OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Iiii?oeaaa Ieaia ?aaai?aia

OAeE 546. 92

Oaoiieia?y aeeo/aiiy iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie c i?iieneiaeo oeai?a

niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.17.01 — oaoiieia?y iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?ath ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei,
eaoae?co oa aeieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiaieei Ieaen?e sseiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, eaoae?co
oa aeieia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Eeauia Ieeiea Oaaeiniae/,

Oa?e?anueeee ?aa?iiaeueiee oeaio? e?eoe/ieo i?ei?eoaoieo oaoiieia?e,

aaia?aeueiee aee?aeoi?.

eaiaeeaeao o?i?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

Caoa?/aiei Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,

Aea?aeaaiee aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.?. AEoeianueeiai, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e o?i??, i.Oa?e?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
oaoiieia?? iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei,i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “17 ” /a?aiy1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.03 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310002, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “14” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Naoiaiei I.Ae.

3

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. A Oe?a?i? iaia? i?iieneiai? o?i?/ii? oaoiieia??
ii aeeo/aiith iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie c a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa. O
ca’yceo c oei, ui aeaia ne?iaeia ? no?aoaa?/iith, e?oeaic?eia iieoiea
oaoiieia?e ii aeeo/aiith ieaoeii?ae?a iaaeoi i?iaeaiaoe/ia. Ii o?e aea
i?e/ei? iaiiaeeeaa noai?aiiy oaei? oaoiieia?? ia i?aenoaa? iayaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. ??aaiue niiaeeaaiiy oeeo iaoae?a c?inoa? c
eiaeiei ?ieii, a ?oi?e na?aaei?e i?e??no cieaeo?oueny. Ia Oe?a?i?
a?aenooi? ?iaeiaeua ieaoeiiaeo iaoae?a ? aeey iio?aa iaoi? i?iieneiaino?
?o iio??aii caeoiiaoaaoe ca ei?aeiiii (1 a ieaoeie eiooo? aeecueei 50;
iaeaae?th — 10; ?iae?th — 150 a?eaaiue).

??oaiiy i?iaeaie oi/a a /anoeiaiai iiaa?iaiiy oeeo aei?iaioe?iieo
iaoae?a o ae?iaie/ee oeeee aeicaiey? ciyoe aino?ioo ieoaiiy ? oiio ?
aeooaeueiith aeey iaoi? e?a?ie.

Iaeiei c iniiaieo i?iieneiaeo niiaeeaa/?a oeeo iaoae?a ? o?i?/ia
aaeocue. An? ieaoeiia? eaoae?caoi?e, ui canoiniaothoueny a i?ioean?
ieeneaiiy ai?aeo, ao?a/athoue ieaoeii?aee. Ia ??e ao?a/a?oueny aei 600
e?eia?ai?a. Aeey ?o oeiaethaaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny iiaeeiath/? iane,
yeeo iiaea ooai?thaaoeny aei 8-12 oii ia ??e. Oea iniiaia a?oia
ne?iaeie, ui i?noeoue ieaoeii?aee a ca’ycaiiio aeaeyae?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeieea? oe?eeii aeooaeueia i?iaeaia noai?aiiy aio/ei?
oaoiieia?? aeeo/aiiy iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie c ??ciiiai?oii? aoi?eiii?
ne?iaeie.

Ca`ycie ?iaio c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue ca?aeii c iinoaiiae AeEIO Oe?a?ie ? 52 a?ae 22. 03. 1994
?. oa iaeaco I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ? 133-III a?ae 03. 03. 1994 ?.

Iaoith ?iaioe aoei noai?aiiy, ia i?aenoaa? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aio/ei? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie, yea a iaaeaaaea iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe
aeeo/aiiy iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie c ne?iaeie ??ciiiai?oii? ye ca
neeaaeii, oae ? ca noaiii ieaoeii?ae?a (o ca`ycaiiio aeae? /e o aeaeyae?
iaoae?a) oa ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae noaae?e (caaaa/aiiy ne?iaeie,
?ic/eiaiiy ieaoeii?ae?a, inaaeaeaiiy ieaoeii?ae?a iaoaeii, aeeo/aiiy
iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a) aeey noai?aiiy i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ae?iaieoeoaa ? oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao??a
iniiaieo aia?ao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Caeiaoaa/ai oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue ?icae?eaiiy i?ioeano ia ie?ai?
noaae??. Oea aeicaieeei ooee?coaaoe ??ciiiai?oio ne?iaeio i?aeoe/ii ca
iaei??th oaoiieia?/iith noaiith, ia cieaeoth/e nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy
iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie.

Cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano caaaa/aiiy ne?iaeie ?ic/eiii HNO3.

Aeey noaae?? ?ic/eiaiiy IIA (iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie) cai?iiiiiaaii
i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano ?ic/eiii eeneio HCl oa HNO3 i?e i?aeaeuaieo
oaiia?aoo?ao. Noai?aii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?ioeano.

Cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiaeeoe noaae?th inaaeaeaiiy IIA aethi?i??i, yeee
aeicaiey? i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth oa iaeii/anii aeeo/aoe an? ieaoeii?aee.
Anoaiiaeaii aieea iiaa?oi? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ia i?ioean aeey ??cieo
iaoae?a (Fe, Cu, Zn, Al).

Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean aeeo/aiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a; anoaiiaeaii
iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e eiai i?iaaaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th i?ioeano ooee?caoe?? IIA c ??ciiiai?oii?
ne?iaeie. Noai?aii i?ia?aio ?ic?aooieo oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?ic?iaeaio aio/eo oaoiieia?th
aeeo/aiiy IIA c oeiaethth/eo ian, a?aei?aoeueiaaieo eaoae?caoi??a,
aeaeo?iiiiai a?oooo oa aoaeue-yeeo oeai?a, iiaeia ooee?coaaoe iaoaee c?
nooiaiai aeeo/aiiy 95-98 % (a caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo IIA o ne?iaei?) ia
noaiaea?oiiio iaeaaeiaii? oa i?e iaeiaio?e aeieia?/i?e aaciaoe?
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeuo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ia
iniia? iaoaiaoe/ii? oai??? ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, eiaeii? ie?aii?
noaae?? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie. Oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th i?ioeano,
noai?aii iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? on?o ?icaeyiooeo noaae?e. Aeine?aeaeaii
aieea oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia o?ae i?ioeano aeeo/aiiy IIA.
Caeiaoaa/ai ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio ?ic?aooieo e?eueeino? iaoa??ae?a, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeeo/aiiy IIA c iaei??? oiie ne?iaeie. Oey
i?ia?aia iaaea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe ia/enethaaiiy aeey ??cii?
ne?iaeie ? oiia i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiaiaeeeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo microCAD`96, microCAD`97,
microCAD`98 (i. Oa?e?a, 1996-1998 ??.); ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeieia?y oa ?iaeaia??y. Noai,
iane?aeee, oeyoe ooai?aiiy aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e” (i.
Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1996 ?.); ia ?? i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeaai?iaei? oa ??aee?ni? iaoaee” (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.); ia ?
i?nuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii?
iaoee o aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo a/aieo Oa?eiaa” (i. Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.);
ia ? Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c ieoaiue eaoae?co (i.
N?a??iaeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.); ia ?? i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “?icaeoie oaoi?/ii? o?i?? a Oe?a?i?” (i. Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.).
Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?iaioe iiaeaii cayaeo ia iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? iaea?aeaii
iiceoeaia ??oaiiy.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 ?ia?o: 5 noaooae oa
8 oac.

Ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y ia? anooi, 4 ?icae?ee iniiaiiai ci?noo
oa aeiaeaoee: aeeeaaeaia ia 127 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue
116 iaeiaioaaiue i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa caei?aeiiieo aaoi??a. Ia? 19
?ethno?aoe?e, 11 oaaeeoeue, aeiaeaoee aeeeaaeaii ia 13 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea c i?iaeai
niiaeeaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy IIA o o?i?/i?e oa ?ioeo aaeocyo. C?iaeaii
aiae?c iniaeeainoae o?ce/ieo oa o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoae?a ieaoeiiai?
a?oie, ?icaeyiooi ??ci? a?oie i?iieneiaeo ae?ia?a oa aoi?eiii? ne?iaeie,
ye? ai?uothoue ieaoeiia? iaoaee. ?icaeyiooi i?e/eie ao?ao ieaoeii?ae?a,
ui i?noyoueny a eaoae?caoi?ao, a oaeiae iaoiaee ?o oeiaethaaiiy.

Aoei ?icaeyiooi iaoiaee aeeo/aiiy IIA c ??cii? ii neeaaeo (o?i?/ii
ca`ycai? oa a?euei? ae?aaiaoaee) oa ai?noo ne?iaeie (iaea, na?aaeiy oa
aaeeea). I?iaiae?ciaaii aaeeeo e?euee?noue ?aaeoea?a-inaaeaeoaa/?a uiaei
?o ni?iiiaeiino? aeeo/aoe ie?ai? ieaoeii?aee, oa onth a?oio iaoae?a
ieaoeiiai? a?oie iaeii/anii. Oaeiae aoei ?icaeyiooi ?aaeoeae, ye?
iiaeooue inaaeaeoaaoe ieaoeii?aee c ne?iaeie c iaeei oa aaeeeei ?o
ai?noii. Aoee aea/ai? ?aaeoeae, ye? aiane?aeie noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo
niieoe c ie?aieie IIA ? niaoeeo?/ieie inaaeaeoaa/aie. A?aecia/aii, ui
?icaeyioo? iaoiaee aeeo/aiiy IIA c ??ciiiai?oii? ne?iaeie (ye ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi, oae ? ca ai?noii ieaoeii?ae?a) ni?yiiaai? ia iaaio
ne?iaeio ? i?e ?? ci?i?, aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaeaaeiiai nooiaiy aeeo/aiiy
IIA, iio?aaothoue ei?aaoaaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai oeeeeo.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo aeicaieea aea?aoe iai?yiie iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei noai?aiiy oaeiai aio/eiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano,
yeee aeicaieea ae c aenieei nooiaiai aeeo/aiiy ia?a?iaeyoe ??ciiiai?oio
ca neeaaeii oa ai?noii IIA ne?iaeio.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?aioaaii-oaciaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiue aeey aea/aiiy neeaaeo ne?iaeie, c yei? aoaea
i?iaiaeeoeny aeeo/aiiy IIA. Iienaii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaio
iaeiioe?ai?oeo a?oi aoi?eiii? ne?iaeie: a?oie, yea i?noeoue IIA o
aeaeyae? iaoae?a oa a?oie, yea i?noeoue ieaoeii?aee a ca’ycaiiio
aeaeyae?. Aeey aea/aiiy ia?oi? a?oie aoee aeei?enoai? c?acee
aeaeo?iiiiai a?oooo, yeee ? iaea?eueo neeaaeiei — aaeeeo /anoeio a
iueiio caeiathoue eieuei?ia? iaoaee. Aea/aiiy ae?oai? i?iaiaeeeiny ia
c?aceao oeiaethth/i? iane, aea iniiaia /anoea ieaoeie ciaoiaeeoueny o
aeaeyae? niieoee Ca4PtO6.

Aeey c`ynoaaiiy aieeao ia o?ae i?io?eaiiy ie?aieo noaae?e iniiaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoea ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioo. Iniiaieie oaoiieia?/ieie iia?aoe?yie aeey oeeo noaae?e ?:
?ic/eiaiiy aai inaaeaeaiiy ? ?iciiae?e noniaic??, ui ooai?eeany.

Oaeiae aoei ?icaeyiooi noaae?th caaaa/aiiy ne?iaeie, yea i?aaenoaaey?
i?ioean aeeo/aiiy aaeanoo (niieo/aiue, ui ia i?noyoue IIA). Anoaiiaeaii,
ui oeae i?ioean aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe oeie eeneioaie, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny o iiaeaeueoiio oaoiieia?/iiio oeeee? (HCl, HNO3). C
oi/ee ci?o ni?iuaiiy iiaeaeueoi? ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a, ui ooai?youeny,
aoea aea?aia acioia eeneioa. ?aaeoe?? ?ic/eiaiiy aaeanoo iiaeeiath/i?
iane oa aeaeo?iiiiai a?oooo iiaeia i?eaanoe oaeeie ??aiyiiyie:

CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2, (1)

Ca(OH)2 + 2 HNO3 = Ca(NO3)2 + 2 H2O, (2)

Mg(OH)2 + 2 HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + 2 H2O, (3)

CaO + 2 HNO3 = Ca(NO3)2 + H2O, (4)

MgO + 2 HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + H2O, (5)

CaCO3 + 2 HNO3 = Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2, (6)

CaMg(CO3)2 + 4HNO3 = Ca(NO3)2 + Mg(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2CO2. (7)

aeey aeaeo?iiiiai a?oooo ii noai?:

Me + HNO3 ® Me(NO3) + H2O + NOx, (8)

aea Me — Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb, Ag …

Ia a?aeciaeo a?ae oei?eae?a, i?o?aoe an?o iaoae?a aeia?a ?ic/eii?, ui
aeicaiey? oieeiooe ao?ao oaeeo iaoae?a, ye Ag, i?enooi?o a aeaeo?iiiiio
a?ooo?.

A oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a aoa c’yniaaiee aieea oaiia?aoo?e, /ano
?aaaoaaiiy aeo?aeii? ne?iaeie c ?ic/eiii acioii? eeneioe ??ciiiai?oii?
eiioeaio?aoe??.

C iaea?aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
caaaa/aiiy ne?iaeie i?e noao?iiao?e/iiio ni?aa?aeiioaii?
«eeneioa:aaeano» ? oaiia?aoo?? ii?yaeeo 320 E i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth
caaa?oeoueny ca /an, ??aiee 3-5 oaeeeiai. Oaeiae aoei aeyaeaii, ui
eiioeaio?aoe?y acioii? eeneioe ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 40 % ian., oiio
ui i?e a?eueoeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo ooai?ththoueny ieneaee acioo, a nooi?iue
caaaa/aiiy ne?iaeie ia ca?eueoo?oueny. E??i oiai ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? iiaea i?ecaanoe aei /anoeiaiai ?ic/eiaiiy IIA.

