19

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Eiaiaea Oaoyia Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 92 “E?aa/aiei A.A.”: 39:069.01

Coni?eueii-iie?oe/ia oa iaoeiaa ae?yeuei?noue A. A. E?aa/aiea (1862
— 1945).

07.00.01-?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe

Ee?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Ao?aa/aieia Aiaoie?e Ieaenaiae?iae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

ea??aiee naeoi?a noni?eueieo iaoe Iaoeiai-
i?aai?caoe?eiiai a?aeae?eo I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo a?ia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAO

?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai

*eoei A?oae?e Na?a?eiae/

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi??? aeey aoiai?oa?ieo oaeoeueoao?a

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Eae?ioeaa TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

i 10 aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 235. 01 a
?inoeooo? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (252001 i. Ee?a, aoe.
A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (252001 i. Ee?a, aoe. A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “20”na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Iaoyo A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?noi??y caaaeaee ia?nii?o?eiaaia. Ca
aoaeue-yeith iiae??th /e noni?eueiei yaeuai caaaeaee noiyoue eiie?aoi?
iniaenoino?, ?o iiienee oa a/eiee. Iaiao?aei?noue a?aeiiae a?ae
i?eoaiaiieo ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ni?iuaieo eeaniaeo i?aeoiae?a o
aena?oeaii? ?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a, ca?aeii c yeeie oi?aa?naeueiei ?oo??i
aoaeue-yeeo noni?eueieo yaeu aecia?oueny aaceeea noni?eueia iana,
iaoiiaeth? caaaeaiiy ?noi??? c i’?aeanoaeo iaoee i?i noni?euenoai aei
?aiao iaoee i?i ethaeeio a noni?euenoa?. Aaeaea naia /a?ac aiae?c aeeooy
oa ae?yeueiino? eiie?aoieo iniaenoinoae iiaeia aaeaeaaoii
?aeiino?othaaoe ?noi?e/ii aeinoia??ia, ?aeaieia?/ii iacaoi?aia iieioii
noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Caa?iaiiy aeine?aeieoeueei? oaaae ia aeeoo?aee oeyo, noaiiaeaiiy
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a, oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaeo i??i?eoao?a,
iaoiaeeee e iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeieoeueei? i?aoe? iaeiiai ?c caniiaiee?a
Aieeinueei? oieueeei?ii-aoiieia?/ii? oeiee, a?aeiiiai noni?eueiiai
ae?y/a Aaneey A?eai?iae/a E?aa/aiea ia eeoa aeicaieeoue iiaa?iooe c
iaaoooy ?i’y aecia/iiai a/aiiai ? a?iiaaeyieia, a e ni?eyoeia
a?aeoai?aiith a?eueo iiaii? ea?oeie ia?aa?ao noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a ia Aieei? oa Oe?a?i? aoe?eiio; aeyaeaiith iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? aoiieia?/ii? iaoee, ?? i??i?eoaoieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy; cia?aaeaiith iiooe?a iaoe?iiaeueiina?aeiiith
?ioae?aaioe??th naiai i?noey a noni?eueiiio aeeoo? ia neeaaeieo
?noi?e/ieo ia?aeiiao. E??i oiai, aeanoue iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe aieea
oioae?oa?ecio ia aeieth iniaenoino?, noaia ua iaeiei uaaeai ia oeyoo
ona?aeiieaiiy o?aaaae?? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
a?ooaeueii ia?a?aaiiai ia ii/aoeo 30-o ??. oioae?oa?iei ?aaeeiii.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? ca’ycie c iaoeiaith oaiith “?noi?e/i? oa aoi?/i?
canaaee ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? o XX noie?oo?” (aea?aeaaiee
?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 97173), yea ?ic?iaey?oueny ia ?noi?e/iiio
oaeoeueoao? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia,
a?iiaaenueea oa iaoeiaa ae?yeuei?noue A.A.E?aa/aiea, a oaeiae
oieueeei?enoe/ii-aoiieia?/ia niaaeueia a/aiiai ye iaeia ?c neeaaeiaeo
?icaeoeo a?o/eciyiiai ia?iaeiciaanoaa.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeththoueny niaoeeo?eith
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?niiae?? e ioiiethoue ?iee aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino?
A.A.E?aa/aiea, oiaoi 1862 — 1945 ??.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia iniia?
aiae?co aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a (ia?aaaaeii a?o?aiiai iioiaeaeaiiy),
aeooiaii? niaaeueie a/aiiai oa oai?aoe/ieo iaaeaaiue iiia?aaeiee?a
?aeiino?othaaoe aeeoo?aee oa iaoeiaee oeyo A.A.E?aa/aiea, aecia/eoe eiai
?ieue oa i?noea a noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioeanao a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae
cia/aiiy eiai iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie aeey ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? aoiieia?/ii?
iaoee oa iocaeii? ni?aae. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe aaoi?ii aoee
aecia/ai? oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe iniiai? /eiieee, ye? aieeaaee ia oi?ioaaiiy eiai
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a;

