I?i?noa?noai aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie

A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

Oa?aiaoa A?eoi? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 636.082.45.

Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
a?ioaoiieia?? a?aeoai?aiiy aaeeei? ?iaaoi?

ooaeiae

03.00.20 — a?ioaoiieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

A?ea Oea?eaa — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e OAAI, Aiaaeaiia
A?eai??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

OAAI, aeaaeai?e-nae?aoa?
a?aeae?eaiiy oaa?eiieoeoaa,

aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?
ia?a?iaee i?iaeoeoe??, Ia-

oe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae-

?e oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
iieiea oa yeiae/eie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oa?ooa

A?eai??e A?eai?iae/, A?eioea?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee aa?a?-

iee oi?aa?neoao, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai?
?iaioe, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa ? ooo/iiai
in?iai?iiy n.-a. oaa?

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe Aacoaeee Ieeiea Aeieo?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee a?ioaoiieia?/iee oeaio?, aee?aeoi?

— aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe
Oaeiaeei

Noaiai A?eai?iae/, ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa
oa

a?ieia?? oaa?ei, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eaiiy
naeaeoe??,

aaiaoeee ? a?ioaoiieia?? n.-a. oaa?ei

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? ee?i?/ii? aaoa?eia?ii?
iaaeeoeeie OAAI, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny (__7__( aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo

i _10_ aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae27.821.01 a
A?eioea?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

256400, i. A?ea Oea?eaa, Niai?ia ieiua 8/1, a aoae._19_

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? A?eioea?e?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee (___6__( aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
?iciooi?e I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?ioaineo?eaoe?th oaa?eiieoeueei? aaeoc?,
iniaeeai neioa?noaa, a cia/i?e i??? coiiaeei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo
a?ioaoiiei-a?/ieo iaoiae?a a?aeoai?aiiy — ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy,
o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??i-i?a ? ?ioeo, a oai??th oa i?aeoeeo yeeo aaeeeee
aianie c?iaeee aaaaoi a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo (E.E.Eaaiia,
1906; E.E.Nieieianeay, 1947; ?.A.Ni??iia, 1949; A.I.Nooaeaioeia, 1953,
1961; A.E.Ieeiaaiia, 1962; Ae.Ae.Eiaaeiia, 1962; A.A.Ca???aa ?
ni?aaao.,1961, 1976; K.J.Betteridge et al., 1974; J.Hahn et al., 1976,
?.?.?icaii?, 1977; O.?.Inoaoei, 1978, 1995; H.S.Schneider et al., 1980;
A.I. Aiaaeaiia ? ni?aaao., 1981; I.E.I?ieioueaa, 1983; ?.O.O.Oaioa?,
1984; A.A.Niieyi?iia, 1985; N.I.Oiiei, 1985; I.E.Na?aaaa, e ae?., 1987;
A.A.Eaanieoeueeee ? ni?aaao.,1988; A.A.ssaeiinueeee, 1988;
A.A.Aa?aneiaiei, 1989; E.E.A?ino e ae?., 1989; I.A.Coaaoeue ? ni?aaao.,
1994, 1995; A.I.Ao?eao, 1994, 1998; Ae.O.A?iie/oe, 1994; A.A.Oa?ooa,
1994; I.Ae.Aacoaeee, 1995; I.N.Iaeaoaoee ? ni?aaao., 1995; I.Ae.Aoa?ia,
1996; ?.I.Iao?aiei ? ni?aaao., 1996; N.A.Oaeiaeei, 1996; E.C.N??aoeueeee
1999 oa ?io?)

Ooo/ia in?iai?iiy, yea caaithaaei no?ee? iiceoe?? ye can?a
a?aeoai?aiiy an?o aeae?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei, anaa?/ii
oaeineiiaeth?oueny a ia-i?yieo noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey
caie?aeiaiiy yeoeaee?oei ? i?eaeea-eaiiy aia??ii?a o iaoa?einueeiio
i?aai?ci?, i?aeaeuaiiy caie?aeithth/i? caea-oiino? nia?ie oa ??
o?eaaeiai caa??aaiiy, oiui. Aoaeoeai?noue o?ainieaioa-oe?? aia??ii?a ye
iaoiaeo ?ioaineaiiai ?iciiiaeaiiy oe?iieo iaoa?einueeeo aaiioei?a, a
ia?oo /a?ao, caeaaeeoue a?ae a?ieia?/ii? iiaiioe?iiino? aia??iia,
ii?oio?c?ieia?/iiai noaio i?aai?cio ?aoeei??io?a oa aeiii??a o oe?eiio,
?o ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aai?a cie?aia. Caaaeueiei aeey iaio iacaaieo
a?ioaoiiei-a?/ieo iaoiae?a a?aeoai?aiiy ? iiooe iioeiaeueieo aeey
in?iai?iiy oa o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a oa?aeoa?enoee
ii?oio?c?ieia?/iiai noaio naiee.

A?aeiii, ui aeiianoeeaoe?ei? i?ioeane oa ?ioaineaia naeaeoe?y
oaa?ei a ia-i?yieo i?aeaeuaiiy iiei/ii? aai i(ynii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
iaaaoeaii iicia-/athoueny ia ooieoe?? a?aeoai?aiiy. A cia/i?e i??? ia
ia? aieeaathoue aeciaaii? oaeoi?e, na?aae yeeo iaea?eueoo ?ieue
a?ae?a?a? ??aaiue oa ye?noue aiae?ae?. Aea cian?i iaaeinoaiuei aea/aii
i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a caeaaeii a?ae aaii-oei?a ye aeiii?a, oae ?
?aoeei??ioa, iai?iieo i?ioean?a, i?e?iaeii? ?acenoaio-iino?,
?ioaineaiino? ?inoo i?aai?cio naiee oa ii?oieia?/iiai noaio aeia-oiai
o?ea (ae. o. *), ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? iae?iaiaeie?eiii?
?aaoeyoe?? ? o?ainii?oii? nenoaie caaacia/aiiy aiaaie?/ieo oa
iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a a ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aaiao, ei?aeyoe?ei? ca(ycee
i?ae ieie i?ae /an noaoaaiai

*I?ei?oea. AE. o. — aeiaoa o?ei.

oeeeeo, ie?aiiai oa eiieaeniiai aieeao a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei (i?e-
?iaeaiaio?a, a?oai?i?a, ai?iieeneio, aeciaaiieo ai?iii?a, i?e?iaeieo
ni?aaio?a). I?ieea?noue aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy a ?aaoeyoe??
a?aeoai?ii? ooieoe?? oaa?ei ai?iiiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a aeiaaa? iiaeaeueoeo
?ic?iaie niinia?a ei?aeoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a ? ?aaoethth/eo nenoai a
i?aai?ci? naiie ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo i?aia?ao?a
oa iiaeo noai aaaaeaiiy ai?iii?a. Oai?aoe/iee iiooe iaaei?iaeo oa
aoaeoeaieo a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ye? a caeiaee aaaeeeaa i?noea a
iai?iieo i?ioeanao, iia(ycaieo c ?aaoeyoe??th a?aeoai?ii? ooieoe??,
coiiaea noai?aiiy i?aia?aoo (Aethoai(, aeine?aeaeaiiyi eiai aieeao ia
i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o ?aoeei??io?a ? aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo
ca?iaee?a o aeiii??a, aea/aiith aieeao ia ii?oia?io?i?/iee noai noaoaai?
nenoaie ? i?aai?cio oaa?eie. Iecueea ?iaeea?aeoaeueia /ooeea?noue
aeiii??a aei aeciaaiieo ai?iii?a oa aaeeea aa??aaaeuei?noue ??aiy
i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a i?ney ia?oiai in?iai?iiy /e ia?anaaeaeaiiy
coiiaeththoue iiooe niinia?a i?iaiicoaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a ieai?
aecia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo no?ie?a aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a oa a?aeai?o
oaa?ei. Caneoaiaothoue ia iniaeeao oaaao aca?iica(ycee
aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/-ieo ia?aiao??a o ciiao a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo oi/ie (AAO)
iaoee oa y?/iee?a naieoeue c iieacieeaie a?aeoai?ii? ooieoe??, ?o
i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy a?ioaoiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a
a?aeoai?aiiy. Oene ?ioaineaiiai naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano oa i?ieea?noue
aeieia?/ieo oiia, ui iicia/athoueny ia ?aaeoeaiino? i?aai?cio oaa?ei,
aeiaaathoue aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai???
a?ieia?? a?aeoai?aiiy.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue a ?aieao i?ia?aie (I?iaeiaieuenoai-95( oa caaaeaiiy 05
i?iaeoo 14 (Aaoa?eia?ia caaacia/aiiy i?ia?aie OAAI(, aea?aeathaeaeaoieo
oaiae ? 110/46 oa ?110/17; iiia?e aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0193 U 022125 oa
0196 U 001933.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aoei
oai?aoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy aieeao aiaeiaaiieo oa
aeciaaiieo oaeoi??a ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o naiie aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae ? ?ic?iaea a?ioaoiieia?/ieo niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a oa ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy:

Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aieea ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio aeiaoiai o?ea ia
aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a oa ??aaiue ?o
i?eaeeaethaaiino? o ?aoeei??io?a, ?ic?iaeoe niiniae eiai ioe?iee.

Aecia/eoe ?ioiia?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia? o aeiii??a o ca(yceo c ??ciei
??aiai aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a oa o
?aoeei??i-o?a caeaaeii a?ae i?eaeeaethaaiino?; ?ic?iaeoe oanoe a?aeai?o
?aoeei??io?a.

Aeine?aeeoe aieea ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo oa aaiioeio (ca iie?ii?oieie
a?eeaie e?ia?) oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue o ieo
aia??ii?a; ?ic?iaeoe niin?a a?aeai?o oaa?ei aeey o?ainieaioaoe??.

Anoaiiaeoe ca(ycee i?ae aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie cii AAO iaoee
? y?/iee?a naiie oa oaiiiaiaie noaoaaiai oeeeeo c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy.

?ic?iaeoe iiao, a?eueo aoaeoeaio noaio aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo
ethoa?i?-coth/iai ai?iiio (EA) (Iaiaii-O?i(, aea/eoe ae?th (Oanoaiaoo(
ia a?aeoai?io ooieoe?th ei??a oa oaeeoeue.

Ia iniia? ei?aeoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a o i?aai?ci? aeiii??a ?
?aoeei??i-o?a oeyoii caiaeiaoaaiiy ?i a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei
?ic?iaeoe a?oai?iii-i?ia?aeueiee i?ai?en, aeeth/aiiy yeiai aei ?aoe?iio
naiie ni?eyoeia i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? iaoiaeo o?ainieaioaoe??
aia??ii?a.

?ic?iaeoe a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiee i?aia?ao aeey noeioeyoe?? o aeiii??a
aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a ? i?aeaeuaiiy i?eaeeaethaaiino? ?o o
oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a oa noaie eiai aeei?enoaiiy. Aeine?aeeoe aieea
?ic?iaeaiiai i?aia?aoo ia i?aai?ci a oe?eiio, ?ai?iaeoeoeaio nenoaio
oaeeoeue cie?aia.

Aeine?aeeoe a?aei?iiino? aieeao aiiaaeio?ii?io ??cieo na??e ia
iieacie-ee noia?iaoeyoe??, ii?oieia?th aioo??oi?o i?aai?a oa y?/iee?a o
aeiii??a.

Aea/eoe ei?aeyoe?ei? ca(ycee i?ae ?ioiia?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie e?ia?
?aoeei??io?a ia 7-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo oa ?ioaineai?noth ?inoo, a o
aeiii??a ia 10-e ? 14 (0)-e aeaiue — c ?acoeueoaoaie noia?iaoeyoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii
niin?a ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? ae. o. y?/iee?a ca ai?noii a
e?ia? ?aoeei??io?a e?iii?ioa?i?a aeniei? u?eueiino? ia 7-e aeaiue
noaoaaiai oeeeeo. Oaeineiiaeaii iaoiae ii?oieia?/ii? ioe?iee ae. o. i?e
?aeoaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo oaeeoeue c iaoith a?aeai?o ?o aeey
ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ??aaiue i?eaeeaethaaiino?
ia?anaaeaeaieo aia??ii?a o oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o
aaiioeio (ca iie?ii?oieie a?eeaie e?ia?), ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo aeeai?
iane. Ia i?aenoaa? aecia/aiiy ?ioiia?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a e?ia? ia 6-7-e
aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo (n. oe.*) a oaeeoeue ?ic?iaeaii niin?a a?aeai?o
?aoeei??io?a, yeee caaacia/o? aenieee ??aaiue i?eaeeaethaaiino?
aia??ii?a.

Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/i? ia?aiao?e cii AAO iaoee oa
y?/iee?a i?ae /an iaoeyoe?? o ei??a; cai?iiiiiaaii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?a-a??aii oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy e?eueeino? in?iai?iue. Oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioi-aaii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii iiao noaio aeei?enoaiiy
i?aia?aoo EA (Iaiaii-O?i( aeey noeioeyoe?? i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a o
ei??a i?ney ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
noeioeyoe?? noaoaai? ioioe o ei??a oa oaeeoeue i?aia?ao (Oanoaiao(.

Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue iieaciee?a noia?iaoeyoe?? oa ??aiy
oie?eoeiaa-iaco a?ae yeino? aiiaaeio?iiiiai ai?iiio (ia ieoao).
?ic?iaeaii a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiee i?aia?ao (Aethoai(, ui ia ia? aiaeia?a,
oa noaie eiai aeei?e-noaiiy; noai?aiee i?ia?aeueiee i?ai?en aeey
ca?eueoaiiy o ei??a-aeiii??a aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a oa noeioeyoe??
?o i?eaeeaethaaiino? o oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia
a?ieia?/ii? ae?? i?aia?aoo (Aethoai(.

Anoaiiaeaii ??cieoeth i?ae aee?iieeneioiei neeaaeii e?i?ae?a
aiaeiiao??th ?ia?a iaoee a?aeiinii ae. o..

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen i?eeii?a
ei?ae-oe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a o i?aai?ci? aeiii??a, ?aoeei??io?a oa
ei??a yeee aeeth-/a? caiaeiaoaaiiy noai?aiiai i?ia?aeueiiai i?ai?eno,
aaaaeaiiy i?aia?ao?a (Aethoai( ? (Iaiaii-O?i(. O ?acoeueoao? ca?eueoaii
aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aeey ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a o na?aaeiueiio ia 47% oa
?o i?eaeeaethaai?noue o na?aaeiueiio ia 32%. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe
caoeuai? 11 iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaeaii niiniae:
i?aeaioiaee ?aoeei??io?a c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo i?aia?aoo
(Aethoai( oa i?ia?aeueiiai i?ai?eno; a?aeai?o oaeeoeue o ?aoeei??ioe ca
ii?-oiooieoe?iiaeueiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ae. o., a?io?i?/ieie
iieacieeaie e?i-a? oa ?ioaineai?noth ?inoo aeeai? iane. Oaeineiiaeaii
iaoiaeeee noeioeyoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? o ei??a-aeiii??a, aecia/aiiy
iaoeyoe?? oa e?eueeino? in?iai?iue ei??a, ui aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe
aoaeoeai?noue o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a oa ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy oaa?ei.
?ic?iaeai? niiniae aenieiaoaeoeai? ? aeinooii? aeey ciiaaoniaoe?ae?no?a.
Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe oa?eoee aei (?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
aeei?enoaiiy i?aia?aoo ethoa?i?coth/iai ai?iiio (Iaiaii-O?i( aeey
noeioeyoe?? i?eaeeaeaiiy aia??ii?a o ei??a i?e ooo/iiio in?iai?ii?(;
(?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei a?aeai?o oa i?aeaioiaee oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a aei
o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a( oa (?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei

I?ei?oea. N. oe. — noaoaaee oeeee.

noeioeyoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? o ei??a-aeiii??a c aeei?enoaiiyi a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo ?a/iaei(, caoaa?aeaeaieo IO? I?i?noa?noaa n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa i?iaeiaieuenoaa Oe?a?ie 1 aa?aciy 1996 ?ieo (i?ioieie
?1) oa I?iaa?ii?iio Oe?a?ie 27 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo (i?ioieie ?3).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaio naiino?eii i?ia?a on?
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue aenia?eiaio?a. Aeaye?
aeine?aee aoei i?iaaaeaii ni?eueii ?c ni?a?ia?oieeaie IAO. ?c ni?eueieo
iaoeiaeo aeine?ae?a ? ioae?eaoe?e aeena?oaio aeei?enoaa, ca caiaeith
ni?aaaoi??a, eeoa naith /anoeio ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo: (I?ia?an a
aia??ioaoiieia?? ? aaii?e ?iaeaia??? o neioa?noa? ? a?a/a?noa?( (E?ae?a,
Iieueua, 1994), (Naeaeoeeiiii-aaiaoe/aneea e aeioaoiieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu
?acaaaeaiey e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa((A?ano, 1995), (Aeei?enoaiiy
o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a a naeaeoe?? ? a?aeoai?aii?
n?-euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei( (Aneai?y -Iiaa, 1997); ia
?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo:
(Aaiaoeei-naeaeoe?ei? oa oaoiieia?/i? i?iaeaie a?aeoai?aiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei (Ee?a, 1994), (Oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i?
aniaeoe ii?iaeioo-ai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano o iiei/iiio oa i(yniiio
neioa?noa?( (Ee?a, 1995),(Ia?ioaeoe?eia iaoieia?y oaa?ei( (A?ea Oea?eaa,
1995) (Iia? iaoiaee naeaeoe?? ? a?aeoai?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae
? oei?a oaa?ei( (Ee?a, 1996); Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy aaoa?eia?ii? iaoieia??(
(Ee?a, 1996), iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo IAO (1993-1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 51 ?iaioa, a oiio
/ene? 22 noaoo?, 15 iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?e, 3 ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa 11
iaoaio?a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 7
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, aeiaeaoe?a, nienea
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 865 aeaea?ae, o oiio /ene? — 417
?c aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey. Oaeno aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee ia 292
noi??ieao, eiii(thoa?iiai iaai?o aeeth/a? 110 oaaeeoeue, 13 ?enoie?a oa
1 oi?ioeo.

IAI?ssIEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? a 1988-1999 ??. a IAO ia aac? o?e?aeo —
AAO (Ieaicaaiae Ai?oie/?,( ?yaeo ?ioeo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie, a ?inoeooo?
oaa?eiieoeoaa oa Aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? Neiaae??. A aenia?eiaioao
aeei?enoai? ei?iae oa oaeeoe? ii??ae /i?ii-?yai?, neiaioaeuenueei?,
/a?aiii noaiiai? oa neiaaoeuee? i?ioeaao (301 oaeeoey-?aoeei??io, 146
ei??a-aeiii??a, 20 oaeeoeue-aeiii??a oa 144 oaeeoe? ? 365 ei??a).
Aeine?aei? oa eiio?ieuei? a?oie oi?ioaaee ca i?eioeeiii aiaeia?a oa
aecia/aee aea?aaeoaaiiyi. An? oaa?eie ia?aae aeine?aeii i?aeeyaaee
caaaeueiiio ee?i?/iiio oa a?iaeieia?/ii-io ianoaaeaiith ? aoee aeciai?
caei?iaeie. Iiaie?a(y oo?eioaaeinue i?ea(ycii aai aaci?ea(ycii. Noaia
aeine?aeaeaiue, a oiio /ene? /ioe?ueio iiooeiaeo, i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.
1.

Aiae?aey cae?enithaaeanue a?oiiaei iaoiaeii ca?aeii c ?aoe?iiaie,
canoiniaoaaieie a ainiiaea?noa?. A?ieia?/ii aeoeai? aeiaaaee,
ia?aaeaa/ai? a?aeiia?aeiith iaoiaeeeith, caiaeiaoaaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueii.

I?aeaeine?aeieo naiie in?iaiyee ?aeoi-oea?a?eaeueiei niiniaii
aea?/?, i?ney aeyaeaiiy noaoaai? ioioe a?aioe? oa aaa/a?? (aai iaaiaee).
Aeica nia?ie, yeo aaiaeeee a inoaiith o?aoeio oeeee iaoee oa a ?? o?ei,
i?noeea 1 iei. nia?i??a, aeey ei??a-aeiii??a — 30 iei.

C 1991-1998 ?iee a AAO (Ieaicaaiae Ai?oie/?( aoei noi?iiaaia
aeiii?nueea noaaei c ei??a, ui iaee i?iaeoeoeai?noue 7-14 oen. ea iieiea
ia ??e aee?i?noth 3,6%-4,6%. Aeey ?iaeoeoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? o aeiii??a
neio?ii?coaaee n. oe., oeyoii aeai- oa o?ee?aoii? noeioeyoe?? noaoaai?
ioioe aiaeiaaie i?inoaaeaiaeeio F2( (IA) (ano?ioai, ?aiioai, ai?i?ino
eeio?ii?inoei). Noia?iaoeyoe?th o aeiii??a noeioethaaee ONA ca
/ioe?eaeaiiith noaiith a noia?i?e aeic? — 50 ia, ii/eiath/e ia?iaeo ia
10-e aeaiue n. oe. i?ney ae-yaeaiiy oa ii?oieia?/ii? ioe?iee iaoiaeii
?aeoaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ae. o.. Aei ai?iiiaeueii? ia?iaee
aeiioneaeeny aeiii?e, ui iaee ia y?/ieeo aeiao? o?ea c ii?oieia?/iith
ioe?ieith: (+(, (++( oa (+++( (Oa?aiaoa A.?. ? ?io., 1996). Aeieaaiiy
aia??ii?a o aeiii??a i?iaiaeeee ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe. aeaiia niiniaa-ie:
eiia?iiaaiei (1991-1995 ??.) oa anaioe/iei (1996-1998 ??.), ye?
cae?enithaaee oeyoii aaaaeaiiy aei iaoee eaoaoa?a aeey aeieaaiiy
aia??ii?a, ?ici?uoth/e eiai aaeii/ee ca a?oo?eaoe??th. Ciaeaeai? o
aeieaiiio na?aaei-aeu? aia??iie ia?aiineee aei eoeueoo?aeueiiai, aea
ioe?ithaaee ye?noue ca ii?-oieia?/ieie iciaeaie oa ?icae?eyee ca
noaae?yie ?icaeoeo, ye? a?aoiaoaaee i?e o?ainieaioaoe?? ?aoeei??ioai
(Eaoooieueae I ? ?io., 1990 ). I?eaeaoieie aeey ia?anaaeaeaiiy
aaaaeaeenue o?eueee (a?aei?ii?( oa (aeia??( aia??iie, iai?eaeaoieie
-(caaeia?euei?( oa aeaaaia?iaai?. I?eaeaoieie aia??iiaie cai?aaeyeenue
aeiaa? iae?oe ca?aeii c ?ino?oeoe??th ii o?ainieaioaoe?? (1987).

Ca(ycie iaoaaie?/iiai i?io?eth aeiii??a c ??aiai o ieo
noia?iaoeyoe?? aea/aee a i?iaao e?ia?, ye? a?aee a?aioe? aei aaaaeaiiy
ia?oi? ?i(?eoe?? ONA (10-e aeaiue n. oe.) oa i?ney

cae?i/aiiy ai?iiiaeueii? ia?iaee (14-e aai 0-e aeaiue n. oe.). O
ne?iaaooe? e?ia? aeiii??a, aecia/aee ai?no: aetheice — ca eieuei-?iaith
?aaeoe??th c i?oioieo?aeeiii; caaaeueiiai a?eea — ?ao?aeoiiao?e/ii;
o?aeoe?? a?eea — iaoaeiiao?e/ii; na/iaeie — ca eieuei?iaith ?aaeoe??th c
ae?a-oeaoeeiiiiieneiii ; caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a — ca aeiiiiiaith
noaiaea?oiiai iaai?o ?aaeoea?a o??ie (Eaoaia( (I?aaa); ea?ioeio — ca
Ea??-I?aenii, aaeoa?e-oeeaeio aeoeai?noue e?ia? (AAE) ca ?inoii
eoeueoo?e eeoeiai? iaee/ee; a ieaci? e?ia? oaeeoeue-aeiii??a o
ia?aaeiaoeyoe?eiee ia??iae /a?ac 18 aiaeei i?ney aaaaeaiiy eeii?inoaiieo
ai?iaeiaae 36 aiaeei c ?ioa?aaeii o 2 aiaeeie — ?aae?i?ioiieia?/ii
eiioeaio?aoe?th EA, aeei?enoiaoth/e oano iiaea?eiiai aioeo?ea EA aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca Stupnicki and Madej (1976).

Caeaaei?noue aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a i?e noia?iaoeyoe?? a
aeiii??a a?ae aeciaaiieo oaeoi??a aea/aee ca ieaiii:

1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao (iiooeiaee 1-2-e) yeino? aiiaaeio?iiieo
i?aia?ao?a ia oie?eoeiaaiac oa iieacieee noia?iaoeyoe?? (a ?inoeooo?
oaa?eiieoeoaa oa Aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? Neiaae?? a 1988-1989 ??.) — ia
naieao eaai?aoi?-ieo ieoae e?i?? ?-?N? 9-10-oeaeiaaiai a?eo. ?i
?i(?eooaaee ?io?aia?eoiiaa-eueii 10 ?.IAe. ANAEE aeaio na??e, ia noiaeeo
ca aeaiaioaie aeaioiaeaiiy (A?iaaoa: 57.06.87 na??y A oa 70,03.88 na??y
A ). *a?ac 48 aiaeei aaiaeeee oi??iaii?i oa a ae?oaiio aeine?ae? (ANAEE
na??y A) ?acii c iei Aioena?aii (eicy/a e?o?e?ciaaia ne?iaaoea) o oae?e
aea aeic?. I?ney oeueiai eiaeio naieo i?aeioneaee aei iaeiiai naioey
(e?i?? ?N?), ia?aa??aiiai ia ieiaeth/?noue. I?aeaeine?aeieo ieoae ((=53)
/a?ac 72 aiaeeie i?ney in?iai?iiy caaeaaee iaoiaeii oea?a?eaeueii?
aeeneieaoe??. Aia??iie aeieaaee E?aan-??iaa?-oinoaoiei aooa?ii (?I 7,2)
c oaoaeueiith ne?iaaoeith oaeyo (2%). ss?/ieee 31 oaa?eie o?enoaaee a
10%-io oi?iae?i?. O i(yoe c??cao aa?oiuei?, na?aaeiuei? ? ieaeiuei?
/anoei y?/iee?a i?ae?aoiaoaaee oie?eoee oa ae.o.

2. Aieea ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy (iiooeiaee 3-e) ia ?icaeoie oa
aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a aea/aee ia ei?iaao-aeiii?ao ((=4)
a?ae?a?aieo a Aa?inoaioe?? (Ieoieoey( Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio, aea
??aaiue ?aae?aoe?? ia ia?aaeuea 1 Eth?? ia 1 ei2 ? aeine?aei?e noaioe??
i(yniiai neioa?noaa IAO (Ai?caeue( Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeiai ?aeiio c ??aiai
?aae?aoe?? aeua 5 Eth?? ((=2), Ee?anueei? iaeano?. Aeiii??a in?iaiyee
nia?iith aeaio ie?aeiee?a /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee ?c Ei?inoainueeiai
ieaii?aei?e?inoaa — Ne/a 473 (nia?ia caii?iaeaia 25.03.1987 ?. a ia??iae
?aae?iioee?aeiiai caa?oaeiaiiy — aeine?ae) oa A?eea 1432 (nia?ia
io?eiaia 23.12.1985 ?. aei caa?oaeiaiiy — eiio?ieue). Aia??iie aeieaaee
ia 8-e aeaiue n. oe..

3. Aecia/aiiy noaio iai?iieo i?ioean?a o 23 ei??a-aeiii??a (iiooeiaee
4-e) ioa?aeoa?eciaaiiai ca iaoiaeeeith, ?ic?iaeaiith Oa?anii I.I. c
ni?aaao. (1986), oa iiaeeeaino? eiai ei?aeoe?? aioo??oiueiaaiiei
aaaaeaiiyi ((=3) o ioeueiaee aeaiue n. oe. ii?ii?iaiiai oeueo?ao?ieaoii
20%-ai a?iinoeueoaoo iao??th a aeic? 40 ie c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy aeoiaeo
i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iane?aee?a ae?? caiaeiaaiiai i?e?iaeiiai ni?aaioo
ooiie?o ia /ooeea?noue aeiii??a aei ONA, ??aaiue noia?iaoeyoe?? oa
aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a, aea/aee o AAO (Ieaicaaiae Ai?oie/?(, aea
aoei noi?iiaaii eiio?ieueio oa aeine?aeio a?oie ii 5 aie?a. Ooiie?o
aeine?aei?e a?oi? caiaeiaoaaee ?c ?ic?aooieo 0,5 a ia 1 ea aeeai? iane.

5. Aecia/aiiy aieeao (Aethoaio( ia iieacieee noia?iaoeyoe?? oa ?ic?iaee
iioeiaeueii? noaie ai?iiiaeueii? ia?iaee aeiii??a o o?ueio na??yo
aeine?ae?a ia 74 aeiii?ao. Ia?oa — (Aethoai( a aeic? 125 ie ?i(?eooaaany
?io?aaaiicii /ioe?ee?aoii a?aioe? iaeii/anii c ?i’?eoe??th ONA; ae?oaa —
( aeine?aei?e a?oi? — 140 ie i?aia?aoo 4%-ai? eiioeaio?aoe?? aaiaeeee
?i?aaaiicii aea?/?, ?? a?oi? oo ae aeico aea?/? i?e neio?ii?caoe?? n.
oe. ? aea?/? a?aioe? iaeii/anii c ?i’?eoe??th ONA; o?aoy — ( aeine?aeia
a?oia — 140 ie i?aia?aoo 4%-ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aaiaeeee aea?/?
?io?aaaiicii; (( a?oi? — aea?/? 60 ie 9%-ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?aeoe??ii a
ae?eyioe? eaoaeaeueiiai e?ath oe? iaeii/anii c ?i’?eoe??th ONA.

Aeioe?euei?noue aaaaeaiiy a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo aeiaaaie aei ?aoe?iio
c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a o ?aoeei??io?a aea/aee
a 4 aein-e?aeao, i?iaaaeaieo iaoiaeaie ia?-aiaeia?a oa caaeainiaaieo
a?oi-aiaeia?a.

A iniiaiee ia??iae (II) an?i oaeeoeyi c ?ioa?aaeii 10-15 aei?a
/ioe?e ?ace ?i(?eooaaee aioo??oiueii(yciai ii 10 ie (Oao?aa?oo(. Inoaii?
aea? ?i(?eoe?? cae?enithaaee a aei? noeioeyoe?? noaoaai? ioioe oeyoii
aeaie?aoiiai aaaaeaiiy aiaeiaa IA. O ( aeine?ae? aei ?aoe?iio oaeeoeue
ae?oai? a?oie a II aoee aaaaeai? i?aeue, eiaaeueo, ia?aaiaoeue, oeeie, a
o?ao?e a?oi? cai?noue i?ae? — eiae. O (( aeine?ae? i?e?iaeaiaioe a
aeaeyae? n??/aiieeneeo nieae caiaeiaoaaee ?acii c ooiie?oii, aeiaeath/e
aei eiia?ei?io. Eiae — o ?ic/ei? eiaeenoiai eae?th, iieeaath/e a ia?ae
ei?i.

O ((( aeine?ae? i?e?iaeaiaioe aeiaeaaaee aei aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee
? iieeaaee iath eiia?ei?i. N?eue eiaeenoiai eae?th caiaeiaoaaee ye o
iiia?aaeiueiio aein-e?ae?. Aeine?aeiei ?aoeei??ioai ((( a?oie a ia??iae
?iaeoeoe?? noaoaai? ioioe aai-aeeee 4 ?ace ?i?aaaiicii uiaeaiii ii 125
ie a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai i?aia-?aoo (Aethoai(- aea?/? aei ?i(?eoe?? IA oa
aea?/? i?ney ia?, aeeth/ath/e aeaiue ai?iiiaeueii? ia?iaee. Anueiai ca
ia??iae aeine?aeo aoei c?iaeaii 8 ?i(?eoe?e.

Ai?iaeiaae (( aeine?aeo o ?aoeei??io?a noaoaao ioioo noeioethaaee
IA ? aaiaeeee aioo??oiueii(yciai 10 ie (Oao?aa?oo(, aeine?aeiei oaa?eiai
aioo??oiueiaaiii ?i(?eooaaee i?aia?ao (Aethoai( (140 ie ia aieiao o?e
aei? i?ae?yae, ii/eiath/e ca aeaiue aei ia?iaee ai?iiiii). O o?ueio
ia?oeo aeine?-aeao ia?anaaeaeoaaee aia??iie (a?aei?iii?( oa (aeia?i?(
yeino?, a (O — (caaeia?-eueii?( ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe. i?ney aeyaeaiiy
oeyoii ?aeoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia y?/ieeao ?aoeei??io?a ae. o. oa ?o
ii?oieia?/ii? ioe?iee ca?aeii c ?ic?iaeaieie e?eoa??yie. Aia??iie
ia?anaaeaeoaaee yeiaeaeeae/a aei aa?oeie ?iaa iaoee ?c noi?iie y?/ieea c
ae. o. iaoaeaaei eaoaoa?ii oeio Aaiiaa? oa Worrlein (I?ia//eia) c
nai?oa?ieie /ioeaie. Caii?iaeaii-a?aeoayi? aia??iie (aaa?aeei-aiaonueei?
ii?iaee) — i?noieao-aaoiiaoii c iaeii?aciaei iie?noe?ieiaei eaoaoa?ii oa
nai?oa?iei /ioeii (NOA).