Iniiaio oaaao aoei i?eae?eaii aea/aiith i?ioeano ?ic/eiaiiy IIA noi?ooth
eeneio-?ic/eiiee?a, ine?eueee oey noaae?y a?aeiia?aea? ca iaea?eueo
iiaia ia?aaaaeaiiy IIA o ?ic/eiiee noai. O?i?ci oeueiai i?ioeano iiaeia
a?aeia?aceoe ianooiieie ?aaeoe?yie (aeey iniiaieo IIA):

3 Pt + 4 HNO3 + 18 HCl = 3 H2[PtCl6] + 4 NO + 8 H2O, (9)

3 Pd + 4 HNO3 + 18 HCl = 3 H2[PdCl6] + 4 NO + 8 H2O, (10)

2 Rh + 2 HNO3 + 10 HCl = 2 H2[RhCl5] + 2 NO + 4 H2O. (11)

Aeey ia?aa??ee oaeaeeino? ?ic/eiaiiy o?i?/ieo niieoe IIA oa naieo
iaoae?a aoei neioaciaaii o?i?/ia niieo/aiiy ieaoeie. Oiiae neioaco
a?aeia?aaeaee iniaeeaino? ?iaioe oeiaethth/eo ian o i?iieneiaino?
(oaiia?aoo?a 1173-1273 E, iaaeeeoie CaO). ?aaeoe?? neioaco oe???
niieoee i?eaaaeaii ieae/a:

Pt + O2 = PtO2, (12)

PtO2 + 4 CaO = Ca4PtO6. (13)

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a anoaiiaeaii (oaae. 1), ui
oaeaee?noue ?ic/eiaiiy Ca4PtO6 iaaaaaoi iaioa, i?ae oaeaee?noue
?ic/eiaiiy o?i?/ii ia ca`ycaieo ieaoeii?ae?a, a oaeaee?noue ?ic/eiaiiy
Pt i?eaeecii aei??aith? oaeaeeino? ?ic/eiaiiy Pd ? Rh. Naia oiio a
yeino? iniiaiiai ia`?eoo aeey aeine?ae?a aoei aea?aii oeiaethth/? iane
(a?eueoa /anoeia IIA a yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny o aeaeyae? niieo/aiiy
Ca4PtO6).

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aoei c’yniaaii aieea ia o?ae
i?ioeano ?ic/eiaiiy IIA ? ?oi?o niieo/aiue oaeeo oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a ye oaiia?aoo?a, /an ?ic/eiaiiy, eiioeaio?aoe??
eeneio-?ic/eiiee?a oa ?oi? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Ia i?aenoaa? na???
aenia?eiaio?a c i?eioniaei ia?ai?ooaaiiyi oa ia?ai?ooaaiiyi
eiiaaeoeaieie iioieaie aoei c?iaeaii aeniiaie uiaei iiae?aiino?
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiia ?aaeoe?e ?ic/eiaiiy (1)-(3) o oeeo aeaio
aeiaaeeao oa i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?eiaio?a aeey ?ic?aooie?a oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a iniiaieo
aia?ao?a.

Oaaeeoey 1 – Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aea/aiith i?ioeano ?ic/eiaiiy
IIA

E?euee?noue ?aaaaio?a, ieOaiia?a-

*an ?aaeoe??,

Eiaa?eoi HCl,36% aaa.HNO3, 60% aaa.H2Ooo?a, Eneiinoaioe
oaeaeeino?1550347408-4,081550353150-3,08155035631-1,501552038221,2415573
56630-4,515100353317-3,835150353120-2,851515036396-2,631553037370-2,3210
5035361-2,1855035344-1,85Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e c 358
aei 373 E i?aeaeuo? nooi?iue ?ic/eiaiiy iaeaea a 10 ?ac?a (i?e 50 n)
(?en. 1), a /an ?ic/eiaiiy IIA cieaeo?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii?
aea?aaeaioiiai a?aeiioaiiy HCl:H2O, HNO3:H2O a ?ic/ei?. Anoaiiaeaii
i?eioeeiiao ??cieoeth aieeao eeneio-?ic/eiiee?a ia o?ae i?ioeano. Oae,
cieaeaiiy aea?aaeaioiiai a?aeiioaiiy HCl:H2O (i?e iayaiino? HNO3) ia
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaiiai i?eieiaiiy i?ioeano ?ic/eiaiiy IIA. Ia
a?aeciaeo a?ae HCl, a?aenooi?noue HNO3 o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? i?ecaiaeeoue
aei iiaiiai i?eieiaiiy o?i?/iiai i?ioeano.

Ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aoea io?eiaia iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue i?ioeano ?ic/eiaiiy IIA, yea a?aoiao? aieea iniiaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a:

wmetafile8?
??q??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyyA??1?? ???&?
?MathType??P
???u?????????»????-?????t@????th???t~???tj???uYy
???? wmetafile8? ??9???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyy ??%?? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????T9 ???T????u@th??????

aea a — nooi?iue ?ic/eiaiiy IIA, /.i.; t — /an ?ic/eiaiiy, n; E —
eiinoaioa oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe??, n-1; Y — e?euee?noue aea?aaeaio?a
a?aeiia?aeii? ?a/iaeie, a-aea; R — oi?aa?naeueia aaciaa iino?eia; A —
aia?a?y aeoeaaoe??, eAeae/iieue; O — oaiia?aoo?a i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano,
E.

wmetafile8? ??????”??????? caa>???
^???????a>^?????.?????yyy????ue??yyy??????-??
???u????????»????-????cyz>wcy??? ???????uoyE??????en. 1 —
Caeaaei?noue nooi?iy ?ic/eiaiiy IIA a?ae /ano i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano
(aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? — ·, oa ?ic?aooieia? — 3/4 )

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi i?ioean, yeee a?aeiia?aea? ca iaea?eueo
iiaia aeeo/aiiy IIA c ?ic/eio ieaoeii?ae?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiaeeoe inaaeaeaiiy IIA iaoaeii, yeee ia? aeaeo?iaeiee
iioaioe?ae a?eueoee, i?ae o ieaoeiiaeo iaoae?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aac?a
oa ?ic/ei?a a oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny i?aeoe/ii iiaia
inaaeaeaiiy an?o IIA, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o ?ic/ei? iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o
eiioeaio?aoe??. O yeino? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a aoee aei?iaiaai? Fe, Cu,
Zn, Al.

Aea?? aoei coieiaii ia Al, ai Fe ? Cu ia a?aeiia?aeathoue oaoiieia?/iei
aeiiaai, a caiane Zn ia Oe?a?i? iaiaaeai?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeeo iaoae?a
aethi?i?e ae?iaey?oueny ia Oe?a?i? ? eiai oe?ia ca e?eia?ai ia 8-10
a?eaaiue ieae/a, i?ae o Zn.

H2[PtCl6] + 2 Al = Pt + 2 AlCl3 + H2, (17)

H2[PdCl6] + 2 Al = Pd + 2 AlCl3 + H2, (18)

3 H2[RhCl5] + 5 Al = 3 Rh + 5 AlCl3 + 3 H2. (19)

Oaeei /eiii, aea?? Al o yeino? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ? iaei??th c iniiaieo
a?aeciae aio/ei? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie ,ui i?iiiio?oueny, a?ae aaea
?nioth/eo.

Aeey aea/aiiy iniiaieo /eiiee?a i?ioeano aoei iinoaaeaii na??th
aenia?eiaio?a (oaae. 2) aeey ??cieo ca aaiiao?e/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
inaaeaeoaa/?a ye c i?eioniaei ia?ai?ooaaiiyi ?aaeoe?eii? ??aeeie, oae ?
c ia?ai?ooaaiiyi ca ?aooiie eiiaaeoeaieo oaieiaeo iioie?a.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aea/aiith i?ioeano inaaeaeaiiy
IIA (ae?aiao? ca?ia =0,055 ii)

*an

Neeaae ?ic/eio, ieIana Al Nooi?iue Iana Nooi?iue inaae-aeaiiy, nIana Al,

iaHNO3, 60 % aaa.HCl, 36 % aaa.H2Oi?ney inaaeaeaiiy, ia?ic/eiaiiy Al,
ae.a.inaaeaeaiiy ieaoeii?ae?a, iaaeeo/aiiy,
/.i.22501,52,122760,71180,1823000,31,3211990,35270,2646000,50,6225870,03
410,40105002424860,85500,48243000,32,916570,85580,56302000,80,2291260,38
110,11724002,92,017280,96620,611187460,60,9205460,29930,9112810001-30937
0,08980,961446760,81,5214670,34990,961774162,80,2293670,16990,971958060,
82,1205040,40940,92240100011209060,11640,6224810001-309210,101000,98Anoa
iiaeaii, ui i?e oaiia?aoo?? 383 E ?aaeoe?y i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth
i?eieiy?oueny ca 1-2 oaeeeie ? cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e i?ioeano
inaaeaeaiiy IIA c 383 aei 353 E ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai iaae?iiy
nooiaith inaaeaeaiiy IIA. Oea aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe ?aaeoe?th o
aeinoaoiuei oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? — ieae/? aeiaaathoue o 2-3
?ace a?eueoiai /ano inaaeaeaiiy (?en. 2).

wmetafile8? ??a???”??????? ‰ai>???
w???????i>w?????.?????yyy????ue??yyy??????-??
???u????????»????-????cy‚>?%fy%pA&y…&?E&?en. 2 — Caeaaei?noue
nooiaiy inaaeaeaiiy IIA a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa /ano ?aaaoaaiiy c
iaoaeii-inaaeaeoaa/ai i?e aea?aaeaioiiio a?aeiioaii? Me:Pt=13

O oiae? i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a aoei aeyaeaii, ui cieaeaiiy
aea?aaeaioiiai a?aeiioaiiy «iaoae-inaaeaeoaa/:IIA» iaioa i?ae aei 5 i?e
ae?aiao?? ca?ia 0,038-0,055 ii i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeoe/ii iiaiiai
i?eieiaiiy ?aaeoe??. Oaeee aieea e?eueeino? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ia
oaeaee?noue i?ioeano inaaeaeaiiy IIA aeaco? ia iiaeeea?noue i?io?eaiiy
i?ioeano ia ei?aeii? ?iciiae?eo oac.

Oiio o ?iaio? aoee aeeiiai? aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aea/aiith
aieeao ieiu? iiaa?oi? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ia i?ioean inaaeaeaiiy IIA.
Iiaeaeueo? ?ic?aooiee a?oiooaaeenue ia i?eiouaii?, ui i?e ?aaeoe??
oaa?aei? oace (Al) c ?ic/eiii a?aeaoaa?oueny ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy aa?oiueiai
oa?o ? ooai?aiiy ia iueiio oa?o IIA oiaueiith d. I?e iaeiie/oaaii?
iiiiiieaeoey?ieo oa??a a?eueoa iaaii? e?eueeino?, oaeaee?noue aeeooc??
?aaaaio?a cieaeo?oueny ? i?ioean inaaeaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii i?eieiy?oueny.

C ??aiyiiy (17) inaaeaeaiiy oei?ieaoeiaoa ia Al iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe
oai?aoe/io e?euee?noue iieae inaaeaeoaa/a, iaiao?aeieo aeey inaaeaeaiiy
iaeiiai iiey IIA (roc). ?ic?aooaaaoe oeae ia?aiao?, iiaeia ciaeoe
e?euee?noue oa??a iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a (l), iaiao?aeiiai aeey iiaiiai
inaaeaeaiiy IIA.

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyy ??E?? ???&? ?MathType?? ???u’y
???? wmetafile8? ??C???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy@??g?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u’y
???? wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyya???? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????
wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A`
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy ??p?? ???&? ?MathType?? wmetafile8?
????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyya???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th?????? wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `@
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy? ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????aea roc — e?euee?noue iie?a
iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a aeey inaaeaeaiiy iaeiiai iieth IIA; m — iana
inaaeaeoaa/a aai Pt, a; n — nooi?iue ieeneaiiy inaaeaeoaa/a aai Pt; M —
iiey?ia iana inaaeaeoaa/a aai Pt, a; Sakt — caaaeueia iiaa?oiy iaeiiai
iieth iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a, i2; Smol — ieiua, yea caeiyoa iaeiei iieai
iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a, i2 ;Sgr — ieiua iiaa?oi? iaei??? a?aioee, i2; ngr
— e?euee?noue a?aioe o iaeiiio iieth; Sa — ieiua, yeo caeia? iaeei aoii
iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a, i2; q — aeiey caiiaiaiiy iiaa?oi?, /.i.; l —
e?euee?noue oa??a, ye? i?eeiathoue o/anoue o ?aaeoe??; d — oiaua
?aaaoth/iai oa?o, i; Na — /enei Aaiaaae?i; Ra — na?aaeiy i?aeaoiiia
a?aenoaiue, i.

Ii io?eiaiei aeaiei, ye? caaaeai? o oaaeeoeth 3, aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
e?euee?noue oa??a, ui i?eeiathoue o/anoue o ?aaeoe??, aeey Al i?aeoe/ii
o 2-3 ?ace ia?aaeuo? oeth aaee/eio aeey Zn. Oea ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
i?aaeeuei?noue aeai?o Al o yeino? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a.

Io?eiai? aeai? aeicaieeee noai?eoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeaiiai i?ioeano
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeith i?e ca?eueoaii? oa??a inaaeaeaieo IIA ia ca?i?
iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a a?eueoa 1500, i?ioean inaaeaeaiiy ia aeaiiio ca?i?
i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth i?eieiy?oueny (?en. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3 — ?ic?aooieia? aeai? aeoeaii? iiaa?oi? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a

Maoaed, iimoc,

amPt,

aSakt, i2/ iieueq,

/.i.rin, iieue/iieuel, oa??ad,

ieiAl oieueaa0,171,48490,07710,340,93*10-569,5415460,199Al
a?aioee0,0552,00000,02011,092,84*10-5359,319800,126Zn
a?aioee0,0383,01000,06031,443,99*10-549,875030,062Zn
a?aioee0,0762,00000,01750,732,43*10-5113,143630,043 wmetafile8?
??E??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??9?? ???&?
?MathType??a? ???u?????????»????-?????T@????T4???uYy
???? wmetafile8? ??U???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA???? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????oL???oA???oz???oo???u@t
h??????aea ain — nooi?iue inaaeaeaiiy IIA, /.i.; t — /an
inaaeaeaiiy, n; K — eiinoaioa oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe??, n-1.

wmetafile8? ??E???”??????? 2cN>???
I???????N>I?????.?????yyy????ue??yyy??????-??
???u????????»????-????cyg>ccy??? ???????u>th???????en. 3 —
Caeaaei?noue nooiaiy inaaeaeaiiy a?ae e?eueeino? oa??a IIA ia ca?i?
iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a

Oaeei /eiii, io?eiai? aeai? aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe ?ic?aooiee
iaiao?aeiiai oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa eiai ?aaeei?a (oaiia?aoo?a,
/an inaaeaeoaaiiy), e?euee?noue iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a i?e caaeaiiio
nooiaith aeenia?niino?.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a oaeiae aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?acii c
inaaeaeaiiyi IIA ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ia oe?e noaae??
a?aeaoaa?oueny iai?iaeoeoeaia ?ic/eiaiiy aethi?i?th, yea ia?aa?aa?
ia?aeaeueii c iniiaiei i?ioeanii.

sse aoei c’yniaaii a oiae? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, oaeaee?noue
?ic/eiaiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a neeueii caeaaeeoue a?ae aea?aaeaioiiai
a?aeiioaiiy «HCl:Me». Iaea?eueo ?noioii aieea aea?aaeaioiiai a?aeiioaiiy
«HCl:iaoae-inaaeaeoaa/» aeyaey?oueny i?e cia/aiiyo iaioeo 1. I?e
cieaeaii? oeueiai a?aeiioaiiy iaio i?ae 0,2 ?aaeoe?y i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth
i?eieiy?oueny. I?e cia/aiiyo a?eueoeo 1,4 nooi?iue ?ic/eiaiiy
iaaeeaea?oueny aei 1. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui a na?aaeiueiio oaeaee?noue
iai?iaeoeoeaiiai ?ic/eiaiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a iaioa, i?ae oaeaee?noue
inaaeaeaiiy IIA. Oea aeicaiey? i?ae?a?aoe oae? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e,
uia ii?yae c inaaeaeaiiyi IIA iaea?eueo iiaii ?ic/eiyoe
iaoae-inaaeaeoaa/.

wmetafile8? ?? !???»????????&??yyyy???oTHyyueyyC??l??
???&??yyyy??????&??yyyy??TNPP?R????&??TNPP????
???&??yyyy??????&??TNPP? ?????????????? ueoTH??? r/X?
???u?????yyy?»????-?????ue??????????-? ???&??yyyy????
???u???????»????-????ue??yyy?????-???? yyy????
???$?vo±?±ioovo’o-oeoo???-?????ue??????????-?????????
??????$?voS?Sioovo„o‹oeoovoS?vo±?-oeoovo’o±ioovo±????-????ue??y
yy?????-????????? yyy ???$?vo|
±i:voo-oe:???-?????ue??????????-????????? ??????$?vo
Si:voP‹oe:vo vo| -oe:voo±i:vo|
???-????ue??yyy?????-????????? yyy ???$?%—thgU%
UeU???-?????ue??????????-????????? ??????$?%9th
U%j:U%9th%—thUeU%
gU%—th???-????ue??yyy?????-????????? yyy ???$?%|
g:%oUe:???-?????ue??????????-????????? ??????$?%
:%P::% %| Ue:%og:%| ???
??????-?????-??????????????

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Ao ???u?
??????»????-????4?o???4???-?????-?????????’yy??
?ue??????????-???? ??? ???$?•o?Ro4•oU„oe4???
??????-?????-?????????

????c@VA ???u? ??????»????-????T

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???-?????-?????????’yy???ue??????????-???? ???
???$?w

PAE

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????I@<A ???u? ??????"????-????:ssy???Cssy???-?????-?????????'yy ???-?????-???? ????@°Assy ???u? ??????"????-????Issy???O????-?????-?????????'yy? ??-?????-???? ????@cyATHo ???u? ??????"????-????Issy???OTHo???-?????-?????????'yy ???u? ??????"????-????ue??????????-???? ??????$?OyQ?thArthArthA>yA>yAyA???
??????-?????-??????????????

????©@aA ???u? ??????»????-????TH?en. 4 — I?eioeeiiaa
oaoiieia?/ia noaia aeeo/aiiy IIA c aoi?eiii? ne?iaeie

Inoaii?i i?ioeanii cai?iiiiiaaii? aio/ei? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie ? noaae?y
aeeoaeaiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe e?ioeaaee
i?iaeoeo — eiioeaio?ao on?o IIA, ye? ciaoiaeeeeny o aeo?aei?e ne?iaei?.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ye? aoei io?eiaii ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee, aeicaieeee c’ynoaaoe aieea oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia o?ae
i?ioeano aeeoaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaiia?aoo?a i?iaaaeaiiy iaeaea ia
aieeaa? ia o?ae oeueiai i?ioeano.

O ?acoeueoao? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aeaieo aoee noai?ai? iaoaiaoe/i?
iiaeae? i?ioean?a iai?iaeoeoeaiiai ?ic/eiaiiy aethi?i?th oa eiai
aeeoaeaiiy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeiiao oaoiieia?/io noaio (?en.
4), ui io?eiaia ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo oa noai?aieo
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae.

wmetafile8? ??;c?? ?”??????? •aN>??? k ???????N>k
?????.?????yyy????ue??yyy??????-??
???u????????»????-????cyg>„ cy??? ???????u/thE??????en. 5 —
Caeaaei?noue nia?aa?oino? iaeiiai a?aio io?eiaiiai eiioeaio?aoo a?ae
ai?noo IIA o ii/aoeia?e ne?iaei?

Aeo?aeia ne?iaeia, yea i?noeoue IIA, iiaea?oueny o ?aaeoi? I, aea
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?? caaaa/aiiy ii IIA ca ?aooiie ?ic/eiaiiy o HNO3
?a/iaei, ye? ia i?noyoue ieaoeii?aee. Aeae? noniaic?y iai?aaey?oueny a
?aaeoi? Ia aeey iiaiiai a?aeae?eaiiy inaaeeo a?ae o?eueo?aoo. I?ney
oeueiai ne?iaeia iiaea?oueny iine?aeiaii a ?aaeoi?e II oa IIa, aea IIA
ia?aaiaeyoueny o ?ic/eiiee noai eeneioaie-?ic/eiieeaie (HCl oa HNO3).
O?eueo?ao c ?ic/eiaieie IIA iiaea?oueny a ?aaeoi? II, aea
inaaeaeothoueny on? iaoaee ieaoeiiai? a?oie ia iaoae?-inaaeaeoaa/?. O
?aaeoi?? IV aethi?i?e aeeoaeo?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ?ic/eiaiiy eiai o HCl
? io?eio?oueny e?ioeaaee i?iaeoeo — eiioeaio?ao IIA.

?aaeoi?e II, IIa oa III iathoue i?ae?a??a aeey a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai
i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano. I?e oeueiio, a ca’yceo c iaeith e?euee?noth
aaciaeo aeeeae?a ? ??aeeeo noie?a, iioiee c ?aaeoi??a I, Ia, II, IIa,
III oa IV ni?yiiaothoueny a caaaeuei? eieaeoi?a aaciaeo ? ??aeeeo
a?aeoiae?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia oa noai?ai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? i?ioean?a noaee
iniiaith i?ia?aie ?ic?aooie?a oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
ae?iaieoeoaa aeey ??ciiiai?oiiai neeaaeo ne?iaeie. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee
aeacothoue ia aeioe?euei?noue ooee?caoe?? IIA ii ?ic?iaeai?e oaoiieia??
ia aac? oeao?a acioii-ooeiaeo caaiae?a Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio aa?o?noue 1
a eiioeaio?aoo ieaoeiiaeo iaoae?a, ye? io?eiai? ii cai?iiiiiaai?e
oaoiieia??, iaa?oue i?e inoaoi/iiio ?ao?ioaaii? eiioeaio?aoo a ?in??, a
ia ia Oe?a?i?, aoaea iaaaaaoi iaioa i?ae na?oia? caeoi?aaeuei? oe?ie
(?en. 5). I/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo i?e ooee?caoe?? o?eueee
oeiaethth/eo ian aoaea aei??aithaaoe i?eaeecii 8 i?ei. a?i. ia ??e.

AENIIAEE

1. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y ooee?caoe?? iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie c
a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeeo/aoe IIA o aeaeyae?
eiioeaio?aoo oeeo iaoae?a. Iaea?aeaiiy eiioeaio?aoo ieaoeii?ae?a, ia
a?aei?io a?ae iine?aeiaiiai a?aeie?aieaiiy eiaeiiai iaoaeo, aeicaiey?
iaea?eueo iiaii ?o ooee?coaaoe (nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy aei??aith? 95-98 %
aaa., a caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo IIA o ne?iaei?).

