ioe a?eueoith, i?ae ca?ieno?noue oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa. O i`yoiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? cae?enieoe ??aiee neeiaee aieea oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a ia ia?iaethaai? oi?oe? caaioiaee. ?ici?? iaeneiaeueiiai iaocaiaeaeaiiy oaiaaioe?aeueieo neeaaeiaeo nee ??caiiy ia iiaeiai ia?aa?eueooaaoe 7 - 10 I, ui aecia/a? iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue aiie?ooae oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a a 15 - 20 iei, ye? a naith /a?ao aecia/athoue oi/i?noue ? oi?noe?noue ia?iaethaaii? iiaa?oi? (ca?aeii AINO 19086-73) ? ieoii? aeo?aoe aeiacieo e?oa?a - ia a?eueoa 0,4 ia/a. Niin?a ae??aithaaiiy ieoo?aeo cia/aiue nee ??caiiy cae?enith?oueny oeyoii ci?ie eooiai? oaeaeeino? iaeiiai ?c oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a ca caeiiii: wmetafile8? ??‹??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy ??6?? ???&? ?MathType??`? ???u?????????"????-??????i???‚  ???u?? ???????"????-????? ???0e???-?????0m???R?E???R?E???R????u y?????? aea e - oaoiieia?/ia noaea; - eiao?oe??io e?eaecie e?eai?, yea iieno? i?ioean Pz=f(V), ui oaoiieia?/ii ??aiioe?iii ci?i? oaiaaioe?aeueii? neeaaeiai? neee ??caiiy ia iueiio. Nenoaia aoea ciiaeaeueiaaia ia aiaeia?/i?e AII II - 17, ? aoee oaeiae a?aoiaai? an? aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oaeii? nenoaie i?eaiaeo aeaeaoia aieiaiiai ?ooo aa?noaoa. Aiae?c inoeeeia?ai ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a iieacaa, ui nenoaia aeicaiey? ae??aithaaoe ??cieoeth a neeao ??caiiy ii oi?oeyo caaioiaee aei 15 I, cieaeaiiyi eooiai? oaeaeeino? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a?ae 1 = 370n-1 aei 2 = 260n-1 ca 0,1n. Nenoaio aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey iie?ioaiiy aeeiai?ee i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy i?e iaaaaeaieo noia?ieo ianao oieiaeaeueiiai aocea, ?ino?oiaioa ? caaioiaee - ia a?eueoa 10 ea, ui iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii i?e ia?iaoe? oiieeo ei?iaeaieo ieineeo oaa?aeinieaaieo (ea?ai?/ieo) caaioiaie aeey noai?aiiy no?eei? onoaiiai/ii? aace, iaiao?aeii? iaaeae? aeey cae??ieaiiy ?o ia iaai?oiiio aai aaeooiiiio noie? aa?noaoa. O oinoiio ?icae?e? i?eaiaeeoueny iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?a?ea/anoiai oe?ooaaiiy ? oe?ooaaiiy c neeiaei aaeainoaaiiyi caaioiaie. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?a?ea/anoiai oe?ooaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aa?noaoe WFM 10/12 ? 3Y731. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeeny i?e ia?iaoe? ??caeueieo ieanoei c oaa?aeiai nieaao OO20E9 oi?ie 2008-3012 AINO 10284-74. Ieiua c?ace?a, ye? oe?oothoueny iaeii/anii neeaea 310ii2 aeey aa?noaoa WFM 10/12 ? 911,7ii2 aeey aa?noaoa 3Y731. Oe?ooaaeuei? e?oae 6A2 350105 AN? 80/63-IA1 100% ? 6A2 350105 AN? 125/100-IA1 100%. E??i oiai, aei?iaiaoaaeenue e?oae ia ca`yceao AI2, A2100 – o??? ae ca?ienoino? e eiioeaio?aoe??. A yeino? CION aeei?enoiaoaaany ?ic/ei AAE-1 ? 5%NaNO2+5%NaNO3 +94,5H2O. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue i?e ii??aiyii? i?ioean?a nooe?eueiiai aeeaeiiiai ? ia?a?ea/anoiai aeeaeiiiai oe?ooaaiiy . Aeey ia?a?ea/anoiai oe?ooaaiiy aoa ?ic?iaeaiee ? aeaioiaeaiee niaoe?aeueiee ia?a?ea/anoee aeiaciee oe?ooaaeueiee e?oa c o?aiaoea?aeaeueiei iiia?a/iei ia?aoeiii eaiaaeaie ia??aiii??iei ca?eueoaiiyi ?o aeeaeie a?ae ciai?oi?o aei aioo??oi?o e?iiie e?oaa (?en.8.). I?e oeueiio eaiaaee aeeiiai? i?ae iaoeeii aei ?aae?aeueiiai iai?yieo (70-80). Ia?iaeo ae?ia?a i?iaiaeeee a ?aaeei? aeeaeiiiai oe?ooaaiiy i?e S/t=254-3073, aeey ooai?aiiy iino?eiiai caa??iiai eiiona a cii? a??caiiy. E?i?eia oaeaee?noue e?oa?a neeaaeaea 25,5i/n. Oaeaee?noue iicaeiaaeiuei? iiaea/? ci?ithaaeany a?ae 38 aei 500 ii/ia. Aeeaeia ??caiiy ci?ithaaeany a?ae 0,06ii aei 0,3ii aeey aa?noaoa WFM10/12 ? a?ae 0,01ii aei 0,08ii aeey 3Y731. Aeey aecia/aiiy ii?iaeueieo neeaaeiaeo nee ??caiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny: aei??thaa/ iaeeo ia?ai?uaiue EII-2, neaiae a?ae yeiai i?aeneethaaany ? aeae? caienoaaany ca aeiiiiiaith naiiieoo/iai iioaioe?iiao?a ENI-2, a oaeiae oaiciaei??thaaeuei? aeao/eee 2IEA-200O(A), oaicii?aeneethaa/ OA-5, caienoth/ee inoeeeia?ao I-117 (/e naiiienaoeue I-338). Eieeaaiiy oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a aei??thaaee ca aeiiiiiaith a?a?iuoi?a E-61. Iiooaei?noue oe?ooaaiiy ?a?no?oaaee aaooi?o?aie. Aei??thaaiiy oi?noeino? ? oaeeynoino? ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi? i?iaiaeeee ia i?io?eia?ao?-i?io?eiiao?? iiaeae? 201 caaiaeo “Eae?a?”