CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. A?aee?eoee niin?a aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei a
Oe?a?i? oa e?a?iao NIAe iin?aea? ?noioia i?noea o caaaeueiiio ianyc?
aeaeiaooeo i?ia?aeueii? ne?iaeie. Oe?a?ia aaaaoa ia cae?cio ?oaeo,
iiiaae 80% yei? aeaeiaoaa?oueny a?aee?eoei niiniaii ia cae?ci?oaeieo
ea?»??ao aaeeeeo a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueieo eiia?iao?a. Cacia/eii, ui 90%
a??ie/i? iane (aeaeiaoai? ? ?ice?eai? ?iaioe) neeaaeathoue i?oei?
neaeuei? ?oaee ? ii?iaee, ye? ?ic?iaeythoueny ?c canoinoaaiiyi
ao?i-i?ae?eaieo ?ia?o. Inoaii?ie ?ieaie iecueea aoaeoeai?noue ?nioth/eo
oaoiieia?e ? a??ie/io?ainii?oiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, iino?eia iiaeeaeaiiy
ea?»???a, i?ecaaee aei nei?i/aiiy aeaeiaooeo ?oaee a Oe?a?i? a?eueoa
i?ae oaea?/?. Aea a?aeiia?aeii aei c?inoath/eo iio?aa iaoaeo?a?eii?
i?iieneiaino? o cae?ci?oaei?e ne?iaei? ia?aaeaa/aii ca?eueoaiiy
aeaeiaooeo ne?i? ?oaee aei 2010 ? ia 34,5 iei.o. ii??aiyii c 1997 ?.

Ia cae?ci?oaeieo ea?»??ao Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo iioe?aia oeeee?/ia
oaoiieia?y (OeO). Ea?»??e aeinyaee aeeaeie 250…360 i, ?noioii
cieceeinue ae?iaieoeoai ?ice?eaieo ?ia?o. A?eueo?noue
a??ie/io?ainii?oiiai iaeaaeiaiiy ii?aeueii canoa??ei, ni?aoeueiaaii ia
60-80% ? aei 2000-2005 ?.?. iaiao?aeii i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth eiai
cai?ieoe. Oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o
cae?enithaaeinue oeyoii iiaea?i?caoe?? iaeaaeiaiiy oeeee?/ii? ae??,
ca?eueoaiyi ?? iaeeie/ii? iiooaeiino? ? canoinoaaiiyi i?ia?aneaii?
oeeee?/iiiioieiai? oaoiieia?? (OeIO). Aea oea ia aeaei iaiao?aeiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ca ia??iae iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe ea?»???a (1984-1989 ?.?.) i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?
i?aeaeueeanue eeoa ia 10-17%, a nia?aa?o?noue aeaeiaooeo ?oaee c?inea c
2,11 aei 2,31 e?a/o.

O ia?niaeoea? aeaeiaooie ?oaee noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeiaoueny iiaeaeueoei
iiaeeaeaiiyi ea?»??a aei 500…700 i, ui coiiaeoue ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a
?ice?eaieo ii??ae, ca?eueoaiiy a?aenoai? ? i?aeaeuaiiy aa?oino?
o?ainii?ooaaiiy a??ie/i? iane, cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ?
a??ie/io?ainii?oiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy nia?aa?oino? aeaeiaooeo e
i?ecaaaea aei iia??oaiiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?iaioe ea?»???a
? cieaeaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? cae?cii? ?oaee Oe?a?ie ia na?oiaiio
?eieo. I?iaeaio i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o
iiaeia ae??oeoe caaaeyee noai?aiith i?eioeeiiai iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo
oaoiieia?e, eiiieaen?a iaoei aeey a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo
neaeueieo ii??ae, ui caaacia/eoue ?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy (oaea?/?-o?e/?)
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? aeaeiaooeo,
iaoaeii?noeino? oa aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy, a oaeiae oe?aeeeaiai
aieeao a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae iieacaa, ui i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
a?aee?eoiai niiniao ?ic?iaee iiaeeeai, canoiniaoth/e oaoi?eo
aacia?a?aii? ae??. Oea caaacia/eoue aacia?a?ai?noue aeeiiaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, aeneaaaoe?th, o?ainii?ooaaiiy, ?icaaioaaeaiiy
? a?aeaaeiooai?aiiy neaeueieo ii??ae c iiaiei ?o noi?uaiiyi. Iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii oaeineiiaeaiiy a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o iiaeia
aaaaeaoe ia?ao?ae aei iioieiai? oaoiieia?? (IO) c eiiieaenaie iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae??. Iaeiae a?aenooi?noue i?aoeacaeaoieo iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? oa oaoiieia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o canoinoaaiiy
no?eio? oe?ieiianooaaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy IO. Iaia? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo noai canoinoaaiiy eiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey
a?ae?iaee aeaith ? aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o o ?iai/?e cii?, ia
iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e nenoaie ?ic?iaee ? eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae??. Oiae aeooaeueio i?eeeaaeio i?iaeaio i?aaenoaaey?
noai?aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iniia a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo
ii??ae eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??, iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeei?a
oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? eiiieaenii? iaoai?caoe??, anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae aieeao nooiaiy aacia?a?aiino? oaoiieia?/ieo noai,
ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a iaoei, oaoiieia?/ieo noai ? nenoaie ?ic?iaee ia
aoaeoeai?noue aaaeaiiy a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o, iaa?oiooaaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a iaoei ? oaoiieia?/ieo noai
a?ae?iaee aeaith o ?iai/?e cii? aeeaieeo ea?»???a.

Ca»ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiaie iaeaaaeeea?oeo aea?aeathaeaeaoieo
?ia?o ?AOI IAI Oe?a?ie (oaie 1,24,51 — c i?iaeaie 0.08.025; 18,19 — c
i?iaeaie 3.2.1), IAA Oe?a?ie I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie (oaie AI-174, AI-231) ?
AeEIO Oe?a?ie (oaia oeo? 4/655a «Neaea»); ca?aeii c ieaiaie
iaeaaaeeea?oi? ainiaeiaia??ii? oaiaoeee ?AOI IAI Oe?a?ie, yea
aeeiioaaeanue ca Iinoaiiaaie ?I O?N?, ?I N?N?, AeEIO N?N?, Aea?aeieaio
N?N? ? Aea?aeaoaeo N?N? (oaie 85/7, 85/8, 85/9, 85/11, 161/1, 161/9,
161/11, 087-73/004 — c I*I O?N?, 281 — c Oe?aieiaia?oaei?iiii IIAI O?N?,
7-496 — c AI «E?anaaaeiao» I?iaaaeiaoo N?N?, 7-533 — c
AIAeI?ai?eieuei?iao IOeI N?N?); ca?aeii c caaaeueiinithciith
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?ia?aiith 019 «I?ia?aeuei? ?ano?ne» (oaie 7-313,
7-515, 7-518 c ?AN ?i. A.A.Nei/einueeiai).

Iaoa ?iaioe ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
oaoiieia?/ieo iniia canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? o
aeeaieeo ea?»??ao c? neaeueieie ii?iaeaie oeyoii noai?aiiy niinia?a,
cania?a ? ?aoe?iiaeueieo noai a?ae?iaee aeaith ? aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o
o ?iai/?e cii? ea?»??o ca IO, ui caaacia/eoue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
a?aee?eoiai niiniao aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? a aeena?oaoe?? iaoe noi?ioeueiaai? ianooii?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue:

1. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? eiiieaenii?
iaoai?caoe??, nooi?iue aacia?a?aiino? ??cieo aeae?a oaoiieia?? ?
i?eioeeiia? noaie canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??.

2. Anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? ci?ie ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a iaoei caeaaeii
a?ae ia?aiao??a a??ie/eo ?ia?o ? aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaethaaieo ii??ae ? ia
?o iniia? iaa?oiooaaoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e eiiieaen?a.

3. Anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? ?iai/eo i?aai?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? c? neaeueieie ii?iaeaie, iaa?oiooaaoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
cia/aiiy eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a ? ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?? iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeeiaiiy i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae.

4. Onoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? ci?ie ia?aiao??a a??ie/eo ii??ae caeaaeii
a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo ? eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a, ?o aieeao ia
aoaeoeai?noue a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o oa iaa?oiooaaoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e a?ae?iaee aeaith ? nenoaie ?ic?iaee.

5. ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/i? noaie a?ae?iaee aeaith ? aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo
?ia?o o ?iai/?e cii? aeeaieeo ea?»???a eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii?
ae?? ca IO ? OeIO ? aeeiiaoe ?o no?oeoo?io nenoaiaoecaoe?th.

6. I?iaanoe aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo ? aeine?aeeoe aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae.

?aeay ?iaioe iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? ?
anoaiiaeaiieo caeiiii??iinoae oaoiieia?/iiai aca?iica»yceo i?ioean?a
a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa aeey noai?aiiy oaoiieia?? a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae c aacia?a?aiei aenieii?iaeoeoeaiei iioieii
a??ie/i? iane a?ae aeaith aei ioieoo ?icaaioaaeaiiy.

Ia niia? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue o ?iaio? noi?ioeueiaai? oae? iaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy:

1. Iioieia?noue ??cieo aeae?a oaoiieia?? aecia/a?oueny eiao?oe??ioii
aacia?a?aiino? oaoiieia?/ieo noai (Ei.no), ui i?aaenoaaey? a?aeiioaiiy
noie aeiaooe?a aeiaaeeie o?ainii?ooaaiiy a??ie/i? iane ??ciiiai?oieie
aeaeaie o?ainii?oo ia ?o eiaooe??io aacia?a?aiino? i?ioeano ?ica?ocee
aei caaaeueii? aeiaaeeie o?ainii?ooaaiiy; ?c ca?eueoaiiyi (Ei.no) a?ae
0,33 (c OeO) aei 1,0 (c IO) i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? i?aeaeuo?oueny
oaea?/?-o?e/?, a iana eiiieaen?a ? iiooaei?noue ia o?ainii?ooaaiiy
cieaeothoueny ia 20-30%, ui aeicaiey? e?euee?nii ioe?ithaaoe aieea
iioieiaino? oaoiieia?? ia aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy
a??ie/i-o?ainii?oieo iaoei ? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a
iaoei o ea?»???.

2. Aeaee o?a?eoi??? ?ooo ??aeo/iai ?aa?a eiaoa aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii?
ae?? aecia/athoueny a?aeiioaiiyi oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a ((?) oa
e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? iaii?o ?oeiyoee (Vi). Aoaeoeaia aeeiiaiiy iniiaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e a?ae?iaee aeaith caaacia/o?oueny ca oaeeo oiia:
i?ae?iaea onooio (? = 0,35n-1, Vi = 0…0,5 i/n; ?ic?iaea onooio c
iaaaeaiiyi (? = 0…0,35n-1, Vi = 1,0…1,5 i/n; /a?iaiiy iaaaeaii?
a??ie/i? iane (? = 0,35…0,6n-1, Vi = 0,5…1,5 i/n; i?eae?aiiy
iaaaaa?eoo (? =0…0,35n-1,Vi = -0,5…0,5i/n; ca/euaiiy i?aeioae onooio
(? = 0n-1, Vi =0,5…1,0i/n.

3. Aacia?a?ai?noue iioieo a??ie/i? iane a?ae aeaith aei aea?eiiai
no??/eiaiai eiiaa??a aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii ?? iiae??aiaiiy o
oeee?iae?e/i?e aioo??oiueiaaeeia?e ae?iaa?oe? c aeio?eiaiiyi oiia
caoeniaiiy iiae??aithaaiiai eonea i?ae iiae??aithth/eie iiaa?oiyie
iaieie ? aaeo, ?aae?one yeeo (Ri, ra) e?i?eii c?inoathoue ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ao?aeiiai ? niaaeathoue ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeo?aeiiai ioai?o
ae?iaa?ee, aea ciaioothoueny ca a?ia?aie?/iith caeaaei?noth ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi eiao?oe??ioo oa?oy ii?iaee ia iiae??aithth/o iiaa?oith ((),
aeinyaath/e i?i?iaeueieo cia/aiue Ri.min = 0,7…0,9 i, ra.min =
0,3…0,4 i i?e ( = 0,3…04, ui aeicaiey? noai?eoe, ia a?aei?io a?ae
?ai?oa a?aeiieo eiino?oeoe?e, a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeuei? aa?aaaoe c
i?i?iaeueiith aaaith.

4. Aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey
?ic?iaee ea?»???a c? neaeueieie ii?iaeaie caeaaeeoue a?ae aenioe ?iai/i?
ciie ? aenioe onooio ? aecia/a?oueny ieoiieie aeo?aoaie, iia»ycaieie
ia?aaie?/iith caeaaei?noth c aenioith ?iai/i? ciie ? niaaeiith
a?ia?aie?/iith caeaaei?noth c aenioith onooio. Aei oiai ae ?aoe?iiaeueia
cia/aiiy aenio ciaoiaeeoueny a?aeiia?aeii o ae?aiacii? 60…100i ?
25…30 i, ui caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueio aoaeoeai?noue iioieiai? oaoiieia??
a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? i?eioeeie noai?aiiy oaoiieia?? a?aee?eoi?
?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae, ye? aacothoueny ia aacia?a?aiino?
iioieo a??ie/i? iane, iacaeaaeiino? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeneaaaoe??,
o?ainii?ooaaiiy, ?icaaioaaeaiiy ? a?aeaaeiooai?aiiy, iiae?eo eiiieaen?a
ia no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/i? aocee, ui aecia/a? oaoiieia?/iee
aca?iica»ycie ? aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy a??ie/io?ainii?oieo iaoei. Oea ?
aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe i?eioeeiia? oaoiieia?/i? noaie canoinoaaiiy
eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? ca IO ? OeIO ? c?iaeoe iaaiee aianie
o ?icaeoie oai??? a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

2. Oia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii e?euee?nio ioe?ieo iioieiaino? ??ciiiai?oieo
aeae?a oaoiieia??, cae?enithaaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi eiao?oe??ioo
aacia?a?aiino? oaoiieia?/ieo noai, anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? eiai
aieeao ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, iaoaeii?noe?noue oa
aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? ioe?ithaaoe aoaeoeai?noue ?o
canoinoaaiiy a ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo noaiao IO ? OeIO.

3. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a
iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? ia ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy, aeyaeaii aca?iica»ycie oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ui
aeicaieeei iaa?oiooaaoe ?o ?aoe?iiaeueia cia/aiiy, eiino?othth/e iia?
a??ie/io?ainii?oi? iaoeie aeey ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae.

4. Oia?oa anoaiiaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? ?iai/eo i?aai?a
iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? c e?oiiieoneiaith a??ie/ith ianith, a?aoiaoth/e
e?iaiaoe/iee aca?iica»ycie ?iai/eo i?aai?a ? aieea aeanoeainoae
?ic?iaethaaieo ii??ae ia ?o ia?aiao?e, ui aeicaieeei iaa?oiooaaoe
?aoe?iiaeueia cia/aiiy eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a iaoei, ye?
caaacia/othoue aoaeoeaio ?ic?iaeo i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae ?
noai?aiiy aacia?a?aiiai aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai iioieo a??ie/i? iane.

5. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooaaiiy o?a?eoi??? ?ooo ??aeo/iai ?aa?a
eiaoa aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oaea
a?aeiieo o?aooaaiiyi ci?i e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iai/iai i?aaio
caeaaeii a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae iaii?o ?oeiyoee ? iaa?oaiiy
?ioi?a; iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iiooaeiino? i?eaiaea ?iai/iai i?aaio
aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??, ui a?aoiao? e?iaiaoe/iee ca»ycie ?ioi?a
?iai/iai i?aaio c i?eeiaeueiei eiiaa??ii; iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy
ia?aiao??a ae?iaey/eo iiaa?oiiue aioo??oiueiaaeeiai? oeee?iae?e/ii?
ae?iaa?ee caeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy iiae??aiaiiy ? eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy
iiae??aithaaii? ii?iaee ia ae?iaey/? iiaa?oi? ? iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy
e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano /a?iaiiy a??ie/i? iane aeneaaaoi?ii
aacia?a?aii? ae??, ui aeicaieeei ?ic?aooaaoe iniiai? eiino?oeoeai?
ia?aiao?e eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??, ye? caaacia/othoue
aenieiaoaeoeaio ?ic?iaeo i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae.

6. Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ia?aiao??a i?ae?iaee onooio a?ae ia?aiao??a
aeaith, aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaethaaieo ii??ae ? ia?aiao??a aeaioeiaoiaiai
?iai/iai i?aaio c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae oaoiieia?? ea?iaaiiai iaaaeo
onooio aeneaaaoi?ii aacia?a?aii? ae??, ui aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai?
noaie a?ae?iaee aeaith ca aenioith onooio ? oe?eiith caoiaeee.

7. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? oa ie?aieo iaoei, ye? a?ae ?ai?oa a?aeiieo
a?aoiaothoue iniaeeaino? eiino?oeoe?? iaoei, oaoiieia?? ?ic?iaee ?
o?ainii?ooaaiiy e?oiiieoneiai? a??ie/i? iane, ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
i?iaeoeoeai?noue eiiieaen?a ? ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy a
??ciiiai?oieo oaoiieia?/ieo noaiao oa a??ie/ioaoi?/ieo oiiaao.

8. Oia?oa noai?aia no?oeoo?ia nenoaiaoecaoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo noai
canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? ca IO ? OeIO, ui
a?aecia/a?oueny iiae?eii ?o ia oaoiieia?/i? a?oie ca nooiaiai
aacia?a?aiino? aeae?a oaoiieia?? ? eiiieaen?a iaoei ? ia
no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/i? aocee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue neeaae eiiieaen?a,
oei iaeaaeiaiiy ? eiai aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy a ea?»???. Oea aeicaiey?,
i?iaeooth/e ea?»??e, aecia/eoe neeaae eiiieaen?a iaoei ? aea?aoe
oaoiieia?/i? noaie ?o canoinoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei eiie?aoieo
a??ie/ioaoi?/ieo oiia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Oia?oa noai?aia i?eioeeiiai iiaa oaoiieia?y a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??, yea
caaacia/o? aacia?a?aiee aenieii?iaeoeoeaiee iio?e e?oiiieoneiai?
a??ie/i? iane oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

2. Iaa?oioiaai? eiino?oeoe??, ?aoe?iiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ? eiino?oeoeai?
ia?aiao?e eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??, ia iniia? yeeo aia?oa
noai?ai? i?eioeeiiai iia? a??ie/io?ainii?oi? iaoeie aeey ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae. Aiie ae?thoue ca i?eioeeiii aacia?a?aiino?
aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeneaaaoe??, o?ainii?ooaaiiy ?
?icaaioaaeoaaiiy a??ie/i? iane, ui aeicaiey? iiai?noth iaoai?coaaoe ?
aaoiiaoecoaaoe iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane a?aee?eoiai aeaeiaooeo
ei?enieo eiiaeei.

3. Iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a a?ae?iaee aeaith ca
aenioith onooio ? oe?eiith caoiaeee eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??
? ia?aiao??a nenoaie ?ic?iaee, ia iniia? yeeo ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/i?
noaie IO aoaeoeaiiai aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o o ?iai/?e cii? aeeaieeo
ea?»???a.

4. I?eioeeiia? noaie ? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ?AOI IAI Oe?a?ie o oae?e
eiino?oeoi?nuee?? aeieoiaioaoe?? (aeo aeei?enoaiiy a?ae 05.01.99?):

«Oaoi?/ia caaaeaiiy ia eiiieaen aea?eieo iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey
?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae» (EIAe 000OC);

«Oaoi?/ia caaaeaiiy ia iaeaaeiaiiy nenoaie o?ainii?oo c eiiaa??ieie
ii?caeaie»;

«Oaoi?/ia i?iiiceoe?y uiaei noai?aiiy aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae?? ?
ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a» (EIAe 00.000IO, EIAe 00.000IC);

?iai/a aeieoiaioaoe?y aeey aeaioiaeaiiy o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno c
eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie aeey ?eaaeuenueeiai ea?»??o AI «Aei?i?iia?oaei?ii»
(e?aneaiiy caaaeueieo aeae?a iaeaaeiaiiy — IE 2.01.00.000NA, IE
2.06.00.000NA, IE 2.03.00.000NA, IE 2.08.00.000NA, IE 2.021.00.000NA)
I?ae??/ainueeiai ?ic??co AI «Eaia?iaaoa?eey» (e?aneaiiy caaaeueieo
aeae?a iaeaaeiaiiy — IE 5.00. 000NA, O 00.00.000AI, CI 00.00.000AI, O
00.00.000NA, ?O 00.00.000AI);

?iai/a aeieoiaioaoe?y aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??
A?AN-5000 ? a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a IAN-2250 aeey
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ae?eyiee ia Eaeueiaee?nueeiio ea?»???
Aeiaeeenueeiai AIE (e?aneaiiy caaaeueieo aeae?a iaeaaeiaiiy — A?AN
00.00.000AI, 1IAN 00.000AI).

5. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?eioeeiiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo noai a?ae?iaee aeaith
aeneaaaoi?ii aacia?a?aii? ae??, eiai eiino?oeoe?? ? iniiaieo ia?aiao??a
aeei?enoai? ?inoeoooii AIAeI?Ieaaiiao i?ae /an ?ic?iaee oaoi?/iiai
i?iaeoo aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaiai c?acea aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??
A?AN-4600 (e?aneaiiy caaaeueiiai aeaeo — A?AN 00.000.IA, a?o.?49, oiiae
Ieaaiiao — aeo aeei?enoaiiy a?ae 22.03.99 ?.).

6. Oaoiieia?/i? noaie canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??
aeei?enoai? o i?iaeooaaii? IO ? OeIO ia ea?»??ao ??cieo aaeocae
a??ie/i-aeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino? oaeeie i?iaeoieie ?inoeoooaie:

«I?aaeaiae?i?i?oaea» — o ?ic?iaoe? «Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? o
?ic?iaoe? neaeueieo ii??ae ? ?oae ia I?ai?/iiio ACE» (a?o. ? 97246);

«E?eaaani?iaeo» — o ?ic?iaoe? «Oaoi?/iiai i?iaeoo
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ae?eueieoe? iioieiai? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
?ice?eaieo ?ia?o neaeueieo a??ie/eo ii??ae ia ea?»??? OeACE» (a?o. ?
23365);

«Oe?IAeaoaei?iaeo» — o ?ic?iaoe? «Oaoii?iai/iai i?iaeoo
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ae?eueieoe? c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie ia *aieeinueeiio
a?ai?oiiio ea?»???» (ia»?eo 63-04);

«AIAeI?i?ieieuei?iao» — o aeeiiaii? «I?iaeoo aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai?
ae?eueieoe? oaoiieia?? a??ie/eo ?ia?o i?ae /an a?ae?iaee aa?oiueiai
neaeueiiai ai?eciioo Eaeueiaee?nueeiai ea?»??o Aeiaeeenueeiai AIE»;

«Neaae?i?ioaoo» — o aeeiiaii? «I?iaeoo aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai?
ae?eueieoe? c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie ia I?ae??/ainueeiio ?ic??c? AI
«Eaia?iaaoa?eey».

7. Ie?ai? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy ? caniae ?ic?iaee eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? oi?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai ia aaaaoueio
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoaao: 35 i?eno?i?a aeey i?aeo?eiee
eiiaa??ii? no??/ee ia i?noe? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ?iACE, 15
aioo??oiueiaaeeiaeo ae?iaa?ie ae??aiiai iiae??aiaiiy ia aeayeeo
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ? ia?a?iaethaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao («sseooaeiac»,
«Iaanueeaaieia?y», Aeiiaoeueea caaaa/oaaeueia oaa?eea oa ?i.),
a?ioio-niiaeeaa/ aeey e?oiiieoneiai? neaeueii? iane ia
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiiio ioieo? ?aiaoi??enueeiai caaiaeo aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a AAO «Neaaooe/-E?ei» (i?io. a?ae 17.02.98 ?).

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a o ?ic?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?aaenoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??, iieyaa?: o oi?ioethaaii? iaoeiai?
i?iaeaie, iaoe ? iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, iinoaiiaoe? ? ?ica»ycaii?
caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiue; oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? ? ?ic?iaoe?
i?eioeeiiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo noai a?ae?iaee aeaith ? aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo
?ia?o o ?iai/?e cii? eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??; anoaiiaeaii?
caeaaeiinoae aca?iiae?? ?iai/eo i?aai?a iaoei eiiieaen?a c
?ic?iaethaaiith a??ie/ith ianith ? iaa?oiooaaii? eiino?oeoeaieo
ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a; anoaiiaeaii? caeaaeiino? aca?iica»yceo ?
iaa?oiooaaii? ?aoe?iiaeueieo cia/aiue oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
eiiieaen?a iaoei, nenoaie ?ic?iaee ? noai canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a;
i?iaaaeaii?, ia?iaoe? oa aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oaoiieia?? ? iaoei; o ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo noai OeIO ?
IO.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? noaaeai? ia oaoi?/ieo ia?aaeao ? can?aeaiiyo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ia?aae I?i/i?iaoo O?N? oa N?N?, I?ii?iiaoaeiaoa??ae?a
O?N? oa N?N?, I?ieieuei?iaoo N?N?, I?iaaaeiaoo N?N? (i. Ee?a, i. Iineaa,
1981-1989), AeEIO N?N? (i. Iineaa, 1985, 1990), a ?inoeoooao:
«I?aaeaiae?i?i?oaea» (i. Oa?e?a, 1989), «E?eaaani?iaeo» (i. E?eaee ??a,
1989), IAeA?? (i. E?eaee ??a, 1993, 1996), «Ae?i?ieieuei?iao» oa
AIAeI?i?ieieuei?iao (i. Iineaa, 1985-1989), «Ae?i?i?oaea (i. Eai?ia?aae,
1984), «Neaae?i?ioaoo» (i. Iiainea??nuee, 1983-1985),
«sseooIAe?i?iaeiac» (i. Ie?iee, 1983-1985); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia»?aeiaiiy
«sseooaeiac» (i. Ie?iee, 1985), ananithcieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo «Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iiaeo
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aeae?a o?ainii?oo» (i. Iineaa, 1985, 1990), O1O
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoai?caoe?y ?
aaoiiaoecaoe?y caiaeueieo ?ia?o» (i. Ee?a, 1991), I?aeia?iaeiiio
neiiic?oi? c a??ie/eo ?ia?o «Ie?iee-91» «I?iaeaie a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee
aeeaieeo ea?»???a» (i. Ie?iee, 1991), O eiia?an? c aai?iaeaia??iao
«Aeeiaiiy oaa?aeeo ii??ae: iaeaooi? oa ca eiai iaaeaie» (?oae?y, Oo?ei,
1992), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «A??ie/a i?iieneia?noue ?in?? ia
?oaaae? OO-OO1 noie?oue» (i. Iineaa, 1994), «No/ania a??ie/a ni?aaa:
ina?oa, iaoea, i?iieneia?noue» (i. Iineaa, 1996), Ia?o?e I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie eiiieaeniiai inai?iiy iaae?»
(i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998).

Ioaeieaoei?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeeiiaieo aeineiaeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a
1 iiiia?ao??, 19 noaooyo iaoeiaeo i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiue, 23
aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaao, 1 aeaiiiiaaiiio ?oeiieno, 1 a?ioo?? ? 42
noaooyo ca??iee?a oa oacao aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo — anueiai o 87
iaoeiaeo ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
?icaeieia, aeniiaeia, ia?ae?eo iineeaiue c 321 iaeiaioaaiiy ia 30
noi??ieao, iinoeoue 263 noi?iiee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 97 ?enoieia ia 89
noi??ieao, 52 oaaeeoe? ia 46 noi??ieao, caaaeueiei ianyaii 398 noi?. oa
9 aeiaeaoe?a ie?aiei oiiii ia 124 noi??iao.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

?ICAe?E 1. Noai ? aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

No/aniee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo aaciaeo aaeocae i?iieneiaino? (iaoaeo?a?eia,
aia?aaoe/ia, aoae?aaeueia oa ?i.) iio?aao? cia/ieo ianya?a i?ia?aeueii?
ne?iaeie, yeith iiaeeeai caaeiaieueieoe caaaeyee aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo
eiiaeei aenieiaoaeoeaiei a?aee?eoei niiniaii ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu ia
aaeeeeo aeeaeiao.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui a ia?niaeoea? a?aee?eoee niin?a aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo
eiiaeei a Oe?a?i? oa e?a?iao NIAe — iniiaiee iai?yiie ?icaeoeo
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino? aeey caaacia/aiiy i?ia?aeueiith
ne?iaeiith iio?aa aia?aaoeee, /i?ii? oa eieuei?iai? iaoaeo?a??, o?i?/ii?
i?iieneiaino? oa aoae?aieoeoaa. Aeaeiaooie ei?enieo eiiaeei
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei c?inoaiiyi ianya?a ?ice?eaieo ?ia?o. Na?aaeiy
ae?iaie/a iiooaei?noue ea?»???a ca?eueooaaoeiaony ca ?aooiie iiaeaeueoi?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa. ?noioii iiaeeaeyoueny ea?»??e, ui aeeee/a
iia??oaiiy a??ie/ioaoi?/ieo oiia. Iniiaia ne?iaeiia aaca /i?ii?
iaoaeo?a?? a Oe?a?i? — E?eai??cueeee cae?ci?oaeiee aanaei, aea
ia?aaaaeii ?icaeiooee a?aee?eoee niin?a. A?aoiaoth/e cieaeaiiy ianya?a
oa aoaeoeaiino? aeaeiaooeo ?oaee ca?aeii c «Eiioeaioe??th ?icaeoeo
a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie aei 2010 ?ieo» aecia/aii
iniiai? ia?niaeoeai? caaaeaiiy a??ie/i?oaeii? i?iieneiaino?,
iaeaaaeeea?oeie c yeeo ? i?aeo?eiea ?iai/iai noaio ea?»???a ?
i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino? ca oiiae ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie a?aee?eoeo
a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?nioth/a oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y ia? aeaye? iaaeie?ee,
iniiai? c yeeo: canoinoaaiiy aaioaaeii-o?ainii?oiiai iaeaaeiaiiy
oeeee?/ii? ae?? c OeO, ca?eueoaiiy aenioe ?iai/i? ciie oa aeiaaeeie
o?ainii?ooaaiiy aaoiiia?eueiei o?ainii?oii o ia??iae nii?oaeaeaiiy
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueieo ioieo?a c OeIO. Oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/i? oaoi?ee,
ca?eueoaiiy iaeeie/ii? iiooaeiino? iaeaaeiaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy OeIO ia
caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? cieaeaiiy
nia?aa?oino? aeaeiaooeo ?oaee. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
cae?ci?oaeieo ea?»???a Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeii noai?eoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe
i?eioeeiiai iiao aenieiaoaeoeaio oaoiieia?th oa iaeaaeiaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, i?eioeeie ? caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaieo
oaoiieia?e ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae noi?ioeueiaai? o
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?iaioao i?ia?aeieo a/aieo o aaeoc? a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee
?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei. Aei ieo ne?ae a?aeianoe caeiaooee:
aeaaeai?e?a I.A.Iaeueieeiaa, A.A.?aeaanueeiai ? E.I.O?oaaoeueeiai,
aeieoi??a oaoi?/ieo iaoe A.I.Aenueiiiaa, TH.?. Ai?no?aoiaa,
TH.I.Anoao»?aa, TH.?.A?eyeiaa, A.A.Aeecitheiaa, A.O.Aeciaa,
I.A.Aaneeue?aa, E.?.Aeieoeueeiai, A.I.Aieiaeeie?iaa, ?.E.Aoiaieea,
A.TH.Ae?eaeaiea, I.O.Ae?oeiaaiiai, A.?.?o?aiiaa, I.A.Iiaiaeeeiaa,
I.A.Iioaiiaa, A.?.I?ieiiaiea, A.A.N?ie?ia, E.I.Nieiaeiaieea,
A.I.Oa?oaeianueeiai, I.?.Oiiaeiaa, A.O.Oaae??aa, I.N.*aoaa?eea,
A.A.Oaia?a, A.I.Uaeeaiiaa, A.E.sseiaeaaa, eaiaeeaeao?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe
I.A.Aiae?thuaiea, N.I.A?i, ?.?.Aaa?eethea, A.A.A?euaiea, A.C.Iaeay,
A.I.Ooaeioeaeaa oa ?i.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c oaiaeaioe?? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae aeicaieea aecia/eoe, ui iniiaiei iai?yieii
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a?aee?eoiai niiniao aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei
?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie ea?»???a o?aaa aaaaeaoe ia?ao?ae aei iioieiai?
oaoiieia?? ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae eiiieaenaie iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae??.

Ia iniia? aiae?co a?aeiieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, aeina?aeo ?iaioe ?
i?iaeooaaiiy ?iaioe ea?»???a E?eaaano oa aeyaeaii? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?e a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae
iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oa ?noioi?noue iaoeiai? i?iaeaie,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ICAe?E 2. Iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeeiiaeo noai canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? oa ?o oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a

Iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? i?eioeeie ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?/ieo noai canoinoaaiiy
eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? oa oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? eiiieaenii?
iaoai?caoe??, ye? aacothoueny ia iioieiaino? ae?iaieoeoaa, iacaeaaeiino?
oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e ? iiae?eo eiiieaen?a ia no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/i?
aocee, ui aecia/athoue aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy iaoei eiiieaeno a ea?»???,
caaacia/othoue aacia?a?aiee ca»ycie oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a??ie/iai
ae?iaieoeoaa ? noai?aiiy aacia?a?aiiai aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai iioieo
a??ie/i? iane a?ae aeaith aei caaaa/oaaeueii? oaa?eee aai a?aeaaeo.

E?euee?nio ioe?ieo iioieiaino? ??cieo aeae?a oaoiieia?? cai?iiiiiaaii
cae?enithaaoe, a?aoiaoth/e eiao?oe??io aacia?a?aiino? oaoiieia?/ieo noai
(Ei.no), yeee a?aoiao? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy canoiniaoaaieo o aeai?e noai?
aeae?a ea?»??iiai o?ainii?oo c ??ciei nooiaiai aacia?a?aiino?. Oia?oa
anoaiiaeai? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a aacia?a?aiino? oa iieaciee?a
aoaeoeaiino? oaoiieia?/ieo noai o ??cieo aeaeao oaoiieia??,
i?aaenoaaeai? o oaae.1.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui OeO ?c canoinoaaiiyi oeeee?/iiai aaoio?ainii?oo ia?
iecueeee nooi?iue aacia?a?aiino? (Ei.no(0,33), OeIO c eiia?iiaaiei
o?ainii?oii — na?aaei?e (0,33( Ei.no(0,8), IO c aacia?a?aieie aeaeaie
o?ainii?oo — aenieee (0,4 ( Ei.no(1,0). Aeiaaaeaii, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi
nooiaiy aacia?a?aiino? oaoiieia?/ieo noai i?aeaeuothoueny
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee (i?aeaeuo?oueny i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?
oaea?/?-o?e/?, cieaeo?oueny ia 20…40% iaoaeii?noe?noue oa
aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy), ye? aecia/athoue aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a aacia?a?aiino? ? iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino?
oaoiieia?/ieo noai o ??cieo aeaeao oaoiieia??

Iieacieee Aenioa i?aeeiio I,i Oaoiieia?y

OeO OeIO IO

Aeae ea?»??iiai o?ainii?oo

AO AO+EI AO+EE EI EE

Eiao?oe??io aacia?a?aiino? noaie Ei

100-300

0,33

0,33-0,39

0,44-0,79

0,33-0,42

1,0

I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?,

o/ni//ae 100

200

300 1730

1080

860

1780

1815

3960

3960

Iana

eiiieaeno , o 100

200

300 1950

3150

3910 1800

1950

2025 2075

2290

2610 750

900

1050 1920

2240

2560

Iiooaei?noue ia o?ainii?ooaaiiy 1 o aaioaaeo, eAo 100

200

300 24

28

29 23

29

33 17

19

21 18

24

29 9

12

15

I?ei?oea. AO- aaoiiia?eueiee o?ainii?o, EI- eiiaa??iue ii?cae, EE-
no??/eiaee

eiiaa??

Aecia/aii, ui IO ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu eiiieaenaie c no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie
iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ca aeaiie iniiaieie noaiaie: a?ae?iaea aa?oi?o
?ice?eaieo ai?eciio?a, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ?ic?iaeo eeoa ?ice?eaieo ii??ae;
a?ae?iaea aeeaieeo ai?eciio?a ea?»???a, yea ia?aaeaa/a? ?ic?iaeo ia
iaeiiio ai?eciio? ei?enieo eiiaeei ? ai?uoth/eo ii??ae oa ?o ?icae?eueia
o?ainii?ooaaiiy aei aecia/aieo ioieo?a (caaaa/oaaeueia oaa?eea aai
a?aeaae), i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en.1. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/i? noaie
canoinoaaiiy o?ainii?oieo eiiieaen?a c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie, ye
?aeeiiai aeaeo o?ainii?oo (IO), ? a eiia?iaoe?? c ?ioeie aeaeaie
ea?»??iiai o?ainii?oo (OeIO).

Noi?ioeueiaai? oaoiieia?/i? aeiiae aei eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii?
ae?? ? aecia/aii eiiieaene, ye? aeeth/athoue aeneaaaoi? aacia?a?aii?
ae??, a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiee ia?aaaioaaeoaa/, nenoaio aea?eieo,
oi?oeaaeo, iioeeeo, a?aeaaeueieo eiiaa???a oa a?aeaaeiooai?thaa/ —
eiiieaene c? no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie; iaaaioaaeoaaeuei? oa
?icaaioaaeoaaeuei? i?eno?i?, eiiaa??iee ii?cae ? eiai i?eaiaee, ?aeeiaee
oeyo — eiiieaene c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie. Oaeee neeaae ? ia?aaeaa/aia
oaoiieia?/ieie noaiaie aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy iaoei eiiieaen?a o ea?»???
caaacia/o? aacia?a?aiee aca?iica»ycie oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ?
aeicaiey? noai?eoe aenieii?iaeoeoeaiee aacia?a?aiee iio?e a??ie/i? iane
a?ae aeaith aei caaaa/oaaeueii? oaa?eee aai a?aeaaeo: eiiieaenaie c?
no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie iaoiaeii aacia?a?aiiai ?? aeeiaiiy o aeai?
aeneaaaoi?ii aacia?a?aii? ae?? oa ia?aoai?aiiyi (a?ioioaiiy,
iiae??aiaiiy) aea?eiei ia?aaaioaaeoaa/ai aei o?aeoe??, yea
o?ainii?oo?oueny no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie; eiiieaenaie c eiiaa??ieie
ii?caeaie, o?ainii?ooth/eie e?oiiieoneiao a??ie/o iano (aei 1200 ii) aac
iiia?aaeiueiai iiae??aiaiiy ? i?ii?aeieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue ia e?ooeo (aei
200) eooao i?aeeiio.

?en. 1. I?eioeeiiaa oaoiieia?/ia noaia a?ae?iaee aeeaieeo ai?eciio?a
ea?»???a eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? c? no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie.

1 — aeneaaaoi? aacia?a?aii? ae??; 2 — a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiee
ia?aaaioaaeoaa/; 3, 4, 5 — a?aeiia?aeii aea?eiee, oi?oeaaee, iioeeee
eiiaa??e; 6 — ao?iaa onoaiiaea.

Aeine?aeaeaii aca?iica»ycie ia?aiao??a a??ie/eo ?ia?o ? ia?aiao??a
eiiieaen?a c aeei?enoaiiyi aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue ieoiieo aeo?ao oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? eiiieaen?a
a?ae ?o oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a, aeaye? c ieo i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 2 ?
?en.3.

Iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? cia/aiiy iniiaieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
eiiieaen?a: oai?aoe/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??
1800…2250 i3/aiae; aenioa /a?iaiiy aeneaaaoi?a 15…23 i; ?ie?noue
aoiea?a-ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a 56…75 i3; i?eeiaeueiee ioa?? ae?iaa?ee
1100…1250 ii; aeiaaeeia ?icaaioaaeoaaeueii? eiinie? ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a
20…34 i; aeiaaeeia eiiaa??iiai ii?caea 130…250 i; oaeaee?noue ?ooo
ii?caea ii o?an? 9…15 i/n; aaioaaeii?aeeiii?noue ii?caea 1,5…2,5 o/i
aeey aaeeeeo ea?»???a c i?iaeoeoeai?noth 10…50 iei.o/??e; aeiaaeeia
ii?caea 30…50 i; oaeaee?noue ii?caea 6…8 i/n; ieiua ia?a??co
aaioaaeiiano/iai aeieiaa — 0,75…1,0 i2 aeey iaeeo ea?»???a c
i?iaeoeoeai?noth aei 10 iei.o/??e.

?en. 2 — Caeaaei?noue ieoiieo ?en. 3
— Caeaaei?noue oaoi?/ii?

aeo?ao a?ae oai?aoe/ii? i?i-
i?iaeoeoeaiino? o?ainii?oiiai

aeoeoeaiino? aeneaaaoi?a aac-
eiiieaeno c eiiaa??ieie ii?c-

ia?a?aii? ae??
aeaie a?ae oaeaeeino? ?o ?ooo, aeia-

aeeie ii?caea ? o?ane

Oea aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?? iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? , ye?
caaacia/othoue oaoiieia?/io aoaeoeai?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy.

?ICAe?E 3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iai/eo i?ioean?a oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey
?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae

Iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeiiai iia? eiino?oeoe?? iniiaieo iaoei eiiieaen?a,
ye? caaacia/othoue aacia?a?ai?noue aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai iioieo a??ie/i?
iane i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e ae?iaee aeaith:

aeey eiiieaen?a c? no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie — aeneaaaoi? aacia?a?aii?
ae?? c aeaioeiaoiaei ?iai/ei i?aaiii ? e?iaiaoe/ii iia»ycaiei c iei
i?eeiaeueiei eiiaa??ii, eiino?oeoeaia ii?aeiaiiy yeiai caaacia/o?
aacoaea?ia ?icaaioaaeaiiy e?oiiieoneiai? a??ie/i? iane c eiaoa ia
eiiaa??, e noai?th? aenieii?iaeoeoeaiee aacia?a?aiee iio?e;
a?ioeoeeueii-ae?iaeeueiee ia?aaioaaeoaa/, aei yeiai aoiaeeoue
a?ioio-niiaeeaa/ ? oeee?iae?e/ia aioo??oiueiaaeeiaa ae?iaa?ea e?oiiiai
iiae??aiaiiy oa iiai?ioia ?icaaioaaeoaaeueia eiiniey, ui caaacia/o?
i?eeii a??ie/i? iane a?ae aeneaaaoi?a, i?aeaioiaeo ?? aeey
o?ainii?ooaaiiy no??/eiaei eiiaa??ii ? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aea?eiee
no??/eiaee eiiaa??;

aeey o?ainii?oieo eiiieaen?a c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie, ye? neeaaethoueny
c oa?i??ii-c»?aeiaieo i?ae niaith iaeiia?nueiaeo a?ce?a, ia yeeo
cae??ieththoueny iaoaeaa? aeieiae, ia»?aeiai? niaoe?aeueieie
ia?ae?eooyie a ?aeeia aaioaaeiiano/a iieioii; iaaaioaaeoaaeueiee
i?eno??e, ui neeaaea?oueny c ie?aieo aeie?a i?eeiaeueiiai aoiea?a c
a?ioioii aeey ni?ooaaiiy a??ie/i? iane ? aeae?eaiiy iaaaaa?eoo oa
aac?ieeeiaiai niiaeeaa/a, i?eno?ith aeey aacoaea?iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
eiiaa??iiai ii?caea c aeieiaii ? naeoi?iei caoai?ii oa ?aaoeueiaaiiai
i?eaiaeo eiiaa??iiai ii?caea; ?icaaioaaeoaaeueiee i?eno??e c aeaiia
?icaaioaaeoaaeueieie eiinieyie, ye? caaacia/othoue oi?oeaaa
?icaaioaaeaiiy eiiaa??iiai ii?caea ? aeainoi?iiith a?aeneieo a?aeaae?a.

Aeeiiaiee eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
o?a?eoi??? ?ooo ??aeo/iai ?aa?a eiaoa aeneaaaoi?a i?ae /an oaoiieia?/ieo
iia?aoe?e a?ae?iaee aeaith. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia»?aeiaiiy iaa?oaeueiiai
?ooo aeaioeiaoiaiai ?iai/iai i?aaio ?c cai?ioii-iinooiaeueiei ?ooii
iaoai?cio iaii?o ? i?aeeiio ?oeiyoee o aeaeyae? eoe?niiai iaoai?cio
aeicaiey? ?aae?coaaoe on? aeaee o?a?eoi??? ?ooo ??aeo/iai ?aa?a eiaoa,
iaiao?aei? aeey a?ae?iaee aeaith. ?acii c oeei ??aeo/a ?aa?i eiaoa c
eii?aeeiaoaie O ? Y ?ooa?oueny ca ??ciiiai?oieie o?a?eoi??yie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae iaii?o (Vi) ? iaa?oaiiy
?ioi?a ((?). Eii?aeeiaoe O ? Y aecia/athoueny nenoaiith ??aiyiue, yea
a?aoiao? ci?ie ia?aiao??a ?iai/iai i?aaio a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
oaeaeeinoae ?ioi?a ? iaii?o

X=Xo-R»sin(((?no-(()+R(sin((+(?)
(1)

Y=Yo-R»cos(((?no-(()+R(cos((+(?)

, a?aae; (2)

, a?aae,

aea Xo, Yo- eii?aeeiaoe a?n? iaa?oaiiy e?eaioeio (a?n? aeie?a i?aea?nee
?ioi?a), i; R»- a?aenoaiue i?ae a?nnth aeiea i?aea?nee ?ioi?a oa a?nnth
iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a, i; ((?no — eoo a?aeoeeaiiy e?eaioeio a?ae aa?oeeae? o
aeo?aeiiio iieiaeaii? (eiee iiai?noth aoyaiooa ?oeiyoea), a?aae; (( —
eoo a?aeoeeaiiy e?eaioeio a?ae aeo?aeiiai iieiaeaiiy, a?aae; R( —
?aae?on ?iai/iai i?aaio ii ??aeo/iio ?aa?o, i; ( — eooiaa eii?aeeiaoa
??aeo/iai ?aa?a, a?aae; (? — eoo a?aeoeeaiiy eoe?ne (?oeiyoee) a?ae
aeo?aeiiai iieiaeaiiy, a?aae; ( — eooiaa oaeaee?noue iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a,
ia/n; t — /an ?ooo, n; a, a, n — ci?ii? ia?aiao?e eoe?niiai iaoai?cio.

*eneiaa ??oaiiy nenoaie ??aiyiue (1) o ?aaeueiiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie
oaeaeeinoae ?ioi?a ? iaii?o aeicaieeei io?eiaoe /eiaei ??ciiiai?oieo
o?a?eoi??e ??aeo/iai ?aa?a eiaoa e aecia/eoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae
?ioi?a ? iaii?o, ye? caaacia/othoue aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e,
iaiao?aeieo aeey ae?iaee aeaith: i?ae?iaea onooio (? = 0,35n-1, Vi =
0…0,5 i/n; ?ic?iaea onooia c iaaaeaiiyi (? = 0…0,35n-1, Vi =
1,0…0,5 i/n; /a?iaiiy iaaaeaii? a??ie/i? iane (? = 0,35…0,6n-1, Vi
= 0,5…1,5 i/n; i?eae?aiiy iaaaaa?eoo (? = 0…0,35n-1,Vi =
0,5…-0,5i/n; ca/euaiiy i?aeioae onooio (? = 0n-1, Vi =0,5…1,0i/n.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ioi?iei ?iai/ei i?aaiii iiaeia aeeiiaoe an? o?a?eoi???
?ooo ??aeo/iai ?aa?a eiaoa, ye? aeeiiothoueny iaeiieiaoiaei
aeneaaaoi?ii, oa aeiaeaoeiai o??ciiiai?oieoe ?ooe ?iai/iai i?aaio o
aeai?. Oea aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue a?ae?iaee aeaith
aeneaaaoi?ii aacia?a?aii? ae?? ii??aiyii c iaeiieiaoiaei.