2. O oiae? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai?
oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?iciiae?e oaoiieia?/iiai oeeeeo ia
ie?ai? noaae??, ui aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe aio/eo oaoiieia?/io noaio,
i?eaeaoio ia?a?iaeyoe ??ciiiai?oio ne?iaeio ye ii ye?niiio, oae ? ii
e?euee?niiio neeaaeo. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy eiaeii?
noaae?? ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/ii? oai??? ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy aeeoaeaiiy acioiith
eeneioith aaeanoa c ne?iaeie cieaeothoueny aeo?aoe HCl, HNO3 ia
ianooiieo noaae?yo i?ioeano. Oea i?aeaeuo? aeieia?/io aacia/i?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy ia`?i?a aac?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ia
ianooii?e noaae??.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiaeeoe oeae i?ioean i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeecueei 320 E
oa noao?iiao?e/iiio aea?aaeaioiiio a?aeiioaii? «HNO3:aaeano», /an
aeeoaeaiiy i?e oeueiio aoaea aei??aithaaoe 3 – 5 oaeeei. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
eiioeaio?aoe?y acioii? eeneioe ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 40 % aaa., oiio
ui i?e a?eueoeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo noai?ththoueny ieneaee acioo, a nooi?iue
caaaa/oaaiiy ne?iaeie ia ca?eueoo?oueny. E??i oiai ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? eeneioe iiaea i?ecaanoe aei /anoeiaiai ?ic/eiaiiy IIA.

5. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui ia
noaae?? ?ic/eiaiiy IIA iiaeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy ia o?eueee “oea?nueei?
aiaeee” (noi?o? eiioeaio?iaaieo nieyii? oa acioii? eeneio o
ni?aa?aeiioaii? 3:1), a ? ?ic/eio oeeo eeneio. Aea/aii caeaaei?noue
oaeaeeino? ?ic/eiaiiy iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
eeneio. Neioaciaaii iniiaio o?i?/io niieoeo oeiaethth/eo ian – Ca4PtO6.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaeaee?noue ?ic/eiaiiy oe??? niieoee iaioa i?ae o
iaca`ycaieo ieaoeii?ae?a.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiaeeoe inaaeaeaiiy IIA iaoae?/iei aethi?i??i, yeee
aeicaiey? iaeii/anii aeeo/aoe on? ieaoeii?aee, ia?aaaaeai? o ?ic/eiio
oi?io. Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy aethi?i?th o yeino?
iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ? iaea?eueo oaoiieia?/ii aeioe?eueiei, aeiiii?/ii
aea?aeiei oa aeieia?/ii aacia/iei o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie iaoaeaie (Fe,
Cu, Zn).

7. Aea/aii aieea iiaa?oi? iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ia i?ioean inaaeaeaiiy
IIA. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui e?euee?noue oa??a aethi?i?th, ye?
aa?ooue o/anoue o ?aaeoe??, aei??aith? 900-1500 aoii?a. Oea o 2-3 ?ace
a?eueoa oeueiai iieacieea aeey oeeieo, ui aeicaiey? a?eueo aoaeoeaii
i?iaiaeeoe i?ioean inaaeaeaiiy. I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui
aeey Al a?aioeueiaaiiai c ae?aiao?ii a?aioee 0,055 ii iioeiaeueieie ?:
a?aeiioaiiy iaoaea-inaaeaeoaa/a aei iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie ia iaioa
i?ae 5, oaiia?aoo?a ?aaeoe?? 373 E oa /an inaaeaeaiiy 2-3 oaeeeie.

8. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia noaae?? inaaeaeaiiy IIA ia?aa?aa? i?ioean
iai?iaeoeoeaiiai aeeoaeaiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a. Cai?iiiiiaaii
i?iaiaeeoe i?ioean inaaeaeaiiy i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? nieyii? eeneioe aei
iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a a?eueoa 1, ui aeicaieya iaea?eueo iiaii i?iaiaeeoe
aeeoaeaiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ia?aeaeueii c i?iaaaeaiiyi iniiaiiai
i?ioeano — inaaeaeaiiyi IIA.

9. Aeine?aeaeaii noaae?th aeeoaeaiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui aiia i?eioeeiiai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae i?ioeano iai?iaeoeoeaiiai
aeeoaeaiiy iaoaeo. Iieacaii, ui i?ioean c aeinoaoiueith aoaeoeai?noth
iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe iaeiioeaio?iaaiith nieyiith eeneioith i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
ii?yaeeo 273-300 E.

10. Noai?aii iaae?ei? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? an?o i?ioean?a: caaaa/aiiy
ne?iaeie, ?ic/eiaiiy ieaoeii?ae?a, inaaeaeaiiy ieaoeii?ae?a iaoaeii,
iai?iaeoeoeaiiai aeeoaeaiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a ia noaae?? inaaeaeaiiy
ieaoeii?ae?a, aeeo/aiiy iaoaeo-inaaeaeoaa/a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
i?iaaaeaii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? ?ic?aooiee, ye? ? iieacaee aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia??.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaiey? caeeanoe o
i?iaeo iaeaooiueiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e
aeaiue ??oaiiy. Oea aa?aioo? caaaeueio aeiiii?/i?noue oaoiieia??
ooee?caoe?? IIA.

Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a oaeeo ?iaioao:

1. Iiii?oeaaa I.A., A?eiue A.?., Eiaieei I.ss. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiae?a
aeeo/aiiy ieaoeii?aeieo iaoae?a c oeai?a o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino? //
O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — N 3. — N. 17-21.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a aeeo/aiiy ieaoeii?ae?a oa
?icaeyiooi neeaae oeiaethth/eo ian, ye iiaeeeai? ne?iaeie aeey aeeo/aiiy
iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie.

2. Iiii?oeaaa A.A., Eiaieei A.ss., A?eiue A.E. ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee
ecaea/aiey iaoaeeia ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaiia //
Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia “Aanoiee OAIO” — 1998. — Auione 21. — N. 70-73.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii eiiieaen aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o ii ?ic?iaoe? oa
iaa?oiooaaiith iaeaeioe?euei?oi? oa aeiiii?/ii? oaoiieia?? aeeo/aiiy
aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a.

3. Iiii?oeaaa A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna iaiaauaiey nu?uey,
niaea?aeauaai iaoaeeu ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu // Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia
“Aanoiee OAIO” — 1999. — Auione 32. — N. 60 — 62.

4. Iiii?oeaaa A.A. Ecaea/aiea iaoaeeia ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu ec eiioeaio?aoa
?anoai?aiiuo ae?aaiaoaeeia // Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia “Aanoiee OAIO” —
1999. — Auione 32. — N. 63 — 65.

5. Iiii?oeaaa A.A., Eicoa I.A., Eiaieei A.ss., A?eiue A.E. ?an/ao
aeoeaiie iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeea-inaaeeoaey i?e inaaeaeaiee iaoaeeia
ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu // Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea,
oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea : Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia OAIO.
Auione 6. A /aou?ao /anoyo. — Oa?ueeia: OAIO. — 1998. — *. III. —
N.146-148.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?aooiee
iiaa?oi? iaoaea-inaaeieea i?e i?iaaaeaii? noaae?? inaaeaeaiiy ieaoeiiaeo
iaoae?a.

6. Oaoiieiaey ecaea/aiey ieaoeiu ec oeaaeeaathueo iann / Iiii?oeaaa
A.A., O?onia I.A., A?eiue A.E., Eiaieei A.ss. / O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii — oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea,
oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea». — Oa?ueeia. — 1997. — *.
IY. — N. 100-102.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aeeo/aiith
iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie c oeiaethth/eo ian o aeaeyae? eiiieaenieo
niieoe nieyie aiii?th.

7. Eeiaoeea ?anoai?aiey niaaeeiaiee ieaoeiiauo iaoaeeia a i?ioeanna
ooeeecaoeee oeaaeeaathueo iann / A.A. Iiii?oeaaa, I.A. Eicoa, A.E.
A?eiue, A.ss. Eiaieei / Nai?iee o?oaeia 2 Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii —
oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “?acaeoea oaoie/aneie oeiee a Oe?aeia”. — Eeaa.
— 1997. — N. 163-165.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaia oai?aoe/ia ia?iaea aeanieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
i?ioeano ?ic/eiaiiy iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie ?ic/eiaie eeneio ??cii?
eiioeaio?aoe??.

8. Eiiieaeniay iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea ieaoeiu a
?anoai?eioth oi?io e inaaeaeaiey a aeaea oei?ieaoeiaoa aiiiiey / A.A.
Iiii?oeaaa, I.A. Eicoa, A.E. A?eiue, A.ss. Eiaieei / O?oaeu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii — oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea». — *.
IY. — Oa?ueeia. — 1997. — N. 97-99.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaia oai?aoe/ia ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?ioeano
?ao?ioaaiiy noi?o? iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie.

9. Iiii?oeaaa A.A., Eicoa I.A. Oaoiieiaey ecaea/aiey iaoaeeia ieaoeiiaie
a?oiiu ec aoi?e/iiai nu?uey e oeaaeeaathueo iann // Nai?iee aeieeaaeia
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee ”Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiie iaoee
a enneaaeiaaieyo iieiaeuo o/aiuo Oa?ueeiaa”. — Oa?ueeia. — 1997. — N.
85-87.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii eiiieaen aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o uiaei i?ioeano
inaaeaeaiiy iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie iaoaeii-inaaeaeoaa/ai, iaaaaeaii
oaoiieia?/io noaio i?ioeano aeeo/aiiy ieaoeii?ae?a.

10. Iiii?oeaaa A.A., A?eiue A.E., Eiaieei A.ss. Ecaea/aiea ieaoeiieaeiuo
iaoaeeia ec oeaiia oeie/aneei niiniaii // Nai?iee iaoa?eaeia 2
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ”Aeaai?iaeiua e ?aaeeea iaoaeeu”. — *. I.
— Aeiiaoee. — 1997. — N. 189-190.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioe uiaei i?ioeano ?ao?ioaaiiy ieaoeii?ae?a.

11. ?ac?aaioea niiniaa oiaiueoaiey aacaica?aoiuo iioa?ue ieaoeiieaeiuo
eaoaeecaoi?ia a oaoiieiaee naycaiiiai acioa / A.A. Iiii?oeaaa, I.A.
Eicoa, A.E. A?eiue, A.ss. Eiaieei / Oacenu aeieeaaeia I Oe?aeineie
iao/ii — oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee ii eaoaeeco. — Naaa?iaeiiaoee. — 1997.
— N. 44-45.

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii aio/eo oaoiieia?/io noaio aeeo/aiiy ieaoeiiaeo
iaoae?a.

12. Iiii?oeaaa I.A., Eiaieei I.ss., A?eiue A.?. Ecaea/aiea ieaoeiu ec
aoi?e/iiai nu?uey e i?e?iaeiuo ?oae, neeueii caa?yciaiiuo e?aiiacaiii
// Ca??ea aeiiia?aeae anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai — iaoiaee/ii? eiio.
«?eieia?y oa ?iaeaia??y. Noai, iane?aee?, oeyoe ooai?aiiy aeieia?/ii
/enoeo oaoiieia?e». — Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee. — 1996. — N. 80.

Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean aeeo/aiiy aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a c
aeaeo?iiiiai eiio, caa?oaeiaiiai e?aii??aeie niieoeaie.

13. Iiii?oeaaa A.A., Eiaieei A.ss., A?eiue A.E. Iioeiecaoeey i?ioeanna
ecaea/aiey ieaoeiiauo iaoaeeia ec oeaiia i?iecaiaenoaa naycaiiiai acioa
// Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii — oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee »
Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea,
caei?iauea «. — *. I. — Oa?ueeia. — 1996. — N. 149.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii ii??aithaaeueiee aiae?c iiaeeeaeo inaaeaeoaa/?a
iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie.

AIIOAOe??

Iiii?oeaaa I.?. Oaoiieia?y aeeo/aiiy iaoae?a ieaoeiiai? a?oie c
i?iieneiaeo oeai?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.17.01 — oaoiieia?y iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?? ooee?caoe?? oeiaethth/eo
ian oa ae?oai? aoi?eiii? ne?iaeie, yea i?noeoue iaoaee ieaoeiiai? a?oie.
Aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? aea? iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeai? a?oie aoi?eiii?
ne?iaeie: a?oia ui i?noeoue IIA o aeaeyae? iaoae?a ? a?oia, ui
i?noeoeoue ieaoeii?aee o ca`ycaiiio aeaeyae?. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoei cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaaaeaiiy noaae?? caaaa/aiiy
ne?iaeie (i?ioean aeeo/aiiy aaeanoo — niieo/aiue, ia ui i?noyoue
ae?aaiaoaee). Aoei aea/aii i?ioean ?ic/eiaiiy ieaoeii?ae?a noi?ooth
eeneio-?ic/eiiee?a (nieyiie ? acioii?). O ?acoeueoao i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui oaeaee?noue ?ic/eiaiiy Ca4PtO6
(iniiaia o?i?/ia niieo/aiiy ieaoeie a oeiaethth/eo ianao) iaaaaaoi
iaioa, i?ae oaeaee?noue ?ic/eiaiiy o?i?/ii ia ca’ycaieo ieaoeii?ae?a. Ca
aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aoa c’yniaaiee aieea ia o?ae i?ioeano
?ic/eiaiiy IIA ? ?oi?o niieo/aiue oaeeo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ye:
oaiia?aoo?a, /an ?ic/eiaiiy, eiioeaio?aoe?? eeneio-?ic/eiiee?a, ? ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ia noaae??
inaaeaeaiey IIA oaeiai inaaeaeoaa/a, ui inaaeaeo? an? iaoaee ieaoeiiai?
a?oie aiaeii/an. I?iaiae?ciaaii ??ciiiai?oi? iaoaee-inaaeaeoaa/? (c
oi/ee ci?o aeieia?? ? aeiiii?ee), i?ae?a?aii iioeiaeueiee inaaeaeoaa/ —
aethi?i?e. Noai?ai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? an?o noaae?e, aeyaeai? iniiai?
oaoiieia?/i? /eiieee, aieeaath/? ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano.
Cai?iiiiiaaia i?eioeeiiaa oaoiieia?/ia noaia ia iniia?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? noai?aieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoaee ieaoeiiai? a?oie, aeo?aeia ne?iaeia, aaeano,
?ic/eiaiiy, inaaeaeaiiy, iaoae-inaaeaeoaa/.

Pomortseva E.E. The tecnology of extraction of platinum group from
industrial waste. — Manuscript.

The thesis for technical sciences candidate degree on speciality
05.17.01 — technology of inorganic substances, Kharkiv State Polytechnic
University, Kharkiv, 1999.

Two most widespread groups of secondary raw material were analysed, the
one containing platinum group metals in the form of metals and the other
containing platinoids in the bound form. Based on the stadies, the
performing of the stage of starting material enrichment (the ballast
elimination process, i.e. the removal of the compounds containing no
precious metals) was proposed. The process woos investigated of the
platinoids dissolution by a mixture of dissolving acids, the
hydrochloric and nitric ones. As a result, it was found that the Ca4PtO6
(i.e. the main platinum chemical compound in the recovering mass)
dissolving rate is far less than the dissolving rate of non-bonded
platinoids. With the help of the developed technique, the impact on the
platinum group metals and their compounds dissolving process was
elucidate of such technological parameters as temperature, dissolution
time as well as the dissolving acids concentrations and their relation.
The expediency is demonstrated of the use, at the platinum group metals
precipitation step, of a precipitator that extracts all platinum group
metals simultaneously. Various precipitant metals were analysed from the
ecological and economic standpoint, and the optimal precipitant
(aluminium) was selected. Mathematical models of all steps were created
and the main technological factors influencing the process efficiency
were revealed. Based on the experimental data and the created models, a
basic technology diagram is proposed.

Key words: platinum group metals, initial raw materials, ballast,
solubility, precipitation, metal-precipitator.

Iiii?oeaaa A.A. Oaoiieiaey ecaea/aiey iaoaeeia ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu ec
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaiia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.17.01 — oaoiieiaey iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa,
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaaony ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee e oaoiieiaee ooeeecaoeee
oeaaeeaathueo iann ec aoi?e/iiai nu?uey, niaea?aeauaai iaoaeeu
ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu. Auee i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aeaa naiua ?ani?ino?aiaiiua
a?oiiu aoi?e/iiai nu?uey: niaea?aeauay IIA a aeaea iaoaeeia e a?oiia,
niaea?aeauay ieaoeiieaeu a naycaiiii aeaea. I?iaaaeaiu ?aioaaii-oaciaua
enneaaeiaaiey aeey eco/aiey ninoaaa yoiai nu?uey. I?e eco/aiey ia?aie
a?oiiu aue eniieueciaai yeaeo?iiiue eii, aoi?ie — oeaaeeaathuea iannu.
Ia iniiaaiee auiieiaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee auei i?aaeeiaeaii i?iaaaeaiey
noaaeee iaiaauaiey enoiaeiiai nu?uey (i?ioeann oaeaeaiey aaeeanoa —
niaaeeiaiee, ia niaea?aeaueo ae?aaiaoaeeu). Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yoio
i?ioeann iaeaieaa ?acoiii i?iaiaeeoue oaie eeneioaie, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony a aeaeueiaeoai oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea. N oi/ee c?aiey
oi?iuaiey aeaeueiaeoae ooeeecaoeee iooiaeia auea aua?aia acioiay
eeneioa. Oaeaea auei onoaiiaeaii /oi eiioeaio?aoeey acioiie eeneiou ia
aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 40 % ianniauo, o.e. i?e aieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo
ia?acothony ieneaeu acioa, a noaiaiue iaiaauaiey nu?uey ia
oaaee/eaaaony. Eco/ai i?ioeann ?anoai?aiey ieaoeiieaeia nianueth
eeneio-?anoai?eoaeae (nieyiie e acioiie). A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeaii, /oi nei?inoue ?anoai?aiey Ca4PtO6 (iniiaiia
oeie/aneia niaaeeiaiea ieaoeiu a oeaaeeaathueo iannao) iaiiiai iaiueoa,
/ai nei?inoue ?anoai?aiey oeie/anee ia naycaiiuo ieaoeiieaeia.
Onoaiiaeaia i?eioeeieaeueiay ?acieoea aeeyiey eeneio-?anoai?eoaeae ia
oiae i?ioeanna. Oae, nieaeaiea yeaeaaeaioiiai ioiioaiey HCl:H2O (a
i?enoonoaee HNO3) ia i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio i?ae?auaieth i?ioeanna
?anoai?aiey IIA. A ioee/ea io nieyiie eeneiou, ionoonoaea acioiie
eeneiou a ?aaeoeeiiiie niane i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio i?ae?auaieth
oeie/aneiai i?ioeanna. N iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeee auei auyniaii
aeeyiea ia oiae i?ioeanna ?anoai?aiey IIA e eo niaaeeiaiee oaeeo
oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia eae: oaiia?aoo?a, a?aiy ?anoai?aiey,
eiioeaio?aoeee eeneio-?anoai?eoaeae, e eo niioiioaiea. Aeieacaia
oeaeaniia?aciinoue eniieueciaaiey ia noaaeee inaaeaeaiey IIA inaaeeoaey,
ecaeaeathuaai ana iaoaeeu ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu iaeiia?aiaiii.
I?iaiaeece?iaaiu ?acee/iua iaoaeeu-inaaeeoaee — Fe, Cu, Zn, Al.
Iiaeia?ai iioeiaeueiue inaaeeoaeue (n oi/ee c?aiey yeieiaee e yeiiiieee)
a oaeaea, enoiaey ec eiee/anoaa neiaa inaaeaeathueony ieaoeiiauo
iaoaeeia ia a?aioea inaaeeoaey, i?eieiathuaai o/anoea a ?aaeoeee —
aethieiee. Onoaiiaeaia iioeiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a i?iaaaeaiey ?aaeoeee
inaaeaeaiey IIA ia iiaa?oiinoe aethieiey. Oaeaea a ?aaioa auee
i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey ieiuaaee iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeea-inaaeeoaey
ia i?ioeann inaaeaeaiey ieaoeiieaeia. Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua iieacaee, /oi
eiee/anoai neiaa iaoaeea-inaaeeoaey, i?eieiathueo o/anoea a ?aaeoeee,
aeey aethieiey a 2 — 3 ?aca i?aauoatho yoo aaee/eio aeey oeeiea, /oi aua
?ac iiaeoaa?aeaeaao i?aaeeueiinoue auai?a aethieiey a ea/anoaa
iaoaeea-inaaeeoaey. Oaeaea auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia?aeeaeueii n
inaaeaeaieai ieaoeiiauo iaoaeeia ia iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeea-inaaeeoaey
iaeiia?aiaiii i?ienoiaeeo iai?iaeoeoeaiia ?anoai?aiea aethieiey.
Yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeia?aiu oaeea oaoiieiae/aneea ia?aiao?u, i?e
eioi?uo ia?yaeo n inaaeaeaieai IIA iaeaieaa iieii ?anoai?yaony e
iaoaee-inaaeeoaeue ia yoie noaaeee. Iineaaeiae noaaeeae i?aaeeiaeaiiie
aeaeie oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu yaeyaony auuaea/eaaiea iaoaeea-inaaeeoaey.
Auyniaii, /oi oaiia?aoo?a i?iaaaeaiey i?ioeanna auuaea/eaaiey
iaoaeea-inaaeeoaey i?aeoe/anee ia aeeyao ia aai oiae. A ?acoeueoaoa
noaoenoe/aneie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo nicaeaiu iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee anao
noaaeee oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, auyaeaiu iniiaiua oaoiieiae/aneea
oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna. I?aaeeiaeaia
i?eioeeieaeueiay oaoiieiae/aneay noaia ia iniiaa yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
aeaiiuo e nicaeaiiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoaeeu ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu, enoiaeiia nu?uea, aaeeano,
?anoai?aiea, inaaeaeaiea, iaoaee-inaaeeoaeue.

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