. Eiioaeoi? oaiia?aoo?e aecia/aeeny ii IE-aei?ii?ithaaiith ciie oe?ooaaiiy oioiaeaeo?e/iei i?eno???i c canoinoaaiiyi oioi?acenoi??a i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? i?iiaiy IE-aei?ii?ithaaiiy /a?ac eaiae, i?inaa?aeeaiee o ei?ion? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa. Aecia/aiiy ciino ??caeueii? iiaa?oi? e?oa?a i?iaiaeeeinue ?? i?io?eia?aooaaiiyi ia niaoe?aeueiiio noaiae?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ia aa?noaoao 3I642A ? 3342. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? nee ??caiiy, iiooaeiino?, oi?noeino?, ciino aeiacieo e?oa?a aeei?enoiaoaaee oeaio?aeuei? eiiiiceoe?ei? ?ioaoaaaeuei? oi?oi?i-ieaie ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo c o?ee?aoiei iiaoi?aiiyi aeine?ae?a. Iioei?caoe?y ?o cae?enithaaeanue iaoiaeii eaiii?/ieo ??aiyiue. O nueiiiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?a?ea/anoiai oe?ooaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a 6A2 350105 ? 6A2 250203. I?iaaaeai? ii??aiyeuei? aenia?eiaioe ia?a?ea/anoeo ? nooe?eueieo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a iieacothoue, ui canoinoaaiiy e?oa?a iiai? eiino?oeoe?? i?e ia?iaoe? oaa?aeeo nieaa?a aeicaiey? ia 20-30% i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia?iaee oaa?aeiai nieaao, ia 20-30% ciaioeoe aeo?aoe aeiaciiai ?ino?oiaioa, ia 15-30% ciaioeoe neee ??caiiy, ciaioeoe neeiaee eiao?oe??io i?e aeinyaiaii? yeino? ? oi/iino? ia?iaethaaii? iiaa?oi? ca?aeii c aeiiaaie AINO 19086-73. ?ic?iaeai? ia?a?ea/ano? e?oae oaoiieia?/i? o aeaioiaeaii? ?o ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eiiio aa?noao? ? noaa?euei? o ?iaio? aac i?aaee. ?ic?iaeaiee ?ino?oiaio (niaoe?aeuei? aeaeo?iaee) aeey ?o aeaioiaeaiiy. Io?eiai? iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino?, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue aieea o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ae?aiaciiao iniiaieo oaeoi??a ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ieoii? aeo?aoe aeiac?a, neee ??caiiy (Q, q, Px,y,z = f(S,V,f)), aaeaeaaoii iienothoue aeine?aei? aeai? i?e 10% ??ai? cia/eiino?. O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? oiiae ni?eueiiai oe?ooaaiiy noae? ? oaa?aeiai nieaao aeiacieie oe?ooaaeueieie e?oaaie c? noaa?e?ciaaiith ??caeueiith iiaa?oiath (?en.9). Aeey aenia?eiaio?a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny – oaa?aeee nieaa ia?ee AE8 ? noaeue 45. Ieiua ia?iaethaaii? caaioiaee: oaa?aeee nieaa – 135ii2, noaeue – 162ii2. Ieiua aeiacieo naaiaio?a – 169ii2. E?euee?noue naaiaio?a o e?oc? – 59. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue ia aenia?eiaioaeueiiio noaiae?, aeaioiaeaiiio ia aac? noaiea iiaeae? A3208-O3 c nenoaiith *IE 2N42 i?e /anoio? iaa?oaiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa e? = 2240ia/oa. aac canoinoaaiiy CION. Cia/aiiy iaeneiaeueieo oaiaaioe?aeueieo nee ?z, ye? aeieeathoue i?e oe?ooaaii?, ?ic?aoiaoaaeinue ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie cia/aiiyie aeoeaii? iiooaeiino? oe?ooaaiiy: wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyya???? ???&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????? ????U???u y??????aea Ni – aeoeaia iiooaei?noue oe?ooaaiiy, i-oi? ciie, eAo; nkp – /enei iaa?o?a oe?ooaaeueii? aieiaee o oaeeeio, ia/oa; Di – n?aaei?e ae?aiao? i-oi? ciie oe?ooaaeueii? aieiaee, ii. Oaaeeoey 1. ?aaeeie oe?ooaaiiy ??aaiue oaeoi?aS (o1), ii/iei.t (o2), iid (o3), iiIniiaiee (0) Aa?oi?e (+) Ieaei?e (-) Ci?yia oi/ea (+) ?ioa?aae aa??thaaiiy Ci?yia oi/ea (-)400 600 200 736,4 200 62,60,15 0,20 0,10 0,184 0,05 0,0160 +24 -24 +42 24 -42 I?ei?oea. Ciae i?e cia/aii? ci?uaiiy caaioiaee icia/a?: " - " – ci?uaiiy oeaio?o caaioiaee a?aeiinii oe?ooaaeueii? aieiaee oiec; " + " – ci?uaiiy oeaio?o caaioiaee a?aeiinii oe?ooaaeueii? aieiaee oaa?o. I?eaiae oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa cae?enith?oueny a?ae aneio?iiiiai aeaeaoia. O eaioetha aeeaeaiiy aeaeaoia oa?ieiai? aei??thaaeueiee ia?aoai?thaa/ aeoeaii? iiooaeiino? ??1 (oei A 859/2) ? eiiieaeo aei??thaaeueieo i?eai??a ?1. O noai? i?enooi?e oaeiae i?ia?aaeoeiaaiee i?e?aiia?iao? ?A ? i?eai? oaeaeeiae?th/ee naiiieoo/ee ?V1 (oei I3031). Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiaieo aeaieo canoiniaoaaeinue oeaio?aeueia eiiiiceoe?eia ?ioioaaaeueia oieoi?i-ieaioaaiiy ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo c o?ee?aoiei iiaoi?aiiyi aeine?ae?a o eiaei?e no?i/oe?. I?ney ?aae?caoe?? iao?eoe? ieaioaaiiy io?eiai? ianooii? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? c? cia/oueie eiao?oe?aioaie: O? = 120,3 + 19,6o2 - 17,6o3 - 23,5o32; O?? = 215,6 + 16,2o1 + 8,9o2 - 34,1o3 - 6,3o12 - 9,9o22 - 30,3o32; (18) O??? = 276 + 21o1 - 34o2 + 42o3 - 39o1o2 -47o1o3 + 46o2o3 - 20o12 - 16o22 - 28o32; aea OI, OII, OIII - iaeneiaeueia oaiaaioe?eia neea ?Z a I, II, III - ciiao oe?ooaaeueii? aieiaee, I; Ia?ao?ae a?ae eiaeiaaieo cia/aiue (o1, o2, o3) aei iaoo?aeueieo (S, t, d) cia/aiue aeeiioaaany ca oi?ioeaie: S = 200x1 + 400; t = 0.05x2 + 0.15; (19) d = 24x3. I?ney ia?aoai?thaaiiy ??aiyiiy i?eeiathoue eaiii?/iee aeae: wmetafile8? ??a??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyyA??q?? ???&? ?MathType??A???u?th??????Eiao?oe??ioe eaiii?/ieo ??aiyiue iathoue ??ci? ciaee, ioaea iiaa?oiy ioeeeeo ? a?ia?aiei?aeii, ?? oeaio? - i?i?iaenii (n?aeeii). Iioeiaeueieie oiiaaie oe?ooaaiiy ?: oaeaee?noue ?ooo caaioiaee – 200ii/oa, aeeaeia ??caiiy t = 0,2ii, ci?uaiiy oeaio?a e?oaa d = -24ii. E??i oiai, io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aoee ia?iaeai? c iaoith aecia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a, i?e yeeo ?iaioa A, cao?a/oaai? ia ia?iaeo i?eioneo, noaa?eueia aeey on?o o?ueio cii. Iaea?eueo noaa?eueia ?iaioa A (24%) i?e S = 63,6ii/oa, t = 0,1ii, d=0. O ainueiiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? aeine?aeaeaiiy yeino? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o i?ney aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai oe?ooaaiiy oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ? iaai?o?a. Aaee/eia caeeoeiaeo iae?iiai?oa, ui aei??th?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith cania?a ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co, aecia/a?oueny ci?iith i?aeiiaa?oiaai? a?aenoai? o??? nenoaie ieiuei e?eooaeaai? a?aoee, a?ae yei?, i?e aeaieo oiiaao ceiiee aoei io?eiaia a?aeaeaaiiy. Aeey aecia/aiiy caeeoeiaeo i?oaeieo iae?iiai?oa aeei?enoaee ??aiyiiy Aoeueoa-A?aaa: wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A`???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy ??†?? ???&? ?MathType??0????u?th?????? aea n - ii?yaeie aeeo?aeoe??; - aeiaaeeia oaee? aeaea?aea aei?ii?ithaaiiy; d - i?aeiiaa?oiaaa a?aenoaiue e?eooaeaai? a?aoee c?acea, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny; - eoo aeeo?aeoe??. ?ic?aooiie caeeoeiaeo iai?oa i?iaiaeeany ca oi?ioeaie: wmetafile8? ??f??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? AA???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy???v?? ???&? ?MathType??????uthY????? aea wmetafile8? ??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy`??ae?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u y?????? Cia/aiiy a?aeiinieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a?aoee a iai?yieo ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio ieiuei? (wmetafile8? ??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy`??ae?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u y?????? Caeeoeiao iai?oao iaea?aeoaaee a WC oac? oaa?aeiai nieaao c aeei?enoaiiyi i?oaeieo eiinoaio A = 700000I/ii2; =0,22. Aeaoi?iaoe?th a?aoee aecia/aee ii e?i?? (112) ceiieith o o?eueo?iaaiiio aei?ii?ithaaii? ia ?aioaai?anueeiio aeeo?aeoiiao?? Ae?II-OI1 i?e caienoaaii? i?io?eth ia ae?aa?aiio no??/eo iioaioe?iiao?a. Iioee? ceiiee i?iaiaeeee i?e eooao aeaoieonoaaiiy c?acea = 45. Aeey i?enei?aiiy ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co ae?ia?a c oaa?aeeo nieaa?a aoee ?ic?iaeai? aeaa i?ia?aiieo eiiieaene aeey AII “ENE?A-1256” (ui aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo aia?aoo Ae?II-OI1). “Ia?oiii/aoeiaa ia?iaea niaeo?a aeeo?aeoe?eii? e?i??” ? “Ia/eneaiiy i?aeieiueiieo a?aenoaiae aeaiaioa?iiai ina?aaeeo e?eooaeaai? a?aoee”. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui a ea?a?aei?e oac? c?ace?a c nieaao AE8 aeieea? cieaeoth/a caeeoeiaa aeaoi?iaoe?y, i?e/iio i?ney nooe?eueiiai oe?ooaaiiy aiia ia 10-40% a?eueoa. Iaie aoee i?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaieo ooaaee?a c AE8 i?ney ?o oe?ooaaiiy i?e noe?aii? ?oiueith ianoith ANI 20/14 ? aeeneii ?c aa?oiaaiiai /aaoio N*15-32 c ioieiaeaeaiiyi iaeiii?ioeaioiei ?ic/e-iii E2N2I4 i?e V=75 i/oa ? iaaaioaaeaii? ?=350I, ? anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaieo ooaaee?a a?ae caeeoeiai? iai?oae a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? (?en.10). O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy yeino? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o i?e ia?iaoe? iai?anoa?e iaai?o?a Aania c iaoa??aeo THIIAeE24 ?ii?aaiiaaieie oe?ooaaeueieie e?oaaie *Oe805020 25A 16INI18EA5 ia aa?noao? CA227 caniaii oi?oeaaiai a??ciiai oe?ooaaiiy. Oe?ooaaeuei? e?oae i?ini/oaaeeny 20-25% ?ic/eiii eiei?aeii? a?ao?oiai? ??aeeie, ui eiioeaio?oaaeany c ianooiiei cae??ieaiiyi /anoie a?ao?oo a ii?ao oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ca aeiiiiiaith nie?oiaiai ?ic/eio eeath AO4 aeaee?noth 12-14 iaeeieoeue. ?ici?? /anoie ?ii?aaiaoi?a – 1,5-2 iei. I?ini/aiiy ae?iaeyee ia niaoe?aeuei?e onoaiiaoe? ca oaoiieia??th ?ic?iaeaiith aaoi?ii. ?aaeeie oe?ooaaiiy: Ve?=21,6i/n, Vae=4i/n. I?eione i?ae ia?iaeo – 1,5 ii. Oi?noe?noue ia?iaee iiaeiia aooe ia a?eueoith Ra=1,25iei. A yeino? CION aeei?enoiaoaaany 1,5% ?ic/ei eaeueoeeiiaaii? niaee. A?aeoe?oiaai? iiaa?oi? ia?aa??yee ia i?e?ineii? OEI-24. Caaioiaee, ui iathoue aee?eooaaiiy aai ae?eae ieiuath a?eueo 0,01 ii2 aea?aeiaoaaeeny. Ii??aiyeueiei no?ee?niei aei?iaoaaiiyi aei iiaiiai ciino i?aeaeaaaeeny cae/aei? e ?ii?aaiiaai? oe?ooaaeuei? e?oae. Onoaiiaeaii, ui e?oae iathoue ??ciiiai?oi? oeeeeia?aie naii-caaino?thaaiino?. I?e oe?ooaaii? cae/aeiei e?oaii ia??iae oeeeeo aei??aith? 30 oa., i?e oe?ooaaii? ?ii?aaiiaaiei – 55 oa. Iaeneiaeueia oaiaaioe?aeueia neea, i?e ye?e aeoea?co?oueny e?oa, neeaaeaea 200I. Ana oea aeicaieeei a 2,3-2,5 ?ace ciaioeoe e?euee?noue i?e?iaee?eooaaiue ia ia?iaeai?e iiaa?oi? iaai?oo “Aania” ? aei 77% i?aeiyoe aeo?ae oi/ieo iaai?o?a. Oaeiae aeine?aeaeoaaeany caeeoeiaa iai?oaa ia?oiai ?iaeo ia iiaa?oi? ia?iaeaieo iaai?o?a THI14AeE24 ca aeiiiiiaith ?aioaai?anueeiai aeeo?aeoiiao?a Ae?II-3I. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ii?aaiiaai? oe?ooaaeuei? e?oae 25A16INI1 ? yeueai?ia? e?oae EIN50/40EA aeaaeooue a?eueo ye?nio ia?iaeo iai?anoa?e, ? ia 25-50% ciaioo?oueny caeeoeiaa iai?oaa noeneo. O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? aoei i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy i?oaeiiaeaiio??iiai aeaiaioo (IAeA) i?e ia?iaoe? iaai?o?a. IAeA ?ic?aoiaai? ? i?ney oeueiai aeaioiaeai? ia niaoe?aeuei?e i?anoi?i? oeyoii aoeeai?caoe?? ne?i? aoie. Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ia?iaoe? c aeei?enoaiiyi IAeA a?aeaoaa?oueny cieaeaiiy ieoo?aeo nee ??caiiy ia 15-20%, oaiia?aoo?a ia iaea?eueo aei?noeeo ?aaeeiao ia ia?aaeuoaaea 300-3500N, a i?e ia?iaoe? ia?ii?aaiiaaieie e?oaaie aac IAeA aeinyaaea 500-6000N, ui i?ecaiaeeei aei ooai?aiiy i?ei?eaiue ia iiaa?oi?. Aoaeoeai?noue uiaei onoiaiiy i?ei?eaiue ? i?e?iaee?eooaaiue neeaea 15-20% i?e ia?iaoe? ia?o?? iaai?o?a a 3000 oo. O aeaa`yoiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaionoi?iiiueiai oe?ooaaiiy i?e ia?iaoe? oaa?aeiai nieaao ? ea?ai?ee. Iaoith aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei: i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae ooai?aiiy aeeiai?/ieo iioeaie i?e aeainoi?iiiueiio oi?oeaoe?ooaaii?, aeyaeaieo oai?aoe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, aea/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iiaeeeainoae NAE; i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee NAE, io?eiaieo iiaeaethaaiiyi ia AII; aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia aeaionoi?iiiueiai oe?ooaaiiy ieanoei c oaa?aeiai nieaao ? ea?ai?ee. Ca?a ?ic?aooieiai? ? aenia?eiaioaeueii? aiie?ooaeii-/anoioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aiai?eoue i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue ?ic?aooieiai? aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? aa?noaoa ?aaeuei?e i?oaei?e oaoiieia?/i?e nenoai? ? i?i i?aaeeuei?noue iniiaieo caeaaeiinoae, ye? iienothoue ooai?aiiy iioeaie i?e iaeiinoi?iiiueiio ? aeainoi?iiiueiio oi?oeaaiio oe?ooaaii?. Aeainoi?iii? oe?ooaaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ia aenia?eiaioaeueiiio noaiae? aeaioiaeaiiio ia aac? aa?noaoa 3342 i?e oaeaeeino? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa Ve?=25i/n (?en.11). Aeey aenia?eiaio?a aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aaaaoia?aii? ieanoeie c ea?ai?ee (AIE71) ? oaa?aeiai nieaao (AE6) /ioe?ea?aiii? oi?ie (14145).Oe?ooaaiiy – aeainoi?iii?, aeeaeiia iaei??? caaioiaee. CION – 3% i?o?aoo iao??th, ?aooa aiaea. Oe?ooaaeuei? e?oae – 6A2400100475 AN* 125/100 100% A1-13. ?icai?io oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei? iino?eiee oa aei??aith? 0,6 ii. Cia/aiiy iaeneiaeueieo oaiaaioe?aeueieo nee – ?z, aeieeath/eo i?e oe?ooaaii?, ?ic?aoiaoaaeenue ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie cia/aiiyie aeoeaii? iiooaeiino? oe?ooaaiiy: wmetafile8? ?????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? aa$???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy $??–?? ???&? ?MathType??@ ???u?????????"????-??????????Y???Aeoe ????' ???u?? ???????"????-????°' ???n ???-?????v ???=O ???=O ???=z$????7?????