— aecia/eoe oiiae, a yeeo a?aeaoaaeiny noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiaeo oiiaeiaaiue,
iaoiaeeee oa iaoiaeieia?? iaoeiai? i?aoe? a/aiiai;

— aeine?aeeoe ?ieue A.A.E?aa/aiea o noaiiaeaii? oa ae?yeueiino?
Oiaa?enoaa aeine?aeiee?a Aieei?, Aieeinueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
iocath;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? iiaeyaee A.A.E?aa/aiea, iieacaoe
o?ainoi?iaoe?th eiai na?oiaeyaeieo iiceoe?e, ui a?aeaoaaeeny i?ae
aieeaii ?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a e?a?i?, cie?aia o/ano? a
ae?yeueiino? ia?iaeiaieueoe?a, a?iiaae?aoe?a, i?ina?oyi, Oiaa?enoaa
oe?a?inueeeo iinooiiaoe?a (OOI), ia?o?? nioe?ae?no?a-oaaea?ae?no?a
oiui;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaoeiao oa iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue
o/aiiai, aecia/eoe niaeo? eiai iaoeiaeo oiiaeiaaiue, iniiaio
i?iaeaiaoeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiaeeeo oa iaoiaeieia?th iaoeiai? i?aoe?,
?aeiino?othaaoe iai?yie ni?ai?aoe? c AOAI, iniaenoo ?ieue o noaiiaeaii?
ianiaiai ia?iaeiciaa/iai oa e?a?ciaa/iai ?ooo o aieeinueeiio e?a?;

— c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie ? ianooaae iie?oe/ieo ia?ane?aeoaaiue A.A.E?aa/aiea
o ?iee oioae?oa?ecio ? ?o aieea ia iniaenoo aeieth oa iaoeiao i?aoeth
a/aiiai.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio
oa ia’?eoeaiino?. I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaea
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee oa
noaoenoe/ii-aiae?oe/iee iaoiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa a
?noi?e/i?e iaooe? eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii aeeooy oa iaoeiao
ae?yeuei?noue o/aiiai-ia?iaeiciaaoey A.A.E?aa/aiea, aecia/aii eiai aieea
ia ?icaeoie aoiieia?/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?, c’yniaaii o/anoue o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioeanao oa iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?. Aei iaoeiaiai
ia?ao aia?oa aaaaeaii cia/iee ianea aeieoiaio?a ? aeaea?ae a?o?aiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? aeicaieeee aeyaeoe oa e?ea?aeoaaoe iaoi/iino? a
a?ia?ao?? o/aiiai, caiiaieoe iayai? a i?e eaeoie, a oaeiae aeiiiaieoe
a?aeiiino? i?i ae?yeuei?noue Oiaa?enoaa aeine?aeiee?a Aieei?,
Aieeinueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai iocath, aeeoiie?nueei? “I?ina?oe”,
aianoe ie?ai? ooi/ithth/? aniaeoe aei a?ia?ao?e I.A?ooaanueeiai,
Ae.ssai?ieoeueeiai, I.Eioethaeinueeiai, E.A?ooaanueei?, E.Niieainueeiai
oa ?ioeo aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a iaoee oa eoeueoo?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, aeniiaee oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c
?noi??? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a
oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, ?ic?iaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo eaeoe?eieo
oa niaoe?ae?ciaaieo eo?n?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea oa a?aeae?e? ?noi???
eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“I?oeia ?iaeeia — i?oeia Oe?a?ia” (Ee?a, 1994); “No/ania oe?a?inueea
aoiieia?y: i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo”(Ee?a, 1994); “I?iaeaie
caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo?” (Oa?e?a, 1995);
“?aa?iiaeueia oa caaaeueia a ?noi???” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995); III-?e
I?aeia?iaei?e nooaeaionuee?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?noi??y
Aaouee?aueie ? no/ani?noue” ( Ee?a, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o naie noaooyo,
ai?uaieo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao (4), ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue (2), a
oaeiae iaeieo iaoa??aeao iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeth?oueny ?? iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie. ?iaioa
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, ?icae?eaieo ia 11
ia?aa?ao?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e,
aeiaeaoe?a.

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 179 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo; nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e caeia? 38 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo ? iae?/o? 464 iaeiaioaaiiy; aeiaeaoee — 49 noi??iie iaoeiiieno.
Caaaeueiee ia’?i aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy — 266 noi??iie
iaoeiiieno.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? aeaoaeueii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii eiai i?aaeiao, o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, iaoo oa
caaaeaiiy. Aecia/aii iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe oa ?? iaoeiao iiaecio,
aeacaii ia i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o
ai?iaaoe?th.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aea”
aiae?co?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee caaeaeea?iaaii? i?iaeaie,
i?noeoueny oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?aeueii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Cie?aia a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ia?o? iia?aei? caaaeee i?i iaoeiao oa
iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eio i?aoeth A.A.E?aa/aiea c’yaeeeny ua ca aeeooy
a/aiiai o noaooyo eiai eieaa I.Aeaaeeiai, A.Aiaothea, I.Aa?aiiae/a oa
?i.

E?aa/aiei A.A. Ia?iaei? iiia?aeaiiy e eacee (aoiia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee).
C?a?ai? Aaneeueii E?aa/aieii. — AEeoiie?.: Ae?oea?iy “?ia?oiee”, a/ae. —
O.2. — N. I — VII; Aiaothe A. Iaoeiaa i?aoey ia Aieei? 1914 — 1924 ??.
// Oe?a?ia. — E., 1926. — Ei. 2 — 3. — N. 223 — 229; Cae?ciee.
Aieeinueeee iocae (Aoiia?ao?/iee a?aeae?e) // *a?aiiee oeyo. — 1928. — ?
8. — N. 168 — 169; Aa?aiiae/ I. Iaoeia? onoaiiae ? iaoeiaa ae?yeuei?noue
ia Aieei? // Iaoea ia Oe?a?i?. — Oa?e?a, 1922. — ? 2. — N.156.. Oe?eee
?yae caoaaaeaiue i?i iaoeiao ae?yeuei?noue A.A.E?aa/aiea, aaaeeea?noue
eiai aianeo a ?icaeoie ia?iaeiciaanoaa aoei a oeae /an oi?uaii a
i?ia?aeieo i?io?eueieo /aniienao “Oe?a?ia” oa “Ia?a?nia a?iiaaeyinoai”,
aea aoei iaae?oeiaaii i?aoe? A.I.Eiaiaee oa E.I.A?ooaanueei? Eiaiaea
A.I. Noaeueau yoiia?aoee ia Oe?aeia ca 1917 — 1925 aa. // Yoiia?aoey. —
E., 1926. — ? 1 — 2. — N. 201 — 210; A?ooaanueea E.I. