2

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee

Oeyi Iaae?y ?aai?aia

OAeE 378. 018.4. 002.5

Oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai

iaa/aiiy o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
?inoeooo? ?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

Aieei Aeea Ieeeo?aia,

Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo

?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeieo?aiei Oaia?a Ieaenaiae??aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, i?ioani? eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii?

iaaeaaia?ee ? i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iaeueiaaiee TH??e ?aaiiae/,

I?aceae?y AII Oe?a?ie, a/aiee nae?aoa? a?aeae?eaiiy aeeaeaeoeee,
iaoiaeeee oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a ina?o?.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 23 “ /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 15 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.04 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith:

310168, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith:

310168, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 “ o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Cieiooo?ia N.O.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? i?iaeaie. Noni?euenoai e
ina?oa a Oe?a?i? ia ?oaaae? aeaio oeny/ie?oue noaaeyoue ye?nii iia?
aeiiae aei i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, ?o iino?eiiai
i?ioan?iiaeueiiai c?inoaiiy, iiceoeaieo iniaeno?nieo naiici?i. O ca’yceo
c oeei aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ?icaoaeiae i?ioeano iaa/aiiy a caeeaaeao
aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ye /eiieea ?icaeoeo e i?ia?ano,
ci???ioiaaiiai ia iniaeno?noue nooaeaioa, eiai ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue,
ciaiiy ? naiina?aeii?noue. Ioaea, noa? iaaaeueiith iio?aaa no/anieo
oaoiieia?e oi?ioaaiiy o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie? a/eoae?a iiai?
aaia?aoe??, eiiiaoaioieo niaoe?ae?no?a, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ci?ie o iao?,
ci?no?, iaoiaeao ? oi?iao i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy, a oaeiae eiai eiio?ie?
e ?acoeueoaoeaiino?.

No/aniee caeeaae aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe — oea ia oeiea ieneaiiy ?
oai?aiiy iniaenoino?, a eeoa — caiai’yoiaoaaiiy e a?aeoai?aiiy
?ioi?iaoe??, eiai oaoiieia?y ia ?aae?co? naiai eiino?oeoeaii-oai?/iai
iioaioe?aeo, ia caaacia/o? i?ioan?eii-iniaeno?niiai ni?yioaaiiy
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui i?e o?aaeeoe?ei?e oaoiieia??
iaa/aiiy 56,2% nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a (IV-V eo?n?a) iaee ??aaiue
ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie eeoa ia ioe?ieo “caaeia?eueii”, 62,7% iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaa iecueeee ??aaiue naiino?eiino?. Aeeeaaea/
caeeoa?oueny iniiaiei aeaea?aeii ?ioi?iaoe??, ia?niiae?caoe?y
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ia cae?enith?oueny,
nooaeaio aenooia? ia’?eoii iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Noia?a/iino? o
o?aaeeoe?ei?e nenoai? ina?oe iiaeeaeththoueny:

— i?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie ci?iaie, ui a?aeaoeeny a noni?eueiiio
aeeoo? aea?aeaae, ? eiina?aaoeaiei ca nai?th nooi?noth i?ioeanii
iaa/aiiy o aeu?e oeie?;

— i?ae ?iiiaaoe?eiei ci?noii ? o?aaeeoe?eiith iaoiaeeeith aeeeaaeaiiy
eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ? niaoe?aeueieo iaa/aeueieo
aeenoeeie?i o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe;

— i?ae cia/iei i?aaaethaaiiyi o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? aeui?
iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee o?iioaeueii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a ? aino?ith
iaiao?aei?noth ?o naiino?eii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa a?oiiai? iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?;

— i?ae nioe?ioeaio?e/iei i?aeoiaeii, ui oi?io? aaoi?eoa?io
noa’?eo-ia’?eoio aca?iiae?th ? iaaeioeaio?e/iei, noa’?eo-noa’?eoiei,
i?ioan?eii-iniaeno?niei iaa/aiiyi o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii?
ina?oe. Aeacai? oe? oa ?io? noia?a/iino? na?ae/aoue i?i aino?o
iaiao?aei?noue ia?niiae?ciaaieo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy o aeu?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?.

Iiiyooy “oaoiieia?y” a no/aniiio iaaeaaia?/iiio o?aeooaaii? — oea
nenoaia ciaiue, ui ia? iaaio iaoeiao aaco, yea ioiieth? anth noeoii?noue
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c oe?eyie, ci?noii ? i?aai?caoe??th iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano.

O eiioaeno? inoaii?o aeinyaiaiue aeeaeaeoeee (A.I.Aeaenthe,
A.I.Aaniaeueei, A.I.Aieei, A.E.Ao?ye, I.N.Aioaa?a, A.N.Aeaithoaieia,
?.N.Aeieo?ee, A.?.?aaeieeiia, I.A.?aaeieeiia, O.N.Iaca?iaa, I.A.Eea??i,
?.ss.Ea?ia?, A.?.Eiciaa, A.I.Iiiaoia, A.O.Iaeaia?/oe, ?.O.I?ieiiaiei,
I.A.*ioaiia oa ?i.) oaoiieia?y iaa/aiiy o oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? — oea
aaeocue ciaiue, coiiaeaia iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie, a oaeiae
caeiiii??iinoyie iiaoaeiae, ?aae?caoe?? e ioe?iee anueiai iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano; o aoae/iio cia/aii? — oea aeeaeaeoe/ii i?aai?ciaai? niiniae
canai?iiy eiie?aoiiai iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo a ?aieao iaaiiai i?aaeiaoo,
oaie /e ieoaiiy.

I?ae oaoiieia??th iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy ?icoi??ii oaeo
i?aai?caoe?th iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, yea aaco?oueny ia
ia?niiae?caoe??, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa ?ioaa?aoe?? ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo, caaacia/o? noeioethth/o, ?icaeaath/o e iniaeno?nii-oai?/o
ooieoe?? iaea?aeaieo ciaiue, ?o naiino?ei?noue ? iia?euei?noue,
iiaeeea?noue aeai?o o i?ioean? i?ioan?iiaeueii-iniaeno?niiai iaa/aiiy,
eiio?ieth, naii?ice?eooy ? naiinoaiiaeaiiy iaaeaaiaa. Ana oea neoaeeoue
iniiaith i?aeaioiaee eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa.

A inoaii? ?iee ie?ai? aniaeoe oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy aeoeaii aeine?aeaeoaaeeny aaaaoueia a/aieie, cie?aia, —
i?iaeaio iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ye aeueoa?iaoeao
eeanii-o?i/i?e nenoai? ?icaeyaeaee I.?.Eaeoa?i, A.A.Iaeueiee,
I.?.N?ei?nueeee, ?.A.Neia?i, A.A.Oo?iai, I.A.*ioaiia oa ?io?; iiaeoeueia
iaa/aiiy o aeu?e oeie?, nenoaio ouethoi?nueeeo caiyoue ?ic?iaeyee
A.I.Aeaenthe, A.I.Aiae?iiia, TH.E.Aaeaoia, A.A.Aaiii, A.I.Aa???a,
A.A.Caei?the?ia, I.THoeya?/aia oa ?io?; ?aeoeiaiaee eiio?ieue, eiai
aoaie oa eiiiuethoa?ii-?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy aea/aee A.I.Aiae?ouoe,
TH.A.Aiiaea?/oe, I.A.Aiaeieacnueea, A.A.Eicaeia oa ?io?;
?aeoeia-eiio?ieue iaa/aeueieo aeinyaiaiue o/i?a caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee oa oeyoe eiai ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? cae?enithaaee A.A.Ai?ae??iei,
A.E.I?eiea?iei, Ae.Oaoa??ia-Aeio?ia oa ?io?. Aeaye? ieoaiiy
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy aena?oethaaeeny a eaiaeeaeaonueeeo
aeena?oaoe?yo ?aaeieeiia I.A. Iia? iaaeaaia?/i? oaoiieia?? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a: Aaoi?ao. aeen… eaiae. iaae. iaoe: 13.00.01/
Oa?e?anueeee aea?ae. iaae. oi?a-o. -O., 1997. -24 n.; Aaaei ?.?.
Iiaeoeueia i?aai?caoe?y i?ioeano iaa/aiiy a caaaeueiiina?oi?e na?aaei?e
oeie?: Aaoi?ao. aeen… eaiae.iaae.iaoe: 13.00.01/ Oa?e?anueeee aea?ae.
iaae. oi?a-o. -O., 1997. -16 n.; Neaei?ei I.TH. ?aeoeiaiaa nenoaia
iaaeaaia?/iiai eiio?ieth iaa/aeueieo aeinyaiaiue nooaeaio?a ?inoeoooo
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e: Aaoi?ao.aeen…eaiae.iaae.iaoe: 13.00.01.
/?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?ae.iaae.?i-o. -?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997. -24 n.;
A?aithe E.I. I?aai?caoe?y iiaeoeueiiai iaa/aiiy a/eoae?a o nenoai?
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??: Aeen… eaiae. iaae. iaoe: 13.00.01. -E,
1996. -187 n.; Noaoaiaiei I.A. Oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth nooaeaio?a a oiiaao iiaeoeueiiai iaa/aiiy (ia iaoa??ae?
i?aeaioiaee io?oea??a caiano a?enuee ca’yceo): Aeen… eaiae.iaae.iaoe:
13.00.01. -Aeiiaoeuee. -1995. -167 n.. Oae, I.A.?aaeieeiia oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oiooaaa aaoi?nueeo ?iiiaaoe?eio oaoiieia?th iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a ia iniia? aeeaeaeoe/iiai i?eioeeio aeaeoeaiino?; ?.?.Aaaei
?icaeyioa aeeaeaeoe/iee iiaeoeue ye oi?io nenoaiii? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?; I.TH.Neaei?ei
aeine?aeea iniaeeaino? ci?noo oa no?oeoo?e ?aeoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a; E.I.A?aithe ?ic?iaeea iiaeoeueio
iiaoaeiao i?ioeano iaa/aiiy a nenoai? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe;
I.A.Noaoaiaiei oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaa iiaeeeaino? aeoea?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a a oiiaao iiaeoeueiiai
iaa/aiiy. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui o aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a ia??aeei
i?iyaey?oueny aeania o?aeoiaea ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?? aac
ia?aeiieeai? iaoeiai? a?aoiaioaoe??.

Inoaii?i /anii c’yaeeeny aeieoi?nuee? aeena?oaoe??, i?enay/ai? ie?aiei
ieoaiiyi iaoiaeeee caaacia/aiiy oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy ?iiaieoeia E.I. Nenoaia iiaoaiiiai eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?aa?neoao?a ca
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaith oaoiieia??th iaa/aiiy c aeenoeeie?i
i?e?iaeie/iai oeeeeo: Aaoi?ao. aeen… ae-?a iaae. iaoe: 13.00.04 /?i-o
iaae. ? ineoie. i?io. ina?oe AIIO. -E., 1998. -39 n.; Aiaaeaiiaa ?.I.
I?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a ia iniia?
canoinoaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e: Aaoi?ao. aeen… ae-?a iaae.
iaoe: 13.00.04 / ?i-o iaae. ? ineoie. i?io. ina?oe AIIO. -E., 1998. — 33
n.. Oae, E.I.?iiaieoeia aeine?aeeea eiiiiiaioiee neeaae ? iaoiaeeeo
iiaoaiiiai eiio?ieth a iaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino?. ?.I.Aiaaeaiiaa
?ic?iaeea nenoaio iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy ia aac? iiaeoeueiiai
aeeaeaeoe/iiai i?ioeano, i?aeo?eiaiiai eiii’thoa?ieie caniaaie. sse
na?ae/eoue aiae?c, oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o
caeeaae? aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ia aoea i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai
oe?e?niiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaiaa?oioiaaiith caeeoa?oueny ??
aeeaeaeoe/ia iiaeaeue o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, iiiyooy,
nooi?noue ? no?oeoo?a oe??? oaoiieia??, iaoai?cie ? oiiae ?? oni?oiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ui aaeueio? i?aeaioiaeo eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa.

Ioaea, iaaeinoaoiy iaoeiaa ?ic?iaeai?noue i?iaeaie ? nioe?aeuei? iio?aae
i?aeoeee i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a iiai? aaia?aoe?? caaacia/eee
aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy: “Oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy
o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?”.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean iaa/aiiy o caeeaae? aeui?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o
aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?ic?iaeoe, iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aeeaeaeoe/io oaoiieia?th
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy, aeyaeoe iniiai? oiiae ?? caaacia/aiiy
o caeeaae? aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o
aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?, ui aaco?oueny ia aaoi?nuee?e iiaeae?, a
iniiao yei? iieeaaeaii i?eioeei i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? iaeaooiueiai
niaoe?ae?noa, iiaea aooe caaacia/aia ca oaeeo oiia: o?aooaaiiy oa
iaoeiai? nenoaiaoecaoe?? i?ia?aeieo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy; oai?aoe/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy eiai aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae? o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?;
aeinyaiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy o aeuiio
caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe; aa?iii?caoe?? naiino?eii?
?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a;
aoiai?caoe?? aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o i?ioean?
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Cae?enieoe oai?aoe/iee aiae?c a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaai-a?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy o aeu?e oeie?;

2. Iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeaeue oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe;

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe eiino?oeoe?th iiaeae? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy, aecia/eaoe ?? ia’?eoeai? ye?ni?
iieacieee;

4. Aeyaeoe iniiai? oiiae caaacia/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii?
ina?oe oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy;

5. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey i?aoe?aiee?a aeui? oeiee
uiaei ?aae?caoe?? oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o
i?aeoeoe? aeuiai caeeaaeo iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

Iaoiaeieia?/io oa oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue: oai??y
iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy; eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy i?i ?aei?noue oe?eiai oa
eiai /anoeie, i?i nooi?noue iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ye
aca?iiae?? ?? noa’?eo?a, eiio?ieue ye i?ia?aeiee eiiiiiaio iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano; aca?iicoiiaeai?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu ? i?ioean?a,
aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae ?icaeoeii iniaenoino? ? i?aai?caoe??th ??
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?; aeeaeaeoe/i? i?eioeeie aeoeaiino?,
naiino?eiino?, aeaeoeaiino?, iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino? noa’?eo?a iaa/aiiy.
O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aoiaoaaeenue ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo noiniaii: ?iiiaaoe?eieo ina?oi?o oaoiieia?e (A.I.Aaniaeueei,
A.?.?aaeieeiia, I.A.?aaeieeiia, ?.O.I?iei-iaiei, A.I.Aaeoceinueeee oa
?i.), iiaeoeueiiai iaa/aiiy (A.I.Aeaenthe, A.?. Eiciaa, A.A.Oo?iai,
I.THoeya?/aia oa ?i.); ?aeoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth ciaiue (A.A.Eicaeia,
I.Ae.Ea?aiociaa, A.A.Naaa?aea, I.A.Oeieiaoeue, I.?.Eocueiaiei oa ?i.);
noa’?eo-noa’?eoieo a?aeiinei o/aniee?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
(A.I.Aieei, I.ss.Naa/aiei oa ?i.)

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: oai?aoe/i? — nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co
iaoeiai? a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? iaaeaaia?/ii?, o?einionueei?,
ineoieia?/ii? oa iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e; ?noi?eei-eia?/iiai
aiae?co ? iaoeiaiai ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo aeeeaaea/?a iaaeaaia?/ieo
aoc?a; aii??e/i? — oe?eani?yiiaaiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaa/aeueiith
aca?iiae??th nooaeaio?a ? aeeeaaea/?a, iieooaaiiy (oniiai ?
ienueiiaiai); ii??aiyeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee, aenia?oieo ioe?iie, aiae?co
ienueiiaeo ?ia?o ? a?aeiia?aeae nooaeaio?a o i?ioean? i?ii?aeiiai oa
i?aenoieiaiai eiio?ieth; nioe?ieia?/i? — ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
aiae?co ?ioa?aeoe??; iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo, ye?niiai ?
e?euee?niiai aiae?co eiai ?acoeueoao?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiith ?iaioith aoei ioiieaii a?ey 1000 nooaeaio?a ? 86
aeeeaaea/?a o?eieia?/iiai, i?e?iaeie/iai oa
iaaeaaia?/ii-?iaeono??aeueiiai oaeoeueoao?a Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea, a oaeiae iiiaae 500
nooaeaio?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. A?aoiaaii aeaniee 9-??/iee aeina?ae
aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino? o aeu?e oeie? ca iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaith
oaoiieia??th iaa/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oiooaaii? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.
Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iiaee aeeaeaeoe/iee i?eioeei — i?ioan?eii?
eiiiaoaioiino? niaoe?ae?noa ? eiai cia/aiiy a oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy. Aeyaeaii iniiai? oiiae caaacia/aiiy
oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy a ina?oiueiio i?ioean? aeui?
iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeae?
oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy; oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?
iiiyooy, nooiino? oa no?oeoo?e, iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a ? oiia oni?oiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy
(caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy o aeu?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?; aa?iii?caoe?y naiino?eii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?,
a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a; aoiai?caoe?y aca?iiae??
aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/-ieo iaoa??ae?a uiaei i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?: noai?aii
“Iieiaeaiiy i?i oaoiieia?th iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy oa
aecia/aiiy ?aeoeiao nooaeaio?a”, ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy 7 iiaeoe?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy o?i?? ia 4-5 eo?nao
iaaeaoc?a, aeaeaii iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee “Oaoiieia?y
iiaeoeueii-?aeoei-aiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?”, aea
?ice?eoi iaoo, ci?no, i?aai?caoe?th, oi?ie ? iaoiaee, iniaeeaino?
iaa/aeueii? aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a, iaa?oioiaaii oiiae
oni?oiiai aeei?enoaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e noai?aii?
iiaeo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai, i?ae?o/iee?a ? iin?aiee?a, a oaeiae o
i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy aoc?anueeeo eo?n?a iaaeaaia?ee,
ineoieia??, oe?a?inueei? iiae, iaoaiaoeee, o?ceee, o?i??, iaienaiiy
eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? o aecia/aii? ia’?eoeaieo ye?nieo
iieaciee?a aaoi?nueei? iiaeae? oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy, a ?ic?iaoe? oa iaa?oiooaaii? i?eioeeio aeeaeaeoeee aeui? oeiee
— i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa
(i?ioan?eii-iniaeno?nia ni?yiiaai?noue, a?oioiai?noue ? iia?euei?noue
ciaiue, a?aeiia?aei?noue oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue ?
iaae/ie, iaieiae?iiy aa??aoeaieie oaoiieia?yie iaa/aiiy, iniaeno?nia
naiiaecia/aiiy ? naiioai?aiiy a oiiaao noa’?eo-noa’?eoii? aca?iiae??,
iioei?ci o ?iaio? c ae?oueie, ethaia aei i?ioan??, iaaeaaia?/ia
oai?/?noue, a?aea?? iaea?eueo iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?eueieo cania?a
iaa/aiiy, iayai?noue i?ciaaaeueieo iioea?a, ?ioa?an?a ? iio?aa iino?eii?
naiiina?oe).

A??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo ocaaaeueiaiue, aeniiae?a, ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth
aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue iaoeiaiai iiooeo, a?aeiia?aei?noth aeei?enoaieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iao?, i?aaeiaoo oa caaaeaiiyi iaoeiai? ?iaioe,
o?eaaeei iaaeaaia?/iei aenia?eiaioii (1991-1998 ?.?.), ii?aeiaiiyi
ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, aenieith
?acoeueoaoeai?noth i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a caniaaie oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeyaeaieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oiiaao.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. Aaoi?nueea oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy (ia i?eeeaae?
aeeeaaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy eo?no o?i??) oa iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? canaaee
eiino?othaaiiy ?? iiaeae? o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

2. Aeyaeai? e oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? oiiae caaacia/aiiy oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe
(a?aeiia?ae-i?noue ci?noo e iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy; aa?iii?caoe?y
naiino?eii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a; aoiai?caoe?y aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a).

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeeny
o ia-a/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea oa Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaii-aa. Caaaeaiiy, ci?no oa
iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?
iaaeaaia?ee oa o?i?? Iieoaanueeiai iaae?inoeoooo, ia nai?ia?ao
iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, can?aeaiiyo iaoiaeia’?aeiaiue o/eoae?a ?
i?aenoieiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, oeyoii
ioae?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeue, aenooi?a ?c
aeiiia?aeyie oa iaoeiaeie iia?aeiieaiiyie ia i?aeia?iaeieo,
anaoe?a?inueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“Iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii? ?iaioe o/i?a a oiiaao oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy” (Iieoaaa, 1998), “Iieiaeaiiy i?i
oaoiieia?th iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy oa aecia/aiiy ?aeoeiao
nooaeaioa” (Iieoaaa, 1998), “Oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy
o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?” (??aia, 1997), “Aeei?enoaiiy
aei/ii-iiaeoeueii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy a oeieao iiaiai oeio” (Iieoaaa,
1996), “?ioaa?aoe?y ci?noo i?e?iaeie/iiaoeiai? ina?oe” (Ee?a, 1996),
“Iaeei c i?aeoiae?a aei ?ai?aai?caoe?? oe?eueiiai eo?no o?i??” (Iieoaaa,
1996).

Iniiaiee ci?no ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeai? a 9 ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a (3 iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iin?aieeao, 4 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao, 2 iaoa??aeao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e), c ieo 3 — o
oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo (247) aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?
3 aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 165 noi??ieao ?
i?noeoue 20 oaaeeoeue, 7 ae?aa?ai, 4 noaie, 1 a?ao?e.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/ai? ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoa, a?iioaca ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoa iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
iaaiaeyoueny a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iniiaieo ?aeae
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iiiyooy, nooi?noue oa no?oeoo?a oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeuiio iaaeaaia?/iiio caeeaae?
ina?oe” cae?eniaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie oa
?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? ci?noo e i?ioeano ina?oe a no/ani?e aeu?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?, iaa?oioiaaii iiiyooy, nooi?noue ? no?oeoo?o
cai?iiiiiaaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia??, ?? i?ioan?iiaeueii-iniaeno?nio
ni?yiiaai?noue, noeioethth/o e ?icaeaath/o ooieoe?? oa i???ioaoe?th ia
i?ioan?eio eiiiaoaioi?noue iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa, ocaaaeueiaii
a?aeii? e ?ic?iaeaii aeaniee i?aeo?ae aei aeeaeaeoe/iiai eiino?othaaiiy
iiaeae? oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy.

Na?aae aeciaieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e (TH.E.Aaaainueeiai,
A.A.Aeaaeaeiaa, I.E.Aeonaaeoeueeiai, E.A.Caieiaa, I.A.Caoa?aiea,
A.O.Oaoaeiaa) iniaeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy. Aiae?c iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeaea?ae
(A.I.Aeaenthe, A.A.Oo?iai, I.A.*ioaiia, I.THoeya?/aia) aeicaiey?
aeae?eeoe /ioe?e i?aeoiaee aei noai?aiiy iiaeoeueii? iiaeae? caeaaeii
a?ae aaia?ao?? oa ci?noiaii-no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae
?iiiaaoe?ii-ina?oiueiai aeina?aeo: aia?eeainueeee, i?iaoeueeee,
?in?enueeee oa oe?a?inueeee. A aia?eeainueeiio aeina?ae? iiaeoeue —
caaa?oaia 15- aai 20-oaeeeiia iaa/aeueia caiyooy, iaiiaiaia a?aeiia?aeii
oe?e?niei aeeaeaeoe/iei ci?noii, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?aai?caoe?eiith
??ciiiai?oi?noth. O i?aeoeoe? i?iaoeueei? ina?oiuei? nenoaie iiaeoeue —
oea i?ia?aiii-ci?noiaia iaeeieoey a?aeiinii caaa?oaiiai oeeeeo iaa/aiiy,
ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeeaeaeoe/iith aeaaaeai?noth oe?eae, oi?i, iaoiae?a
? cania?a ?iaioe a/eoaey c o/iyie. O aeina?ae? ?in?enueeiai iiaaoi?noaa
(?.A.Neia?i) i?eioeei iiaeoeueiino? ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? no?oeoo?ii-oi?aae?inueei?
iiaeae? — ia’?aeiaiiy oe?eueieo iiaeoe?a (IOI). O aeina?ae? oe?a?inueeeo
o/aieo (A.I.Aeaenthe, I.A.?aaeieeiia, A.A.Iaeueiee, I.?.Eaeoa?i oa ?io?)
iiaeoeueia iaa/aiiy — oea oe?e?nia nenoaia, ui ?ioaa?o? aeeaeaeoe/i?
caniae, iaiao?aei? aeey ae??oaiiy iniiaieo oe?eae ina?oe.

Iaie ca iniiao aoei acyoa iaea?eueo aaeeaaia, ?ioaa?aoeaia iiiyooy
iiaeoey (A.I.Aeaenthe, ?.?.Aaaei, A.I.Aieei, Aeae.?anae,
?.O.I?ieiiaiei). Iiaeoeue — oea eiioeaiooaeueia, ci?noiaii,
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii ? nieneiai-eia?/ii caaa?oaia iaeeieoey iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo, yea a?aeiia?aea? eiie?aoi?e aeeaeaeoe/i?e iao? e
?ioaa?o?oueny a oe?ea. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, iiaeoeueia iaa/aiiy a
aaoi?nuee?e oaoiieia?? ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue iiaoaiiiai aea/aiiy
iaa/aeueii? aeenoeeie?ie ia o?ueio ??aiyo neeaaeiino? oeyoii aaaaeaiiy
aaciaiai ? aa??aoeaiiai eiiiiiaio?a o iiaeoeueiee ci?no oa iayaiino?
aeaeoeaieo aeueoa?iaoeaieo iiaeoe?a, aea??, ui caaacia/o? iia?euei?noue
ciaiue, naiino?eiee ? oai?/ee oa?aeoa? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
i?ioan?iiaeueii-iniaeno?nio ina?oo ? ni?ey? i?aeaioiaoe? eiiiaoaioiiai
niaoe?ae?noa. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui iiaeoeue oaeiae iana e
oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe?? ? eiai ci?no ia?aaeaa/a? oe?eueiao i?ia?aio ae?e
oa caaaeueiee eiio?ieue i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ana ae a?aenooi?noue
ia eiaeiiio aoai? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ioe?iee ? eiie?aoiiai
ia?niiae?ciaaiiai eiio?ieth ciainiaeth? iiaeoeueia iaa/aiiy, cieaeo?
eiai iniaeno?nio i???ioaoe?th, aaaea aei ao?aoe cai?ioiiai ca’yceo i?ae
noa’?eoaie ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? aca?iiae??. Oea, ia?aaeon?i, niiioeaei ian
caa?iooeny o i?ioean? iiaeoeueiiai iaa/aiiy aei ?aeoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth
ciaiue.