$???u?th?????? aea N – aeoeaia iiooaei?noue oe?ooaaiiy, eAo; nk – /enei iaa?o?a oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ca naeoiaeo; ng – /enei iaa?o?a caaaioaaeoaaeueiiai aeenea ca naeoiaeo; L – a?aenoaiue i?ae inyie oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ? caaaioaaeoaaeueiiai aeenea, i; Rg(Dg) – ?aae?on (ae?aiao?) caaaioaaeoaaeueiiai aeenea, ia eio?iio ?icoaoiaai? oeaio?e ia?iaethaaieo aeaoaeae, i; Rk(Dk) – ?aae?on (ae?aiao?) oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa; t1 – /an aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii? iiooaeiino? i?e ia?iaoe? iaei??? aeaoae?, n; Ve? – oaeaee?noue e?oaa, i/n. Noaia aei??thaaiiy aeoeaii? iiooaeiino? iienaia o ?icae?e? 7. Aeey aei??thaaiiy ii?iaeueieo nee oe?ooaaiiy aaoi?ii aoa ?ic?iaeaiee aenia?eiaioaeueiee noaiae. I?e eiai ?ic?iaoe? aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoiae aei??thaaiiy i?oaeii? aeaoi?iaoe??. ?iaeoeoeaiee aeao/ee aoa cae??ieaiee ia i?iie? ? ?a?no?oaaa a?aeaeei i?iie? a?aeiinii ei?iona aa?noaoa. Noaia i?noeoue o nia? aei??thaa/ iaeeo ia?ai?uaiue (EII2) oa oaeaeeiae?th/ee naiiienaoeue I3031. Aei??thaaiith ii?iaeueieo nee ia?aaeoaaea noaoe/ia oa?e?iaea, iaoith yei? aoei aeyaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae aaee/eiith ii?iaeueii? neee, ae?th/i? ia oi?aoeue oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa, ? ci?uaiiyi i?iie? a?aeiinii ei?iona. Oaaeeoey 2. ?aaeeie oe?ooaaiiy ??aaiue oaeoi?aO1, (A) iiO2, (Vg) i/iei.O3, (t) iiIniiaiee (i) Aa?oi?e (+) Ieaei?e (-) C??eiaa oi/ea (+) C??eiaa oi/ea (-) ?ioa?aae aa??thaaiiy0 0,3 -0,3 0,5 -0,5 0,31,3 1,8 0,8 2,1 0,5 0,50,25 0,35 0,15 0,42 0,08 0,1 I?ei?oea. Ciae i?e cia/aii? ?icai?ioo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a o ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? icia/a?: “-“ – a?aenoaiue i?ae oe?ooaaeueieie e?oaaie c aieo aoiaeo caaioiaee a ciio ??caiiy iaioa, i?ae ia i?ioeeaaei?e noi?ii? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa, a ciae “+” – iaaiaee. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiaieo aeaieo aeei?enoiaoaaeinue oeaio?aeueia eiiiiceoe?eia ?ioaaaeueia oi?oi?iieaioaaiiy ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo c aeaie?aoiei iiaoi?aiiyi aeine?ae?a o eiaeiiio ?yaeeo. I?ney ?aae?caoe?? iao?eoe? ieaioaaiiy io?eiai? oae? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? c? cia/eieie eiao?oe??ioaie: ye1 = 33,6 + 1,5x 1 + 6,5x2 + 5,7o 3+4,5o2 o3 + 10,5o12 - 2,5o22 - 3,4o32; (23) oo2 = 84,6 +15,6o1 +10,1o2 + 7,8o3 - 11,8o1 o3 + 5,8o12 - 6,7o22 - 9,2o32; (24) oe3 = 72,2 + 2,9o1 + 16,7o2 + 115,9o3 + 9,1o2 o3 + 29,2o12 - 2,5o22 - 4,5o32; (25) oo4 = 187,6 + 39o1 + 37,5o2 + 31,6o3 + 21,7o1 o2 - 16,4o1 o3 + 24,4o12 -9,5o22. (26) aea oe1 - iaeneiaeueia oaiaaioe?aeueia neea ?z, ui aeieea? i?e oe?ooaaii? ea?ai?ee; oo2 - iaeneiaeueia oaiaaioe?aeueia neea ?z, ui aeieea? i?e oe?ooaaii? oaa?aeiai nieaao; oe3 ? oo4 - iaeneiaeueia ii?iaeueia neea ?z, ui aeieea? i?e oe?ooaaii? a?aeiia?aeii ea?ai?ee ? oaa?aeiai nieaao. Aiae?c ??aiyiue ?aa?an?? 23, 23 ? 25, 26 iieacaa, ui aeey aaee/ei nee eio?? aeieeathoue i?e oe?ooaaii? i?aaaethth/eie oaeoi?aie ?: i?e ia?iaoe? ea?ai?ee – oaeaee?noue ?ooo caaioiaee (aeey oaiaaioe?aeueieo nee) ? aeeaeia oe?ooaaiiy (aeey ii?iaeueieo nee), a i?e ia?iaoe? oaa?aeiai nieaao – aaee/eia ?icai?io?a e?oa?a (aeey oaiaaioe?aeueieo oa ii?iaeueieo nee oe?ooaaiiy). I?ney ia?aoai?aiiy oe? ??aiyiiy i?eeiathoue eaiii?/iee aeae: O1 - 67,2 = 1,6o1 - o2 + 3,9o3; (27) O2 - 87,1 = 7,6o1 - 10,3o2 - 7,4o3; (28) O3 - 42,5 = 19,3o1 - 2,6o2 + 5,5o3; (29) O4 - 519,5 = 9,4o1 + 6,1o2 - 0,7o3. (30) I?iaaaeaia ia?aa??ea i?aaeeueiino? ??oaiiy iieacaea, ui ??oaiiy aeeiiaii a??ii, oae ye a A. Eiao?oe??ioe eaiii?/iiai ??aiyiiy iathoue ??ci? ciaee, ioaea iiaa?oiy a?aeeeeeo ? a?ia?aiei?aeii, a ?? oeaio? – i?i?iaenii (n?aeeii). Oiiai? aeno?aioie, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia iiaa?oi? aeayei? a?ia?noa?e c oeaio?ii o oeaio?? ieaio ?ic?aoiaoaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith “?eaeae-ieaia” O oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?e aeei?enoaii? “?eaeae-ieaia” aoea neeaaeaia nenoaia ??aiyiue: (a11 - ) o1+ 0,5a12o2 + ... 0,5a1eoe + 0,5a1 = 0; 0,5a21o1 + (a22 - ) o2 + ... 0,5a2eoe + 0,56a2 = 0; (31) 0,5ae1o1 + 0,5ae2o2 + ... + (aee - ) oe+ 0,5ae = 0, aea - iaaecia/aiee iiiaeiee Eaa?aiaea. I?ney ??oaiiy nenoaie ??aiyiue aoee aecia/ai? eii?aeeiaoe e?aiie oiiaieo aeno?aioi?a oa aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie oe?ooaaiiy i?e ia?iaoe? caaioiaie c oaa?aeiai nieaao ? ea?ai?ee. ?ic?iaeaiee oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean caaacia/o? a?aie/i? a?aeoeeaiiy e?i?eieo ?ici???a o iaaeao: iaia?aeaeuei?noue – 20 iei, oi/i?noue ?ici??o ii oiauei? – 20 iei, oi?noe?noue (Ra) – 0,20 iei ? aeieueiaee aeaeaoie e?oa?a q – 1,1ia/a. Iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie oe?ooaaiiy: - aeeaeia ia?iaee 0,25-0,35 ia noi?iio; - aaee/eia oaeaeeino? iiaea/? aeaoae?: 1,5-1,7 i/oa. aeey ea?ai?ee, 1,3 i/oa. aeey oaa?aeiai nieaao; - aaee/eia ?icai?ioo e?oa?a o ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? (A, ii) – 0,01-0,03 ii. Io?eiaia i?iaeoeoeai?noue oe?ooaaiiy – 1200 oo/aiae. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia c??aiyoe c ?acoeueoaoaie, io?eiaieie ia aa?noaoao e?aueo caei?aeiiieo o??i. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? NAE, ui caaacia/o? ??aiyiiy neeiaiai aieeao oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a i?e aeainoi?iiiueiio oi?oeaaiio oe?ooaaii? aeacaee, ui aiia aeicaiey? ciaioeoe oi?noe?noue ia?iaethaaii? iiaa?oi? oa aeaeaoie aeiacieo e?oa?a o 1,2-1,5 ?ace, ca?eueoeoe oi/i?noue ia?iaee a 1,2-1,4 ?ace, iie?ioeoe oaieio?ceeo i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy e inai?oe i?iieneiao ia?iaeo ei?iaeaieo oaa?aeinieaaieo ae?ia?a, ui aiai?eoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue ?? aeei?enoaiiy. AIEIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE 1. I?iaaaeaiee nenoaiiee aiae?c i?ioeano ieineiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a (iaai?oioaa?aeeo nieaa?a, oaa?aeeo nieaa?a, ea?ai?ee). 2. Ia i?aenoaa? aeeiiaieo oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ae??oaia iaoeiaa i?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oe?ooaaiiy caaioiaie c aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a (iaai?oioaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a, oaa?aeiai nieaao, ?ino?oiaioaeueii? ea?ai?ee) ? aeiaeaeai? iniiai? oeyoe ?? ?aae?caoe?? ia i?aenoaa?: - iiaiai niiniao noi?nii? ia?iaee iaiaeiiai ?ino?oiaioo oe?ooaaeueieie e?oaaie c ea?iaaiith ??caeueiith ni?iiiaei?noth ?iai/i? iiaa?oi? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa oeyoii ci?ie inueiai? aei?noeino? ?? ae?eyiie; - iiaiai niiniao ia?a?ea/anoiai aeeaeiiiai oe?ooaaiiy, aecia/a?iiai niaoe?aeueiith aaiiao???th eaiaaie ia ?iai/?e iiaa?oi? oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iniiaieo ?aaeeiieo oaeoi??a (iicaeiaaeiuei? iiaea/? e aeeaeie oe?ooaaiiy) a oiiaao naiicaaino?aiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa; - iiaiai iaoiaeo i?aaee aeiaciiai oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa aa?aceaiei, oeyoii iaianaiiy ?aaoey?ii? oo?eoiai? n?oee ia eiai ??caeueio iiaa?oith; - iiaiai niiniao aeainoi?iiiueiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy caaioiaie c ?o aeeiai?/iei neeiaei aaeainoaaiiyi o cii? ??caiiy; - iiaiai niiniao ?ii?aaiiaaiiai oe?ooaaiiy iaai?o?a, yeee ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a i?ini/aieo a?ao?oiaith ??aeeiith, i?oaeiiaeaiio??ieo aeaiaio?a oa iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a oe?ooaaiiy, ui caaacia/o? iie?ioaiiy yeino? ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi?. 3. Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaiaoeee i?ioeano aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy aeicaieeee oi/ii ?ic?aooaaoe aeiaaeeie aeoae eiioaeoo i?ae ?ino?oiaioii ? caaioiaeith oa aecia/eoe aieea ia ia? ?aaeeiieo oaeoi??a, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy e ioe?ithaaoe oi?noe?noue ia?iaeaii? ieinei? ieiueie. 4. I?iaaaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy noaoeee i?ioeano oi?oeaaiai iaeiinoi?iiiueiai ? aeainoi?iiiueiai oe?ooaaiiy, oeyoii ?icaeyaeo ieineeo oa i?inoi?iaeo iiaeaeae, o ?acoeueoao? /iai aaeaeiny aeyaeoe iniiai? noaoe/i? iioeaee ia?iaee ? aieea ia ?o iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oaeii? oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie (ION) oa aecia/eoe oeyoe ?o e?ea?aeaoe??. 5. Oeyoii iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeeiai?ee i?ioeano oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo: iaeiinoi?iii? oi?oeaaa oe?ooaaiiy aeainoi?iii? oi?oeaaa oe?ooaaiiy oa ?icaeyaeo ieineeo ? i?inoi?iaeo e?i?eieo ? iae?i?eieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a, aecia/ai? iniiai? aeeiai?/i? iioeaee ia?iaee oa aecia/aii aieea ia ?o iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ION ? ?aaeeiieo oaeoi??a. Iiaoaeiaaia aiie?ooaeii-/anoioia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeano aeainoi?iiiueiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy, yea aeicaieeea noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? aeiiae aei i?eaiaeo aa?noaoa; io?eiai? eiao?oe??ioe aeeiai?