I?iae e?ia? a?aeae?aee a?aioe? c y?aiii? aaie o e?ioe?
c??aiyeueiiai ia??iaeo oa ia?aae ia?anaaeaeaiiyi aia??ii?a ia 6-7-e
aeaiue n. oe., aecia/aee o? ae iieacieee, ui e a aeiii??a, a oaeiae
ai?no: oieanoa?eio — iaoiaeii ?eueea ca aeiiiiiaith noaiaea?oiiai iaai?o
?aaeoea?a (Oe?a?ia); i?o?eo?a oa i?o?ao?a — oioiaeaeo?ieieiiao?e/ii;
i?e?iaeaiaio?a — ia aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiiio niaeo?ioioiiao??;
iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o — ca aeiiiiiaith iaai?o ?aaeoe-a?a o??ie (Eaoaia(
(I?aaa); a?eueieo ai?iieeneio — ia ai?iieeneioiiio aiae?caoi?? AAA-339
I, e?cioeeiio aeoeai?noue e?ia? (EAE) — oioiaeaeo?i-eieiiao?e/iei
iaoiaeii o iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?aeae?eo ciia?a??ie OIAe?AA; aeoeai?noue
oa?iaio?a AnAO oa AeAO — iaoiaeii ?aeoiaia-O?aieaey ca aeiiiiiaith
noaiaea?oiiai iaai?o ?aaeoea?a (Oe?a?ia); a ieaci? eiioeaio?a-oe?th
i?iaanoa?iio oa 17(-ano?aae?ieo — ?ioiioa?iaioiei iaoiaeii ca
aeiiiiiaith oano nenoai Aio Rad ia i?eeaae? Labsystems Multiskan
(O?ieyiae?y); a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai EA — iaoiaeii Baraghini M.F. et al.
(1984) ca eiioeaio?aoe??th oanoinoa?iio, neioaciaaiiai ee?oeiaie
Eaeae?aa c n?i(yiee?a 8-oeaeaeiaaeo iae?i?eieo ieoae.

Aeey aecia/aiiy aieeao (Aethoaio( ia ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie a
?ai?iaeoeoeai?e nenoai? oa a i?aai?ci? oaa?ei aoa i?iaaaeaiee aeine?ae
ia /i?ii-?yaeo oaeeoeyo a?eii 20-24 i?nyoe? c aeeaith ianith 307-358 ea.
Aeine?aeiei oaeeoeyi aaiaeeee ?io?aaaiicii (Aethoai( a aeic? 140 ie ia
aeiao aea?/? aei ?i(?eoe?? IA oa aeaa aei?, aeeth/ath/e aeaiue ia?iaee,
i?ney ia?; eiio?i-eueiei oaa?eiai o oe?e aea aeic? — o?c?ieia?/iee
?ic/ei. Oaa?ei caaeaaee ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe.. I?iae c y?/iee?a, c
na?aaeeie o?ea ia/?iee, neeciao ?ia?a iaoee, yeoeai?iaiaee oa aeiaoa
o?ei caii?iaeoaaee a ??aeeiio acio?.

O oeaieiao aecia/aee: ai?no ae?eiaaio oa aetheice — oaiieiaei
?aaeoe-aii; i??oaaoo, eaeoaoo, aeooa?aoo ? (-eaoiaeooa?aoo — oa?iaioiei
iaoiaeii ca Anao?ai? A.N. (1969); e?i?aee ano?aaoaaee ca iaoiaeii Bligh
E. et. al. (1959). O aeno?aeo? ia aaciaiio o?iiaoia?ao? HRGC-5330 Carlo
ERBA (?oae?y) aecia/aee: oinoie?i?aee (ca aeiiiiiaith aeaiaei??ii?
i?e?ioiieioa?iai? o?iiaoia?ao?? ia nee?eaaae? ENE-2, Svetashev V. et.
al., 1972), aee?i? eeneioe (ca noaiaea?oaie iaoeeiaeo ao???a aee?ieo
eeneio) oa a?eueiee oieanoa?ei (ia oii? noaiaea?oo oieanoa?eio o??ie
Sigma (NOA).

Aeey ?ic?iaee iiai? noaie aeei?enoaiiy aiaeiaa EA (Iaiaii-O?i(
(ae?iaieoeoaa AIAe???AO i. Naie-Iaoa?ao?a) c iaoith noeioeyoe??
i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a i?e ooo/iiio in?iai?ii? oaa?ei i?iaaaeaii 4
aeine?aee, o?ainieaioaoe?? — 2. Aeey ?-ai aeine?aeo a?ae?a?aee 73 aieiae
/i?ii-?yaeo oaeeoeue ia?oaaeueiiai a?eo c aeeaith ianith 300-320 ea.
Oo?eiaiiy oaeeoeue — aaci?ea(ycia. Ai?iii, ?icaaaeaiee o 2 ie
o?c?ieia?/iiai ?ic/eio, aaiaeeee ca aiaeeio aei in?iai?iiy (1000
?.IAe.). Aeey ??-ai aeine?aeo aoei a?ae?a?aii 49 ei??a neiaioaeuenueei?
ii?iaee c 2-3 eaeoaoe??th oa aeeaith ianith 500-550 ea. Oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei
i?ea(ycia. Ai?iii aaiaeeee ia 0-e oa 7-e aeaiue n. oe.. ???-e aeine?ae
i?iaaaeaii ia 116 /i?ii-?yaeo ei?iaao c aaiaeiaai?noth ieae/a
na?aaeiuei?. Oo?eiaiiy i?ea(ycia. (Iaiaii-O?i( aaiaeeee ei?iaai ca
aiaeeio aei in?iai?iiy oa ia 7-e /e 8-e aei? n. oe.. ?(-e
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ee aeine?ae ia 130 ei?iaao ??ciiai a?eo /i?ii-?yai?
ii?iaee, ?c ieo 105 aaiaeeee i?aia?ao ca aiaeeio aei in?iai?iiy oa ia
7-e /e 8-e aei? n. oe. ? aea?/? a aeaiue in?iai?iiy oa ia 7- /e 8-e
aeaiue n. oe. ?aoeei??ioai (Iaiaii-O?i( aaiaeeee a?ae?aco i?ney
ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a c aeiaoiy 1992 ?. ii ethoee 1993 ?. o AAO
(Ieaicaaiae Ai?oie/?( (/i?ii-?yaa ii?iaea) oa ENI. ?i. (AEiaoiaai?
?aaiethoe??(, I?aeeinueeiai ?aeiio, *a?i?aianueei? iaeano?
(neiaioaeuenueea ii?iaea).

Aea/aiiy aieeao i?aia?aoo (Oanoaiao( (80% aiaioiaiai ? 20%
i?ii?iiiaiai ao???a o oanoinoa?ii?) — ia a?aeoai?io ooieoe?th ei??a oa
oaeeoeue i?iaiaeeee ia 30 ei?iaao oa 30 oaeeoeyo aeeaith ianith
a?aeiia?aeii 380-580 oa 330-380 ea. Noeioeyoe?th noaoaai? ioioe
i?iaiaeeee aea?/? c ?ioa?aaeii 7 aei?a. Ai?iiiaeueiee ? a?oai?iiee
i?aia?aoe ((Oao?aa?o() aaiaeeee aioo??oiueii(yciai a aeic? 2 ? 10 ie.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ci?i aieueo-aiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee (AAO) AAO
y?/iee?a oa iaoee i?e iaoeyoe?? aoa i?iaaaeaiee aeine?ae ia 10 ei?iaao.
Ioioo o ei??a aeyaeyee ca ?aoeaenii ia?ooiiino? ia ianiaeu? ? a caaii?,
iaoeyoe?th — ?aeoaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie y?/iee?a. Aei??thaaiiy AAO
AAO noaoaai? nenoaie i?iaiaeeee neiino?oeiaaiei iaie iia?eueiei
eaai?aoi?iei i?eeaaeii. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeoeaiino? AAO iaoee
aeaeo?iaee ?ici?uoaaee o ae?eyioe? e?eae?a, a i?aaiai oa e?aiai y?/iee?a
— i?ae inoenoeie a?ae?inoeaie 2-ai oa 3-ai o?aaoe?a iiia?aeo.
?iaeeoa?aioiee aeaeo?iae e??ieee aei neeaaeee oe??e i?ae oainoii. AAO
ci?iaee c /aniaith aeene?aoi?noth: t = 90 n; i?e ci?i? iino?eiiai no?oio
— c aeene?aoi?noth: ( = 20 aei 60 ieA. Aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai no?ieo
in?iai?iiy ei??a i?iaiaeeee o 35 aie?a i?e no?oi? 10-20 ieA. ?aeoaeueio
oaiia?aoo?o aecia/aee i?ae/an aei??thaaiiy AAO AAO.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O AIAE?C

Ia??iaee/i?noue noaoaaeo oeeee?a o naiie aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae
ni?e/eith? oeeee?/i?noue i?ioean?a iai?io a ?o i?aai?ci?. O ii?i?
iae?iaiaeie?eiia ?aaoeyoe?y oa ?ioiia nenoaia naiee caaacia/othoue
i?eaeeaeaiiy aia??ii?a. Aea aeciaaii? oa aiaeiaaii? oaeoi?e, aieeaath/e
ia oe?, oiiei caaeainiaai? nenoaie, i?ecaiaeyoue aei ??ciiai nooiaiy
ii?ooaiue, ui a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ??ai? i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a. Oiio,
na?aae aiaeiaaiieo oaeoi??a iniaeeai aaeeea cia/aiiy ia?
iae?iaiaeie?eiia ?aaoeyoe?y oa noai ?ioiiiai?iieo i?ioean?a o i?aai?ci?
naiie i?e canoinoaaii? a?ioaoiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a a?aeoai?aiiy.

Aieea ee?i?ei-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue
aia??ii?a

Na?aae aiaeiaaiieo oaeoi??a iioiooieoe?iiaeueiee noai noaoaaeo i?aai?a
iniaeeai aeiaoiai o?ea caeia? i?ia?aeia i?noea. ??no ae. o.
cae?i/o?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi aa?o?aee, c yei? ii/eia?oueny ? eiai ?aa?an?y
(Konig H.E. et. al. 1988). Oiaoi, noai aa?o?aee iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i
ii?oieia?/io c??e?noue oa ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue oeueiai
aiaeie?eiiiai i?aaia. Aeo?ae aa?o?aee ae. o. ca iaae? y?/ieea aoa acyoee
iaie ye iniiaiee e?eoa??e eiai ioe?iee. ?aoeei??io?a, o yeeo y?/iee aoa
ca(eueoaiee aea ae. o. ia aeoiaeeei iaae eiai iiaa?oiath (aioo?(oi(),
ioe(ithaaee ye oiiaii (() i?eaeaoieo aeey ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia?(ii(a, yeui
ae. o. aeoiaeeei ca eiai iaae( aei 0,5 ni, a(aeiineee aei i?eaeaoieo (+,
( a?oia), a(ae 0,5 aei 1,0 ni — aei aaaeaieo (++, (( a?oia), iiiaae 1ni
— aei iaia(yceiaeo (+++, ((( a?oia) aeey ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a.
Aeine(aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o ?aoeei((io(a c aa?o(aeith ae. o. iiiaae
0,5 ni ((( oa ((( a?oie) i?eaeeaethaai(noue aia?(ii(a aoea ia 17-29,7%
(?(0,01) aeuith, i(ae o oaa?ei c ( a?oie (oaae.1.).

Aeyaeaiee ca(ycie eiioeaio?aoe?? i?iaanoa?iio a e?ia? ?aoeei??io?a
c ii?oieia?/iith ioe?ieith ae.o., aeicaiey? a?ae?a?aoe na?aae ieo 80% c
a?eueo ni?eyoeeaith ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiith neooaoe??th aeey i?eaeeaeaiiy
aia??i-i?a. Iaee?aueie aeey ia?anaaeaeaiiy aoee ?aoeei??ioe, o yeeo
na?aaei?e ai?no ai?iiio aei??aithaaa aai ia?aaeuea 2 ia/ie, a ae. o.
aeoiaeeei iaae iiaa?oiath y?/ieea ia 0,5-1 ni .

Oaaeeoey 1 — I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae
iioieia?/ii? ioe?iee aeiaoiai o?ea y?/iee?a oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a

E?euee?noue A?oia

( (+) (( (++) ((( (+++)

Ia?anaaeaeaii aia??ii?a, oo 21 71 22

O?eueieo ?aoeei??io?a, aie. 5 38 9

I?eaeeaethaai?noue, % 23,8 53,5 40,9

A?aeiii, ui ooieoe?iiaeueia aeoeai?noue aoaeue-yeiai i?aaio caeaaeeoue
a?ae caaacia/aiino? aia?aaoe/ieie oa ieanoe/ieie iaoaaie?oaie. O
a?ineioac? i?iaanoa?iio aaaeeeaa i?noea caeia? oieanoa?ei. Iniiaieie
iinoa/aeueie-eaie aoa?eo?eiaaiiai oieanoa?eio aeey noa?i?aeiaaiaco a
y?/ieeao ? e?iii?ioa?ie aeniei? u?eueiino? (EIAU) (?u??ione D. 1978).
Ci?ie ??aiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?noo EIAU iinyoue ooieoe?iiaeueiee
oa?aeoa?, aeaoa?i?iiaa-i? ca noaooth, a?aeia?aaeathoue noai iai?iieo
i?ioean?a e?i?ae?a ? iiaeooue neoaeeoe iciaeith ?ioaineaiino? a?ineioaco
i?iaanoa?iio, ui aea? i?aenoaao aeey aeei?enoaiiy oe??? iciaee ye oanoo
i?e o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a.

??aaiue EIAU o e?ia? ?aoeei??io?a aeine?aeaeoaaee e?enoaei-iioe/iei
iaoiaeii (Oa?an I. ? ?io.,1986), iiaeeo?eiaaiei iaie. Ooieoe?iiaeueio
aeoeai?noue ae. o. ee?i?/ii caei?iaeo oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a ioe?ithaaee
ca e?euee?noth oa ?ici??ii o?anoiiiae?aieo ai?cio?iiieo aeeth/aiue oeio
“iaeueo?enueeee o?ano” oiiaii, a aaeao: iecueeee (0-2 aaee); na?aaei?e
(3 aaee); aenieee (4 aaee). Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe.
ai?cio?iiieo aeeth/aiue o o?eueieo oa iao?eueieo ?aoeei??io?a aoei
a?eueoa a?aeiia?aeii ia 71% (?<0,05) oa 48,9%, ii??aiyii c oeei iieacieeii o iaaecia/aiee aeaiue oeeeeo. Oiaoi, c?inoaiiy a e?ia? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?iaanoa?iio ni?e/eith? ci?io e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ai?cio?iiieo aeeth/aiue. Na?aaei?e aae e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeth/aiue o o?eueieo ?aoeei??io?a aeaio aeine?aeieo a?oi a oeae aeaiue oeeeeo aoa a?eueoei ia 41,8% (?<0,05) oa ia 27,5%, i?ae o iao?eueieo. Oiaoi na?aae ee?i?/ii caei?iaeo ?aoeei??io?a ia 6-8-e aeaiue n. oe. ne?ae a?aeae?aoe oeo, ye? iathoue ae. o. c aenieith oa na?aaeiueith ooieoe?iiaeueiith aeoeai?noth, ui aeicaieeoue io?eiaoe o ieo 60-70% i?eaeeaethaaiino? (a?aei?iieo( oa (aeia?eo( aia??ii?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeee aaeeeo ?ieue o i?eaeeaeaii? aia??ii?a ??aiy iai?iieo i?ioean?a oa noaio i?e?iaeii? ?acenoaioiino? ?aoeei??ioa naia i?ae/an 6-7-ai aeiy n. oe., a naia: aetheice, ea?ioeio oa na/iaeie. O ?aoeei??io?a, ye? noaee o?eueieie, ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe. a e?ia? aoei a??ia?aeii iaioa aetheice oa na/iaeie ia 22,1 oa 7,2% a?aeiia?aeii, a ea?ioeio - a?eueoa ia 14,8%. Oae, a?aea?? na?aae ?aoeei??io?a c ii?oieia?/ii ioe?iaieie ae. o. oeo, ye? iathoue a e?ia? eiioeaio?aoe?th aetheice a iaaeao 2,22-2,775 iiieue/e oa ea?ioeio ia ieae/a 5,24 ieiieue/e, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?eaeeaeaiiyi aia??ii?a ia ??ai? 87,5% (?(0,05, 0,001) (oaae.2). Oaaeeoey 2 - I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o ?aoeei??io?a caeaaeii a?ae eeano ca ??aiai eiioeaio?aoe?? aetheice a e?ia? Eean, iiieue/e A?oia Anueiai,aie O?euei?, aie. I?eaeeaethaai?noue,% 1,67-2,22 ( 9 4 44,4 2,225-2,775 (( 8 7 87,5 2,78-3,33 ((( 5 3 60,0 3,89-4,44 (( 7 4 57,1 4,445 ? a?eueoa ( 6 1 16,7 Iino?eio i?aeaioiaeo iaoa?einueeiai i?aai?cio aei aaa?oiino? oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy ai?iaeiaae n. oe. ??aiy ee?oeiiiai ?ioi?oaoo ? ciaioaiiy aoii?aeueiiai (ssaeiinueeee A.A.,1986), i?aeoaa?aeeei aeyaeaia iaie a??ia?aeia cieaeaiiy a e?ia? i?aeaeine?aeieo ?aoeei??io?a ??aiy (-aeiaoe?i?a ia 7-e aeaiue n.oe.. Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui o ?aoeei??io?a, ye? noaee o?eueieie, ??aaiue AAE iaeii/anii a??ia?aeii ei?aeth? c ai?noii caaaeueiiai a?eea, aeiaoe?i?a, aeueaoi?i?a, na/iaeie, aetheice oa ea?ioeio (( = -0,69; +0,48; -0,49; -0,43; -0,58; +0,52 a?aeiia?aeii), oiae? ye o iao?eueieo eeoa c aeaiia inoaii?ie iaoaaie?oaie (( = -0,75 oa +0,60). Iaioee ??aaiue AAE( ?(0,05) a ia??iae ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a ni?ey? i?eaeeaeaiith. Ni?e/eiaia eaoaoa-?ii iiae?aciaiiy neeciai? iaoee, a naia iioeiaeaeaiiy ?? ai?oae?th, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy a e?ia? ?aoeei??ioa AAE oa EAE, aea aac ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? (-aeiaoe?i?a, a oneeaaeiaiiy aiane?aeie o?aaioaaiiy oeeee iaoee coiiaeththoue ca?eueoaiiy a e?ia? ai?noo (-aeiaoe?i?a, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia i?eaeeaeaiiy aia??ii?a. I?e i?iaaaeaii? o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a o ainiiaea?noaao, aea iaiiaeeeai i?iaanoe a?io?i?/iee aiae?c e?ia? oaa?ei, iiaeia nei?enoaoeny a?aeai?ii ?aoeei??io?a ca ?ioaineai?noth ?inoo aeeai? iane, yea o oeo, ui noaee o?eueieie, a??ia?aeii ei?aeth? ia 7-e aeaiue n.oe. c eiioeaio?aoe??th a e?ia? na/iaeie, aetheice oa ea?ioeio (( = -0,54, -0,51 oa +0,69, ?(0,01 a?aeiia?aeii). Ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a aoaeoeai?oa o oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a c aeia?a ?icaeiaiei ae. o. oa i?e?inoii aeeai? iane ia ??ai? 720-770 a ai?iaeiaae 30-90 aei?a aei o?ainieaioaoe?? (oaae. 3). Oaaeeoey 3 - I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a caeaaeii a?ae na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai i?e?inoo aeeai? iane ?aoeei??io?a o ??ci? ia??iaee aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy Eean ca na?aae-iueiaeiaiaei I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a (%) ca ia??iae eiio?ieth i?e?inoo aeeai? iane E?euee?- noue ia?a- I ( ( i?e?inoii, a 30 aei?a 60 aei?a 90 aei?a naaeaeaiue 300-570 60,0 57,1 20,1 22 45,7(13,0 571-720 53,8 50,0 50,0 41 51,3(1,3x 721-770 80,0 75,0 100,0 10 85,0(7,6x 771-920 61,5 50,0 46,2 38 52,6(4,6x I ( ( 65,0(12 58,0(5,9 52,9(12,6 - - I?ei?oea. oP<0,05. Aaiaoe/iee aiae?c iiaie?a(y ?aoeei??io?a ca iie?ii?oieie a?eeaie (ai?eaca, oea?oeiieaci?i, o?ainoa?aca) e?ia? iieacaa, ui o aaoa?iceaioieo oaa?ei ??aaiue i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a aoa a?eueoei, i?ae o aiiiceaioieo (oaae.4), ? caeaaeeoue a?ae iayaiino? a ?aoeei??ioa iaaiiai aaia.. Oae, iaea?eueoa i?eaeeaethaai?noue - 54,5% ? 46% - aoea o oaa?ei c aaiaie ai?eace A ? o?ainoa?eio A, a iaeiaioa (34%, 36,4%,38,9% oa 34,7%) - N, Ae1, Ae2, oa oea?oeiieaci?io A. Aeyaeaia oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy ??aiy i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a i?e iayaiino? a aaiioei? ?aoeei??io?a aeaey TfD. Oiio a?aea?? oaa?ei ca oeiii iie?ii?oieo a?ee?a e?ia? i?e aeyaeai? iiceoeaiiai ?o ca(yceo c i?iaeoeoeaieie aai ?ioeie yeinoyie, ne?ae aeiiiaieoe aeaieie uiaei aieeao oaeiai a?aeai?o ia a?aeoai?io ooieoe?th. Aea/aiiyi aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a AAO noaoaai? nenoaie aeyaeaii ca(ycie ?o ??aiy c ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiei noaiii ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aai?a. Aoei ?ic?iaeaii iia?eueiee i?eeaae oa niin?a aecia/aiiy /ano iaoeyoe?? ca ci?iaie AAO a ciiao AAO iaoee oa y?/iee?a. Nooue eiai iieya? o aei??thaaii? i?eeaaeii c o?eniaaiei no?oiii 10-20 ieA, c ?ioa?aaeii 8-12 aiaeei, iai?oae a cii? AAO iaoee oa y?/iee?a o oaa?ei a noai? noaoaai? ioioe. Ci?ia ia?aiao??a iai?oae (?(0,05) noi?iaiaeaeo? oaiiiai iaoeyoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a aecia/aiiy iaoeyoe?? oie?eoe?a aeiaaa? iaaaaaoi ?iai/iai /ano, iaaei?iaiai i?eeaaeo ? aeicaiey? a?eueo oi/ii i?aeae?aoe aia??ii ia iaai?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo aei ?aoeei??io?a ?c aecia/aiith iaoeyoe??th. Ia iniia? aei??thaaiiy iai?oae a cii? AAO iaoee oa ?aeoaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e o ei??a Oaaeeoey 4 - I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o ?aoeei??io?a caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? aai?a iie?ii?oieo a?ee?a E?euee?noue aai?a ?aoeei??ioe 3* 4** 5*** 6**** aie. % aie. % aie. % aie % O?euei? 4 57,8 9 60 10 43,5 5 83,4 Iao?euei? 3 42,2 6 40 13 56,5 1 16,6 Anueiai o aeai?oe? 7 13,7 15 29,4 23 45,1 6 11,8 I?ei?oea: 3*aiiiceaioe oa 6****aaoa?iceaioe ca o?ueiia nenoaiaie; 4**aiiiceaioe ca aeaiia nenoaiaie; 5***aiiiceaioe ca iaei??th nenoaiith a noai? noaoaai? ioioe ?ic?iaeee oi?ioeo (1) aeey ia/eneaiiy iieacieea ooieoe?iiaeo A, ci?ia yeiai oa?aeoa?eco? ca(ycie ?aeoaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e oa iai?oae a cii? AAO iaoee ei?iae ia?aae ia?oei oa ae?oaei in?iai?iiyi. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?e oiia? A (200 ae?oaa in?iai?iiy i?iaiaeeoe iaaeioe?eueii, a oea i?e na?aaei?e aoaeoeaiino? ia?oiai ia ??ai? 50% aeicaiey? caeiiiieoe aeecueei 25% aeic nia?ie. B = (T1 x T2) : (T1 - T2) o (( (U1 : U2) (1) aea, O1 - ?aeoaeueia oaiia?aoo?a ia?aae ia?oei aaaaeaiiyi nia?ie; O2 - ?aeoaeueia oaiia?aoo?a ia?aae ae?oaei aaaaeaiiyi nia?ie; U1 - iai?oaa a cii? AAO ia?aae ia?oei aaaaeaiiyi nia?ie; U2 - iai?oaa a cii? AAO ia?aae ae?oaei aaaaeaiiyi nia?ie; Aieea aeciaaiieo oaeoi??a ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a E?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeyoue caeaaei?noue a?aeoai?ii? ooieoe?? ei??a a?ae caaeainiaaiino? ?aoe?ii?a ca ie?aieie i?e?iaeaiaoaie oa a?oai?iaie. Oiio ia?oee i?eeii ei?aeoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a iieyaaa o eiiieaeniiio canoinoaaii? oeeo a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei i?e i?aeaioiaoe? oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a. O aeine?ae? aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui o ?aoeei??io?a, o ?aoe?ii? yeeo i?e?iaeaiaioi? aeiaaaee (i?aeue, ia?aaiaoeue, oeeie, eiaaeueo, eiae) aoee c eiaeii aea aac i?ae? noaoaaa caoaeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ecoaaeinue aenieei nooiaiai i?iyao. O ieo o e?ia? ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe. ca?eueoeeanue eiioeaio?aoe?y (-aeiaoe?i?a ia 6,4% (?(0,05), caaaeueiiai a?eea ? e?i?ae?a ia 11,4%, 25% (?(0,01) oa a??ia?aeii ciaioeany ai?no ea?ioeio ii??aiyii c ii/aoeii iniiaiiai ia??iaeo. Oea cieceei ia 16,7% i?eaeeaethaai?noue ia?anaaeaeaieo aia??ii?a i?ioe 50% o eiio?ie? oa a a?oi?, ye?e a aeiaaaeo aeeth/eee i?aeue aac eiaeo. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe aeaiia aca?iica(ycaieie i?ioeanaie. Ii-ia?oa, ca?eueoaiiy noaoaaiai caoaeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iaaei??iei ai?noii o e?ia? ano?iaai?a, ui ii?oooth/e ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noaoaaeo ai?iii?a, iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a (Noaeaeia A.E. ? ?io.,1990). Ii-ae?oaa, o i?aai?ci? oaa?ei i?e iaaeinoaoi?e e?eueeino? i?ae?, aea aeinoaoi?e iayaiino? eiaaeueoo oa ia?aaioeth, a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia aeieaaiiy eiaeo c ueoiaeaeii? caeice (Noaeaeia I.A. ? ?io.,1974) ? caaacia/aiiy ?? a oeae /an aeciaaiiei eiai i?eoieii. Oeae noai oa aieea ano?iaai?a, iaaooue, noeioeththoue o caeic? neioac o?eeiaeoe?ii?io (Kahl S.,1987), i?i ui iia?/ii na?ae/eoue ca?eueoaiiy, ca iaoeie aeaieie, eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ee?a e?ia? ?, iniaeeai, (-aeiaoe?i?a. C?inoaiiy a e?ia? ai?noo inoaii?o ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iao? ia?aaeaa/aiiy iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ?o aeniei? eiioeaio?aoe?? ia i?eaeeaeaiiy ca?iaee?a. Oe?ieee niaeo? aieeao ia i?aai?ci oaa?ei i?e?iaeieo ni?aaio?a coiiaea aeeth/aiiy aei ?aoe?iio oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a a ia??iae i?aeaioiaee aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a - ooiie?oo. Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaii a?oai?iii- i?ia?aeueiee i?ai?en, aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeyoue i?a?aoiaai? aeua i?e?iaeaiaioe, (Oao?aa?o( oa ooiie?o o aeic? 0,5 a ia 1 ea aeeai? iane, cai-aeiaoaaiiy yeiai ai?iaeiaae aeaio i?nyoe?a ni?eyei ii?iae?caoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a o oaa?ei c iciaeaie noaee?i?/iiai eaoico. O e?ia? oaeeoeue cieceeanue eiioeaio?aoe?y i?o?ao?a (ia 12,8%) ? i?o?eo?a (ia 16,3%, ?(0,05), ye? iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia a?aeoai?io ooieoe?th (Ao?yeia I.? ?io.,1995), ca?eueoeany ai?no o iaaeao ii?ie aeueaoi?i?a oa a??ia?aeii c?inea eiioeaio?aoe?y eaeueoe?th (?(0,05), iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o (?(0,01), oeeieo (?(0,05) - a?aeiia?aeii ia 7,2, 16,2 oa 9,3%, o o?ueio oaa?ei aeyaeee ia?aaiaoeue. Oe? ci?ie a iai?iieo i?ioeanao o ?aoeei??io?a caaacia/eee 60% i?eaeeaethaaiino? o?ainieaioiaaieo aia??ii?a. Caiaeiaoaaiiy oaeeoeyi /enoiai ooiie?oo o cacia/ai?e aeic? iaaaoeaii aeeioei ia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?o aeeai? iane. Iniaeeai cia/ia cieaeaiiy (107,2 a) na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai i?e?inoo niinoa??aaee ia o?aoueiio i?nyoe? aeine?aeo. O e?ia? oeeo ?aoeei??io?a aoei a??ia?aeii (?(005) iaioa aetheice, (-aeiaoe?i?a, ea?ioeio, aea a?eueoa na/iaeie (a?aeiia?aeii ia 12,7, 7,2, 22,3 oa 16,2%), i?ae o ?aoeei??io?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Ia oii? ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo a e?ia? oeeieo, oinoi?o, eaeueoe?th a i?e aoa a?aenooi?e ia?aaiaoeue oa ciaioeany ??aaiue i?ae? - a?aeiia?aeii ia 7,8 (?(0,05), 12,4 (?(0,01), 4,1 oa 10,5%. Oae? ci?ie cieceee i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a aei 50% i?ioe 60% o eiio?ie?. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?eiouaiiy, c?iaeai? a ia?oiio aeine?ae?, uiaei iaaaoeaiiai aieeao aeao?oeeoo ??aiy i?ae? a e?ia? ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a. Iecueeee ai?no aetheice oa ea?ioeio a e?ia? ?aoeei??io?a iiaeia oaeiae ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?aaeeueiino? iaoeo aeniiae?a uiaei aaaeeeai? ?ie? naia oeeo iaoaaie?o?a aeey i?ioeano i?eaeeaeaiiy aia??ii?a. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeee: a) niin?a i?aeaioiaee oaa?ei-?aoeei??io?a; a) i?ia?aeueiee i?ai?en aeey cae?eniaiiy oeueiai niiniao. E??i o?eaaei? 2-3-i?ny/ii? i?aeaioiaee oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a oeyoii caiaeiaoaaiiy ?i ?aoe?ii?a, caaaa/aieo a?oai?iii-i?ia?aeueieie aeiaaaeaie, ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoa ?ic?iaeaiee a?eueo aoaeoeaiee ae?oaee i?eeii ei?aeoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a a ?o i?aai?ci? c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy i?eaeeaethaaiino? ia?anaaeaeaieo aia??ii?a. Nooue i?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei o ia??iae noeioeyoe?? a ?aoeei??io?a noaoaai? ioioe aiaeiaaie i?inoaaeaiaeeio. Aeey oeueiai aoa noai?aiee i?aia?ao (Aethoai(, oai?aoe/ia ia?aaeoiiaa ?ic?iaee yeiai iieyaaea o iaiao?aeiino? o/ano? eiai neeaaeiaeo a aia?aaoe/iiio oa ieanoe/iiio i?ioeanao iai?io a ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aaiao ? a?iioaeaii-a?iio?ca?i?e aiaeie?eii?e nenoai? c iaoith iie?ioaiiy oiia aeey ?icaeoeo aia??ii?a oa noeioeyoe?? ?o i?eaeeaeaiiy. Aei neeaaeo i?aia?aoo aoee aaaaeai? aeooai?iiaa eeneioa ye i?eei?aeiiia niieoea i?ae ieanoe/ieie oa aia?aaoe/ieie iai?iieie i?ioeanaie, ui aeicaiey? ?e i?e ci?i? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oeaiei oa i?aai?a aeeth/aoeny o ??ci? iaoaaie?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy, oa aetheica, ai?no yei? a e?ia? ?aoeei??io?a ca?aeii c iaoeie aeaieie, aieeaa? ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue ia?anaaeaeaieo aia??ii?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea iieacaea, ui iaiaeii?aciaa (8 ?ac?a) ?io?aaaiicia aaaaeaiiy (Aethoaio( a eiiieaen? ?c caiaeiaoaaiiyi i?e?iaea-iaio?a oa a?oai?i?caoe??th ?aoe?ii?a ii?iae?co? o oaeeoeue i?ioeane iai?io ao-aeaaiae?a oa cieaeo? AAE, noai?th/e a ?o ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aaiao ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey i?eaeeaeaiiy o?ainieaioiaaieo aia??ii?a. Oae, i?eaeeaethaai?-noue o oaeeo ?aoeei??io?a noaiiaeea 83,3% i?ioe 42,9% o oaa?ei, yeei caiaeiaoaaee eeoa i?ia?aeueii a?oai?ii? aeiaaaee, oa 25% - o eiio?ieueieo. O iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iio aeine?ae? aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui o?ee?aoia aioo-??oiueiaaiia aaaaeaiiy ?aoeei??ioai i?aia?ao?a (Aethoaio( o aeic? 140 ie oa aioo??oiueii(yciaa (Oao?aa?oo( o aeic? 10 ie o ia??iae noeioeyoe?? noaoaai? ioioe IA coiiaeth? 40,9% (?(0,05) i?eaeeaethaaiino? (caaeia?eueieo( aia??ii?a, oiaoi nooo?ai a?eueoa (ia 29,8%) ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai. O ia??iae aaaaeaiiy (Aethoaio( a e?ia? ?aoeei??io?a a?aeaoaathoueny a??ia?aei? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aetheice, caaaeueiiai a?eea oa aeoeaiino? AnAO. Ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe. a ieo o e?ia? niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai EA, i?iaanoa?iio oa 17(-ano?aae?ieo a?aeiia?aeii ia 15,7%, 25% oa 19,8%. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?iii?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? i?aai?a, ui ?o i?iaeoeothoue. Oae, o aeine?aeieo oaa?ei iana aaeaiia?iio?ca, ae. o. oa ?ici?? aeii?ioth/iai oie?eoea y?/iee?a aoee a?eueoeie a?aeiia?aeii ia 12,2% (?(0,05), 12,3% oa 65,9% (?(0,05). O oeae aea aeaiue n. oe. a e?ia? aeine?aeieo ?aoeei??io?a aoea a?eueoa eiioeaio?aoe?y a?eueieo ai?iieeneio ia 17,3%, ?c ieo cai?iieo ia 13,7% ? iacai?iieo ia 22,7% (?(0,05), na/iaeie ia 11,3%, a??ia?aeii ca?eueoeany ai?no ai?iieen-eio oe?iceio, a?noeaeeio, 1-iaoeea?noeaeeio, o?eioioaio ? a?aei?io. O ia/?ioe? ?aoeei??io?a, yeei ?io?aaaiicii aaiaeeee i?aia?ao (Aethoai( i?ae /an noeioeyoe?? noaoaai? ioioe, ?ioaineo?eothoueny i?ioeane aetheiiaiaa-iaco, yeee ni?ey? iaeiie/aiith ae?eiaaio (ia 35%, ?(0,01), aeieeathoue ci?ie a neeaae? aee?ieo eeneio, a??ia?aeii ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaeuei?oeiiai?, a?iiaa?ai? oa ia?aa?eiiai? eeneio a?aeiia?aeii ia 2,08%, 0,13% oa 0,47%. A?ao?aeiiiaa eeneioa aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo IA, oiio iniaeeaee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaey? ?? ??aaiue o ia/?ioe? (?aca?a aeey neioaco ai?iiio). O oaeeoeue, yeei aaiaeeee (Aethoai(, niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy ia 1,77% ?? o ia/?ioe?, ui iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iia?/ia na?ae/aiiy noeioeyoe?? neioaco IA, a cia/eoue ? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci?. O ae. o. aeine?aeieo oaeeoeue (oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy ??aiy ae?eiaaio - ia 11,6% oa ciaioaiiy ai?noo eaeoaoo ? i??oaaoo - a?aeiia?aeii ia 4,6% oa 17,8%), ?ioaineo?eothoueny ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy inoaii?o aeaio iaoaaie?-o?a i?ioeane aetheiiaiaaiaco. Aea a oeueiio i?aai? aoei iaioa (ia 13-46%) oinoie?i?ae?a, a??ia?aeii a?eueoa iane/aieo ? iaioa iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio, na?aae yeeo ciaioeany (?(0,05) ai?no: ia?enoiiea?iiai? (14:1) - ia 0,18%, iaeuei?oiiea?iiai? (16:1) - ia 0,55%, oe?iaiiiai? (16:2(4) - ia 0,32%, aaioaaeaoeaiiai? (17:1) - ia 0,23%, aeaiaeeiiai? (18:1) - ia 5,02 %, ie-oaaeaeaoao?a?iiai? (18:4) - ia 0,19% oa aeeicaiaioi?iiai? (20:5) - ia 0,21 %. O oaeeoeue, yeei aaiaeeee (Aethoai(, o aiaeiiao??? ?ia?a iaoee oaeiae niin-oa??aa?oueny ?ioaineo?eaoe?y i?ioeano aetheiiaiaaiaco, aea ca ?aooiie aeei?e-noaiiy i??oaaoo, aeooaiaoo, eaeoaoo oa eaoiaeooa?aoo. O ieo a aiaeiiao??? ?iaa iaoee ?c noi?iie ae. o. aoei a?eueoa oinoaoeae?eoie?io - ia 15,7%, no?i-aii??e?io - ia 33,4%, oinoaoeaeee?iiceoieo - ia 67,3%, aeeoinoaoeaeeeae?-oea?ieo - ia 12,5% ? oinoaoeaeeeae?oea?ieo - ia 25%, a na?aae aee?ieo eeneio- aaioaaeaoeaiiai? eeneioe (17:1) - ia 0,14% (?(0,05), i?ae o eiio?ieueieo oaa-?ei. Aiaeiiao??e ?iaa iaoee ?c noi?iie y?/ieea c ae. o. o neeaae? e?i?ae?a iaa o?eaeaoeeeiao (13:0), ia?enoiiea?iiao (14:1), aeiiaa?ao (16:1(7) oa ieoaaea-eaoao?a?iiao (18:4) eeneioe, yeeo ia aoei a i?ioeeaaeiiio ?ic? iaoee. A?ieia?/ia ae?y i?aia?aoo (Aethoai( o i?aai?ci? oaeeoeue a?oioo?oueny ia aieea? aeooai?iiai? eeneioe, yea ? iniiaiei eiai ?ia?aae??ioii. Oey ai?ii-eeneioa iiaea aeeth/aoeny a aia?aaoe/i? oa ieanoe/i? iai?ii? i?ioeane a oeo /e ?ioeo i?aaiao /e nenoaiao i?aai?cio, caeaaeii a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea aiie aeeiiothoue. sse ?aeei?e ai?iieeneio?, ui ieeneth?oueny a oeaieiao iiceo ? neoaeeoue aia?aaoe/iei aeaea?aeii aeey ae?yeueiino? iae-?ii?a, ?e aeanoea? noeioethth/ee aieea ia a?iioaeaii-a?iio?ca?io nenoaio, aeoeai?noue yei? ??cei c?inoa? o ia??iae ?iaeoeoe?? aeciaaiieie IA noaoaai? ioioe. Oiio ?io?aaaiicia aaaaeaiiy o oeae ia??iae i?aia?aoo, a ia?oo /a?ao, aoaea caaacia/oaaoe noano?aoii oa?iaioaoeai? aia?aaoe/i? ?aaeoe?? o a?iioa-eaion?, a naia a oeaio?ao ?aaoeyoe?? aieiaeo ? iane/aiiy, oa aiiaaeio?iiio ooieoe?th, ui ni?e/eith? ca?eueoaiiy neioaco aiiaaeie?aa?ei?a, aeae?eaiiy yeeo c?inoa? ca ?aooiie noeioeyoe?? aeioai?io, i?ae aieeaii aeooai?iiai? eeneioe (Calvert D.T., at. al.,1996). Aeoea?caoe?y oeaio??a aieiaeo oa iane/aiiy a a?iioaeaion? - iaeia c i?e/ei a?io?i?/ieo ci?i o ia/?ioe? oa ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo o e?ia? aeine?aeieo oaa?ei a?eueieo ai?iieeneio, iniaeeai, oe?iceio - iiia?aaeieea aeioai?io. A?eueoee ai?no a e?ia? naieoeue oe?iceio ni?e/eith? ?ioaineaia aeae?eaiiy aiiaaeio?iiieo ai?iii?a a?iio?cii (Russe M. et al.,1985) ? aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie. I?aeaeuaia i?ney iaoeyoe?? eiioeaio?aoe?y a e?ia? oaeeoeue aiiaaeio?iiieo ai?iii?a noeioeth? ??no aeii?ioth/iai oie?eoea oa ae. o., ye? coiiaeththoue ?ioaineaia aeae?eaiiy a e?ia 17(-ano?aae?ieo oa i?iaanoa?iio ((=0,87, ?(0,05). Ca?eueoaiiy ooieoe?i-iaeueii? aeoeaiino? ae. o. i?ae aieeaii EA iia?/ii i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iaioei ai?noii o iueiio oieanoa?eio (ia 16,4%) oa oinoie?i?ae?a. Inoaii? coiiaea-ii a?eueoith eiioeaio?aoe??th EA, ui ?ioaineo?eo? noa?i?aeiaaiio aeoeai?noue a ee?oeiao ae. o. /a?ac IA (Grazul A. et.al.,1987), aeey neioaco ?o iaiao?aeia a?ao?aeiiiaa eeneioa (Dudnik L.et. al.,1985), aeaea?aeii yei? ? oinoie?i?aee. Ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?o i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy EA a e?ia? oaa?ei i?ney aaaaeaiiy (Aethoaio( . Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?iieeneio o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? aeine?aeieo oaeeoeue, ia iaoo aeoieo, iia(ycaia c ai?iiiaeueiith ?aaoeyoe??th ?o o?ainii?ooaaiiy. Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii, ui caaacia/o? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ai?iieeneio o ee?oeio ? aeeth/aiiy a a?eie, ? aieea noa?i?aeieo ai?iii?a (THaeaaa I.A. ? ?io.,1976), ??aaiue yeeo a e?ia? c?inoa? a ca(yceo c a?eueo ?ioaineaiei ?inoii aeii?ioth/iai oie?eoea. ?ioee oeyo ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy ai?iieeneio iieyaa? a noeioeyoe?? (Aethoaiii( ea?iaaiiai iaoaaie?ciii ?o o?ainii?ooaaiiy, nooi?noue yeiai iieyaa? a aeoeaaoe?? aetheicith aia?aaoe/ieo a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e. Aetheica ye aeaea?aei aia?a?? ca?eueoo? aani?aoe?th ai?iieeneio (Curran P.,1972), ??aaiue yeeo a oeoieiai-eeoeiaiio o?aeo? iiaea ca?eueooaaoenue ca ?aooiie ?aoeeee?caoe?? ai?aeo, noeioeueiaaii?, i/aaeaeii, (Aethoaiii( ye i?yii a ai?oae?? no?iee ?oaoey, oae ? /a?ac iae?iaiaeie?eiio ?aaoeyoe?th e?iaiia?ao a i?e. Ea?aai?ae, ui aniieoo?oueny ?c ?oaoey, aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e?ii?aai?ciaie, a ?acoeueoao? ca?eueoo?oueny ??aaiue i?ioa?io, yeee ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith a ieaci? e?ia? iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio o a?eueo?e i???, i?ae cai?iieo (A?aaeonia TH.,1979), ui aoei aeyaeaii a iaoiio aeine?ae?. Aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo (Aethoai( oaee-oeyi noeioeth? aeae?eaiiy aetheaaiio, yeee ?ioaineo?eoth/e aetheiiaiaaiac, ?iaeoeo? o?ainii?ooaaiiy ai?iieeneio, iniaeeai iacai?iieo. Inoaii? a naith /a?ao noeioeththoue aeae?eaiiy ?inoe?io i?aeoeoieiaith caeicith (Aeaenaiae?ia N.,1986), ui coiiaeth? cieaeaiiy ai?noo aetheice a e?ia? oaeeoeue, i?aeo?eioth/e ?? aiiainoaoe/io eiioeaio?aoe?th. I?i oea na?ae/eoue iaeaea iaeiaeiaee ??aaiue aoaeaaiaeo a e?ia? oaa?ei i?aeaeine?aeieo a?oi ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe.. I?e aaaaeaii? (Aethoaio( a i?aai?ci oaa?ei iae?iia??i?oa caae?yi? oe? aeaa oeyoe noeioeyoe?? o?ainii?ooaaiiy ai?iieeneio ?c oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo a e?ia. Ano?iaaie /a?ac oeAIO ?aaoeththoue iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei iaoee naiee ai?iieeneio (Schepartz P.,1973). ?o ??aaiue o ieaci? aeine?aeieo oaa?ei aoa a?eueoei, ui coiiaeei iaaeoiaeaeaiiy inoaii?o ?c eeoe?aieea a e?iaiiinia ?onei ? a aiaeiiao??e iaoee aeey neioaco a?ee?a, iaiao?aeieo aia??iio. Ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio iia?/ii i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaie uiaei noeioethth/i? ae?? (Aethoaio( ia i?ioean neioaco noa?i?aeieo ai?iii?a. ?ioaineaia aeae?eaiiy no?oeoo?aie y?/ieea i?iaanoa?iio oa 17(-ano?aae?ieo ni?eyei a?eueo?e aia?aicaaacia/aiino? iaoee aeine?aeieo oaa?ei, /iio ia?aaeoaaei i?aeaeuaiiy aetheiiaiaaiaco, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e oiia? aeniei? eiioeaio?aoe?? AOO ? iecueei? AIO (Aa?acia O. ? ?io.,1982). C?inoaiiy ai?noo oinoie?i?ae?a a aiaeiiao??? ?iaa iaoee ?c noi?iie y?/ieea c ae. o. o aeine?aeieo oaa?ei i/aaeaeii iia’ycaia c eiioi?iaoe?eieie ci?iaie oa ??aiai aeoeaiino? iaia?aiieo oa?iaio?a (Daun G.,1985), aeieeath/eo aiane?aeie a?eueoi? eiioeaio?aoe?? noano?aoo, ? ye? na?ae/aoue i?i ?iaeoeoe?th iai?iieo i?ioean?a i?ae aieeaii a?eueoi? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?iaanoa?iio oa ano?aae?ieo (Muller G.,1965). Iiaeeeai, oea iia’ycaia c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeoiaeo aetheice ?c ee?oei aiaeiiao??th a aia??io?io. Aaeaea ia 7-e aeaiue ano?ono o ieo a?aenooi? a?aioee ae?eiaaio (Aoaianueaa I. ? ?io.,1970), ui ni?e/eith? noai?aiiy a?eueoi? e?eueeino? iaa?neieieo no?oeoo? iaia?ai, ye? aec-ia/athoue iniaeeao ?o ?ieue o o?ainii?oieo i?ioeanao (Gullie P. et al.,1980). C?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? oieanoa?eio (ia 22,4%) oaeiae ni?ey? o?ainii?-ooaaiith iaoaaie?o?a /a?ac iaia?aio, cie?aia aetheice (Saito G.et. al.,1979). ?enoiie 2 - Noaia a?ieia?/ii? ae?? (Aethoaio( a i?aai?ci? oaeeoeue (1 - (Aethoai(, 2 - ?ee?ceia-oaeoi?e, 3 - EA, ONA, 4 - i?iaanoa?ii, 5 - 17(-ano?aae?ie, 6 - ai?iieeneioe, 7 - oeaio? aiiaaeio?iiii? ?aaoeyoe??, 8 - oeaio? aieiaeo oa ianeuaiiy, 9 - (-ai?iiianeyia eeneioa, 10 - aetheaaii, ?inoe?i) Aieea i?aia?aoo iieyaa? oaeiae o aeeth/aii? eiai a iaoaaie?ci o iaooe? oa ia/?ioe?, ui ?ioaineo?eo? i?ioeane aetheiiaiaaiaco oa ca?eueoo? ai?no a?eueiiai oieanoa?eio. A?ia?ae?eai?/iee aoaeo i?aia?aoo iiaea aoaeo ni?e/eiaiee oaeiae ae??th (-ai?iiianeyii? eeneioe ui ooai?th?oueny a ia?aia?e oeaiei? a i?ioean? aeaea?aieneethaaiiy aeooai?iiai? eeneioe, iayai?noue yei? a e?ia? a iacia/i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? 10-2 ieiieue/ie noeioeth? aniieooaaiiy aetheice i?aaiaie, iniaeeai ia/?ieith (Aoiyoyi A.,1967). Ca?eueoaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ?a/iaei o i?aaiao oa ai?noo caaaeueiiai a?eea ?ai?iieeneio a e?ia? na?ae/eoue, ui (Aethoai( ?ioaineo?eo? iai?i ?a/iaei, yeee aaaea aei iaeiie/aiiy no?oeoo?ii-aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo ooieoe?iiaeueii aeoeaieo i?aai?a, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey ae?oai? oi?ie iaaeeeoeiaiai aiaaie?cio. I?aaenoaaeai? aeai? aeicaieeee iiaoaeoaaoe noaio a?ieia?/ii ae?? i?aia?aoo a i?aai?ci? oaeeoeue (?en. 2). O?ao?e i?eeii ei?aeoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci? naieoeue iieyaaa o aieea? ia aiaeie?eiio ?aaoeyoe?th noaoaaiai oeeeeo ca aeiiiiiaith aaaaeaiiy aeciaaiieo ai?iiiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a. Iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaia aaaeeeaa ?ieue i?aeaeuaiiiai ??aiy EA ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe. aeey iai?iieo i?ioean?a a oe?eiio i?aai?ci? oa noaoaa?e nenoai? cie?aia. A?aeiii (Taylor C. at. al.,1991), ui o ei??a ai?iaeiaae noaoaaiai oeeeeo a y?/ieeo niinoa??aa?oueny 2-3 oaee? ?inoo oie?eoe?a, na?aae yeeo iaeei aeii?ioth/ee. Ia?oa oaeey, ye i?aaeei, cae?i/o?oueny ia 7-8-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo (Sirois J. at. al.,1990). Aeenaaeain EA ia 7-8 aeaiue n. oe., iiaea noai?eoe a e?ia? o?eaaea ca?eueoai-iy ??aiy ano?iaai?a ? i?ecaanoe aei iaie?aeiino?. A oeae (e?eoe/iee( ia??iae c ii?oee ?icaeaa?oueny aeanoioeenoa, ? ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ano?iaai?a iiaea aeeeeeaoe ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie aiaeiiao??th iaoee, ye? iaaaoeaii ae?thoue ia ia?aa?a i?ioeano i?eaeeaeaiiy aia??iia. E??i oiai, aeenaaeain EA, iaaaoeaii aieeaath/e ia ??no ae. o., i?ecaaaea aei cieaeaiiy ??aiy a e?ia? i?i-aanoa?iio, eiioeaio?aoe?y yeiai a oeae ia??iae cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny. Ii?ooai-iy i?iii?oe?? i?ae i?iaanoa?iiii oa ano?iaaiaie oaeiae a?ae?a(?oueny iaaaoea-ii ia i?eaeeaeaii? aia??iia. Oae? a?aoiaioe iineoaeeee i?aenoaaith aeey ?ic?iaee iiai? ai?iiiaeueii? noaie ia?iaee naieoeue aiaeiaii EA - (Iai-aii-O?i(. I?iaaaeaia iaie aenia?eiaioaeueia ?? ia?aa??ea i?aeoaa?aeeea i?a-aeeuei?noue oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a uiaei iaiao?aeiino? ?aaoeyoe?? ai?iiiaeueii-ai oiio o oaa?ei naia ia 6-8-e aeaiue oeeeeo c iaoith iie?ioaiiy oiia i?eaeeaeaiiy aia??ii?a. Aaaaeaiiy (Iaiaii-O?i( ia 7-8-e aeaiue n. oe. oa aeai?aciaa a aeaiue ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy ? ia 7 /e 8-e aeaiue i?ney iueiai i?aeaeueea i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o ei??a ia 25-37% (?(0,01) (oaae.5). Aaaaeaiiy a i?aai?ci naiee aeciaaiiiai oanoinoa?iio, noeioethth/e aai ii?iae?coth/e i?ioean neioaco ano?iaai?a oa aiaeie?eiiee noaoon i?aai?cio, ni?e/eieoue noaoaaa caoaeaeaiiy oa ioioo (Aiaaeaiia A.I. ? ?io?, 1981). Aeei?enoaiiy i?aia?aoo (Oanoaiao( (80% aiaioiaiai oa 20% i?ii?iiiaiai ao?- ??a o oanoinoa?ii?) aeey ?aaoeyoe?? Oaaeeoey 5 - I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o ei??a i?e aeei?enoaii? (Iaiaii-O?i( o ??ci? aei? noaoaaiai oeeeeo A?oia Aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo, eiee aoa aaaaeaiee i?aia?ao E?euee?noue oaa?ei, aie. O?eueieo aie. I?eaeeaethaai?noue, % Eiio?ieueia - 68 32 47 ( 0 97 59 60,8 (( 7 50 36 72 ((( 8 25 20 80 (O 0+7 25 21 84 O 0+8 25 20 80 noaoaaiai oeeeeo oa i?ioeano i?eaeeaeaiiy aia??ii?a o ei??a ? oaeeoeue caneoaiao? ia oaaao iaoeiaoe?a oa i?aeoee?a. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeaie?aoia ?i(?eoe?y (Oanoaiaoo( a aeic? 2 ie c ?ioa?aaeii 7 aei?a o 50-70% ei??a oa oaeeoeue noeioethaaea noaoaao ioioo. I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o ieo aoea ia oaeiio ae ??ai?, ye o oaa?ei c? niiioaiiith ioioith. I?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? i?aia?aoo (ia 15%) ni?eyei iaeii/ania aaaaeaiiy oaa?eiai a?oai?i?a ((Oao?aa?o(). Aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a i?e noia?iaoeyoe?? o aeiii??a ?ic?iaea niinia?a ei?aeoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci? aeiii??a c iaoith io?eiaiiy a?eueoi? e?eueeino? i?eaeaoieo aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a noaea /aoaa?oei i?eeiiii ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oeueiai a?ioaoiieia?/iiai iaoiaeo a?aeoai?aiiy. O cia/i?e i??? aa??aaaeuei?noue ?acoeueoao?a noia?iaoeyoe?? iaoiiaeaia noaiii iai?iieo i?ioean?a o i?aai?ci? aeiii??a. Iaie aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui o aeiii??a c a?eueoei ia 68,7% (?(0,05) aaeii ai?cio?iiieo aeeth/aiue e?iii?ioa?i?a aeniei? u?eueiino?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoieia?th iai?iieo i?ioean?a ia 7-e aeaiue n. oe, ??aaiue noia?iaoeyoe?? oa aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a aoee iaioeie a?aeiia?aeii ia 18,9% oa 62,3% i?ioe eiio?ieueieo. Iaie a?aei?/aii ca?eueoaiiy iane naeac?ee ye iane?aeeo i?iaaaeaii? noeioeyoe?? noia?iaoeyoe??, oiaoi aiia ? aeoeaiei o ?ioiiiio a?aeiioaii? i?aaiii, yeee ?aaao? ia aaaaeaiiy /oaei??aeieo a?eeiaeo aioeaai?a, - ai?iii?a. ?? aeoeai?noue aaaaoi a /iio aecia/a? aoaeoeai?noue noia?iaoeyoe??, iecueeee ??aaiue yei? niinoa??aa?oueny o oaa?ei ?c a?eueoith eiioeaio?aoe??th (-aeiaoe?io a ieaci? (Hakanishi U. et.al.,1991). C?noaaeaiiyi ii?oieia?/ii? ioe?iee ae. o. aeiii??a ca ?ic?iaeaieie iaie e?eoa??yie aeey ?aoeei??io?a, iaoaaie?/iiai noaio i?aai?cio oa ?acoeueoao?a noia?iaoeyoe?? aaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe, ui oaa?eie o yeeo ia 10-e aeaiue n. oe. aa?o?aea ae. o. aeoiaeeoue iaae iiaa?oiath y?/ieea ia aeua ye ia 1 ni, iiaeia io?eiaoe a na?aaeiueiio aei 20 iaoeyoe?e (?(0,05). Aeiii?e, o yeeo a oeae aeaiue aeyeai? ae. o. ia iaio y?/ieeao (((( a?.), iaee oaeee ??aaiue iai?iieo i?ioean?a, yeee aeicaieea io?eiaoe i?e noeioeyoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? ia 20% a?eueoa i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a, oiaoi iaoaaie?/ia neooaoe?y o oaeeo naiie a?eueo ni?eyoeeaa aeey ooai?aiiy iiaiioe?iieo yeoeaee?oei oa ?aiiueiai aia??iaaiaco (oaae.6). Iao? a?noieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeai? uiaei e?euee?niiai ? ye?niiai neea-aeo iaea?aeaieo aia??ii?a aeicaieythoue oaa?aeeoe, ui ye?noue aiiaaeio?iiieo ai?iii?a, aieeaa? ia ii?oieia?th, oie?eoeiaaiac y?/iee?a oa ia aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a i?e ?iaeoeoe?? iie?iaoeyoe?? (aeine?ae ia ieoao, (=53). Oaaeeoey 6 - ??aaiue noia?iaoeyoe?? oa aeo?ae aia??ii?a o iiceoeaieo aeiii??a E?euee?noue ia(?eo?a aecia/aiiy A?oia, I(( ( (+), (=7 (( (++), (=9 (((, (=5 AEiaoeo o?e, oo. 12,57(2,67* 20,33(2,48* 19,0(2,21 Aia??ii?a ? yeoeaee?oei, oo. 8,42(2,47 13,86(3,13 13,60(3,40 Aia??ii?a: i?eaeaoieo, oo. 7,00(2,23 7,11(2,05 8,80(2,54 Caaeia?eueieo, oo. 1,00(0,43 1,55(0,66 2,20(1,40 Aeaaaia?iaaieo, oo. 0,14(0,14* 3,20(1,40* 2,20(1,40 sseoeaee?oei, oo. 0,28(0,28 2,00(1,10 1,40(1,20 I?ei?oea. * ?(0,05. Oiio i?e aei?iaoaaii? iiaeo na??e aiiaaeio?iiieo i?aia?ao?a ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe ii?yae c e?euee?niith oa?aeoa?enoeeith noia?iaoeyoe?? ? ii?oieia?th oa oie?eoeiaaiac y?/iee?a. Ia?oa ni?iaa ii?iae?caoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a o i?aai?ci? aeiii??a, ui iieyaaea a ?io?aaaiiciiio aaaaeaii? ye noeioeyoi?a noa?eeueiiai, ii?ii?iaiiai oeueo?ao?ieaoii 20%-aiai o?inoeueoaoo iao?th a aeic? 40 ie o ioeueiaee aeaiue n. oe. aeiii??a oa o ei??a c iaoieia?/iei noaiii iai?iieo i?ioean?a, aeyaeeanue ia ?acoeueoaoeaiith ? iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy a oeueiio iai?yieo aoee i?eieiai?. Na?aae a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei cia/iee ?ioa?an aeey ei?aeoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a i?aaenoaaeythoue i?e?iaei? ni?aaioe, a o. /. ooiie?o. I?e eiai caiaeiaoaaii? oaeeoeyi-?aoeei??ioai a aeic? 0,5 a ia 1 ea aeeai? iane ai?iaeiaae aeaio i?nyoe?a o ieo ia niinoa??aaee ?noioieo ci?i ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo, ye? iiaeia aoei a aaaaeaoe na?ae/aiiyi iaaaoeaiiai aieeao oe??? aeiaaaee ia iai?ii? i?ioeane. Aiane?aeie aeyaeaieo aeayeeo iiceoeaieo ci?i a i?ia?aeueiiio iai?i?, ? a o./. cieaeaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? o e?ia? i?o?ao?a oa i?o?eo?a, aoei c?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy uiaei iiaeeeaino? iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoao?a noia?iaoeyoe?? o ei??a-aeiii??a oeyoii aeeth/aiiy ooiie?oo aei ?o ?aoe?ii?a. Aeyaeeinue, ui eiai caiaeiaoaaiiy a cacia/ai?e aeua aeic? ai?iaeiaae 6-70 aei?a ia aieeaa? ia /ooeea?noue aeiii??a aei aeciaaiieo aiiaaeio?iiieo ai?iii?a, ni?e/eith? noaa?e?caoe?th ?aaeoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? oa aeicaiey? io?eiaoe ia 19,2% a?eueoa i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a. Aaaaeath/e, ui noia?iaoeyoe?y o oaa?ei iia’ycaia c iai?oaeaiiyi an?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo nenoai i?aai?cio, iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe, ui ca?eueoaiiy a iueiio, a ia?oo /a?ao, aia?aaoe/ieo oa ieanoe/ieo noano?ao?a, a oiio /ene? ca ?aooiie oaeiai i?aia?aoo ye (Aethoai(, iiceoeaii aieeaaoeia ia ??aaiue aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a, oei a?eueoa, oeae iieaciee a??ia?aeii ei?aeth? ((=+0,48) c eiioeaio?aoe??th aetheice a e?ia? aeiii??a a aeaiue ?o in?iai?iiy. Aeey ia?aa??ee oe??? a?iioace oa a?aei?aoethaaiiy iioeiaeueii? noaieaeei?enoaiiy i?aia?aoo aoee i?iaaaeai? o?e na??? aeine?ae?a. O ia?oiio aeine?ae? aeyaeeiny, ui /ioe?ee?aoia aioo??oiueiaaiia aaaaeaiiy ei?iaai-aeiii?ai a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai i?aia?aoo (Aethoai( o aeic? 125 ie i?ae /an noeioeyoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? ii?yae ?c canoinoaaiiyi ONA coiiaeth? ca?eueoaiiy aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aei ia?anaaeaeaiy aia??ii?a ia 28,7% (5,6(1,4 o eiio?ie? i?ioe 7,3(1,8 a aeine?ae?), aea oaeiae o 10 ?ac?a yeoeaee?oei. Aeine?aeaeoaaia aeica (Aethoaio( ia ni?e/eieea cia/ieo ci?i o iai?iieo i?ioeanao, ca aeiyoeii oaiaeaioe?? ?ioaineai?oiai ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? na/iaeie oa noaa?e?caoe?? iai?oae AAE. Ae?oaee aeine?ae i?iaiaeeany c iaoith cieaeaiiy o aeiii??a aeoiaeo yeoeaee?oei i?e noeioeyoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? ONA o eiiieaen? c i?aia?aoii (Aethoai(, aeey /iai e?euee?noue ?i’?eoe?e i?aia?aoo a ?-e aeine?aei?e a?oi? aoea aaea?/? ciaioaia oa ca?eueoaia aei 140 ie aeica. O ((-e aeine?aei?e a?oi? (Aethoai( o aeic? 140 ie aaiaeeany /ioe?ee?aoii: - ia?oee oa ae?oaee ?ac - i?e noeioeyoe?? noaoaai? ioioe iaeii/anii c ?i(?eoe??th i?inoaaeaiaeeio oa a ianooiiee aeaiue, o?ao?e ? /aoaa?oee - a ia?o? aeaa aei? ia?iaee ?o ONA. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea oeeo noai iieacaea, ui aeei?enoaiiy iacaaiiai i?aia?aoo aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a ia 18,9% ((( noaia: 5,4( 1,9 o eiio?ie? i?ioe 6,7(0,9 a aeine?ae?) oa 32,7% (( noaia: 5,8(1,7 o eiio?ie? i?ioe 8,7(1,5 aeine?aeo), a i?eaeeaethaai?noue o ?aoeei??io?a, a?ae?a?aieo ca niiioaiiith ioioith, - ia 11,3%. E??i oiai, o aeiii??a, ia?iaeaieo ca ae?oaith noaiith, ia aoei aeieoi yeoeaee?oei, ui i/aaeaeii coiiaeaii aieeaii (Aethoaio( ia oie?eoeiaaiac y?/iee?a i?ney aaaaeaiiy eiai a ia??iae noeioeyoe?? noaoaai? ioioe. Aeey ciaioaiiy cao?ao i?aoe? i?e aeei?enoaii? (Aethoaio( aea/aee aieea i?aia?aoo ia aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a i?e i?aeoe??iiio eiai aaaaeaii? aeiii?ai a aeic? 60 ie 9%-? eiioeaio?aoe??, eiio?ieai neoaeeee oaa?eie, yeei aaiaeeee ?io?aaaiicii i?aia?ao oa o?c?ieia?/iee ?ic/ei. ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui aaaaeaiiy (aioo??oiueiaaiia oa i?aeoe??ia) a i?aai?ci aeiii??a (Aethoaio( ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a a?aeiia?aeii ia 83,1% (1,0(0,26 o eiio?ie? i?ioe 6,0(1,0 a aeine?ae?,?(0,05) oa 78,8% (4,7(1,5). I?e /iio i?aeoe??ia aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo ia 21,5% iaio aoaeoeaia, i?ae aioo??oiueiaaiia. Ioaea, ?io?aaaiicia aaaaeaiiy a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai i?aia?aoo (Aethoai( o ia??iae noeioeyoe?? noaoaai? ioioe oaeeoeue IA oa noia?iaoeyoe?? o aeiii??a ONA noeioeth? aeiaaio?eaaeo ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue ye anueiai i?aai?cio, oae ? ie?aieo nenoai, ui ni?e/eith? ca?eueoaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai oa ieanoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo ee?oei i?aai?a oa oeaiei, ooieoe?iiaeueii aeoeaieo o oeae ia??iae, a naia - nenoaie a?aeoai?aiiy oaa?ei. Oaeei /eiii, aeai? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa aeani? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aiaeiaaiieo oa aeciaaiieo oaeoi??a ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o naiie aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae aoee i?aenoaaith aeey ?yaeo oai?aoe/ieo a?iioac, aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea yeeo ni?eyea ?ic?iaoe? niinia?a ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oie?eoe?a oa aeiaoiai o?ea y?/iee?a naieoeue, a?aeai?o ? i?aeaioiaee ?aoeei??io?a aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a, noeioeyoe?? i?eaeeaethaaiino? inoaii?o o oaa?ei oa io?eiaiiy o aeiii??a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeo i?ia?aeueiiai i?ai?eno ? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai i?aia?aoo (Aethoai(, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo ca?eueoo? aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a oa ?o ??aaiue i?eaeeaethaaiino?, aeicaieeee cai?iiiioaaoe ?aeath aeenoaioe?eii? ae?? i?e ?aoeaenioa?ai?? oa oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy aeioe?eueiino? iiaoi?iiai ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy ei??a. Ii?oia?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee iaa?oiooaaoe a?ieia?/io ae?th i?aia?aoo (Aethoai( ia i?aai?ci naiee a oe?eiio oa ?? noaoaao nenoaio cie?aia. AENIIAEE 1. ??aaiue i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a o naiie aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?aeaeuo?oueny a na?aaeiueiio ia 32,3%, i?e aeei?enoaii? eiiieaeno caoiae?a, ui aeeth/athoue: a?aea?? ?aoeei??io?a ia iniia? ii?oiooieoe?iiaeue-ii? ioe?iee aeiaoiai o?ea, a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a e?ia? oa ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo aeeai? iane; ei?aeoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a oa ai?iiiaeueiiai oiio ca ?aooiie caiaeiaoaaiiy i?ia?aeueiiai i?ai?ena oa aaaaeaiiy aeciaaiieo ai?iii?a, a?oai?i?a ? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo i?aia?ao?a; aia?ai-ieanoe/ii-ai caaacia/aiiy noeioeyoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? o ei??a-aeiii??a c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy aeeoo?caeaoiino? aia??ii?a; aecia/aiiy iaoeyoe?? oa oa?i?io in?iai?iiy ei??a. 2. Niiniae ioe?iee aeiaoiai o?ea ia 6-7-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo, ?ic?ia-eai? c o?aooaaiiyi, aeoiaeo eiai aa?o?aee ca iaae? y?/ieea oa ai?noo e?iii?ioa?i?a aeniei? u?eueiino?, coiiaeththoue a?aea?? 80% i?eaeaoieo ?aoeei??io?a aeey ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a, ui aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe i?eaeeaethaai?noue (a?aei?iieo( oa (aeia?eo( aia??ii?a aei 60-70%. 3. ??aaiue i?eaeeaethaaiino? ia?anaaeaeaieo aia??ii?a caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ia 6-7-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo a e?ia? ?aoeei??io?a aetheice, na/iaeie, ea?ioeio oa AAE. O ?aoeai((io(a 80-100%-aa i?eaeeaethaai?noue o?ainieaioiaaieo aia?(ii(a niinoa??aa?oueny ca oiiae a oeae aeaiue ano?aeueiiai oeeeeo oaeiai iaoaaie(/iiai i?io(eth e?ia(: eiioeaio?aoe(y caaaeueiiai a(eea oa (-aeiaoe(i(a ia ?