I?eeiath/e iiiyooy “?aeoeia” ye ioe?ieo, ?aia, eean, ?ic?yae (a?ae “to
rate” — ioe?ithaaoe), i?e eiino?othaaii? iiaeae? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao ioe?ithaaeany ia
?ai?iaeoeoeaia ae?yeuei?noue, a oai?/ee iiooe iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey,
i?ioean eiai naii?ice?eooy, naiii?ciaiiy, naiiaecia/aiiy e
iniaeno?nii-i?ioan?eiiai naiinoaiiaeaiiy ye eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa.

Aiae?c canoinoaaiiy nenoaie ?aeoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? o a?o/eciyiiio aeina?ae?, aeina?ae? NOA oa ?ioeo e?a?i
aeicaieea aeyaeoe i?eiaeii? /ioe?e ?o iiaeae?. Ia?oa — aeey i?ae?aooieo
?aeoeiao ca iniiao aa?ooueny uioeaeiaa? cae?ee. ?acoeueoaoe cae?e?a
noiothoueny a iaa/aeueiee ?aeoeia nooaeaioa. Ae?oaa — aeey ioe?iee
oni?oiino? nooaeaio?a aeei?enoiao?oueny nenoaia cae?eiaeo aiaeei
(cae?eiaeo iaeeieoeue). Aeey ian iacaai? iiaeae? iani?eeiyoeea?, oae ye
ia iia’ycai? c iiaeoeueiith iiaoaeiaith ci?noo iaa/aiiy. O?aoy — i?ney
aea/aiiy eiaeiiai iiaeoey i?iaiaeeoueny, ye i?aaeei, ienueiiaa
?aeoeiaiaa eiio?ieueia ?iaioa. Noia iaea?aeaieo aae?a ca eiio?ieuei?
?iaioe neeaaea? ?aeoeiaiao ioe?ieo nooaeaioa. Oaea nenoaia eiio?ieth
iaaeinoaoiuei aeoea?co? iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaioa i?ioyaii
aea/aiiy iiaeoey, ia aeicaiey? noeioethaaoe i?ioean eiai
iniaeno?nii-i?ioan?eiiai naiinoaiiaeaiiy. *aoaa?oa iiaeaeue iieyaa? a
oiio, ui an? ?acoeueoaoe ia aoaiao iioi/iiai, oaiaoe/iiai, i?aenoieiaiai
eiio?ieth ciaiue oa oi?iue ioe?iththoueny a aaeao oa noiothoueny a?ae
aoaio aei aoaio. Oaeei /eiii oi?io?oueny ?aeoeia nooaeaioa.

Ca iniiao aoa ocyoee /aoaa?oee oei iiaeae? ?aeoeiaiai? nenoaie
eiio?ieth, yeee iaie nooo?ai ooi/iaii ? aeiiiaiaii /?oeei aecia/aiiyi
??ciiiai?oiiai niaeo?o aeae?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, aoaeeoi?ieie,
iicaaoaeeoi?ieie iaa/aeueieie ? iaoeiaeie i?ioan?iiaeueii-iniaeno?nieie
ouethoi?nueeeie caiyooyie, iaia’yceiaeie oai?/eie ?ioaa?iaaieie
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caaaeaiiyie, ui aeaoa?i?ioaaeeny aoaeiiiith
aaeueiith ioe?ieith a iaiaiaaeai?e oeae?. E??i oiai, aeoeai?noue,
naiino?ei?noue, iia?euei?noue, oai?/?noue oa ?i?oe?aoeaia
naii?aae?caoe?y noeioeththoueny i?eciaei oiiaeii, aaaaeaiei aeeeaaea/ai.

Ioaea, oai?aoe/i? canaaee aaoi?nueei? aa??aoeaii? iiaeae? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy aacothoueny ia iia?euei?e iiaeoeuei?e
iiaoaeia? ci?noo ina?oe, oai?/?e ia?niiae?ciaai?e naiino?ei?e
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a ye ??
noa’?eo?a, iiiaeaiiio ? caaaa/aiiio ?aeoeiaiaiio eiio?ie? ciaiue,
ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? oa ni?aoai?/ino? an?o o/aniee?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano.

Aiae?c iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae (A.E.Naeaaei, A.A.Ai?aeianueeee,
A.A.?caic/eeia), oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa aeicaieeee aeae?eeoe oae?
eeaneo?eaoe?ei? ye?ni? iieacieee aaoi?nueei? oaoiieia??: ca
o?einionueeith iniiaith — i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aeia; ca iai?yieii
iiaea?i?caoe?? — iaoa, ci?no, oi?ie, iaoiaee, eiio?ieue ?
?acoeueoaoeai?noue; ca oa?aeoa?ii ci?noo ? no?oeoo?e — aoiai?noe/ia; ca
eaoaai???th iaa/aiiy — ianiaa; ca i?aeoiaeii — iniaeno?nii-i???ioiaaia;
ca ??aiai canoinoaaiiy — caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ia; ca aeii?ioth/ei iaoiaeii
— ae?aeia?/ia, oai?/a; ca i?ia?aeieie i?aai?caoe?eieie oi?iaie —
?iaeea?aeoaeueia; ca oeiii oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth —
nenoaia eiinoeueoaio, oaoiieia, iaoeiaee ea??aiee; ca ?acoeueoaoeai?noth
— eiiiaoaioiee niaoe?ae?no.

Iaoa aenooia? iciiaith eiino?othaaiiy iiaeae? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy. Oiio iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue
i?eioeeie aeeaeaeoeee ye i?ia?aei? ii?iaoeai? iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, yeei
iiaeiia aooe iaa/aiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaoe, ui noaaeoue
noni?euenoai, ? aei eiie?aoieo oiia, o yeeo i?io?ea? oeae i?ioean
(I.I.Neaoe?i). Iiiyooy i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? ?icaeyaeaeiny a/aieie
(A.A.Aaeieueo, A.Eaiaeoa??, I.A.*ioaiia, Blank W.E., Britell G.K.) ye
aeiiaa ? ?acoeueoao i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?noa. Iaea?aeai?
aeine?aeieoeuee? aeai? aeicaieythoue iaa?oiooaaoe iiiyooy “i?ioan?eia
eiiiaoaioi?noue” ye i?eioeei iaa/aiiy aeui? oeiee. Eiai nooi?noue
iieyaa? ia eeoa a iayaiino? a?oioiaieo ciaiue, a e caeaoiino?
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey aaeaeaaoii aeeiioaaoe nai? i?ioan?ei? ooieoe??.
Ci?no oeueiai i?eioeeio aeeth/a?: ii-ia?oa, i?ioan?eii-iniaeno?nio
ni?yiiaai?noue ciaiue (ia?niiae?caoe?th iaa/aeueii? aca?iiae??,
naiii?ciaiiy ? naiiioe?ieo i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo cae?aiinoae
iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa, naii?ice?eooy oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo, iniaeno?nia
naiiaecia/aiiy ? naiioai?aiiy a oiiaao noa’?eo-noa’?eoii? aca?iiae??);
ii-ae?oaa, a?oioiai?noue ? iia?euei?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue
(iaieiae?iiy aa??aoeaieie oaoiieia?yie iaa/aiiy, iino?eia naiino?eia
iiiiaeaiiy, ?o iia?aoeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a eiie?aoieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
neooaoe?yo); ii-o?ao?, a?aeiia?aei?noue oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo
oi?iue ? iaae/ie; ii-/aoaa?oa, iioei?ci o ?iaio? c ae?oueie, ethaia aei
i?ioan??, iaaeaaia?/io oai?/?noue (a?aea?? iaea?eueo iaaeaaia?/ii
aeioe?eueieo cania?a iaa/aiiy, /?oeo i???ioaoe?th ia o?eueee a
o?aaeeoe?eieo oiiaao, a e caeaoi?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe ciaiiy aa??aoeaii,
iaea?eueo iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?eueii); ii-i’yoa, iayai?noue e?eoe/iiai
ieneaiiy (ia’?eoeaii? naiiioe?iee oaea aeinyaiooiai a oai??? ? i?aeoeoe?
iaa/aiiy, naiieiio?ieth i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, noeioe?a aei
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, iino?eii? naiiina?oe ? naii?icaeoeo, aea?? aeanieo
oeyo?a ? oaii?a canai?iiy ciaiue ia iniia? /iai caeeaaeathoueny iio?aae
iaia?a?aii? naiiina?oe a iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?).