I?iaaaeai? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa
aeneaaaoi?a aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? ci?ie eiao?oe??ioa
iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa (Ei) a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
?ic?iaethaaieo ii??ae, aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a eiaoa oa ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, neeiaeo oa e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iai/iai i?aaio.
Anoaiiaeai? cia/aiiy Ei aeeiioaaieo oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e a?ae?iaee
aeaith: i?ae?iaea ? ?icae?aiiy onooio c iaaaioaaeaiiyi a??ie/i? iane
Ei=0,81; /a?iaiiy iaaaeaii? a??ie/i? iane Ei=0,95; ca/euaiiy i?aeioae
onooio Ei=0,30; na?aaeiueicaaaeaia cia/aiiy Ei=0,92. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
cia/aiiy neeiaeo oa e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii?
ae??, ye? aecia/athoue iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa, ia?aa?eueoothoue cia/aiiy oeeo
ia?aiao??a iaeiieiaoiaeo aeneaaaoi??a ? caaacia/othoue a?eueo aoaeoeaio
?ic?iaeo i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae c aenieeie cia/aiiyie Ei.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iiooaeiino? i?eaiaea ?iai/iai i?aaio
aeneaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??, aeo?a/aii? ia /a?iaiiy, i?aeeii a??ie/i?
iane eiaoai ? ia?ai?uaiiy i?eeiaeueiiai eiiaa??a. Anoaiiaeaia
caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy iiooaeiino? i?eaiaea ?iai/iai i?aaio ca
aea?aaeaioiei iiiaioii ia aaeo ?ioi?a

,eIi; M?=M/?+Ma??+Me?,eIi. (3)

,eIi; Me?=0,5ipeGi?grsin((, eIi,

aea q — ?ie?noue eiaoa, i3; EF — ieoiiee ii?? eiiaiiy, eIa; ( — ia»?i
iane ?ic?iaethaaii? ii?iaee, o/i3; g — i?enei?aiiy a?eueiiai iaae?iiy,
i/n; E? — eiao?oe??io ?ic?eoeaiiy ii?iaee o eiao?; Ae? — ae?aiao? ?ioi?a
??aeo/iai ?aa?a, i; h — aenioa eiaoa, i; np — oaeaee?noue iaa?oaiiy
?ioi?a, ia/oa; (? — eeae on?o ia?aaea/ i?eaiaea ?ioi?a; Ia —
aea?aaeaioiee iiiaio ia aaeo ?ioi?a, eIi; I? — na?aaei?e noia?iee iiiaio
ia aaeo ?ioi?a ca ?-e ?ioa?aae /ano, eIi; ti — ?-e ?ioa?aae /ano, n;
I/? — iiiaio /a?iaiiy, eIi; Ia?? — iiiaio i?aeeiio aaioaaeo o eiao?,
eIi; Ie? — iiiaio ia?ai?uaiiy i?eeiaeueiiai eiiaa??a, eIi; Eno? —
eiao?oe??io, a?aoiaoth/ee ia?aaeuaiiy ia»?io ?ic?iaethaaii? no?oaeee
iaae ?ie?noth eiaoa (Eno?=2,5); (/ — eoo /a?iaiiy, ?aae ((/ =1,75); ( —
eooiaa eii?aeeiaoa ??aeo/iai ?aa?a eiaoa (a?ae?aooiie a?ae ieaeiuei?
ia?oai? oi/ee), a?aae; ??e — ia?aaeaaaeueia /enei e?iaiaoe/iiai ca»yceo
?ioi?a-e?eaioeia ea/aiiy eiiaa??a (aei??aith? /eneo eiao?a ?ioi?a); Gi?
— iana i?eeiaeueiiai eiiaa??a c aaioaaeai, eI; r — ?aae?on iaa?oaiiy
a?n? i?aea?nee i?eeiaeueiiai eiiaa??a aei e?eaioeio, i; (( — eooiaa
eii?aeeiaoa e?eaioeio ea/aiiy eiiaa??a (a?ae?aooiie a?ae ieaeiuei?
ia?oai? oi/ee), a?aae.

C a?aooaaiiyi caeaaeiino? (3) iiaoaeiaaii iaaaioaaeoaaeuei? ae?aa?aie ?
aecia/ai? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy iiooaeiino? i?eaiaea ?iai/iai i?aaio
??cieo oeii?ici???a aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??, ye? caaacia/othoue
aoaeoeaio ?ic?iaeo neaeueiiai aeaith.

Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean iiae??aiaiiy a??ie/i? iane o oeee?iae?e/i?e
aioo??oiueiaaeeia?e ae?iaa?oe?. Oia?oa anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a, ye? aecia/athoue ?? i?aoeacaeaoi?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue:

, (4)

aea (c — eoo caoeniaiiy iiae??aithaaiiai eonea ae?iaey/eie iiaa?oiyie,
a?aae; ( — eiao?oe??io oa?oy a??ie/i? ii?iaee ia ae?iaey/o iiaa?oith;

?aae?on aioo??oiuei? oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi? ae?iaey/i? iaieie

, i, (5)

?aae?on ciai?oiuei? oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi? ae?iaey/iai aaeo

, i, (6)

aea Aeao, daeo — ?ici??e, a?aeiia?aeii, ao?aeii? ? aeo?aeii? u?eeie
ae?iaa?ee, ye? aecia/athoueny ?ici??ii eonea ia aoiae? ? aeoiae?, i.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aae?one ae?iaey/eo iiaa?oiiue caeaaeaoue a?ae nooiaiy
ae?iaeaiiy (Aeao — daeo) ? aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaethaaii? ii?iaee ( ():
e?i?eii c?inoathoue ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ao?aeiiai ioai?o ? niaaeathoue ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi aeo?aeiiai ioai?o, ciaioothoueny ca a?ia?aie?/iith
caeaaei?noth ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy ii?iaee ia ae?iaey/o
iiaa?oith a?ae 0,1 aei 0,4, aeinyaath/e i?i?iaeueieo cia/aiue
(Ro.min=0,7…0,9 i, ra.min=0,3…0,4 i) c eiao?oe??ioii oa?oy
(=0,3…0,4. Oea aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?th oeee?iae?e/ii?
aioo??oiueiaaeeiai? ae?iaa?ee c i?i?iaeueiith aaaith ? caaacia/eei
aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a o
noaiao IO ? OeIO ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae.

I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei ia o?ce/ieo
iiaeaeyo a eaai?aoi?ieo oa i?iieneiaeo oiiaao. Iaa?oioiaai? e?eoa???
iiae?aiino? oa aaiiao?e/i? ianooaae iiaeaethaaiiy: aeey iiaeae?
aeneaaaoi?a ? aeaith — 10, aeey iiaeae? ae?iaa?ee — 15, aeey
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai c?acea aeneaaaoi?a A?AN-2000 — 8,1, aeey
o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie 1,0. O i?iieneiaeo
oiiaao aeine?aeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueiiai c?acea aeneaaaoi?a
aacia?a?aii? ae?? A?AN-2000, caaaeueiee aeaeyae yeiai iaaaaeaii ia
?en.4, i?iaaaeai? ia Ia?aiiaenueeiio ea?»??? I?ai?/iiai ACE, a
o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno c eiiaa??iei ii?caeii, iaaaaeaiiai ia ?en. 5 —
ia ?eaaeuenueeiio a?ai?oiiio ea?»??? AI «Aei?i?iia?oaei?ii».

Anoaiiaeai? noaoenoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano
/a?iaiiy aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae?? (eoo /a?iaiiy (/, eoo
?icaaioaaeoaaiiy (? oa eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa Ei); aeyaeaii
caeaaei?noue i?iaeoeoeaiino?, coneeue /a?iaiiy ? iiooaeiino? ?iai/iai
i?aaio aeneaaaoi?a a?ae e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a oa aeanoeainoae ii?iaee,
a oaeiae caeaaei?noue coneeue, iiooaeiino? ? yeino? iiae??aiaiiy ii??ae
??ciiiai?oii? i?oeiino? oeee?iae?e/iith aioo??oiueiaaeeiaith ae?iaa?eith
a?ae ?? ia?aiao??a oa aeanoeainoae iiae??aithaaieo ii??ae; anoaiiaeaii,
ui ?iciiae?eaiiy oyaiaiai coneeey ii aeiaaeei? eiiaa??iiai ii?caea ia?
ia??aiii??iee oa?aeoa?, cia/aiiy oyaiaiai coneeey o?eeoe?eiiai i?eaiaea
iathoue yne?aai ae?aaeaio ?iia??i?noue aeyaeaiiy a ae?aiacii?
iii?iaeueieo cia/aiue.

?en. 4 — Aenia?eiaioaeueiee c?acie aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??
A?AN-2000

?enoiie 5. Aenia?eiaioaeueiee c?acie eiiaa??iiai ii?caea

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaeaee?noue ii?caea (Vn) oa iia?o?yiee caci? i?ae
?ioi?ii oa noaoi?ii (() ? iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ye? aecia/athoue oyaiaa
coneeey eiiaa??iiai ii?caea c e?i?eiei aneio?iiiei aeaeaoiii (EAAe);
aeiaaaeaii, ui ca ( = 8…11 ii EAAe ?icaeaa? iaeneiaeueia oyaiaa
coneeey c iaeneiaeueiith oaeaee?noth Vn.max = 6,0 i/n, a ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
iia?o?yiiai caci?o a?ae 8 ii aei 14 ii oyaiaa coneeey cieaeo?oueny a
1,3…2,0 ?ace. Oea aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?th, iaa?oiooaaoe
?aaeei ?ooo, ui caaacia/o? ?aae?caoe?th iaeneiaeueieo oyaiaeo coneeue oa
i?iaeoeoeaiino? eiiaa??iiai ii?caea.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ic?iaeai? eiino?oeoe?? iaoei i?aoeacaeaoi?, a oaeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?o iniiaieo ia?aiao??a a?aeiia?aea? ?ic?aooieiaei.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaa?oioiaai? eiino?oeoe?? eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey
?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae oa ?o eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e, ui
aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe oaoi?/i? caaaeaiiy ia ?o noai?aiiy oa ?iai/o
aeieoiaioaoe?th aeey aeaioiaeaiiy.

?ICAe?E 4. ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo noai oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a a?ae?iaee aeaith eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie a?ae?iaee aeneaaoi?ii? caoiaeee acaeiaae
o?iioo ?ia?o, yeeie ia?aaeaa/aia iine?aeiai?noue aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
iia?aoe?e a?ae?iaee aeaith aeneaaaoi?ii aacia?a?aii? ae??: iaaaioaaeaiiy
a??ie/i? iane ia aea?eiee o?ainii?o (no??/eia? eiiaa??e aai eiiaa??i?
ii?caee) aea?eiei eiiieaenii (aeneaaaoi? aacia?a?aii? ae?? ?acii c
ia?aaaioaaeoaa/ai) i?ae /an eiai ia?ai?uaiiy acaeiaae o?iioo ?ia?o;
a??cea a iiao caoiaeeo, ui ia?aaeaa/a? i?aeaioiaeo i?o? aeey ?ici?uaiiy
aea?eiiai eiiieaeno ? i?ioiaeaeaiiy «ia?oaeo cii». Noaie iaoiiaeththoue
?ici?uaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy o aeai? oa eiai oaoiieia?/iee aca?iica»ycie ye
i?ae niaith, oae ? c aea?eiei o?ainii?oii. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y
a?ae?iaee aeaith ca aenioith onooio ? oe?eiith caoiaeee, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
aeeiiaiiy oaeeo oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e: i?ae?iaeo onooio, ?icae?aiiy
eiai oa iaaaeaiiy a??ie/i? iane, aeeiaiiy a??ie/i? iane ia aaee/eio
e?ieo iaaaeaiiy c iaeii/aniei i?eae?aiiyi iaaaaa?eoo oa ??
iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia caniae aea?eiiai o?ainii?oo ? ca/euaiiy i?aeioae
onooio. I?ney oeueiai aea?eiee eiiieaen ia?ai?ua?oueny acaeiaae o?iioo
?iaioe ia aaee/eio e?ieo iaaaeaiiy ? oeeee iiaoi?th?oueny. Oia?oa
?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie a?ae?iaee aeneaaaoi?ii? caoiaeee acaeiaae
o?iioo ?ia?o o?ainii?oiei eiiieaenii c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie, ye?
a?aecia/athoueny ia?ai?uaiiyi aeneaaaoi?a ca aeoaith a?aeiinii oi/ee
eiai ?icaaioaaeaiiy o aea?eiee iaaaioaaeoaaeueiee i?eno??e i?ae /an
a?ae?iaee aeaith ? a??cee o iiao caoiaeeo oa ?icae?eaiiyi o?iioo ?ia?o
ia o?e oiiai? ciie. O naith /a?ao iine?aeiaii aeeiiothoueny
aeeiaeueiiiaaaioaaeoaaeuei?, ao?i-i?ae??ai? ?iaioe oa ia?anoaaiiy
aea?eieo ?aeeiaeo oeyo?a.

Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ia?aiao??a i?ae?iaee onooio aeneaaaoi?ii
aacia?a?aii? ae?? a?ae o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaethaaieo
ii??ae, ia?aiao??a a?ae?iaethaaiiai aeaith oa ?iai/iai i?aaio
aeneaaaoi?a, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?ai?oa a?aeiieo iniaeea?noth
eiino?oeoe?? ?iai/iai i?aaio oa oaoiieia??th a?ae?iaee aeaith
aeneaaaoi?ii aacia?a?aii? ae?? . A ?acoeueoao? anoaiiaeaii oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui a oiiaao cae?ci?oaeieo ea?»???a
E?eaaano ea?iaaia iaaaeaiiy a??ie/i? iane o aeai? aeneaaaoi?aie
aacia?a?aii? ae?? caaacia/o?oueny ca oaeeie ia?aiao?aie i?ae?iaee:
aeeaeia — 1,7…2,2 i, aenioa — 5,0…5,4 i, oe?eia (aeey aeaio
aeneaaaoi?ieo caoiaeie) — 30,0…34,0 i.

Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy oe?eie ?iai/i? ieiuaaeee ia
ai?eciio?:

a cii? ae?iaieoeoaa ao?i-i?ae?eaieo ?ia?o

Op=Oi+Oni+La+Bc.e+Oo?+Oa.a., i,
(7)

aea Oi — oe?eia i?aei??ii? no?ie, i; Oni — ci?uaiiy i?aei??ii? no?ie
i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ao?i-i?ae?eaieo ?ia?o, i; La — a?aenoaiue a?ae
ao?i-i?ae?eaii? iieine aei aea?eiiai no??/eiaiai eiiaa??a, i; Bc.e —
oe?eia eiiaa??a, i; Oo? — oe?eia o?ainii?oii? iieine, i; Oa.a. — oe?eia
ao?i-i?ae?eaii? iieine ieae/aeaaea/iai ai?eciioo, i;

a cii? ?icaaeo i?ae??aaiiai ia»?io a??ie/i? iane

Op( = O? — Oi — Oni i;
(8)

a cii? a?aei?aoeueiaaii? aeneaaaoi?ii? caoiaeee

Op(( = Op( + Oc, i,
(9)

aea Oc — oe?eia aeneaaaoi?ii? caoiaeee, yea aecia/a?oueny ia?aiao?aie
aeneaaaoi?a oa noaiith ?ici?uaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy ia ?iai/?e ieiuaaeoe?, i.

Caaaeyee anoaiiaeaiei caeaaeiinoyi (7-9) aeey oiia cae?ci?oaeieo
ea?»???a E?eaaano aecia/ai? ia?aiao?e ?iai/i? ieiuaaeee o ??cieo ciiao
aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia ai?eciio?: o cii? i?iaaaeaiiy ao?i-i?ae?eaieo
?ia?o — 56 i, o cii? ?icaaeo a??ie/i? iane — 27 i, o cii?
a?aei?aoeueiaaii? aeneaaaoi?ii? caoiaeee — 51 i.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae??, ye? a?aoiaothoue eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? ?
aca?iica»ycie oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a c ia?aiao?aie a??ie/eo
?ia?o, ao?aoe /ano ia aeiiii?aei? iia?aoe?? oa iniaeeaino? a?ae?iaee
aeaith e aeneaaaoi?ii? caoiaeee.