(ai( - 74,22(0,75 a/e oa 24,77(2,94% a?aeiia?aeii; ea?ioeio ia iaioa 5,3 (0,4 ieiieue/e; ?(aaiue aetheice, na/iaeie, e(i(ae(a, (-aeiaoe(i(a oa AAE a iaaeao - 2,225-2,7750 iiieue/e, 2,5-3,5 iiieue/e. 3,76-4,61 iiieue/e, 14-17%, 80,5-90,5% a(aeiia(aeii; aeueaoi(ii-aeiaoe(iiaa ni(aa(aeiioaiiy - 1,15(0,1. 4. I?ioean ?inoo aeeai? iane ? aaiioei ca nenoaiaie iie?ii?oieo a?ee?a (o?ainoa?ei, ai?eaca, oea?oeiieaci?i) aieeaathoue ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a o oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a. I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a a??ia?aeii cieaeo?oueny (45,7(12,8%, ?(0,05), yeui na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no o ia??iae, ui ia?aaeo? o?ainieaioaoe??, ia ia?aaeuo? 400 a, a iioeiaeueiei ? i?e??no aeeai? iane ?aoeei??io?a o iaaeao 720-770 a ai?iaeiaae 30-90 aei?a aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny 85(7,6% (?(0,05) ?o i?eaeeaethaaiino?. Niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y a?eueoi? i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a (83,4%) o ?aoeei??io?a aaoa?iceaio, i?ae o aiiiceaio (43,5-60%) ca aeine?aeaeoaaieie iie?ii?oieie nenoaiaie a?ee?a. 5. Ia i?eaeeaeaiiy ia?anaaeaeaieo aia??ii?a o ?aoeei??io?a aieeaa? ca(ycie na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai i?e?inoo ai?iaeiaae 120 aei?a (90 aei?a aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a oa 30 aei?a i?ney) c eiioeaio?aoe??th na/iaeie, aetheice oa ea?ioeio (a?aeiia?aeii o o?eueieo (= -0,54; -0,51 oa 0,69, ?(0,01 i?ioe iao?eueieo ( =-0,03; -0,44; 0,36), a oaeiae i?ae aaeoa?eoeeaeiith aeoea-i?noth e?ia? oa ai?noii caaaeueieo a?ee?a, aeiaoe?i?a, aeueaoi?i?a, na/iae-ie ia 7-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo (a?aeiia?aeii o o?eueieo (= 0,69, ?(0,01; 0,48; -0,49; -0,43, ?(0,05 i?ioe iao?eueieo ( = 0,39; -0,18; 0,22; +0,13). 6.Caiaeiaoaaiiy oaeeoeyi-?aoeei??ioai ai?iaeiaae o?ueio i?nyoe?a ?ic?iaeaiiai i?ia?aeueiiai i?ai?ena (ooiie?o+i?e?iaeaiaioe) iie?ioo? o ieo i?ioeane iai?io iae?i- oa i?e?iaeaiaio?a: o e?ia? ca?eueoo? (?(0,01) eiioeaio?aoe?th eaeueoe?th, oeeieo, ia?aaioeth oa iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o, ciaioo? ai?no i?o?eo?a oa i?o?ao?a a?aeiia?aeii ia 13%, 16,6% (?(0,01); c?inoa? ia 7,3% oaeaee?noue ?inoo; o i?aai?ci? oaeeoeue c noaee?i?/iith oi?iith eaoico ii?iae?co? iai?ii? i?ioeane, ui ni?ey? i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a ia ??ai? 60%. Cai?iiiiiaaiee a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiee i?aia?ao (Aethoai(, aeei?enoa-iee ca?aeii c ?ic?iaeaiith noaiith aeai?aciai? oa iaeii?aciai? noeioeyoe?? a ?aoeei??io?a noaoaai? ioioe i?inoaaeaiaeeiaie, ?ioaineo?eo? iai?ii? i?ioeane ye anueiai i?aai?cio, oae ? ie?aieo nenoai, coiiaeth? ca?eueoaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai ? ieanoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo ee?oei, i?aai?a oa oeaiei, ooieoe?iiaeueii aeoeaieo o oeae ia??iae, a naia, nenoaie a?aeoai?aiiy oaa?ei, ui ca?eueoo? i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a. O?e-/ioe?ee?aoia ?io?aaaiicia aaaaeaiiy (Aethoaio( ni?e/eith? o oa-eeoeue ei?ioei/anio ?ioaineo?eaoe?th i?ioean?a iai?io aoaeaaiae?a, a?ee?a oa aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a ia?aai?ioaaiiy, a oaeiae aeiaaio?eaae? ooieoe?iia-euei? ci?ie a e?ia?, a?iioaeaii-a?iio?ca?i?e nenoai?, ia/?ioe? ? ?ai?iaeoe- oeaieo i?aaiao. Ia 7-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo o ieo a e?ia? a??ia?aeii i?aeaeuo? eiioeaio?aoe?th oe?iceio, 1-iaoeea?noeaeeio, a?noeaeeio, o?eioi-oaio, a?a?i?io oa iacai?ieo (ia 22,7%, ?(0,05) ai?iieeneio o oe?eiio. Iae-ii/anii c?inoa? ai?no aiiaaeio?iiieo ai?iii?a, ye? noeioeththoue aiaeie-?eiio ooieoe?th y?/iee?a oa niinoa??aa?oueny ?ioaineo?eaoe?y i?ioeano aeth-eiiaiaaiaco oa e?i?aeiiai iai?io a ia/?ioe?, ?iaao iaoee ? aeiaoiio o?e?. O?ee?aoia aioo??oiueiaaiia aaaaeaiiy oaeeoeyi a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai i?aia?aoo (Aethoai( o ia??iae noeioeyoe?? noaoaai? ioioe coiiaeth? ia 7-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo ca(ycie ai?noo i?iaanoa?iio c 17(-ano?aae?ieii ((=0,87, ?(0,05) oa inoaiueiai c AnAO ? AeAO ((=0,79; 0,77, ?(0,05). O aeiii??a, ui ia 10-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo iathoue ia y?/ieeo aeiao? o?ea, aa?o?aea yeeo aeoiaeeoue iaae eiai iiaa?oiath ia aeua ye ia 1 ni, iiaeia io?eiaoe a na?aaeiueiio aei 20 iaoeyoe?e (?(0,05). O aeiii??a, o yeeo a oeae aeaiue aeyaeai? aeiao? o?ea ia iaio y?/ieeao, niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy ia 20% aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a. Aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aeey o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy i?ioean?a iai?io a?ee?a, aoaeaaiae?a o ei??a-aeiii??a. Ia aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a o ei??a-aeiii??a aieeaa? eiioeaio?aoe?y a e?ia? (-aeiaoe?i?a ? na/iaeie a aeaiue ii/aoeo ai?iiiaeueii? ia?iaee ((=0,53; 0,40, ?(0,05) oa ai?no aetheice a aeaiue noaoaai? ioioe ((=0,44, ?(0,05). Caiaeiaoaaiiy ei?iaai-aeiii?ai i?e?iaeiiai ni?aaioo ooiie?oo a aeic? 0,5 a ia 1 ea aeeai? iane ai?iaeiaae 6-70 aei?a ni?e/eith? noaa?e?caoe?th ?aaeoe?? noia?iaoeyoe?? oa io?eiaiiy ia 19,2% (4,7(1,8 o aeine?ae? i?ioe 3,8(1,2 o eiio?ie?) a?eueoa i?eaeaoieo aei ia?anaaeaeaiiy aia??ii?a. 13. A?ieia?/ii aeoeaiee i?aia?ao (Aethoai( a 4-9%-a?e eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e ?io?aaaiiciiio oa i?aeoe??iiio aaaaeaii? aeiii?ai a aeic? 140-60 ie o ia??iae ai?iiiaeueii? ia?iaee ONA ca?eueoo? aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a (ia 18,9-87%, ?(0,05) oa ?o ??aaiue i?eaeeaethaaiino? (ia 11,3%). 14. O oaeeoeue ai?iaeiaae noaoaaiai oeeeeo ci?iththoueny aaee/eie ia?aiao??a aieueo-aiia?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo oi/ie iaoee oa y?/iee?a, niinoa??aa?oueny ?o ca(ycie c ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieie ci?iaie o noaoaa?e nenoai? naiee. Ci?ia iai?oae a cii? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaii? oi/ee y?/iee?a ei??a i?e aei??thaaeueiiio no?oi? 20 ieA a ia??iae noaoaai? ioioe a ae?aiacii? c ia a?eueoa 3,5(0,3 A aei ia iaioa 4,7(0,4 A ? e?eoa???i aecia/aiiy iaoeyoe?? (?(0,05). 15. A oiiaao aaci?ea(yciiai oo?eiaiiy ei??a i?e aeaie?aoiiio ooo/ii-io in?iai?ii?, aeioe?eueii ia/enethaaoe aaee/eio ooieoe?iiaea A iaoee, eiee cia/aiiy iai?oae, aecia/a?oueny a ae?aiacii? no?oi?a 10-20 ieA i?e aeniiceoe?? 0 naeoiae. I?e oiia?, ui ooieoe?iiae A iaoee iaioee 200, ae?oaa in?iai?iiy i?iaiaeeoe iaaeioe?eueii. 16. Aaaaeaiiy ei?iaai aeciaaiiiai i?aia?aoo ethoa?i?coth/iai ai?iiio(Iaiaii-O?i( ca cai?iiiiiaaiith noaiith ia 7-8-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo aai aeai?aciaa ?i(?eoe?y a aeaiue ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy oa ia 7-e /e 8-e aeaiue i?ney iueiai ni?e/eith? i?aeaeuaiiy i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a ia 25-37% (?(0,01). 17. Aeaie?aoia ?i(?eoe?y oaa?eiai noi?o? ao???a oanoinoa?iio - i?aia?aoo (Oanoaiao( a aeic? 2 ie c ?ioa?aaeii 7 aei?a o 50-70% ei??a oa oaeeoeue, noeioeth? noaoaao ioioo, coiiaeth? i?eaeeaethaai?noue o ieo aia??ii?a ia oaeiio ae ??ai?, ye o oaa?ei c? niiioaiiith ioioith. I?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? (Oanoaiaoo( (ia 15%) ni?ey? iaeii/ania aaaaeaiiy a?oai?iiai i?aia?aoo (Oao?aa?o(. I?IIICEOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO 1. A?aea?? oaeeoeue o ?aoeei??ioe i?iaiaeeoe ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a ?ae-oaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia 7-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo, iiceoeaii ioe?ithth/e oeo, o yeeo aa?o?aea aeiaoiai o?ea aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? y?/ieea. O?ainieaiooaaoe aia??iie ne?ae ?aoeei??ioai, o yeeo oeae iieaciee noaiiaeoue iiiaae 0,5 ni. 2. Aeei?enoiaoth/e niin?a ooieoe?iiaeueii? ioe?iee aeiaoiai o?ea y?/iee?a ?aoeei??io?a, ia i?aenoaa? aecia/aiiy a e?ia? e?enoaei-iioe/iei iaoiaeii e?iii?ioa?i?a aeniei? u?eueiino? ia 6-8-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo, na?aae ee?i?/ii caei?iaeo ?aoeei??io?a ne?ae a?aeae?aoe a ia?oo /a?ao oeo, ye? iathoue aeiaoa o?ei c aenieith oa na?aaeiueith ooieoe?iiaeueiith aeoeai?noth, a iio?i c iecueeith a (1-2 aaee), ui aeicaieeoue io?eiaoe i?eaeeaethaai?noue (a?aei?iieo( oa (aeia?eo( aia??ii?a ia ??ai? 60-70%. 3. C iaoith ca?eueoaiiy i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a ?aoeei??io?a ne?ae i?aeaioiaethaaoe, aeey /iai ca 60 aei?a aei o?ainieaioaoe?? aeeth/eoe aei ?o ?aoe?iio ?ic?iaeaiee i?ia?aeueiee i?ai?en oa aaiaeeoe 2-5 ?ac?a aioo??o-iueii(yciai 10 ie ia aieiao i?aia?ao (Oao?aa?o(. Aeey ca?eueoaiiy i?eaeeaethaaiino? ia?anaaeaeaieo aia??ii?a ?aoeei??ioai aioo??oiueiaaiii aaiaeeoe a aeic? 140 ie ia aieiao i?aia?ao (Aethoai( o?e aei? i?ae?yae, ii/eiath/e ca aeaiue aei ia?iaee i?inoaaeaiaeeiii. Aeey ca?eueoaiiy aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a aeiii?ai aeaa aei? a?aioe? iaeii/anii c ?i(?eoe??th ONA aaiaeeoe aioo??oiueiaaiii i?aia?ao (Aethoai( 4%-a?? eiioeaio?aoe?? a aeic? 140 ie aai 9%-ai? - i?aeoe??ii 60 ie oa ?iaeoe aeaie?aoio ?i(?eoe?th (Oao?aa?oo( (ia?oee ?ac a aeic? 10 ie i?e neio?ii?caoe?? noaoaai? ioioe, ae?oaee - a aeic? 5 ie ia ii/aoeo ia?iaee aiiaaeio?ii?iaie). 6. Aeey ca?eueoaiiy i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a o ei??a ne?ae aaiaeeoe aiaeia ethoa?i?coth/iai ai?iiio (Iaiaii-O?i( a aeic? 1000 ?.IAe. ia 7-8-e aeaiue i?ney ?o ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy aai aea?/? (ca aiaeeio aei iueiai oa ia 7-e /e 8-e aeaiue). 7. Noaoaao ioioo o ei??a oa oaeeoeue c ii?ooaiei noaoaaei oeeeeii iiaeia noeioethaaoe aeaie?aoiei aioo??oiueii(yciaei aaaaeaiiyi 2 ie i?aia?aoo (Oanoaiao( c ?ioa?aaeii 7 aei?a. NIENIE INIIAIEO I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Iaiaii-o?i i?e o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.-1997.- ? 3.-N. 18-19. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Aeei?enoaiiy aiaeiaa ethoa?i?coth/iai ai?iiio - iaiaii-o?i a neioa?noa? // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- ? 7.- N. 22-23. 3 Oa?aiaoa A.?. I?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a caeaaeii a?ae noaio iai?iieo i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci? oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee.- 1997.- ? 12.- N. 29-32. 4. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Iiaa noaia aeei?enoaiiy iaiaii-o?i // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1997.-? 1.-N.17-18. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Aieea a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai i?aia?aoo (Aethoai( ia ??aaiue noaoaaeo ai?iii?a oaeeoeue // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.-? 6.-N. 138-140. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Ei?aeyoe?ei? ca(ycee ?ioiia?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a o o?eueieo oa iao?eueieo oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee.- 1998.- ? 5.- N. 53-56 . 7. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Eiioeaio?aoe?y aetheice a e?ia? oa ae?eiaaio a ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aaiao ? ia/?ioe? oaeeoeue ia 7-e aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.-?11.-N. 78-79. 8. Oa?aiaoa A.(. Noeioeyoe?y noia?iaoeyoe?? o ei??a-aeiii??a c aeei?enoaiiyi a?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai i?aia?aoo (Aethoai( // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.-1998.- ? 4.- N. 10-14. 9. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Noeioeyoe?y i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a o oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.-1998.-? 8-9.- N.9-10. 10. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Ioe?iea ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? aeiaoiai o?ea y?/iee?a oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo .- 1998.-? 4.-N. 111-116. 11. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Aieea aaiioeio oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a ca iie?ii?oieie a?eeaie ia i?eaeeaethaai?noue aia??ii?a // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee.- 1998.- ? 8.- 44-47 n 12. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Iniaeeaino? ?inoo oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a oa i?eaeeaethaai?noue o ieo aia??ii?a // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.-? 1.-N. 91-95. 13. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Ioe?iea aiiaaeio?iiieo ai?iii?a ca ??aiai noia?iaoeyoe?? oa ii?oieia??th y?/iee?a oaa?ei // ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeea oaa?ei.- E.: Aa?a?ia iaoea, 1999.- ? 30.- N. 81-85. 14. Oa?aiaoa A.?., Ni?eyinueeee A. Noeioeyoe?y noaoaai? ioioe o ei??a // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1995.-? 9.- N.28. 15. Oa?aiaoa A.?., Iiaianaiei A.I. Ii?oieia?/ia ioe?iea y?/iee?a oaeeoeue-?aoeei??io?a // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1995.- ? 6.- 17 n. 16. Oa?aiaoa A.?., Eaeaoio A.I., Iiaianaiei A.I. Ca(ycie ii?oieia?/ii? ioe?iee aeiaoiai o?ea oa aeayeeo ?ioiia?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a e?ia? c ??aiai noia?iaoeyoe?? o ei??a-aeiii??a caeaaeii a?ae ?ioiia?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a e?ia? // ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeea oaa?ei.- E.: Aa?a?ia iaoea, 1996.- ? 28.- N. 81-85. 17. Oa?aiaoa A.(.,Eaeaoio A.I., Iiaianaiei A.I ?(aaiue noia?iaoeyoe( o ei?(a-aeiii?(a caeaaeii a(ae ((((((((((((((( iieaciee(( e?ia( // ?icaaaeaiiy ( aaiaoeea oaa?ei.- E.: Aa?a?ia iaoea.-1996, ? 28.- N. 136-140. Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I., Iiaianaiei A.I., Can?e?i Ae.A., Eaeaoio A.I., Neai/aiei A.I. Ei?eaoaaiiy iai?iieo i?ioean?a o ?aoeei??io?a ? aeiii??a oeyoii caiaeiaoaaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeiaaaie // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee .-1997.- ? 10.- N.41-45. Oa?aiaoa A.?., Ea?oeeinueeee A.I., Ai?iaeaiue N.A. Aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/i? ia?aiao?e a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo oi/ie noaoaai? nenoaie ei??a oa oaeeoeue // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.-? 3.-N. 91-95. 20. Oa?aiaoa A.?., Oa?an I.I. Aieea aeayeeo aioeieneaeaio?a ia iieacieee noia?iaoeyoe?? o ei??a-aeiii??a // ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeea oaa?ei.- E.: Aa?a?ia iaoea, 1998.- ? 29.- N. 105-109. 21. Bukarov N., Bukarova V., Felix B., Sheremeta V. A High-performance Scheme of Superovulation Inuction Based on the Use of Gonadjtropic and Antiserums in Laboratory mice // Biological and Chemical Factors in Animal Production-Veterinaria.-1990.- 6.- N. 467-475. 22. Eao?ai/ee E., Ia/eiieeia A.A., Ieaei TH., A?aoaiao I., Iaa?o?aioe I., Nae?eaeia A.A., Oa?aiaoa A.E. I?ioeeue ethoaeiece?othuaai ai?iiia, noaaeee e ea/anoai iioeeoia oaeie, ia?aaioaiuo iieiauie ai?iiiaie // Naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aeieiaey.- 1992.-? 2.- N.61-63. 23. Iao. 17291A Oe?a?ia, IEE A61D 19/02, A01K 67/02 Niin?a noeioeyoe?? i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a o naiie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei oa i?aia?ao (Aethoai( aeey aeei?enoaiiy a iueiio / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I., Iiaianaiei A.I., Eouee A.A..-? 95125209 ; Cayae.11.12.95; Iioae.01.04.97.-4 n Iao. 22350A Oe?a?ia, IEE A 61 D 19/04. Niin?a a?aeai?o oaa?ei- ?a-oeei??io?a / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I., Eaeaoio A.I., Iiaianaiei A.I. (Oe?a?ia).- ? 97030999; Cayae. 06.03.97.; I?eiyoi ??oaiiy 03.02.98. Iao. 22400A Oe?a?ia IEE A 61 F 19/04 Niin?a i?aeaioiaee oaa?ei-?aoeei??io?a oa i?ia?aeueiee i?ai?en aeey eiai cae?eniaiiy / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I. (Oe?a?ia).- ? 97031202; Cayae. 18. 03. 97; Iioae. 03.03.98. Iao.23290 A Oe?a?ia, IIE 6. A 61 D 19/04 Niin?a aecia/aiiy iaoeyoe?? oie?eoe?a y?/iee?a naieoeue / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I., Ea?oeeinueeee A.I., Ai?iaeaiue N.A. (Oe?a?ia).-? 97052366; Cayae. 22,05.97; Iioae.31.08.98.-?4.-4 n. Iao. 22361A Oe?a?ia, IIE 6. A01 E 67/02 Niin?a io?eiaiiy aia??ii?a o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae aeey o?ainieaioaoe?? / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I., Iiaianaiei A.I., Eouee A.A. (Oe?a?ia).-? 97020711; Cayae. 12.02.97; ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o 03.03.98. Iao. 24471A Oe?a?ia, IIE 6. A61D 19/04 Niin?a a?aeai?o oaa?ei-?aoeei??io?a / Oa?aiaoa A.?. (Oe?a?ia).- ? 97042023; Cayae. 25.04.97; ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o 21.07.98. Iao. 23772A Oe?a?ia, A 61 I 39/00 Niin?a aeenoaioe?eii? ae?? i?e ?aoeaenioa?ai?? / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I., Ea?oeeinueeee A.I., Ai?iaeaiue N.A. (Oe?a?ia).- ? 97020792; Cayae. 24,02.97; Iioae. 31.08.98..-?4.- 5 n. Iao. 14875A Oe?a?ia, IIE6. A61D 19/02, A01K67/02 Niin?a noeioeyoe?? i?eaeeaethaaiino? aia??ii?a o naiie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I..- (Oe?a?ia).- ? 96072640; Cayae.03.07.96; I?eiyoi ??oaiiy 18.02.97. 31. ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo ? 97073999 Oe?a?ia, IIE 6 A 61 D 19/04 Niin?a ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy ei??a oa oaeeoeue / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I., Ea?oeeinueeee A.I., Ai?iaeaiue N.A (Oe?a?ia).- Cayae. 28.07.97; I?eiyoi ??oaiiy 02.07.1998. ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo ? 97126058 Oe?a?ia, IIE 6 A 61 D 19/04 Niin?a ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? aeiaoiai o?ea y?/iee?a / Oa?aiaoa A.? (Oe?a?ia).- Cayae. 16.12.97; I?eiyoi ??oaiiy 08.10.1998. ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo ? 98031515 Oe?a?ia, IIE 6 A 01 K 67/02 Niin?a io?eiaiiy aia??ii?a o aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae aeey o?ainieaioaoe?? / Oa?aiaoa A.?., Aiaaeaiia A.I., Iiaianaiei A.I., Eouee A.A. (Oe?a?ia).-Cayae.25.03.98; I?eiyoi ??oaiiy 10.11.1998. Sheremeta V.I., Bogdanov G.A., Poleshuk V.P., Luschik A.A., Lakotosh V.M., Opanasenko V.A. Some aspects of stimulation of superovulation in donors // Proceedings of the First Integrated European Conference on (Progress in Embryo technology and genetic engineering in Cattle and Sheep Breeding( Krakow, March 24-25, 1994.- Krakov, 1994.- C. 266. Oa?aiaoa A.?. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a?ioaoiieia?? a?aeoai?aiiy aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.- ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.20- a?ioaoiieia?y.- A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, A?ea Oea?eaa, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaoiae?a o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??ii?a oa ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy. A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iai?yiie i?aeaioiaee naiie, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia eiioeaioe?? ii?iae?caoe?? oa noeioeyoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a i?ae /an noaoaaiai oeeeeo, ?iaeoeoe?? noaoaai? ioioe oa noia?iaoeyoe?? a ei??a-aeiii??a ca ?aooiie a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei. Anoaiiaeaii, ui caiaeiaoaaiiy oa ?i(?eooaaiiy naieai ?ic?iaeaieo i?ia?aeueiiai i?ai?eno, i?aia?aoo (Aethoai(, a oaeiae aeciaaiieo ai?iiiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a o oe? ia??iaee ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo aia??ii?a ? ?o i?eaeeaethaaiino?. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?yae niinia?a a?aeai?o ?aoeei??io?a oa iaoiae ? oi?ioeo aecia/aiiy aeioe?eueiino? iiaoi?iiai in?iai?iiy ei??a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e a?ioaoiieia?/ieo iaoiaeao a?aeoai?aiiy. Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?ioaoiieia?/i? iaoiaee, o?ainieaioaoe?y aia??ii?a, ooo/ia in?iai?iiy, ei?iaa-aeiii?, oaeeoey-?aoeei??io, a?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, i?eaeeaethaai?noue, (Aethoai(, a?ieia?/ii aeoeaia oi/ea. Oa?aiaoa A.E. Oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea e ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeioaoiieiaee aini?iecaiaenoaa e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa.-?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a naeueneioicye-noaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.20-aeioaoiieiaey.- Aaeioea?eianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Aaeay Oea?eiaue, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iaoiaeia o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia e eneonnoaaiiiai inaiaiaiey. A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaii iiaia iai?aaeaiea iiaeaioiaee naiie e i?eaeeaeaieth yia?eiiia, eioi?ia aace?oaony ia eiioeaioeee ii?iaeecaoeee e noeioeyoeee iaiaiiuo i?ioeania ai a?aiy iieiaiai oeeeea, eiaeoeoeee iieiaie ioiou e noia?iaoeyoeee o ei?ia-aeiii?ia ca n/ao aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo aauanoa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oniao i?eaeeaeaiey yia?eiiia o eneonnoaaiii inaiaiaiiie naiee eee i?e eo o?ainieaioaoeee caaeneo io ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey aeiioaeaii-aeiioeca?ii-ye/ieeiaie ai?iiiaeueiie nenoaiu, io eioaineaiinoe eiioiiiaiaiiuo i?ioeannia eae a i?aaiecia a oeaeii, oae e a ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo i?aaiao, eioaa?aeueii acaeiinaycaiuo ia?aiie nenoaiie, iaoneiaeaiiuo aaiioeiii e ia?aoeie-/aneeie oaeoi?aie. I?aaeeiaeai eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, iicaieythuee oaaee/eoue a n?aaeiai ia 32,3% o?iaaiue i?eaeeaeyaiinoe yia?eiiia, eioi?ue aeeth/aao: ioai? ?aoeeieaioia ia iniiaaiee ii?oiooieoeei-iaeueiie ioeaiee aeaeoiai oaea, aeioeie/aneeo iieacaoaeae e?iae e eioaineaiinoe ?inoa aeeaie iannu; ei??aeoeee iaiaiiuo i?ioeania e ai?iiiaeueiiai oiia ca n/ao nea?ieeaaiey ?ac?aaioaiiiai ieia?aeueiiai i?aieena, aaaaeaiey yeciaaiiuo ai?iiiia, aeoaieiia e aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo i?aia?aoia; yia?ai-ieanoe/aneiai iaania/aiey noeioeyoeee noia?iaoeyoeee o ei?ia-aeiii?ia n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey aeecianiiniaiuo yia?eiiia; ii?aaeaeaiey iaoeyoeee e a?aiaie inaiaiaiey ei?ia. Onoaiiaeaii o oaeie a ia?eiae iieiaiai oeeeea eciaiaiey aaee/eiu ia?aiao?ia aieueo-aiia?iie oa?aeoa?enoeee aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo oi/ae iaoee e ye/ieeia, a oaeaea eo naycue n ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiuie eciaia-ieyie a ?ai?iaeoeoeaiie nenoaia. Eciaiaiea iai?yaeaiey a ciia aeieiae-/anee aeoeaiie oi/ee ye/ieeia ei?ia i?e oiea 20 ieA a ia?eiae iieiaie ioiou n ia aieueoa 3,5(0,3 A aei ia iaiueoa 4,7(0,4 A iiaeia eniieueciaaoue n aeinoiaa?iinoth ?(0,05 eae e?eoa?ee ii?aaeaeaiey iaoeyoeee. Nicaeai aeieiae/anee aeoeaiue i?aia?ao (Aethoai(, eniieueciaaiea eioi?iai i?e iaeiie?aoiie e aeaooe?aoiie noeioeyoeee o oaeie-?aoeeieaioia iieiaie ioiou i?aia?aoaie i?inoaaeaiaeeia F2(, aucuaaao aeeeoaeueioth ooieoeeiiaeueioth aeoeaiinoue eae anaai i?aaiecia, oae e ioaeaeueiuo nenoai, oaaee/eaay yia?aaoe/aneee e ieanoe/aneee iioaioeeae eeaoie, i?aaiia e oeaiae ooieoeeiiaeueii aeoeaiuo a yoio ia?eiae, a eiaiii nenoaiu aini?iecaiaenoaa aeeaioiuo, /oi noeioee?oao i?eaeeaeaiea yia?eiiia, o?ainieaioe?iaaiiuo ia 7-e aeaiue iieiaiai oeeeea. Oae, ainueiee?aoiia aioo?eaaiiia aaaaeaiea ?aoeeieaioai i?aia?aoa a aeica 125 ie ia oiia aeoaieiii-ieia?aeueiie iiaeei?iee iaoneiaeei i?eaeeaeaiea (ioee/iuo( e (oi?ioeo( yia?eiiia ia o?iaia 83,3% i?ioea 42,9% o aeeaioiuo iieo/aaoeo iiaeei?ieo e 25% o oao eioi?ui aaiaeeee oieueei aeoaieiu. O?ao?aciaia eio?aaaiiciia aaaaeaiea i?aia?aoa a aeica 140 ie a eiiieaena n iaeiie?aoiie aioo?eiuoa/iie eiuaeoeeae 10 ie (Oao?aaeoa( niinianoaiaaei 40,9% i?eaeeaeaiey (oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuo( yia?eiiia, /oi ia 29,8% aieueoa ii n?aaiaieth n eiio?ieai. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiiay noaia noeioeyoeee noia?iaoeyoeee o ei?ia-aeiii?ia ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey i?aia?aoa (Aethoai( iicaieyao iieo/eoue ia 18,9-87% aieueoa i?eaiaeiuo aeey o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia e ia 11,3% auoa o?iaaiue eo i?eaeeaeyaiinoe, ii n?aaiaieth n iauai?eiyoie ia?aaioeie. Iioeiaeueiay noaia eniieueciaaiey i?aia?aoa aeey oaaee/aiey auoiaea i?eaiaeiuo yia?eiiia o ei?ia-aeiii?ia caeeth/aaony a eio?aaaiiciii aai aaaaeaiea a aeica 140 ie oo?ii a ia?aua aeaa aeiy ia?aaioee ONA e aeaoo?aciaay aioo?eiuoa/iay eiuaeoeey (Oao?aaeoa( (ia?aue ?ac a aeica 10 ie i?e neio?iiecaoeee iieiaie ioiou, aoi?ie - a aeica 5 ie aia/aea ai?iiiaeueiie ia?aaioee). I?aaeeiaeaia noaia aeieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey i?aia?aoa (Aethoai( a i?aaiecia aeeaioiuo. ?ac?aaioaia e oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia iiaay noaia eniieueciaaiey i?aia?aoa ethoaeiece?othuaai ai?iiia (Iaiaii-oei(. Eiueaeoeey ei?iaai i?aia?aoa ca /an aei eneonnoaaiiiai inaiaiaiey (niaeanii (Eino?oeoeee( ), oaaee/eaaao i?eaeeaeyaiinoue yia?eiiia ia 6-13,5%, aaaaeaiea aai ii iiaie noaia ia 7-8-e aeaiue iieiaiai oeeeea eee aeaaaeaeu a aeaiue eneonnoaaiiiai inaiaiaiey eee ia 7-e eee 8-e aeaiue iinea aai oaaee/eaaao i?eaeeaeyaiinoue yia?eiiia ia 25-37%. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, /oi ei??aeoeey aeineioaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia yno?iaaiia a i?aaiecia naiie i?e iiiiue yeciaaiiiai aiae?iaaiiiai ai?iiia oanoi-noa?iia noeioee?oao o ieo iieiaoth ioioo, i?iyaeaiea eioi?ie niioaaono-aoao oeceieiae/aneie ii?ia. Aeaoo?aciaay eiueaeoeey aeeaioiui niane yooe?ia oanoinoa?iia - i?aia?aoa (Oanoaiao( a aeica 2 ie n eioa?aaeii 7 aeiae o 50-70-% ei?ia e oaeie, noeioee?oy iieiaoth ioioo iaoneaaeeaaao i?eaeeaeyaiinoue yia?eiiia ia oii aea o?iaia, /oi e o aeeaioiuo i?e niiioaiiie ioioa. Iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe (Oanoaoiaoa( (ia 15%) niinianoaoao iaeiia?aiaiiia aaaaeaiea aeoaieiiiai i?aia?aoa (Oao?aaeo(. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeioaoiieiae/aneea iaoiaeu, o?ainieaioaoeey yia?eiiia, eneonnoaaiiia inaiaiaiea, ei?iaa-aeiii?, oaeea-?aoeeieaio, aeieiae/anee aeoeaiua aauanoaa, i?eaeeaeyaiinoue, (Aethoai(, aeieiae/anee aeoeaiay oi/ea. Sheremeta V.I. Theoretical basis and development of the methods to increase of the efficiency of the cattle reproduction biotechnology.- Manuscript. Thesis for a scientific degree of the doctor of agricultural sciences in speciality 03.00.20- biotechnology. - Bilotserkivskiy State Agricultural University, Bila Tserkva, 1999. Thesis is devoted to the inssues to increase of the efficiency for methods of embryo transplantation and artificial insemination. In the thesis the new trend of female’s preparation is elaborated which is based on the concept of normalization and stimulation of the metabolism during sexual cycle, induction of the carnal lust and superovulation of cows-donors for the account of biological active substances. It is established that feeding and injecting of females with the developed mineral premix, preparation “Glutam” as well as exogenous hormone preparations during these periods favors to increase a number of avalable embryos and their survivability. Several ways of selection of recipients, the method and formula of advisable insemenation of the cows are proposed. The basic results of work were practically introduced for biotechnological methods of reproduction. Key words: biotechnical methods, embryos’, transplantation, artificial insemination, cow-donor, heifer-recipient, biological active substances, survivability, “Glutam”, biological active point. PAGE PAGE 39 1 AIEIAIEE IICIE 6 A?IIOAEAION 7 8 9 2 IA*?IEA 1 A?IIO?C 6 3 OEOIEIAI- EEOEIAEE O?AEO 10 I?AeOEOI-EIAA CAEICA 1 1 ss?*IEE 1 AeII?IOTH*EE OIE?EOE AEIAOA O?EI 4 5 IAOEA 1

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