/iino?, ye? aeicaieeee ioe?ithaaoe aeeiai?eo i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy. 6. ?ic?aooiie ? iiaeaethaaiiy ia aiaeiaia?e AII nenoaie aaoiiaoe/iiai aaeainoaaiiy caaioiaie o cii? ??caiiy (NAE), aeicaieeee aecia/eoe oa ioe?ieoe iniiai? ?? aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee. 7. I?aeoe/iei i?aenoieii ?iaioe ?: eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/ia ?ic?iaea i?ioean?a iaeiinoi?iiiueiai oa aeainoi?iiiueiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy e ?ino?oiaio?a, yea aaco?oueny ia: - eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ??oaiiyo ca??ieo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a c ea?oth/ei ?iai/ei i?io?eai aeey noi?nii? ia?iaee noae? ? oaa?aeiai nieaao; - eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ??oaiiyo ia?a?ea/anoeo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a, ye? iathoue o?aiaoea?aeaeueio oi?io eaiaaee o iiia?a/iiio ?icoei? oa ??cio ?? aeeaeio ii ?aae?ono e?oaa; - ?ii?aaiiaaieo a?ao?oiaith ??aeeiith aa?aceaieo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a ? i?oaeiiaeaiio??ieo aeaiaioao, eio?? iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e ia?iaoe? e?eoeeo iaai?oioaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a; - ia iioei?ciaaieo oaoiieia?/ieo noaiao i?ioean?a aeainoi?iiiueiai ia?a?ea/aoiai oe?ooaaiiy, aeeth/ath/e nenoaie caaaioaaeaiiy caaioiaie; - nenoai? aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, yea ?aae?co? can?a aaoiiaoe/iiai neeiaiai aaeainoaaiiy caaioiaie i?e aeainoi?iiiueiio oe?ooaaii? oi?oe?a caaioiaie. 8. Iaoiaeieia?y oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ciino oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a, nee ??caiiy, caeeoeiaeo iai?oa ia?oiai ?iaeo, oi?noeino? ? oi/iino? ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi?, ye i?e iaeiinoi?iiiueiio, oae ? i?e aeainoi?iiiueiio ieineiio oi?oeaaiio oe?ooaaii? aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a oeyoii noaoe/ii? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? aoaeoaaiiy i?inoi?iaeo iiaeaeae ?o ?iciiae?eo, aeicaieeee: - aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie ia?iaee i?e ??ciiiai?oieo noaiao oe?ooaaiiy; - anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeuei? iano?ithaaeuei? ia?aiao?e aa?noao?a (eooe iiai?io?a e?oa?a) oa ?ino?oiaio?a (inueiaa aei?noe?noue naaiaio?a); - ca?eueoeoe ciinino?ee?noue iiaa?oi? ia?iaeaii? aeaoae? ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy; - iie?aueoe ye?noue ia?iaeaieo iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae; - canai?oe ia?iaeo ei?iaeaieo ieanoei; - aeeeth/eoe aai ciaioeoe a?ae aee?eooaaiiy i?ei?eaiue oa o??ueioaaoino? i?e a?eueo aenie?e i?iaeoeoeaiino?. 9. Aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy (NAE) ia? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaiao?aei? aeey io?eiaiiy aeniei? yeino? iiaa?oi?. 10. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai?: - oe?ooaaeueiee e?oa c ea?iaaiei ?iai/ei i?io?eai ? oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ia?a?ea/anoiai oe?ooaaiiy ia *a?i?a?anueeiio ?ino?oiaioaeueiiio caaiae?; - oaoiieia?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ia?a?ea/anoiai oe?ooaaiiy ieiuei iii?ieo ? ??caeueieo aaaaoia?aiieo iaia?aoi/oaaieo c oaa?aeiai nieaao ? ea?ai?ee ia caaiaeao “Iiaaaeeo” (i.I?aeaeii?e?aeca) ? eiia?iao? oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ? iaoa??ae?a (i.Na?oeiaiaenuee); - oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ?ii?aaiiaaiiai oe?ooaaiiy aeca?eaeueieo iaai?o?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?oaeiiaeaiio??ieo aeaiaio?a ia caaiae? “Iaaieo” (i.I?aeaeii?e?aeca). Caaaeueiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue o ae?iaieoeoai neeaa 1472810 e?a. ca oe?iaie ia 1982-1992 ?iee. INIIAI? ?IAIOE, ssE? IIOAE?EIAAI? 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Iaoaieci caa?ocee- aua?ocee IIOI i?e oeeoiaaiee iii?iuo iiaa?oiinoae ia aeaoooieiaeaeueiii iieoaaoiiaoa. // Oeiiaua iaoaieciu e oaoiieiae/aneay inianoea noaieia-aaoiiaoia, noaieia n *IO e AIN./ Oacenu aeieeaaeia eiioa?aioeee. – E.:?AeYIOI. – 1991. N. 27 – 28. 35. Iieueoaeia A.E., Neoeaiia A.N., Noaiiyei Ae.A. Aeaonoi?iiiaa aeiaciia oeeoiaaiea iii?iuo iiaa?oiinoae IIOI ec oaa?aeiai nieaaa. // Oeiiaua iaoaieciu e oaoiieiae/aneay inianoea noaieia-aaoiiaoia, noaieia n *IO e AIN. / Oacenu aeieeaaeia eiioa?aioeee. – E.: ?AeYIOI. – 1991. N. 58 – 59. AIIOAOe?ss Iieueoaeia Aaea??e ?aaiiae/. Oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? iniiae aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.08 - Oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. IOOO “EI?”, Ee?a 1998. A aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano ieineiai aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy caaioiaie c oaa?aeiai nieaao, ea?ai?ee, iaai?oioaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a. ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy iniiaieo iioeaie oe?ooaaiiy ? ciaeaeai? oeyoe ?o onoiaiiy ?ic?iaeai? noaoe/i? ? aeeiai?/i? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a iaeiinoi?iiiueiai ? aeainoi?iiiueiai oi?oeaaiai oe?ooaaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaai?, ?ic?iaeai? ? aeine?aeaeai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano oi?oeaaiai aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai oe?ooaaiiy aaaeeiia?iaethaaieo iaoa??ae?a oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e ia?a?ea/anoeo ? ?ii?aaiiaaieo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a ? oaoiieia?e oe?ooaaiiy, ca??ieo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a c ea?iaaiith ??caeueiith cae?ai?noth, niiniao i?aaee aeiacieo oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a oeyoii iaianaiiy ia ?? iiaa?oith oo?eoiai? n?oee, niiniao aeainoi?iiiueiai oe?ooaaiiy c ae??aithaaiiyi nee ??caiiy ii oi?oeyo ia?iaethaaii? caaioiaee. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaa?aeee nieaa, ea?ai?ea, iaai?o, aeiaciee oe?ooaaeueiee e?oa, aa?aceaiee oe?ooaaeueiee e?oa. AIIIOAOeEss Iieueoaeia Aaea?ee Eaaiiae/. Oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea iniiau aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai oi?oeiaiai oeeoiaaiey o?oaeiiia?aaaouaaaiuo iaoa?eaeia. ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.08 - Oaoiieiaey iaoeiino?iaiey. IOOO “EIE”, Eeaa1998. A aeenna?oaoeee eceiaeaiu ?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeanna ieineiai oi?oeiaiai aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai oeeoiaaiey caaioiaie ec oaa?aeiai nieaaa, ea?aieee, iaaieoioaa?aeuo iaoa?eaeia. ?anniio?aiu aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey iniiaiuo iia?aoiinoae oeeoiaaiey e iaeaeaiu iooe eo ono?aiaiey. ?ac?aaioaiu noaoe/aneea e aeeiaie/aneea iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia iaeiinoi?iiiaai e aeaonoi?iiiaai oi?oeiaiai oeeoiaaiey. I?aaeeiaeaiu, ?ac?aaioaiu e enneaaeiaaiu iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioeanna oi?oeiaiai aeiacii-aa?aceaiiai oeeoiaaiey o?oaeiiia?aaaouaaaiuo iaoa?eaeia iooai eniieueciaaiey iiauo eiino?oeoeee niaoeeaeueiuo i?a?uaenouo e eii?aaie?iaaiiuo oeeoiaaeueiuo e?oaia e oaoiieiaee oeeoiaaiey, nai?iuo oeeoiaaeueiuo e?oaia n oi?aaeyaiie ?aaeouae niiniaiinoueth, niiniaa i?aaee aeiaciuo oeeoiaaeueiuo e?oaia iooai iaianaiey ia aa iiaa?oiinoue oo?eoiaie naoee, niiniaa aeaonoi?iiiaai oeeoiaaiey n au?aaieaaieai nee ?acaiey ii oi?oeai ia?aaaouaaaiie caaioiaee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaa?aeue nieaa, ea?aieea, iaaieo, aeiaciue oeeoiaaeueiue e?oa, aa?aceaiue oeeoiaaeueiue e?oa. SUMMARY Polshakov Valery Ivanovich. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL FOUNDATIONS OF HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE FACE GRINDING HARD MACHINED MATERIALS. Manuscript. The thesis on competition of a scientific degree of a doctor of technical science on speciality 05.02.08 - Technology of Machinebuilding. NTUU “KPI”, Kiev, 1998. The dissertation is devoted to the results of the theoretical and experimental researches of diamond-abrasive flat face grinding workpieces made of hard alloys, ceramics, magnet hard materials. The questions of forming basic grinding errors have been studied, and the ways of their elimination nave been found. The static and dynamic mathematical models of technological processes of grinding and double face grinding have been elaborated. The ways of increasing efficiency of abrasive-diamond face grinding hard machined materials by applying interrupted and impregnated grinding wheels of new design and special grinding technologies, collapsible grinding wheels with controlled cutting ability, the way of dressing diamond grinding wheels by making a hachure lines net on their surface, the way of double grinding with balancing cutting forces on the face parts of working pieces have been proposed, elaborated and studied by the author. Key words: hard alloy, ceramics, magnet, a diamond wheel, an abrasive wheel. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo c i??a?iae-iaeaoo 12.11.98 ?. Oi?iao 6084/16. Oiiai. Iae. aeae. A?e – 1,4. Oe?aae 100. Caiiaeaiiy ?103. Aeae. ?221. A?aeae?oeiaaii oaoi?/ieie caniaaie *Ae?AO. *a?i?a?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee oa oi?aae?iiy 250003 i. *a?i?a?a, aoe. No??eaoeueea, 1.

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