Ioaea, eiino?othaaiiy iiaeae? oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy aeeth/aei: aecia/aiiy iniiaii? iaoe; i?iaeooaaiiy aa??aoeaiiai
ci?noo iaa/aiiy ? iiae?e eiai ia iiaeoe?; aea?? i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i oa
iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy, iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaeo aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
iaoe; i?aeaioiaeo iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th aeey cae?eniaiiy
iioeaaoe?eiiai eiiiiiaioo aeeaeaeoe/iiai i?ioeano; ?ic?iaeo cania?a
ia’?eoeaiiai iiaoaiiiai ?aeoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth oa aecia/aiiy aoaeiiii?
?aeoeiaiai? ioe?iee iaa/aeueieo aeinyaiaiue nooaeaioa; ai?iaaoe?th
i?iaeoo ia i?aeoeoe?, ia?aa??eo eiai caaa?oaiino? e ei?aeoe?th.

Ioaea, aaoi?nueeee aa??aio oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy
? i?ioan?eii-iniaeno?niei, ci???ioiaaiei ia i?aeaioiaeo eiiiaoaioiiai
niaoe?ae?noa. Ia?aaaae iaa?oioiaaii? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy iieyaathoue o
oiio, ui:

1) a ?? iniia? eaaeeoue ia?niiae?ciaaia oai?/a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueia
ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ui noeioeth? ?o
i?ioan?iiaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia e iniaeno?nia naiiaecia/aiiy, i?aeaeuo?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?acoeueoaoe iaa/aiiy, i?aeaioiaeo aei
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, noeioeth? i?ioean naiinoaiiaeaiiy
ianoaiaea?oiiai iaaeaaiaa-i?ioan?iiaea, eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa;

2) aiia ni?ey? nenoaiaoe/i?e ? i?iaeoeoeai?e i?aoe? nooaeaio?a aac
aoaeue-yeiai ciai?oiueiai niiioeaiiy, iioeae iaa/aiiy noathoue
aioo??oi?ie ?oo?eieie neeaie, ui oi?iothoue no?ee?
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei? iio?aae, onoaiiaee ia i?ia?aeio ae?yeuei?noue ia
aiinyoueny cciai? (oiaoi aeeeaaea/ai), a ? ia’?eoii aeai?o, ?acoeueoaoii
aeanii? ae?yeueiino?;

3) aieiaiei oe?ii?niei i???ioe?ii ?? noa? iniaeno?noue nooaeaioa, acyoa
a nai?io oe?e?niiio aei???, ui aeeth/a? a naaa ? ciaiiy, ? eoeueoo?o
ieneaiiy, ? ii?aeuei?noue, ? anoaoeeo ii/ooo?a;

4) aiia caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy oaeeo ?en iniaenoino? ye naiino?ei?noue,
aeoeai?noue, oai?/?noue, e?eoe/i?noue ieneaiiy, ui a e?ioeaaiio
?acoeueoao? aaaea aei iaea?aeaiiy eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa;

5) a?aeaoaa?oueny aoiai?caoe?y aca?iiae?? a nenoai? “aeeeaaea/ —
ae?aeia?/ia iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaa oaoiieia?y — nooaeaio”, ine?eueee
aeeeaaea/ ia?aoai?th?oueny a iaaeaaiaa-aeine?aeieea ? oaoiieiaa, a
nooaeaio noa? ?aaeueiei aeoeaiei o/anieeii i?ioeano iaa/aiiy, eiai
noa’?eoii;

6) noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey iaeneiaeueiiai ?ice?eooy oai?/iai
iioaioe?aeo nooaeaio?a oeyoii ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? iaa/aiiy,
aa?iii?caoe?? naiino?eii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii?
?iaioe nooaeaio?a, aeinyaiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ci?noo e iaoiaeeee
iaa/aiiy o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?, aoiai?caoe?? an?o eiiiiiaio?a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano;

7) o i?e caeeaaeaii iioaioe?aeuei? iiaeeeaino? noeioethaaiiy iiceoeaieo
naiici?i, e?eoe/ii? naiiioe?iee, naii?ice?eooy, naii?aae?caoe??,
naiinoaiiaeaiiy ? i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ? aeeeaaea/a caeeaaeo aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oiiae ?aae?caoe?? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?” ?ice?eoi
oa iaa?oioiaaii oae? iaeaaaeeea?o? oiiae: caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiino?
ci?noo e iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?; aa?iii?caoe??
naiino?eii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a; aoiai?caoe?? aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o i?ioean?
iiaeoeueiiai-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy.

Aaoi?nueeee aa??aio oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy
ia?aaeon?i ia?aaeaa/a? oe?e?ni?noue ? a?aeiia?aei?noue ?? eiiiiiaio?a,
cie?aia ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee. sseui iaoiaeeea — oea noeoii?noue
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a/eoaeaa? c i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano (A.I.Iiiaoia), oi oaoiieia?y ia’?aeio? iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue
nooaeaioa ? aeeeaaea/a. Ioaea, iaoiaeeea a aaoi?nueeiio aa??aio?
aenooia? neeaaeiaith oaoiieia??.

Ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe (1991-1992 i.?.)
i?iaiaeeee aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoo ca ia?oei aa??aioii oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy. Aanue eo?n iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy o?i??
iiae?eeee ia 6 iiaeoe?a (iiaeoeue aeeth/a? eaeoe?? oa
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/i? caiyooy), i?ney aea/aiiy eiaeiiai iiaeoey
nooaeaioe ienaee iiaeoeueio eiio?ieueio ?iaioo. Noia iaa?aieo aae?a ca
an? eiio?ieuei? ?iaioe (RE) ? noaiiaeea ?aeoeia nooaeaioa c aeenoeeie?ie
(Rae):

wmetafile8?
??]??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? AA???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy???b?? ???&?
?MathType???????uAy?????? Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue a?eueo
ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe ??aaiue yeino? ciaiue nooaeaio?a, aeaui noeioethaaa
?iaioo a naiano??, aea ia aeicaieya oi?ioaaoe a iaeaooi?o iaaeaaia?a
an?o iaiao?aeieo yeinoae iniaenoino?, ye? a aeicaieeee caaacia/eoe
i?ioan?eio eiiiaoaioi?noue.

Oiio, ia ianooiiiio aoai? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe (1993 -1998 ?.?.)
ci?ieee i?aeo?ae aei iiaeoeueiiai ci?noo ? aecia/aiiy ?aeoeiao
nooaeaioa, aeeth/eaoe a iiaeoeueio ?aeoeiaiao ioe?ieo aanue niaeo?
naiino?eii? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? i?ioyaii aea/aiiy
aeenoeeie?ie e aeiiiaieee ci?no iiaeoey aa??aoeaiei eiiiiiaioii oa
aeaeoeaieie iiaeoeyie, ui aeicaieeei i?aai?coaaoe
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a ia o?ueio
??aiyo neeaaeiino?: aaciaiio, na?aaeiueiio ? aenieiio. E??i oiai, aacia?
iiaeoe? aoei aeiiiaiaii ua iaeiei iiaeoeai, ci?noiaiee eiiiiiaio yeiai
noaiiaea ia?ae?e iaia’yceiaeo oai?/eo caaaeaiue, iaeia c yeeo nooaeaio
ia aeaeoeai?e iniia? iaea?aeoaaa ia ii/aoeo aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?ie ?
i?aoethaaa iaae iei i?ioyaii aea/aiiy anueiai iaa/aeueiiai eo?no. Oea
aeicaieeei aeyaeoe ??aaiue yeino? eiai ciaiue, ai?iiy canoiniaoaaoe ?o o
ianoaiaea?oieo neooaoe?yo, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee i?aeo?ae uiaei oaoiieia??
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, aeani? iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee oa ?ioaa?oaaoe
ciaiiy c iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?, iaoiaeeee
aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo (o?i??). Ca aaoi?nueeith oaoiieia??th
eiaeiee iiaeoeue aeeth/aa 2-3 eaeoe??, 2-3 eaai?aoi?ieo ? oai?/eo
ouethoi?nueeeo caiyoue, aeaeoeaio naiino?eio ?iaioo, ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
eiinoeueoaoe?? ? iiaeoeueio eiio?ieueio ?iaioo.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa iieacaea, ui ea?oaaoe i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth nooaeaio?a aeiiiiaaa? oaeiae ?aeoeiaiaa ioe?iea, yeo a
ca’yceo c oeei aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe ? ye eiiiiiaio iaoiaeeee, a ioaea
— ? oaoiieia??. ?aeoeiaiaa ioe?iea c aeenoeeie?ie neeaaea?oueny ?c noie
oaeeo aae?a: 1) ca eiaeia eaai?aoi?ia caiyooy (aen-i?an-eiio?ieue,
nai?ia?nueea, i?aeoe/ia oa eaai?aoi?ia /anoeia — Ri) oa i?eciaiai oiiaeo
(g) ; 2) ca ouethoi?nueea caiyooy (iaia’yceia? oa oai?/? caaaeaiiy —
Rm); 3) ca iiaeoeueio eiio?ieueio ?iaioo (Re); 4) ca oai?/a caaaeaiiy
nueiiiai iiaeoey (Roa):

wmetafile8? ??N???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?@

???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/4yyy?

??1/4?? ???&? ?MathType??`???u?th??????aea n — e?euee?noue aeae?a
eiio?ieth ia eaai?aoi?iiio caiyoo?;

j — e?euee?noue ouethoi?nueeeo caaaeaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, caaaa/aiee ci?no iio?aao? a?aeiia?aeii? iaoiaeeee. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ci?noo e iaoiaeeee aaoi?nueei? oaoiieia??,
ii-ia?oa, iinoaei ieoaiiy noai?aiiy iioeaaoe?eii? onoaiiaee nooaeaio?a
ia iaa/aiiy (ia?niaeoeaii-niiioeaeuei?, ?ioaeaeooaeueii-niiioeaeuei?,
aaciina?aaeiuei-niiioeaeuei? iioeae), ui caaacia/eei i?eeiyooy iiaeo
oe?eae iaa/aiiy e ona?aeiieaiiy ?o ye aeanieo. Ii-ae?oaa, ci?no iaa/aiiy
iaaoa ooiaeaiaioaeueiino? oa aeaeoeaiino? a iiaeoeuei?e no?oeoo??
iaoa??aeo. Ii-o?ao?, iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ia?aaoaeiaoaaany ia iniia?
naiino?eii? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ui ni?eyea
oi?ioaaiith ?icoiiai? aeoeaiino?, ?ioa?ano aei ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe?,
aeeeeeaea ?aae?noue oai?/ino?. Ii-/aoaa?oa, iineeueia naiino?eia i?aoey
aeicaieeea nooaeaioai aeyaeoe iaeneiaeuei? cae?aiino? o neooaoe??
“a?eueiiai aeai?o”, ia?aaeeoe ii/oooy caaeiaieaiiy i?e iiaeieaii?
o?oaeiiu?a o iaa/aii? oa canai?ii? iaae/ie ii?aeueii? iiaaae?iee.
Ii-i’yoa, e?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii noaei ia eeoa a?oioiaia iaieiae?iiy
ciaiiyie, ai?iiyie ? iaae/eaie, a e oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?aeieo yeinoae
iniaenoino?: naiino?eiino?, aeoeaiino?, ?i?oe?aoeaiino?, i?aaiaiiy aei
naii?ice?eooy oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo, iniaeno?niiai naiiaecia/aiiy ?
naiioai?aiiy, naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy e e?eoe/iiai ieneaiiy.

N

0,6 0,2 0,2

? A O

0,2 0,8 0,8 0,2 0,7 0,3

a1 i1 a2 i2 a3 i3

I?e iaa?oiooaaii? ianooiii? oiiae — aa?iii?caoe?y naiino?eii?
?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a — noaaeee
ca iaoo oi?ioaaiiy naiino?eiino? ye oeaio?aeueii? ?ene iniaenoino?
eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa, ui aeinyaa?oueny o i?ioean? naiino?eii?
?iaioe. O ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo,
ui aeey aeinyaiaiiy naiino?eiino? (N) iaiao?aeia iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy
??cieo oi?i naiino?eii? ?iaioe iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey: ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
(?), a?oiiaeo (A) ? o?iioaeueieo (O), ye? iiae?eythoueny ia aoaeeoi?i?
(a) oa iicaaoaeeoi?i? (i). Oeyoii aenia?oieo ioe?iie aoei anoaiiaeaii
cia/ou?noue eiaeiiai c aeaiaio?a o no?oeoo?? naiino?eii? ?iaioe:

Ia/eneaiiy iieacaee, ui cia/ou?noue ??cieo oi?i naiino?eii? ?iaioe aeey
aeinyaiaiiy e?ioeaai? iaoe (N) ??cia. Aa?iii?caoe?y, ye iaaeaaia?/ii
aeioe?eueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo oi?i naiino?eii? ?iaioe, aeiaaa?
iaea?eueoi? aaae iicaaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oi?ie ?iaioe
(0,80,6), ca iath — aoaeeoi?ii? a?oiiai? (0,80,2), aeae? — aoaeeoi?ii?
o?iioaeueii? (0,70,2) oa aoaeeoi?ii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? (0,20,6) oi?i
?iaioe. Ioaea, aeey aeinyaiaiiy aa?iii?? naiino?eii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?,
a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii? oi?i ?iaioe, eiino?othth/e oaoiieia?th
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy, iaea?eueoo oaaao i?eae?eyee
?iaeea?aeoaeueiei iicaaoaeeoi?iei oi?iai ?iaioe nooaeaio?a. O ca’yceo c
oeei aoei aianaii ci?ie a iaa/aeueio aca?iiae?th aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a o i?ioean?, ii-ia?oa, eaeoe?eii? ?iaioe (aeeeaaea/ aea?
ocaaaeueiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th c aoceiaeo ieoaiue eo?no ia i?iaeaiieo oa
onoaiia/eo eaeoe?yo, nooaeaio iiaea ei?enooaaoeny oaenoaie eaeoe?e, oiio
i?e i?ineooiaoaaii? iaoa??aeo a?i eiai ia caieno?, a o?eno? a eiiniaeo?
?acoeueoao aeaniiai i?ioeano ieneaiiy). Ii-ae?oaa, ia nai?ia?nueeiio
caiyoo? aeei?enoiaoaaee a iniiaiiio aeoeai? oi?ie e iaoiaee ?iaioe:
aeeaeaeoe/i? ae?eia?, neooaoeai? ? ?ieueia? ?a?e, aeeneon??, ?iaioo a
iaeeo a?oiao, noai?aiiy aaieo ?aeae, i?iaaaeaiiy aoeoe?iio ciaiue,
“iiceiaiai ooo?io” oiui. Nooaeaio aenooiaa noa’?eoii iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, a aeeeaaea/ — iaoeiaei eiinoeueoaioii. Oea i???iooaaei ia
ae?iaeaiiy o iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a oi?iiy iaa/aoeny, ocaaaeueithaaoe,
aiae?coaaoe, ona?aeiiethaaoe ciaiiy ? oai?/i canoiniaoaaoe ?o ia
i?aeoeoe?, e?eoe/ii noaaeoeny aei ?ioi?iaoe??, a?aeae?aoe iaea?eueo
iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?euei? iaoiaee oa iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie, noai?thaaei
oiiae aeey iaieiae?iiy nooaeaioaie iaoiaeeeith oi?ioaaiiy oai?/iai
ieneaiiy /a?ac aeanio iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue. Ii-o?ao?, ouethoi?nuee?
caiyooy aeiaaaee a?ae nooaeaioa canoinoaaiiy ciaiue o ianoaiaea?oieo
neooaoe?yo, ioaea caaacia/oaaee oai?/?noue ? iia?euei?noue ciaiue.
Ii-/aoaa?oa, aeaeoeai? iiaeoe? aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue iaeaooiueiio
a/eoaeaa? i?aeaeueoe na?e ?aeoeia, iiaeeaeoe ciaiiy c ieoaiue, ye?
iaea?eueoa oe?eaaeyoue, oiaoi ?icaeaaee i?aaiaiiy aei naiiina?oe,
e?eoe/iiai ieneaiiy ? naiioai?aiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, aa?iii?eia ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo oi?i naiino?eii? ?iaioe
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey caaacia/eei i?aeaioiaeo eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa,
yeee aieiae?? a?oioiaieie ? iia?eueieie ciaiiyie, caeaoiee aei
iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino?, i?aaia aei iaia?a?aii? naiiina?oe, iino?eiiai
naii?icaeoeo, e?eoe/iiai ieneaiiy .

Aeey caaacia/aiiy aoiai?caoe?? aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o
i?ioean? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy, caaaeaiiy iaaeaaiaa iieyaa? a
oiio, uia o eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo aea?aoe iaea?eueo aaeae? ??
aa??aioe: a) a?aooaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iiaeeeainoae nooaeaio?a ?
a?aee?eooy i?inoi?o aeey i?iyao ?o naiino?eiino? a iaa/aii?, a)
?aoe?iiaeueieo oi?i oi?aae?iiy ?o iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth, a)
aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaeo ?acoeueoao?a ca i?i?iaeueiee /an o
i?ioean? oai?aoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee ? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a; a) iino?eii? naiiina?oe ? naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo aoco. A iniia? iaa/aeueii?
aca?iiae?? eaaeaea ia?niiae?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Ia
eaeoe?yo, nai?ia?nueeeo, i?aeoe/ieo, eaai?aoi?ieo, ouethoi?nueeeo
caiyooyo, ?aeoeiaiaeo eiio?ieueieo ?iaioao, ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
eiinoeueoaoe?yo nooaeaio ? aeeeaaea/ ia’?aeiai? a?aee?eoei oai?/ei
ae?aeiaii, ?o aca?iia?aeiineie a?aeaoaaeeny ia ??ai? ni?aoai?/ino?.
Oeueiai aeiaaaea naia eia?ea iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano aaoi?nueei?
oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy. A?aeaoaaany ae?aeia-iiooe, o yeiio ni?eueii c
aeeeaaea/ai nooaeaio ciaoiaeea iaea?eueo iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?euei? oeyoe
?ica’yceo caaaeaiue o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei nai?o iniaeno?nieo
iiaeeeainoae ? oe?iiinoae. Ciaiiy ia?aoiaeeee o aioo??oi? ia?aeiiaiiy
iniaenoino?. Oeae noeeue aoaeoaaany ia iniia? caoiieaiino? aeeeaaea/ai ?
nooaeaioii ni?eueiith ae?yeuei?noth. Iaaeaaia i?e oeueiio aenooiaa o
?ie? ianoaaieea, oaoiieiaa, eiinoeueoaioa, aeine?aeieea. Aca?iiae?y
aeeeaaea/a ? nooaeaioa ni?eyea ni?a-inieneaiith, ni?a-ae?yeueiino?,
ni?a-ioe?ioe?, aeoea?coaaeany iiceoe?y nooaeaioa. Oea caaacia/eei
iniaeno?niee ??aaiue iaieiae?iiy iaaeaaia?/iith i?ioan??th. O oeueiio
aeiaaeeo iniaeno?nia ? i?ioan?eia aca?iii?iieeaee, o nooaeaioa
oi?ioaaany ?aeaaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee ia?ac aeaniiai “ss”: ?icoi?oe
aeeoeio, aieiae?oe no/anieie oaoiieia?yie iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, iino?eii
i?aeaeuoaaoe na?e i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue, iaa/aiiy iaae?aei a?eueoi?
iioeaaoe??, iineei ei?aeoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, iaeaooi?e o/eoaeue i?aoethaaa
o ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio oaii? e ca ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei ci?noii.

sse e?eoa??e aoiai?caoe?? aca?iiae?? iaie aeine?aeaeoaaeany
“eiioi?oi?noue” aeeeaaea/a ? nooaeaioa a o?aaeeoe?ei?e ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e oa
aaoi?nuee?e oaoiieia?yo iaa/aiiy. ?iaeaen “eiioi?oiino?” o ?aieao
o?aaeeoe?eii? oa aaoi?nueei? oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaea:
nooaeaio?a — 0,2 ? 0,72; aeeeaaea/?a — 0,15 ? 0,64. O oaeiio
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, aea aeeeaaea/ ? nooaeaioe ii/oaaee naaa
“eiioi?oii”, a?aeaoaaeiny oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oe?iiinoae
o/eoaey (aoiai?noe/ia ni?yiiaai?noue, i?ioan?eia eoeueoo?a, iino?ei?
naiici?ie), ui noeioethaaei oaeee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo nooaeaioa, ia yeiio
eiai i?ioan?ei? ae?? aeaoa?i?ioaaeeny ia o?eueee ciai?oi?ie oiiaaie, a
ia?aoai?thaaeeny a i?ia?aei?, iiina?aaeeiaoth/enue aioo??oi?ie:
na?oiaeyaeii, onoaiiaeaie, an?i oa?aeoa?ii iioeaaoe?eii? noa?e. Ca oaeeo
oiia ??cei c?inea aeoeai?noue oa ?i?oe?aoeai?noue nooaeaio?a, i?aaiaiiy
aei naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, naiino?ei?noue, oai?/?noue, iia?euei?noue
ciaiue, e?eoe/i?noue ieneaiiy. A i?ioean? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe ia
iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo e?eoa???a (oni?oi?noue, eiiiaoaioi?noue,
eiioi?oi?noue) oa ?o iieaciee?a, aeiaaaeaia aoaeoeai?noue aaoi?nueei?
oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o ii??aiyii? c
o?aaeeoe?eiith: 32 % nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi iieacaee
aeeaie? e i?oei? ciaiiy ia ??ai? ioe?iee “a?aei?iii” (o o?aaeeoe?ei?e
oaoiieia?? — 11,3%), 52% iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a i?eoaiaiiee aenieee ??aaiue
naiino?eiino? (o o?aaeeoe?ei?e oaoiieia?? -18,2%), 27,6% — aenieee
??aaiue oai?/ino? (o o?aaeeoe?ei?e oaoiieia?? — 8,9%), 36,4% iaee
aenieee ??aaiue e?eoe/iiai ieneaiiy (o o?aaeeoe?ei?e oaoiieia?? —
10,6%), 37,5% aeioneiee?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaa aenieee ??aaiue iia?eueiino?
ciaiue (o o?aaeeoe?ei?e oaoiieia?? — 12,8%), a 40,82% — aenieee ??aaiue
i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? (o o?aaeeoe?ei?e oaoiieia?? — 11,67%), ui
i?aeoaa?aeeei i?aaii??i?noue aenoiooi? a?iioace aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O aeiaeaoeao i?aaenoaaeai? aoaeiii? ?aeoeiaia? ioe?iee aei eiaeiiai
iiaeoey oa iaoa??aee, ye? i?iiiioaaeeny aeey aiii?iiiai aieaooaaiiy,
aenia?oieo ioe?iie, naiiioe?iie oiui.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee: 

1. Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia aaoi?nueea aa??aoeaia iiaeaeue oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe
aaco?oueny ia: 1) i?eioeeiao i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino?, aeaeoeaiino?,
aa??aoeaiino?, naiino?eiino?, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa ?ioaa?aoe??; 2)
iia?euei?e iiaeoeuei?e iiaoaeia? ci?noo ina?oe; 3) oai?/?e
ia?niiae?ciaai?e ? aoiaii?e iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?
aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a ye ?? noa’?eo?a, 4) ?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaiiio,
?icaeaath/iio ? noeioethth/iio ?aeoeiaiaiio eiio?ie? ciaiue; 5)
ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? oa ni?aoai?/ino? iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae?? an?o
o/aniee?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. O i?e caeeaaeaii iioaioe?aeuei?
iiaeeeaino? noeioethaaiiy iiceoeaieo naiici?i, e?eoe/ii? naiiioe?iee,
naii?ice?eooy, naii?aae?caoe??, naiinoaiiaeaiiy ?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa;

2. Iniiaiei oe?ii?niei i???ioe?ii oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy ? nooaeaio ye oi?eaeueia iaiiaoi?ia iniaeno?noue. Oiio
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ?iaeea?aeoae?co?oueny ca ci?noii (aaciaee ?
aa??aoeaiee eiiiiiaioe iiaeoey oa aeaeoeai? iiaeoe?); oaiiii (ACOC);
iaoiaeaie (nooaeaio nai aeae?a? niin?a i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?);
oa?aeoa?ii iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae?? (aca?iiae?y a?aeaoaa?oueny ia ??aiyo
ni?ai?aoe? oa ni?aoai?/ino?);

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa ? aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue aaoi?nueei? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny i?eioeeiiai
iiaei noaaeaiiyi nooaeaio?a aei iaa/aiiy, a ye ?acoeueoao — aeeaieeie,
i?oeieie ? iia?eueieie ciaiiyie. Aaaaeaiiy aaeueii? ioe?iee ca aanue
niaeo? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a aeicaieeei a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae aecaiaio a
eiai o?aaeeoe?eiiio ?icoi?ii?;

4. Iniiaieie oiiaaie caaacia/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii?
ina?oe oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy ?: aeinyaiaiiy
a?aeiia?aeiino? ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe (iniiaiei aeaeii iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a noaea naiino?eia ?iaioa); aa?iii?caoe?y
naiino?eii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a (aeey i?aeaioiaee eiiiaoaioiiai niaoe?ae?noa o aeuiio
caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo oi?i naiino?eii? ?iaioe
noaiiaeei: ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? — 60%, a?oiiai? — 20%, o?iioaeueii? — 20%);
aoiai?caoe?y aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o i?ioean?
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy (iaa/aeueia aca?iiae?y a?aeaoaaeany ia
??aiyo ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa oa ni?aoai?/ino?, ae?aeia?/i?noth
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny an? aeaiaioe iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano);

5. Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ? aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa aeicaieeee aeiaanoe
aeioe?euei?noue iiaiai aeeaeaeoe/iiai i?eioeeio aeui? oeiee —
i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? (i?ioan?eii-iniaeno?nia ni?yiiaai?noue,
a?oioiai?noue ? iia?euei?noue ciaiue, a?aeiia?aei?noue oai?aoe/ieo
ciaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie, iioei?ci o ?iaio? c ae?oueie,
ethaia aei i?ioan??, iaaeaaia?/ia oai?/?noue, e?eoe/ia ieneaiiy).
Aeio?eiaiiy eiai aea? ciiao aiooaaoe iaaeaaia?a iiai? aaia?aoe?? aeey
an?o oei?a no/anii? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee;

6. I?iaaaeaia iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ?iaioa aeicaieeea ?ic?iaeoe iin?aiee
aeey aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee “Oaoiieia?y
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeu?e iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?” (aacia? oa
aeaeoeai? iiaeoe?, aoaeiiia ?aeoeiaiaa ioe?iea, ouethoi?nuee? caaaeaiiy,
iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee eaai?aoi?ieo caiyoue).

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oeyi I.?. Oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeu?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?. -Iieoaaa, 1998. — 90 n.

2. Naionaiei TH.A., Oeyi I.?. Ca??iee eiio?ieueii-aecaiaiaoe?eieo
caaaeaiue c eo?no i?aai?/ii? o?i?? aeey nooaeaio?a i?e?iaeie/iai
oaeoeueoaoo. -Iieoaaa, 1992. -24 n. (Aaoi?nueeeo — 11 n.)

3. Ao??iaiei I.I., Oeyi I.?. Iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeoeea nooaeaio?a IV-V
eo?n?a i?e?iaeie/iai oaeoeueoaoo. -Iieoaaa, 1998. -20 n. (Aaoi?nueeeo —
12 n.)

4. Oeyi I.?. Aeei?enoaiiy oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy
o i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey // ??aeia oeiea -1998. -? 7-8. -N. 49-52

5. Oeyi I.?. Noeioethth/a e ?icaeaath/a ooieoe?? oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy, ?? i???ioaoe?y ia i?ioan?eio
eiiiaoaioi?noue iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa. // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
Iieoaanueeiai iaae?inoeoooo ?i. A.A.Ei?ieai-ea. Na??y: “Iaaeaaia?/i? oa
ineoieia?/i? iaoee”. — Aeione ??., 1998. — N. 178-184

6. Oeyi I.?. Iaaeaaia?/ia aoaeoeai?noue oaoiieia??
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai
a/eoaey. // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa -*. ?. -E., 1998. -N. 89-94.

7. Oeyi I.?. Oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeu?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?. // ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe ? oeiee: nooi?noue,
i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae. -??aia: Oao?n, 1997. -N. 191-192

8. Oeyi I.?. Iieiaeaiiy i?i oaoiieia?th iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy oa aecia/aiiy ?aeoeiao nooaeaioa. // Ca??iee noaoae
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai i?e?iaeie/eo
iaoe. -Iieoaaa, 1998. -N. 177-183

9. Oeyi I.?. Oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?niiai i?e?iaeie/iiaoeiaiai na?oi?icoi?iiy
i?ae /an aea/aiiy o?i??. // ?ioaa?aoe?y aeaiaio?a ci?noo ina?oe.
Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. -Iieoaaa,
1994. — N. 124-125

Oeyi I.?. Oaoiieia?y iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeu?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?. -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee.
Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. A.A. Ei?ieaiea,
Iieoaaa, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/ai? iiiyooy, nooi?noue oa
no?oeoo?a oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??aii aaoi?nueeo aa??aoeaio iiaeaeue aeeaeaeoe/ii? oaoiieia??,
?ice?eoa ?? noeioethth/a e ?icaeaath/a ooieoe?? oa i???ioaoe?y ia
i?ioan?eio eiiiaoaioi?noue iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
aoaeoeaieie oiiaaie ?aae?caoe?? oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai
iaa/aiiy ?: aeinyaiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy o
aeuiio caeeaae? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe; aa?iii?caoe?y naiino?eii?
?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, a?oiiai? oa o?iioaeueii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a;
aoiai?caoe?y aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o i?ioean?
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaaeaaia?/ia aca?iiae?y, i?ioan?eii-iniaeno?nia
iaa/aiiy, oaoiieia?y, iiaeoeue, ?aeoeia.

Oeyi I.?. Oaoiieiaey iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iao/aiey a aunoae
iaaeaaiae/aneie oeiea. -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee.
Iieoaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee einoeooo ei. A.A.Ei?ieaiei,
Iieoaaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiu iiiyoea, nouiinoue e
no?oeoo?a oaoiieiaee iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iao/aiey a aunoai
iaaeaaiae/aneii o/aaiii caaaaeaiee, oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia e
yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aia aaoi?neay aa?eaoeaiay iiaeaeue
aeeaeaeoe/aneie oaoiieiaee, ?ane?uoa aa noeioee?othuay e ?acaeaathuay
ooieoeee, i?eaioaoeey ia i?ioanneiiaeueioth eiiiaoaioiinoue aoaeoueo
niaoeeaeenoia. Aeaaiui oeaiiinoiui i?eaioe?ii oaoiieiaee
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iao/aiey aunooiaao nooaeaio, iiyoiio o/aaiue
i?ioeann eiaeeaeaeoaeece?oaony ii niaea?aeaieth (aaciaue e aa?eaoeaiue
eiiiiiaiou iiaeoey, yeaeoeaiua iiaeoee), oaiiai (a?aoee naea/e
ouethoi?neeo caaeaiee), iaoiaeai (nooaeaio nai auae?aao niinia
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe), oa?aeoa?o iaaeaaiae/aneiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey (acaeiiaeaenoaea inouanoaeyaony ia o?iaiyo
nio?oaeie/anoaa e nioai?/anoaa). Aeieacaii, /oi yooaeoeaiuie oneiaeyie
?aaeecaoeee i?aaeeiaeaiiie oaoiieiaee yaeythony: aeinoeaeaiea
niioaaonoaey niaea?aeaiey e iaoiaeeee iao/aiey a aunoai caaaaeaiee
iaaeaaiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey; aa?iiiecaoeey naiinoiyoaeueiie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie, a?oiiiaie e o?iioaeueiie ?aaiou nooaeaioia;
aoiaiecaoeey acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae e nooaeaioia a i?ioeanna
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iao/aiey. Yooaeoeaiinoue aaoi?neie oaoiieiaee
iao/aiey iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony aunieie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoueth, i?i/iinoueth e
iiaeeueiinoueth ciaiee, i?eioeeieaeueii iiaui ioiioaieai nooaeaioia e
iao/aieth.

Oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec e yenia?eiaioaeueiay ?aaioa iicaieeee aeieacaoue
oeaeaniia?aciinoue iiaiai aeeaeaeoe/aneiai i?eioeeia aunoae oeieu —
i?ioanneiiaeueiie eiiiaoaioiinoe. Eniieueciaaiea yoiai i?eioeeia
niinianoaoao iiaeaioiaea iaaeaaiaia iiaie aaia?aoeee aeey anao oeiia
nia?aiaiiie iauaia?aciaa-oaeueiie oeieu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaaeaaiae/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea,
i?ioanneiiaeueii-ee/iinoiia iao/aiea, oaoiieiaey, iiaeoeue, ?aeoeia.

Shyian N.I. Technology of Module and rating teaching in higher pedagogic
school. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for getting a science degree of candidate of pedagogic
sciences on speciality 13.00.01 — theory and history of pedagogics.
Poltava State Teachers Training college named after V.G. Korolenko,
Poltava, 1999.

The notions, essence and structure of the technology of module and
rating teaching in a teachers training college are given, didactic
technology of module and rating teaching is theoretically based and
tested experimentally.

The dissertation shows its stimulating and developing functions,
orientation on professional fitness of future teachers.

It is proved that effective conditions of putting the given technology
into practice are: the achievement of correspondence between the content
and methods of teaching in teachers training college, harmony of
independent individual and frontal work in group of students,
humanization of cooperation between teachers and students is the process
of module and rating teaching.

Key words: pedagogic cooperation, professional and individual teaching,
technology, module, rating.

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