Oai?aoe/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae?? aecia/a?oueny
ae?acii

, i3// (10)

aea qe — ?ie?noue eiaoa, i3; t/ — o?eaae?noue i?ioeano /a?iaiiy,n; tm —
o?eaae?noue i?ioeano o?ainii?ooaaiiy a??ie/i? iane eiaoai i?ney eiai
aeoiaeo c aeaith aei iiiaioo ii/aoeo caaeeaeaiiy ae?oaiai eiaoa o aea?e,
n.

Aecia/ai? ia?aiao?e ?ieino? eiaoa e o?eaaeino? /a?iaiiy aeey
??ciiiai?oieo oeii?ici???a aeneaaaoi?a: A?AN-2000 — qe =2,0 i3, t/ =
4…5 n; A?AN-3300 — qe =3,3 i3, t/ = 6…7 n; A?AN-4600 — qe =4,6 i3,
t/ = 7…8 n; A?AN-5000 — qe =5,0 i3, t/ = 8…9 n.

Anoaiiaeaia ieoiia aaaa oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oa cia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo eiao?oe??io?a iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa (Ei) oa aeneaaaoe?? (Ea),
ye? aecia/athoue oaoi?/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue: i?ae?iaea onooio — 10% (Ei =
0,81, Ea = 0,58), aeeiaiiy iaaaeaii? a??ie/i? iane — 88,0% (Ei = 0,95,
Ea = 0,68), ca/euaiiy i?aeioae onooio — 2,0% (Ei = 0,3, Ea = 0,21),
na?aaeiueicaaaeaia cia/aiiy — (Ei = 0,92, Ea = 0,66).

Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy oai?aoe/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie:

ia aeaieie?ei?e o?an?

, o/aiae (11)

ia iaeiieie?ei?e o?an?

,o/aiae (12)

aea Fn — ieiua ia?a??co aaioaaeiiano/iai aeieiaa, i2; (- ianeiia iana
o?ainii?oiaaiiai iaoa??aeo, o/i3; ln — aeiaaeeia eiiaa??iiai ii?caea, i;
Vn- oaeaee?noue ?ooo ii?caea, i/n; a — aeiionoeiee aacia/iee ?ioa?aae
i?ae ii?caeaie, i; Lp — a?aenoaiue i?ae ?ic»?caeaie, i; Sp — aeiaaeeia
?icaiio ii?caea, i; Sm — aeiaaeeia aaeuei?aiiai oeyoo ii?caea, i; a —
iaoi/i?noue onoaiiaee ii?caea, i; lc — aeiaaeeia no??eee, i; mn —
e?euee?noue ii?cae?a a iaeii/anii i?iionei?e a?oi?; tpn,, tmn- /an
a?aeiia?aeii ?icaiio oa aaeueioaaiiy ii?caea, n.

Oaoi?/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno ia a?aei?io a?ae
iiia?aaei?o iaoiaeee a?aoiao? nooi?iue iaaaioaaeaiiy eiiaa??iiai ii?caea
? aecia/a?oueny ae?acii

,o/aiae (13)

aea Ei — eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy aeieiaa a??ie/ith ianith; E? —
eiao?oe??io ?ic?eoeaiiy a??ie/i? iane; Ec — eiao?oe?aio iaaaioaaeaiiy
eiiaa??iiai ii?caea; O? — na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue ii?caea, n.

Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioo iaaaioaaeaiiy eiiaa??iiai ii?caea
a?ae aeiaaeeie ii?caea, a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo a??ie/i? iane oa eooa
iaoeeo o?ane ? aecia/ai? eiai iieacieee (Ec = 0,64…0,90).

Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao ia?aiao??a nenoaie ?ic?iaee ia
aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? c?
no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie o noaiao IO. Aecia/aii, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia?
aenioa ?iai/i? ciie oa aenioa onooio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui nii/aoeo ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi aenioe ?iai/i? ciie iaaaaeai? ieoii? aeo?aoe cieaeothoueny
ca ia?aaie?/iith caeaaei?noth o ca»yceo c ?ioaineaiei ca?eueoaiiyi
ae?iaie/i? iiooaeiino? ea?»??o ? aeinyaathoue i?i?iaeueieo cia/aiue.
Iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy aenioe ?iai/i? ciie ca oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ea?»??o ia eiiiaino? cia/ieo eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao ia
i?eaeaaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aea?eieo eiiieaen?a iaoei ? cania?a o?ainii?oo.
Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aa?oino? ?ic?iaee oa ooai?aiiy iaeano?
iioeioio iaaaaeaieo ieoiieo aeo?ao, ui aecia/a? ?aoe?iiaeueia cia/aiiy
aenioe ?iai/i? ciie. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ca oiiae iaaaeeei? aenioe onooio
(10…15 i) aaeee? ieoii? aeo?aoe aecia/athoueny iayai?noth /eiaei?
e?eueeino? o?ainii?oieo ai?eciio?a o iaaeao ?iai/i? ciie ? ?noioieie
aeo?aoaie ia i?eaeaaiiy aea?eieo eiiieaen?a ? cania?a o?ainii?oo. Ca
oiiae ca?eueoaiiy aenioe onooio ciaioo?oueny ?o e?euee?noue a iaaeao
?iai/i? ciie, ciaioothoueny eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe ? cieaeo?oueny
i?iaeoeoeaia iiooaei?noue ea?»??o, a i?iaeoeoeai?noue eiiieaeno
i?aeaeuo?oueny ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy ao?ao /ano ia aeeiiaiiy aeiiii?aeieo
iia?aoe?e ? ia?anoaaiiy aea?eieo no??/eiaeo eiiaa???a. Iaaaaeai? ieoii?
aeo?aoe ciaioothoueny ca a?ia?aie?/iith caeaaei?noth, noaa?e?cothoueny,
aecia/ath/e ?aoe?iiaeueio aenioo onooio.

Aeey oiia cae?ci?oaeieo ea?»???a E?eaaano aecia/ai? ?aoe?iiaeuei?
cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a nenoaie ?ic?iaee ?c canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaen?a c?
no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie a noaiao IO: aenioa ?iai/i? ciie — 60…100 i;
aenioa onooio — 25…30 i; aeiaaeeia o?iioo ?ia?o — 1000…1700 i;
oe?eia ?iai/i? ieiuaaeee — 70…90 i. Iaa?oioiaaiee ?aoe?iiaeueiee
a?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae i?ae??aaii? neaeueii? iane ca IO: dcp =
160…200 ii, ai?no o?ainii?oaaaeueii? o?aeoe?? (0…400 ii) — 88…92%,
a iio?aaoth/i? aeiae??aiaiiy (400…1000 ii) — 8…10%, iaaaaa?eo
(iiiaae 1000 ii) — 0,05…0,1%.

?ICAe?E 5. ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo noai aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o a ?iai/?e
cii? aeeaieeo ea?»???a oa ?o no?oeoo?ia nenoaiaoecaoe?y

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o eiiieaenaie iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? o ?iai/?e cii? aeeaieeo ea?»???a ca IO ? ca OeIO,
iniaeea?noue yeeo iieyaa? o canoinoaaii? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo eiiieaen?a
iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? c ?aoe?iiaeueieie oaoiieia?/ieie ?
eiino?oeoeaieie ia?aiao?aie aeey noai?aiiy aacia?a?aiiai
aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai iioieo a??ie/i? iane c iino?eiei oaoiieia?/iei
aca?iica»yceii ? iacaeaaei?noth aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a
aeneaaaoe??, o?ainii?ooaaiiy ? ?icaaioaaeaiiy neaeueieo ii??ae ie?aieie
naiino?eieie iaoeiaie.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o eiiieaenaie iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? c no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie o ?iai/?e cii? aeeaieeo
aeaeiaoaieo ai?eciio?a, ye? i?noyoue ei?eni? eiiaeeie c ?ice?eaieie
neaeueieie ii?iaeaie. Aiie ia?aaeaa/athoue ae?iaee iaeiei aea?eiei
eiiieaenii iaeiiai aai e?eueeio ai?eciio?a c iiae?eii ? aac iiae?eo
onooio ia i?aeonooie: c iaeaaeiaiiyi o ?iai/?e cii? o?ueio o?ainii?oieo
ai?eciio?a, eiaeai c yeeo a?ae?iaey?oueny naiino?eiei aea?eiei
eiiieaenii, yeee cae?enith? ia eiaeiiio ai?eciio? aeeiaiiy aa?oiueiai e
ieaeiueiai i?aeonooi?a ia iaeei o?ainii?oiee ai?eciio; c iiae?eii ciie
ia o?e o?ainii?oieo ai?eciioe, ye? iine?aeiaii a?ae?iaeythoueny aeaiia
aea?eieie eiiieaenaie ia iaeei o?ainii?oiee ai?eciio iiae?eii onooio ia
i?aeonooie; c iiae?eii ciie ia /ioe?e o?ainii?oieo ai?eciioe ?c ci?iiith
?o a?ae?iaeith aeaiia aea?eieie eiiieaenaie aac iiae?eo onooio ia
i?aeonooie.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a c no??/eiaeie
eiiaa??aie a?ae?iaee aa?oi?o ?ice?eaieo ai?eciio?a, ai?uoth/eo o?eueee
?ice?eai? neaeuei? ii?iaee, a oaeiae ia?aaaaeii neaeuei? ii?iaee ?
/anoeiai ei?eni? eiiaeeie.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a c? no??/eiaeie
eiiaa??aie a?ae?iaee aeeaieeo aeaeiaoaieo ai?eciio?a, ai?uoth/eo ei?eni?
eiiaeeie oa ii?iaeo, a cii? ?nioth/i? OeIO, yea caaacia/o? ?icae?eueia
o?ainii?ooaaiiy ? neeaaeoaaiiy ei?enieo eiiaeei ? ii?iaee. Noaia
ia?aaeaa/a? i?ea»yceo aea?eieo eiiaa???a aei iioeeiai eiiaa??a OeIO ca
aeiiiiiaith nenoaie oi?oeaaeo eiiaa???a.

Aeey aea?eiiai eiiieaeno ?aeiiaiaeothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? oeii?ici??e
aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae?? (A?AN-3300, A?AN-4600, A?AN-5000) oa
a?aeiia?aei? a?ioioeeii-ae?iaeeuei? ia?aaaioaaeoaa/? (IAN-1000,
IAN-1400, IAN-2250).

Aea?? oaoiieia?/ieo noai ? oeio aea?eiiai eiiieaeno aeey eiie?aoieo
a?ie/i-oaoi?/ieo oiia cae?enith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o
caeyaaiiy ei?enieo eiiaeei, ia?aiao??a ea?»??o oa ?aaeeio a??ie/eo
?ia?o.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie canoinoaaiiy aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??
? a?ioioi-ae?iaeeueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a ye iia?eueiiai
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiiai ioieoo ca OeIO ? ??cieie niiniaaie iiaea/?
a??ie/i? iane ia iioeeee no??/eiaee eiiaa??: /a?ac ?oaeinione; /a?ac
?oaeinione c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?aaeaoi/iiai no??/eiaiai eiiaa??a,
?icoaoiaaiiai acaeiaae neeaaeo a??ie/i? iane; aaciina?aaeiuei
ia?aaaioaaeoaa/ai ia iioeeee eiiaa??; ia iioeeee eiiaa?? c aeei?enoaiiyi
ia?aaeaoi/iiai no??/eiaiai eiiaa??a, ?icoaoiaaiiai acaeiaae neeaaeo.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie canoinoaaiiy eiiaa??ieo ii?cae?a ca OeIO,
ye? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoueny ye i?aeeiiiee o?ainii?o ?acii
c iaio a?ii?caeeeie, i?ae i?ae /an canoinoaaiiy no??/eiaeo eiiaa???a
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueieie ioieoaie. ?ic?iaeai? noaie ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueieo
ioieo?a, ye? ca niiniaii ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iiae?eythoueny ia oae? aeaee:
aoiea?i? — c ia?aaaioaaeoaa/aie ca aeiiiiiaith aeoioethth/eo ?ieinoae
(aoiea??a); aeneaaaoi?i? — c aeei?enoaiiyi aeey ia?aaaioaaeaiiy neeaae?a
a??ie/i? iane ? ia?aaaioaaeaiiyi ?? o eiiaa??iee ii?cae aeneaaaoi?aie
oeeee?/ii? aai aacia?a?aii? ae??; eiia?iiaai? (aeneaaaoi?ii-aoiea?i?) —
c aeei?enoaiiyi aeneaaaoi?iiai oa aoiea?iiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy. Oea
aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/i? noaie canoinoaaiiy eiiaa??ieo ii?cae?a
ca OeIO ia aeayeeo aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo ae?eyieao o ??cieo aaeocyo
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?.

Oia?oa c a?aooaaiiyi i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? eiiieaenii?
iaoai?caoe??, nooiaiy aacia?a?aiino? ??cieo aeae?a oaoiieia?? oa
iniaeeainoae ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae nenoaiaoeciaaia
no?oeoo?a oaoiieia?/ieo noai, yea ia?aaeaa/a? iiae?e ?o ia oaoiieia?/i?
a?oie, oa?aeoa?i? nooiaiai aacia?a?aiino?, aeaeii oaoiieia?e (IO, OeIO),
eiiieaen?a (c? no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie ? eiiaa??iie ii?caeaie) oa
?ic?iaethaaiith a??ie/ith ianith (?oaea, ?ice?eaia ii?iaea), oa iiae?e
ia no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/i? aocee (onooi, ca»ycie i?ae onooiii ?
i?aeeiiiei o?ainii?oii, i?aeeiiiee o?ainii?o, o?ainii?o ia iiaa?oi? oa
a?aeaae), ye? aecia/athoue neeaae, aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy ? oaoiieia?/iee
aca?iica»ycie ie?aieo iaoei eiiieaen?a.

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?aeeeaeo aeeeae?a aaoinaiineeae?a ??cieo
aeae?a oaoiieia?? (OeO, OeIO ? IO). Aeyaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a
iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? o noaiao OeIO ? IO aeicaiey? cieceoe
e?euee?noue aenieoaoiaaieo aaoinaiineeae?a ? a?aeiia?aeii ia»?i
oe?aeeeaeo aeeeae?a a?ae 50 o aei 200 o ia ??e, caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo
oaoiieia?? oa aaioaaeii?aeeiiiino? aaoinaiineeae?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaeocue canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??
i?ae /an ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae aecia/a?oueny
?aoe?iiaeueieie ia?aiao?aie nenoaie ?ic?iaee oa ?o a?aeiia?aei?noth
ai?eciioaeuei?e iiooaeiino? ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei. Canoinoaaiiy
eiiieaen?a c? no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia o cii? aeeaieeo
ai?eciio?a ea?»???a aeeaeiith a?eueoa 200…250 i, ?icoaoiaaieo i?ae
ciiith cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ? iino?eii iiaeeaethaaiith ciiith OeIO.
Canoinoaaiiy eiiaa??ieo ii?cae?a aoaeoeaia ia aaeeeeo ea?»??ao aeeaeiith
iiiaae 100 i, i?iaeoeoeai?noth iiiaae 15,0 iei.o/??e ? aeaeuei?noth
o?ainii?ooaaiiy ia iiaa?oi? 2,0…20,0 ei. Ca OeIO eiiieaene iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye iia?euei?
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeuei? ioieoe (aeneaaaoi? ?acii c ia?aaaioaaeoaa/ai) oa
iaa?no?aeueiee i?aeeiiiee o?ainii?o (eiiaa??i? ii?caee) o ii?aeiaii? c
??cieie aeaeaie ?ic?iaeaieo ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueieo ioieo?a.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie aeei?enoai? i?iaeoieie ?inoeoooaie o
i?iaeoao eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? c OeO ? OeIO ia ea?»??ao c?
neaeueieie ii?iaeaie o ??cieo aaeocyo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?.

?ICAe?E 6. Aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea, oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae

Aeeiiaia aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea aenia?eiaioaeueiiai c?acea
aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae?? A?AN-2000 ia Ia?aiiaenueeiio ea?»???
I?ai?/iiai ACE. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeneaaaoi? aeeiio? an? oaoiieia?/i?
iia?aoe?? a?ae?iaee aeaith (i?ae?iaea onooio, ?icae?aiiy oa iaaaeaiiy
a??ie/i? iane, /a?iaiiy a??ie/i? iane c ?icaaeo, i?eae?aiiy iaaaaa?eoo ?
ca/euaiiy i?aeioae), eiino?oeoe?y aeneaaaoi?a i?aoeacaeaoia, oaeoe/i?
cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a a?aeiia?aeathoue ?ic?aooieiaei. ??oaiiyi
i?aea?aeii/i? eii?n?? c i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue aeneaaaoi?a A?AN-2000,
i?ecia/aii? Iaeacii I?i?no?a /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? O?N?, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey
i?iaeooaaiiy iiaiiiao?aaeiiai c?acea aeei?enoaoe eiino?oeoe?? oa
e?iaiaoe/i? noaie eiai ?iai/iai iaeaaeiaiiy.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno c
eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie ia ?eaaeuenueeiio a?ai?oiiio ea?»???, a
?acoeueoao? yei? anoaiiaeaii eiai i?aoeacaeaoi?noue, aeiaaaeaia
iiaeeea?noue aacoaea?iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy eiiaa??iiai ii?caea ?
o?ainii?ooaaiiy e?oiiieoneiai? a??ie/i? iane ?ici??ii aei 1200 ii,
iiaeieaiiy e?ooeo i?aeeii?a c eooii aei 150, ?ooo ii?caea oaeaee?noth
aei 6 i/n. Ia oaoi?/i?e ia?aae? o canooiieea aieiae Aea?aeieaio O?N?
i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy uiaei i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aeey caaacia/aiiy
ia?aoiaeo ia i?iieneiao aenieoaoaoe?th.

?ic?iaeai? oaoi?/i? caaaeaiiy ? ?iai/a aeieoiaioaoe?y aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??: aea?eiee eiiieaen o neeaae?
A?AN-5000 oa IAN-2250 aeey aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ae?eueieoe? ia
Eaeiaee?nueeiio ea?»??? ? o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno c eiiaa??ieie
ii?caeaie aeey aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ae?eueieoe? I?ae??/ainueeiai
aoa?eueiiai ?ic??co. Iiaecia eiino?oeoe?e iaoei eiiieaen?a caoeuaia 7
aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie ia aeiaoiaee.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue c ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?/ieo noai, iaa?oiooaaiiy
?o iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ? ia?aiao??a nenoaie ?ic?iaee aeei?enoai?
i?iaeoieie ?inoeoooaie i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy i?iaeo?a eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? ia aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo ae?eyieao ? ea?»??ao
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa a noaiao IO ? OeIO: ?inoeoooii
«I?aaeaiae?i?i?oaea» ia I?ai?/iiio ACE oa I?aaeaiiiio ACE, ?inoeoooii
«E?eaaani?iaeo» ia OeACE, ?inoeoooii «AIAeI?i?ieieuei?iao» ia
Eaeueiaee?nueeiio ea?»??? Aeiaeeenueeiai AIE, ?inoeoooii
«Oe?IAeaoaei?iaeo» ia ?eaaeuenueeiio a?ai?oiiio ea?»???, ?inoeoooii
«Neaae?i?ioaoo» ia I?ae??/ainueeiio aoa?eueiiio ?ic??c? AI
«Eaia?iaaoa?eey». Oaoiieia?/ia noaia canoinoaaiiy eiiaa??ieo ii?cae?a ia
I?ae??/ainueeiio ?ic??c? iaaaaeaia ia ?en. 6.

?en. 6 — Oaoiieia?/ia noaia canoinoaaiiy o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno c
eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie ia aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?e ae?eueieoe?
I?ae??/ainueeiai aoa?eueiiai ?ic??co.

Ca ?acoeueoaoie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? ? ii?iaoeai?
aeieoiaioe: «Iaoiaeeea ioe?iee oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a nenoaie
o?ainii?oo c eiiaa??ieie (a?ceiaeie) ii?caeaie aeey a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo
?ic?iaie», «?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o oaoiieia?/ieo noai ?c
canoinoaaiiyi nenoaie o?ainii?oo c eiiaa??ieie (a?ceiaeie) ii?caeaie ia
a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ic?iaeao», «Oaoiieia?/iee ?aaeaiaio a?ae?iaee
ai?eciioo oa a?aeneieo a?aeaaeo ia aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?e ae?eueieoe?
iioieiai? oaoiieia?? a??ie/eo ?ia?o».

Ie?ai? i?eno?i?, ?ic?iaeai? i?ae /an noai?aiiy eiiieaen?a, ai?iaaaeaeai?
o ae?iaieoeoai: 35 i?eno?i?a aeey i?eeaae?a aeey i?aeo?eiee no??/ee o
i?noe? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia caaaa/oaaeuei?e oaa?eoe? ?iACE,
a?ioio-aeeaeeueiee aeey e?oiiieoneiai? neaeueii? iane ia
?aiaoi??enueeiio caaiae? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a AAO «Neaaooe/-E?ei»,
aioo??oiueiaaeeia? ae?iaa?ee ae??aiiai oa na?aaeiueiai iiae??aiaiiy ia
aaaaoueio a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo oa ia?a?iaethaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao
(«sseooaeiac», «Iaanueeaaieia?y» oa ?i.).

?inoeooo «I?aaeaiae?i?i?oaea», ?ic?iaeaoe «Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii?
ae?? i?ae /an ?ic?iaee neaeueieo ii??ae oa ?oae ia I?ai?/iiio ACE»,
?aeiiaiaeoaaa aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy 33 eiiieaene c aeneaaaoi?ii
aacia?a?aii? ae?? ia cae?ci?oaeieo ea?»??ao E?eaaano o noaiao IO ? OeIO
c aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii a?ey 70,0 iei.e?a/??e. ?inoeooo
«AIAeI?i?ieieuei?iao» i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy i?iaeoo aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai?
ae?eueieoe? IO ia Eaeiaee?nueeiio ea?»??? aeia?a aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy IO ? ?aeiiaiaeoaaa ai?iaaaeeoe 18 eiiieaen?a c aeneaaaoi?ii
aacia?a?aii? ae?? ia ea?»??ao eieuei?iai? iaoaeo?a?? c aeiiii?/iei
aoaeoii iiiaae 30,0 iei.e?a/??e. ?inoeoooaie «Neaae?i?ioaoo»,
«Eocaanae?i?ioaoo», «Ae?i?i?oaea», «Ae?i?ieieuei?iao», Ae?AON oa ?AN ?i.
A.A.Nei/einueeiai o aeeiiaii? «Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ii? aeiiia?ae? AeEIO N?N?
i?i canoinoaaiiy nenoaie o?ainii?oo c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie» aecia/aia
iio?aaa o eiiieaenao ia 22 a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoaao c
aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii a?ey 290,0 iei.e?a/??e ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ai?iaaaeeoe
18 eiiieaen?a c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie ia ea?»??ao ??cieo aaeocae
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?. Caaaeueiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae
canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae neeaaea? a?ey 390 iei.e?a/??e o oe?iao 1989
?ieo (i???ioiaii a?ey 100 iei.a?i/??e).

AENIIAEE

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? io?eiai? iia? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?acoeueoaoe
o aaeoc? a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei oeyoii
anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aca?iiae?? ?iai/eo i?aai?a
a??ie/io?ainii?oieo iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? c ii?iaeith, aca?iica»yceo
?o ia?aiao??a c ia?aiao?aie a??ie/eo ?ia?o ? noai?aiiy ia oe?e iniia?
i?eioeeiiai iiai? oaoiieia?? aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei c aacia?a?aiei
iioieii a??ie/i? iane, ui o noeoiiino? ae??oo? aaaeeeao i?eeeaaeio
i?iaeaio i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia aeeaieeo
ea?»??ao c? neaeueieie ?oaeaie ? ii?iaeaie.

Noai ieoaiiy. A??ie/iaeaeiaoaia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iayai?noth aaeeeeo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo eiiieaen?a, ia yeeo iiiaae 80%
cae?cii? ?oaee aeaeiaoaa?oueny a?aee?eoei niiniaii ca oiiae iino?eiiai
iiaeeaeaiiy ea?»???a. O ?iaio? i?aei?e?inoa ca iei?oi?o ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei iaeaaaeeea?oa caaaeaiiy — i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
ea?»???a oeyoii eiioeaio?aoe?? a??ie/eo ?ia?o ? noai?aiiy
aenieiaoaeoeaieo, ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oa aeieia?/ii i???ioiaaieo
oaoiieia?e aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei
iai?yieii ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? ia?ao?ae a?ae OeO oa OeIO aei
iioieiai? oaoiieia?? aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o eiiieaenaie iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? c? no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie ? eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie.

Iaoiaee ae??oaiiy iaoeiai? i?iaeaie aeeth/athoue eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo
oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaeiaeo
aeinyaiaiue a??ie/i? iaoee ? oaoi?ee; nenoaiiee aiae?c eiino?oeoe?e
a??ie/eo iaoei; iaoiaee iaoai?ee neio/eo na?aaeiaeu, oai??? iiae?aiino?
oa eiia??iino?, nenoaiaoecaoe?th oaoiieia?/ieo noai ia iniia? iaoeiaeo
eeaneo?eaoe?e; aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oa
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a??ie/iai
ae?iaieoeoaa; eaai?aoi?i? oa i?iieneia? aenia?eiaioe, ye? a?oioothoueny
ia ieaioaaii? aenia?eiaio?a c? noaoenoe/iith ia?iaeith aeaieo IIAI,
o?ce/iiio iiaeaethaaii?, oaiciiao?e/iiio oa aeaeo?e/iiio aei??thaaii?
iaaeaeo?e/ieo aaee/ei, e?ii- ? oioi?a?no?aoe?? i?ioean?a aca?iiae??
?iai/eo i?aai?a a??ie/eo iaoei c ii?iaeith oa aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao
ia?aa??eo oaoiieia?? ? a??ie/eo iaoei a oiiaao ae?th/eo
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny canoinoaaiiyi ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
iieiaeaiue ? caeii?a oai??e a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o, a??ie/eo iaoei,
iaoai?ee neio/eo na?aaeiaeu, iiae?aiino? oa eiia??iino?; aeei?enoaiiyi
ai?iaiaaieo iaoiae?a o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai
aiae?co, iaa?oioiaai?noth aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? aenia?eiaio?a, ye?
caaacia/othoue oi/i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue;
ni?anoaaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie (?ica?aei?noue ia ia?aaeuo? 10-20%);
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaith ia?aa??eith oaoiieia?? ? eiiieaen?a iaoei c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?o a i?iaeoao ae?th/eo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaea?eueo aaaeeea? iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

1. Noai?aia i?eioeeiiai iiaa iioieiaa oaoiieia?y ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo
neaeueieo ii??ae eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??, yea a?oioo?oueny
ia aacia?a?aiino? aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai iioieo a??ie/i? iane a?ae aeaith
aei caaaa/oaaeueii? oaa?eee aai a?aeaaeo oeyoii ?? aeeiaiiy c aeaith
aeneaaaoi?ii aacia?a?aii? ae??, a?ioioaiiy oa iiae??aiaiiy aea?eiei
ia?aaaioaaeoaa/ai aei o?aeoe??, o?ainii?oiaaii? no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie
oa iiaeaeueoei o?ainini?ooaaiiyi aei ioieoo ?icaaioaaeaiiy, aai oeyoii
o?ainii?ooaaiiy e?oiiieoneiai? a??ie/i? iane (aei 1200 ii) eiiaa??ieie
ii?caeaie c e?ooeie eooaie i?aeeiio (aei 200) aac iiia?aaeiueiai
iiae??aiaiiy ? i?ii?aeieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue.

2. Oia?oa aeeiiaia ioe?iea iioieiaino? ??cieo aeae?a oaoiieia?? ca
eiao?oe??ioii aacia?a?aiino? oaoiieia?/ieo noai canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a
iaoei (Ei.no), anoaiiaeai? eiai cia/aiiy aeey OeO, OeIO ? IO oa
iieacaii, ui ?c c?inoaiiyi nooiaiy aacia?a?aiino? oaoiieia?/ieo noai
a?ae 0,33 aei 1,0 i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? i?aeaeuo?oueny oaea?/?-o?e/?,
a iaoaeii?noe?noue oa aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy cieaeo?oueny ia
20…40%, ui aeicaieeei ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe a?aei?iieo ca
nooiaiai aacia?a?aiino? eiiieaen?a iaoei o ea?»??ao.

3. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? cia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??, ye? caaacia/othoue
aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae: aeneaaaoi?a
aacia?a?aii? ae?? (i?iaeoeoeai?noue 1800…2250 i3/aiae, aenioa /a?iaiiy
15…23,0 i) i, a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a (?ie?noue
aoiea?a — 56…75 i3, i?eeiaeueiee ioa?? ae?iaa?ee — 1100..1250 ii,
aeiaaeeia ?icaaioaaeoaaeueii? eiinie? — 20…34 i), eiiaa??iiai ii?caea
(aeiaaeeia 130…250 i, oaeaee?noue 9…15 i/n — aeey aaeeeeo ea?»???a;
aeiaaeeia 30…50 i, oaeaee?noue 6…8 i/n — aeey iaeeo ea?»???a), ui
aeicaieeei noai?eoe IO aeey a?aee?eoiai aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei.

4. Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ci?ie o?a?eoi??? ?ooo ??aeo/iai ?aa?a eiaoa
aeneaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae?? a?ae e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iai/iai
i?aaio oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a ((?) ? iaii?o
?oeiyoee (Vi); aeiaaaeaii, ui aeneaaaoi?ii aacia?a?aii? ae??
cae?eniththoueny an? o?a?eoi???, iaiao?aei? aeey ae?iaee aeaith,
aecia/ai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ((?) ? (Vi) i?ae /an i?ae?iaee onooio, eiai
?icae?aiiy c iaaaeaiiyi a??ie/i? iane, /a?iaiiy ?? c ?icaaeo, i?eae?aiiy
iaaaaa?eoo ? ca/euaiiy i?aeioae onooio, ui aeicaieeei iaa?oiooaaoe
aeo?aei? aeiiae aei eiino?oeoe?? aeneaaaoi?a oa oaoiieia?/ieo noai eiai
canoinoaaiiy.

5. Anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? ?aae?on?a ae?iaey/eo iiaa?oiiue (iaieie Ro oa
aaeo ra) oeee?iae?e/ii? aioo??oiueiaaeeiai? ae?iaa?ee a?ae nooiaiy
iiae??aiaiiy oa eiao?oe??ioo oa?oy ii?iaee ia ae?iaey/o iiaa?oith (();
aeiaaaeaii, ui ?aae?one ae?iaey/eo iiaa?oiiue aeinyaathoue i?i?iaeueieo
cia/aiue Ro.min = 0,7…0,9 i, ra. min= 0,3…0,4 i i?e ( = 0,3…0,4,
ui aeicaieeei cieceoe aaao ae?iaa?ee ia 20…30% o ii??aiyii? c ?ai?oa
a?aeiieie eiino?oeoe?yie.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ye? aecia/athoue oyaiaa coneeey
eiiaa??iiai ii?caea c e?i?eiei aneio?iiei aeaeaoiii (EAAe) ? oaeaee?noue
?ooo ii?caea (Vi) oa iia?o?yiee caci? i?ae ?ioi?ii ? noaoi?ii (();
aeiaaaeaii, ui c ( = 8…11 ii EAAe ?icaeaa? iaeneiaeueia oyaiaa
coneeey c iaeneiaeueiith oaeaee?noth Vi.max = 6,0 i/n; ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
iia?o?yiiai caci?o a?ae 8 ii aei 14 ii oyaiaa coneeey cieaeo?oueny a
1,3…2,0 ?ace. Oea aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?th, iaa?oiooaaoe
?aaeeie ?ooo, ye? caaacia/othoue ?aae?caoe?th iaeneiaeueieo oyaiaeo
coneeue oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? eiiaa??iiai ii?caea.

7. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo iniiaieo eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a
eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??, cie?aia, o?a?eoi??? ?ooo ??aeo/iai
?aa?a eiaoa, iiooaeiino? i?eaiaea ?iai/iai i?aaio oa e?iaiaoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a i?ioeano /a?iaiiy aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??, ?aae?on?a
iaieie ? aaeo oeee?iae?e/ii? aioo??oiueiaaeeiai? ae?iaa?ee, ui aeicaiey?
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ?o cia/aiiy o i?i?eooaaii? ??cieo oeii?ici???a iaoei.

8. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeiiai iia? eiino?oeoe?? aeneaaaoi?a
aacia?a?aii? ae??, a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a,
eiiaa??iiai ii?caea, eiai iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ? ?icaaioaaeoaaeueieo
i?eno?i?a, i?aoeacaeaoi?noue yeeo i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie e aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaith ia?aa??eith, ui aeicaieeei
?ic?iaeoe oaoi?/i? caaaeaiiy ? ?iai/o aeieoiaioaoe?th aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
i?iieneiaeo c?ace?a eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??. Iiaecia
eiino?oeoe?e caoeuaia aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie (?? 385044, 714022,
819020, 876164, 1023112, 1492073, 1602928).

9. Anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaieo eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?aaii? ae?? a?ae o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a??ie/eo ii??ae,
ia?aiao??a a??ie/io?ainii?oieo iaoei oa a??ie/eo ?ia?o. ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??, yea
aeeth/a? ieoiio aaao oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e ae?iaee aeaith, cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??io?a iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa (Ei) oa aeneaaaoe?? (Ea), ye?
aecia/athoue oaoi?/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue aeneaaaoi?a: i?ae?iaea onooio —
10% (Ei = 0,81, Ea = 0,58), aeeiaiiy iaaaeaii? a??ie/i? iane — 88% (Ei =
0,95, Ea = 0,68), ca/euaiiy i?aeioae onooio — 2% (Ei = 0,3, Ea = 0,21),
na?aaeiueicaaaeaia cia/aiiy — (Ei = 0,92, Ea = 0,66). Oea aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue eiiieaen?a iaoei o eiie?aoieo
a??ie/ioaoi?/ieo oiiaao oa ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy IO.

10. Onoaiiaeai? cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a i?ae?iaee onooio aeneaaaoi?ii
aacia?a?aii? ae?? oa aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o c IO aeey oiia
cae?ci?oaeieo ea?»???a E?eaaano: aeeaeia i?ae?iaee — 1,7…2,2 i, aenioa
i?ae?iaee — 5,0…5,4 i, oe?eia i?ae?iaee ( aeey aeaio caoiaeie) —
30,0…34,0 i, aenioa ?iai/i? ciie — 60…100 i, aenioa onooio — 25…30
i, aeiaaeeia o?iioo ?ia?o — 1000…1700 i, oe?eia ?iai/i? ieiuaaeee —
70…90 i, ui caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeaeiaooeo ?oaee.

11. ?ic?iaeai? i?iieneia? c?acee eiiieaen?a iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey
canoinoaaiiy ?o o eiie?aoieo oiiaao ae?th/eo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo
i?aei?e?inoa: eiiieaen aea?eieo iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae o neeaae? aeneaaaoi?a aacia?a?aii? ae??
A?AN-5000 (e?aneaiiy A?AN 00.00.000 AI) oa ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a aonaie/iiai
neaeueiiai IAN-2250 (e?aneaiiy 1IAN 00.000 AI); iaeaaeiaiiy nenoaie
o?ainii?oo c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie (e?aneaiiy caaaeueieo aeae?a
iaeaaeiaiiy IE 5.00.000 NA, O 00.00.000 AI, CI 00.00.000 AI, O 00.00.000
NA, ?O 00.00.000 AI). ?aeiiaiaeiaaii canoiniaoaaoe ia aeeaieeo ea?»??ao
/i?ii? oa eieuei?iai? iaoaeo?a?? a?eueoa 50 eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? c? no??/eiaeie eiiaa??aie oa eiiaa??i? ii?caee ia 18
ea?»??ao ??cieo aaeocae a??ie/iaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?.

12. Oi?iaaaeaeaiiy IO ia aeeaieeo ea?»??ao /i?ii?, eieuei?iai?
iaoaeo?a?? oa aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ? e?a?i NIAe aeicaiey?
i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? o 2,0…2,8 ?ace, cieceoe
iaoaeii?noe?noue oa aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy ? nia?aa?o?noue
aeaeiaooeo ia 20…30%, ciaioeoe oe?aeeea? aeeeaee aaoio?ainii?oo ia
50…200 o/??e. Noia?iee i/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae
oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?? neeaaea? iaeaea 390 iei.e?a/??e o
oe?iao 1989 ? (i???ioiaii a?ey 100 iei.a?i/??e).

?aeiiaiaeaoe??, uiaei aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th oa aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo ia
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoaao ? aeei?enoai? o i?iaeooaaii? iioieiai?
oaoiieia?? ia ea?»??ao ??cieo aaeocae a??ie/iaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?.

?ic?iaeaia iioieiaa oaoiieia?y a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo
neaeueieo ii??ae eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aeey oe?ieiianooaaiiai canoinoaaiiy ia cae?ci?oaeieo ea?»??ao Oe?a?ie oa
e?a?i NIAe.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie a?ae?iaee aeaith ? aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o
o ?iai/?e cii? aeeaieeo ea?»???a, «Iaoiaeeea ioe?iee oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a nenoaie o?aini?oo c eiiaa??ieie (a?ceiaeie) ii?caeaie aeey
a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ic?iaie» ? «Oaoiieia?/iee ?aaeaiaio aeey ?ic?iaee
i?i?eoo aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ae?eueieoe? iioieiai? oaoiieia?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? aeey ?ic?iaee
i?ae??aaieo neaeueieo ii??ae» ?aeiiaiaeothoueny aeey canoinoaaiiy o
i?iaeoieo i?aai?caoe?yo AAO «Oe?ae?i?i?oaea» oa «E?eaaani?iaeo» o
i?iaeooaaii? cae?ci?oaeieo ea?»???a Oe?a?ie.

?iai/o aeieoiaioaoe?th aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeneaaaoi?a A?AN-5000,
a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaa/a IAN-2250 ? o?ainii?oiiai
eiiieaeno c eiiaa??ieie ii?caeaie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ia?aaeaoe aeey
aeei?enoaiiy IEIC oa eiioea?iii «Aciaiao».

Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy i ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii a ianooiieo
?iaioao:

1. Eiiaaea?iua iiacaea eiino?oeoeee EAOI AI ONN?/A.I. Oa?oaeianeee, B.C.
Aeoiyeia, A.N. I?eaoiia, N.I.A?i. — I.: OeIEYEoaieue, 1980.-50n.

2. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ?aai/aai i?ioeanna yeneaaaoi?a
iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey ia iiaeaee/N.I.A?i, A.N.I?eaoiia, A.I.
Uoaeioeaea, E.A.Eaaiia//Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoieee e oaoiieiaee
ioe?.?ac?aa.ianoi?iae. Na. iao/i. o?oaeia EAOI AI ONN?.- E.: Iaoeiaa
aeoiea, 1975.- Aui.5.- N.102-107.

3.Oaoiieiaey ?ac?aaioee ea?uea?ia n i?eiaiaieai eiiaaea?iuo iiacaeia/
A.I.Oa?oaeianeee, A.N. I?eaoiia, A.O. Eoi?ee, E.I. Nieiaeiaiee, B.C.
Aeoiyeia, TH.O. Caoa?ia , I.A. Iaeneiaiei, A.A. *aeue, A.I.Aoiiei
//Ai?iue aeo?iae- 1978.- ? 5.- N.22-23.

4.O?ainii?oiue eiiieaen n eiiaaea?iuie iiacaeaie aeey ioe?uouo ai?iuo
?aaio/A.I.Oa?oaeianeee, A.N.I?eaoiia, N.I. A?i, B.C. Aeoiyeia, E.I.
Nieiaeiaiee, I.A. Iaeneiaiei , A.A. *aeue, A.A. Aoiiei//Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioee ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Na.iao/i.o?oaeia EAOI
AI ONN?.- E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1979.-N.42-59.

5. Eiiaaea?iue iiacae ia ?uaaeueneii a?aieoiii ea?uea?a/B.C. Aeoiyeia ,
A.N.I?eaoiia , A.E. Oaa/aiei, I.E. Aaeiaeianeee//I?iiuoeaiiue o?ainii?o
. -1983. -? 6. -N.9-10.

6. Oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu iioi/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa ai?iuo ?aaio i?e
eniieueciaaiee iiuiiai ai?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey/E.E. Aaa?eethe, A.N.
I?eaoiia, N.I. A?i, A.A. A?euaiei , A.C. Iaeae //Iiaay oaoiieiaey
ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioee ianoi?iaeaeaiee ai?ii-oeie/aneiai nu?uey. O?oaeu
AEAON. — I: AEAON, 1984.- Aui.61.- N.21-24.

7. Eiiieaen iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey aeey ?ac?aaioee neaeueiuo
ii?iae ia ea?uea?ao/I.N. *aoaa?ee, N.I. A?i, A.N. I?eaoiia, E.E.
Aaa?eethe, A.A.’ A?euaiei//I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoiieiaee
ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioee ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Na. iao/i. o?oaeia EIEII AI NNN?. —
I.: EIEII AI NNN?, 1989.- N.120-127.

8. Ia?ni^eaeaiua oaoiieiaee aeiau/e ?oae n i?eiaiaieai iiauo eiiieaenia
iaoei/Y.E. Ao?aiia, I.N. *aoaa?ee, A.N. I?eaoiia, N.I. A?i
//Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1990- ?3.- N.32-34.

9. Iiaiaeeeia I.A., I?eaoiia A.N. I?eiaiaiea ia ea?uea?ao n e?aieeie
ii?iaeaie iioi/iie oaoiieiaee e ai?ii-o?ainii?oiiai iai?oaeiaaiey
iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoa ey//A ii?inu oai?ee ioe?uouo ai?iuo ?aaio. Na.
iao/i. o?oaeia IAAO — I.: IAAO, 1994.-N.153-170.

10. Iiaiaeeeia I.A. , I?eaoiia A.N. Aiaae?aiea ia ea?uea?ao Oe?aeiu
yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiey//Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e
ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1994.- ?1. — N.37-40.

11. Iiaiaeeeia I.A. , I?eaoiia A.N. Iioi/iay oaoiieiaey ioe?uoie
?ac?aaioee neaeueiuo ai?iuo ii?iae //Ai?iia aeaei : I?iaeaiu e
ia?niaeoeau. Na. noaoae EAAeN NI ?AI. — sseoone: sseooneee iao/iue
oeaio? Neae?neiai ioaeaeaiey ?inneeneie aeaaeaiee iaoe, 1994.- N.47-56.

12. I?eaoiia A.N. Iainiiaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu
?ac?aaioee aci?aaiiuo neaeueiuo ii?iae //Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea. Na.
iao/i. o?oaeia EAOI IAIO. — Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1997.- Aui.2.- N.25-29.

13. Iiaiaeeeia I.A., I?eaoiia A.N., A?i N.I. I?iaeaiu aiaae?aiey
iioi/iie oaoiieiaee ia ea?uea?ao //Ai?iue aeo?iae — 1998.- ? 1. — N.
18-20.

14. I?eaoiia A.N. Oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu e yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey
eiiieaenia iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey aeey ?ac?aaioee aci?aaiiuo
neaeueiuo ii?iae//Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea. Na.iao/i.o?oaeia EAOI IAIO. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.-Aui.C.-N. 145-148.

15. I?eaoiia A.N. Iainiiaaiea iniiaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia
eiiaaea?iuo iiacaeia//Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea. Na.iao/i.o?oaeia EAOI
IAIO. -Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998. — Aui.C.- N. 148-151.

16. I?eaoiia A.N. Iainiiaaiea ia?aiao?ia eiiieaenia iaoei iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey aeey ?ac?aaioee aci?aaiiuo neaeueiuo ii?iae //Aaioaoie/aneay
iaoaieea. Na. iao/i. o?oaeia EAOI IAIO. — Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998. —
Aui.4. — N.94-99.

17. I?eaoiia A.N. Iioi/iay oaoiieiaey -iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey
ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioee aci?aaiiuo neaeueiuo ii?iae //Aaioaoie/aneay
iaoaieea. Na. iao/i. o?oaeia EAOI IAIO.- Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.- Aui.5.-
N.69-76.

18. A?i N.I., I?eaoiia A.N. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna ae?iaeaiey
iiiaieaoia-ia?ceuo ii?iae aioo?eaaeeiaie ae?iaeeeie//Aaioaoie/aneay
iaoaieea. Na.iao/i.o?oaeia EAOI IAIO. — Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.- Aui.a,-
N.101-108.

19. I?eaoiia A.N Ia?niaeoeau aiaae?aiey iioi/iie oaoiieiae ia
aeaeaci?oaeiuo ea?uea?ao Oe?aeiu//I?iaeaiu eiiieaeni. inaiaiey iaae?.
Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAAO -Aeiai?iiao?iane: IAAO, 1998.- N.336 — 342.

20.A.N. 385044 NNN?, I. Ee. A21n 47/00, A 65g 65/04. Eiao iia?oci/iie
iaoeiu/ A.I. Oa?oaeianeee, N.I.A?i, E.E. Aaa?eethe, A.C. Iaeae, E.A.
Eaaiia, A.N. I?eaoiia, A.O. Ieeieaiei, I.O. Ia?uaeiue, I.Ae.
Aeoai/aineee ( NNN?).- ? 1488895/22; Cayaeaii 10.09.70; Iioae. 29.05.73,
Athe. ?25.- 2n.ee.

21. A.n. 714022 NNN?, I.Ee.2 A 21 F 21 F 13/032, A21 F 13/08-Eiiaaea?iue
iiacae/ A.I. Oa?oaeianeee, TH.O. Caoa?ia, A.N. I?eaoiia, B.C. Aeoiyeia,
A.O. Eoi?ee, I.A. Iaeneiaiei, A.A. *aeue (NNN?).- ?2479280/22-03;
Cayaeaii 25.04.77; Iioae. 5.02.80, Athe. ?5.-3 n. ee.

22. A.n. 819020 NNN?, I.Ee.3 A 65G 67/22. Naiioiaeiia caa?oci/iia
ono?ienoai/A.I. Oa?oaeianeee, N.I .A?i, A.N. I?eaoiia, AO. Eoi?ee, B.C.
Aeoiyeia (NNN?).- ? 27’67297727′-11; Cayaeaii 11.05.79; Iioae. 07.04.81,
Athe. ?13.-3 n. ee.

23. A.n. 876164 NNN?, I.Ee.3 A02N 23/00. Onoaiiaea aeey ae?iaeaiey
iaaaaa?eoa/ A.I. Oa?oaeianeee, N.I.A?i, A.N. I?eaoiia, A.C. Iaeae, I.N.
*oaaiei (NNN?).- ? 2593842/29-33; Cayaeaii 24.03.78; Iioae. 30.10.81,
Athe. ?40.-4n.ee.

24. A.n. 1023112 NNN?, A 21 F13/08. Eiiaaea?iue iiacae / N.I.A?i, A.N.
I?eaoiia, A.C. Iaeae ( NNN?). — ?3399471/21-03; Cayaeaii 19.02.82;
Iioae. 15.06.83, Athe. ?22.-3n. ee.

25. A.n. 1492073 NNN?, A21 F13/08, A21 n 47/04. ?aca?oci/iia ono?ienoai
aeey eiiaaea?iiai iiacaea/ N.I. A?i, A.N. I?eaoiia, E.I. Nieiaeiaiee,
I.A. Iioaiia, A.A. Eeineay, Y.I. Ia?oeei (NNN?).- ? 4334987/27-03;
Cayaeaii 25.11.87; Iioae. 07.07.89, Athe. ? 25.- 4 n. ee.

26.A.n. 1602928 NNN? , A 02 F 3/18. Yeneaaaoi? iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey /
N.I.A?i, A.I. Iioo?aaa, A.N. I?eaoiia, Y.I. Ia?oeei, A.A. Ia?ceyeia,
A.?. Yae/, A.I. ?oiyioeaa, E.E. Aaa?eethe (NNN?).- ? 4466183/31-03.
Cayaeaii 26.07.88; Iioae. 30.10.90.Athe.?40.-4n. ee.

27. Nicaeaiea eiiieaena iaoei aeey iioi/iie oaoiieiaee ai?iuo ?aaio ia
aeoaieeo ea?uea?ao E?ea a anna/ N.I.A?i, A.C. Iaeae, A.A. A?euaiei, A.N.
I?eaoiia, I.E. Naiaiei, Ae.E. Iaethoa, E.A. Eaaiia, N.E. Eaeaoieeia
//Aeoaieea ea?uea?u. Iaoa?eaeu Aoi?iai Ananithciiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
niaauaiey ii i?iaeaia ?ac?aaioee aeoaieeo ea?uea?ia. — E.: Iaoeiaa
aeoiea, 1973.- N. 137-144.

28. Oaoiieiaey e iai?oaeiaaiea aeey ?ac?aaioee ea?uea?ia n i?eiaiaieai
eiiieaena eiiaaea?iuo iiacaeia / A.I. Oa?oaeianeee, A.N. I?eaoiia, E.I.
Nieiaeiaiee, B.C. Aeoiyeia, TH.O. Caoa?ia, A.O. Eoi?ee //?ac?aaioea
aeoaieeo ai?eciioia ea?uea?ia. Iaoa?eaeu O Ananithciiai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai niaauaiey. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1977.-N.100-104.

29. I?eaoiia A.N. Ia?niaeoeau i?eiaiaiey eiiaaea?iuo iiacaeia i?e
?ac?aaioea aeoaieeo ai?eciioia ea?uea?ia //I?iaeaiu ?ac?aaioee aeoaieeo
ai?eciioia ea?uea?ia. Oacenu aeieeaaeia e niiauaiee 1O Ananithciiai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai niaauaiey. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1982.- N.80-81.

30. Iaoiaeeea ioeaiee oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae nenoaiu
o?ainii?oa n eiiaaea?iuie ( oaeaaea/iuie) iiacaeaie aeey ioe?uouo ai?iuo
?ac?aaioie / I.A. Iioaiia , E.E. Noaiaiia, A.I. Eii?aeia, E.A. Iaeeoia,
E.I. Nieiaeiaiee, A.C. Iaeae, A.N. I?eaoiia, N.I. A?i, I.A. Aaneeueaa,
B.C. Aieioeianeee.- I.: EAAe ei. A.A. Nei/eineiai,1983.- 54n.

31.Ao?aiia Y.E. , Oaia?ue A.A., I?eaoiia A.N. Eiiieaen iaoei
iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey //Ai?iay yioeeeeiiaaeey. — I.: Niaaoneay
yioeeeeiiaaeey, 1987.- O.C.- N. 76-77.

32. I?eiaiaiea o?ainii?oiie nenoaiu n eiiaaea?iuie iiacaeaie ia
ea?uea?ao -iaeii ec iai?aaeaiee iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ioe?uoie
?ac?aaioee ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo ia aieueoeo aeoaeiao
/A.I. Eii?aeia, I.A. Iioaiia, A.N. I?eaoiia, I.I. Oa/aio?eaeca, A.C
Iaeae, E.I. Nieiaeiaiee// I?iaeaiu ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioee aeoaieeo
ea?uea?ia. O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai neiiiceoia “Ie?iue-91”,-Oaea/iue:
IEOe “Ianoa?”, 1991.- N.453-456.

33. Yeneaaaoi? iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey e a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiue
ia?aa?oaeaoaeue aeey ?ac?aaioee neaeueiuo ii?iae /A.N. I?eaoiia, N.I.
A?i, I.N. *aoaa?ee, A.A. A?euaiei // I?iaeaiu ioe?. ?ac?aa. aeoa.
ea?uea?ia. “Ie?iue-91”.- Oaea/iue: IEOe “Ianoa?”, 1991.- N. 77-78.

34. Eiiieaen iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey aeey ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioee
neaeueiuo ii?iae / N.I.A?i, A.N. I?eaoiia, I.N. *aoaa?ee, A.A. A?euaiei
//Iaaeaeo ia? iae i. eiio. “Iaoaiecaoeey e aaoiiaoecaoeey caieyiuo
?aaio”. — E.: EENE, 1991.- N. 192-195.

35. Iai?oaeiaaiea nenoaiu o?ainii?oa n eiiaaea?iuie iiacaeaie /A.N.
I?eaoiia, N.I. A?i, I.A. Iioaiia, E.I. Nieiaeiaiee, A.?. Yae/ //Iaaeaeo
ia?iaei. eiio. “Iaoaiecaoeey e aaoiiaoecaoeey caieyiuo ?aaio”.- E.:
EENE, 1991.- N.221-226.

36. Bro S.M., Prigunov A.S. Complex of continuous fction machines for
blasted hard rocks mining //O Geo engineering congress. Rock excavation:
the future and beyond.-Torino:1992.-P.157-161.

37. Aeooiithe A.A. , I?eaoiia A.N., Nieiaeiaiee E.I. Eiiaaea?iua iiacaea
— yooaeoeaiue , yeieiae/anee «/enoue» aeae ea?uea?iiai o?ainii?oa //
Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaocianeie iao/ii- i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee “ Yeieiai —
yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu ?acaaaeee, ?ac?aaioee e iaiaauaiey iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo Oe?aeiu. IAAO. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: Iaoea e ia?aciaaiea, 1997.
— N.100-102.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a ?iaioao, iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?:

[3, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 31,]- aiae?c ia?niaeoeae aeaeiaooeo, aeina?aeo
?aaioe ea?»???a, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??,
oi?ioethaaiiy i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy e nooo?aino? iioieiai? oaoiieia??;
[1, 3, 6, 8, 10 ,11, 13,2 8, 28,]- ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo noai,
iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a noai oa nenoaie ?ic?iaeee IO; [ 4, 5, 7, 27,
28, 31-37] — ?ic?iaea eiino?oeoe?e, iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ?
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaen?a iaoei; [1, 3, 4, 28, 30] —
anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae aca?iica»yeo ia?aiao??a oaoiieia?/ieo noai ?
eiiieaen?a iaoei, ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
eiiieaen?a; [1-3, 5, 11, 13, 18,’ 27, 28, 37] — ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaa?oiooaaiiy ianooaa?a
iiaeaethaaiiy, i?aeaioiaea, i?iaaaeaiiy, ia?iaea oa aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue; [1, 3-5, 9-11, 13, 28, 30, 33, 37] —
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aoaeoeaiino?, anoaiiaeaiiy aaeoc?
aeei?enoaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiieaen?a iaoei
aacia?a?aii? ae?? ; [20 — 26] — ?ic?iaea ? oi?ioethaaiiy ?noioieo
oa?aeoa?ieo iciae.

AIIOAOeIss

I?eaoiia I.N. Oaoiieia?/i? iniiae a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo
neaeueieo ii??ae eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoii/ieo iaoe ca
niaoeiaeueiinoth 05.15.03 — «A?aee?eoa ?ic?iaea ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo
eiiaeei». Iaoeiiiaeueia ai?ie/a aeaaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, Aeiii?iiao?ianuee,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo iniia noai?aiiy
i?eioeeiiai iiai? iioieiai? oaoiieia?? a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee i?ae??aaieo
neaeueieo ii??ae eiiieaenaie iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??. ?ic?iaeai?
i?eioeeiiai iia? eiiieaene iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae?? ? oaoiieia?/i? noaie
?o canoinoaaiiy. ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy aca?iiae?? ?iai/eo i?aai?a ?iai/eo
iaoei c ii?iaeaie, iaaaaeai? iia? oaoiieia?/i? oa eiino?oeoeai?
ia?aiao?e iaeaaeiaiiy. ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie iioieiai?
oaoiieia?? a?aee?eoiai aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei, iaaaaeai? i?a?aiao?e
nenoaie ?ic?iaee, ye? caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy
iioieiai? oaoiieia?? ia aeeaieeo ea?»??ao c? neaeueieie ii?iaeaie.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oi?iaaaeaeaii a i?iaeoe ?ucieo aaeocae
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?, a ie?ai? i?eeaaee — ia i?aei?e?inoaao
Oe?a?ie ? ?in??.

Eeth/iai neiaa: iioieiaa oaoiieia?y, eiiieaene iaoei aacia?a?aio? ae??,
i?ae??aai? neaeuei? ii?iaee, ia?aiao?e.

AIIIOAOeEss

I?eaoiia A.N. Oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau ioe?uoie ?a?aaioee aci?aaiiuo
neaeueiuo ii?iae eiiieaenaie iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeeueiinoe 05.15.03 — «Ioe?uoay ?ac?aaioea ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo». Iaoeeiiaeueiay ai?iay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu. Aeiai?iiao?iane,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneeo iniia nicaeaiey
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie iioi/iie oaoiieiaee ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioee aci?aaiiuo
neaeueiuo ii?iae eiiieaenaie iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey. Aia?aua
auiieiaia ioeaiea iioi/iinoe ?acee/iuo aeaeia oaoiieiaee ii
eiyooeoeeaioo iai?a?uaiinoe oaoiieiae/aneeo noai i?eiaiaiey eiiieaenia
iaoei e ii?aaeaeaiu eo cia/aiey. Iieacaii, /oi n aic?anoaieai noaiaie
iai?a?uaiinoe oaoiieiae/aneeo noai io 0,33 ( oeeeee/iay oaoiieiaey) aei
1,0 ( iioi/iay oaoiieiaey) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea iiauoaaony a 2…3
?aca, a iaoaeei?ieinoue e yia?aiiio?aaeaiea iai?oaeiaaiey nieaeaaony ia
20…40%. Yoi iicaieeei ioeaieoue yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou ?acee/iuo ii
noaiaie iai?a?uaiinoe eiiieaenia iaoei a ea?uea?ao.

?ac?aaioaiu i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua eiiieaenu iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey
aeey yeneaaaoeee, o?ainii?oe?iaaiey e ?aca?ocee neaeueiuo ii?iae:
yeneaaaoi? iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey n aeaooeiaoiaui ?aai/ei i?aaiii,
a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiue ia?aa?oaeaoaeue n aioo?eaaeeiaie ae?iaeeeie,
eiiaaea?iue iiacae n aaeeiui a?ociianouei iieioiii, ono?ienoaa aeey aai
iai?a?uaiie caa?ocee e ?aca?ocee. Auyaeaia acaeiinaycue oaoiieiae/aneeo
ia?aiao?ia eiiieaenia iaoei, onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe eo aeeyiey ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiu eo
?aoeeiiaeueiua cia/aiey: yeneaaaoi? iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey
(i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 1800…2250i3//, aunioa /a?iaiey 15…23 i),
a?ioioeeueii-ae?iaeeueiue ia?aa?oaeaoaeue ( ?ieinoue aoiea?a 56…75 i3,
i?e?iiia ioaa?noea ae?iaeeee 1100…1250 ii, aeeeia ?aca?oci/iie eiiniee
20…34 i), eiiaaea?iiai iiacaea aeeeia 130…250 i, nei?inoue 9…15 i/n –
aeey e?oiiuo ea?uea?ia; ( aeeeia 30…50 i, nei?inoue 6…8 i/n – aeey
iaeeeo ea?uea?ia). Onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aai/eo
i?aaiia ai?iio?ainii?oiuo iaoei ni neaeueiie ii?iaeie e acaeiinayce
ia?aiao?ia eiiieaenia iaoei n ia?aiao?aie ai?iuo ?aaio. Iainiiaaiu
?aoeeiiaeueiua cia/aiey eiino?oeoeaiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia
eiiieaenia iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey, iaania/eaathueo yooaeoeaioth
?ac?aaioeo aci?aaiiuo neaeueiuo ii?iae e nicaeaiea iai?a?uaiiai
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai iioiea ai?iie iannu: niioiioaiea nei?inoe
?ioi?a e iaii?a no?aeu, ii?aaeaeythueo aeae o?aaeoi?ee aeaeaeaiey
?aaeouae e?iiee eiaoa, ia?aiao?ia /a?iaiey (oaie /a?iaiey, oaie
?aca?ocee e eiyooeoeeaio iaiieiaiey eiaoa), iiuiinoe i?eaiaea ?ioi?a
yeneaaaoi?a iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey ; ?aaeeonia ae?iayueo iiaa?oiinoae
aioo?eaaeeiaie ae?iaeeee, iaania/eaathueo a? ieieiaeueiue aan;
aicaeooiue caci? iaaeaeo ?ioi?ii e noaoi?ii eeiaeiiai aneio?iiiiai
aeaeaaoaey, iaania/eaathuee ?aaeecaoeeth iaeneiaeueiiai oyaiaiai oneeey
eiiaaea?iiai iiacaea.

?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu io?aaioee caaiy e aaaeaiey ai?iuo
?aaio a ?aai/ae ciia aeoaieeo ea?uea?ia ni neaeueiuie ?oaeaie e
ii?iaeaie eiiieaenaie iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey. Onoaiiaeaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe oaoiieiae/aneie acaeiinayce ia?aiao?ia eiiieaenia iaoei e
ia?aiao?ia ai?iuo ?aaio. I?eaaaeaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiua ia?aiao?u io?aaioee
caaiy yeneaaaoi?ii iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey e nenoaiu ?ac?aaioee i?e
iioi/iie oaoiieiaee aaaeaiey ai?iuo ?aaio, iaania/eaathuea iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ioe?uoiai niiniaa aeiau/e iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo: iiae?aaioee
onooia ( aeoaeia 1,7…2,2 i, aunioa 5,0…5,4 i, oe?eia aeey aeaoo caoiaeie
30…34 i), aunioa ?aai/ae ciiu 60…100 i, aunioa onooia 25…30 i, aeeeia
o?iioa ?aaio 1000…1700 i, oe?eia ?aai/ae ieiuaaeee 70…90i. Aia?aua
auiieiaia no?oeoo?iay nenoaiaoecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo noai i?eiaiaiey
eiiieaenia iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie
iai?a?uaiinoe aeaeia oaoiieiaee e eiiieaenia iaoei n ?acaeaeaieai eo ia
no?oeoo?ii – oaoiieiae/aneea oceu.

I?eiaiaiea eiiieaenia iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey i?e iioi/iie e
oeeeee/ii-iioi/iie oaoiieiaee aeey ?ac?aaioee aeoaieeo ea?uea?ia ni
neaeueiuie ?oaeaie e ii?iaeaie iicaieyao iiauneoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea a 2…3 ?aca, nieceoue iaoaeei?ieinoue, yia?aiiio?aaeaiea
iai?oaeiaaiey e naaanoieiinoue aeiau/e ia 20…30%, oiaiueoeoue a?aaeiua
aua?inu aaoinaiinaaeia ia 50…200o/aiae.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?ioee ai?iaaoeeth e iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiioth
i?iaa?eo ia ai?iiaeiauaathueo i?aaei?eyoeyo e eniieueciaaiu i?e
i?iaeoe?iaaiee iioi/iie oaoiieiaee ia ea?uea?ao oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, /a?iie e oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, ioaeaeueiua ono?ienoaa
aiaae?aiu a i?iecaiaenoai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiieaenu iaoei iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey, aci?aaiiua
neaeueiua ii?iaeu, ia?aiao?u, iioi/iay oaoiieiaey.

SUMMARY

Prigynov A.S. The technological bases of open working of blasted
rocking by machine complexes of continuous action.- Manuscript.

Dissertation on the competition of scientific doctor’s degree of
technical sciences on the specialty 05.15.03.- Open working of useful
fossilizes deposits. National Mining University of Ukraine,
Dniepropetrovsk, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to working of technological bases of
creation of principal new endless technology open working of blasted
rocking rocks by machine complexes of continuous action. There are
worked the principle new machine complexes of continuous action and
technological diagrams of their usage. There are examined the
interaction’s questions of work parts of mining machine with rocks,
there are brought the new technological and constructive parameters of
equipment. There are worked the technological diagrams endless
technology of useful fossilizes, there are brought the parameter of
system’s output, which provided the useges` efficiency of endless
technology on the deep quarries with rocking rock. The main results are
inculcated into the quarry’s projects of different branches of
mountain-outputting industry and separate arrangements are inculcated on
the businesses of Ukraine and Russia.

Key words: endless technology, machine complexes of continuous action,
blasted rocking, and parameters.

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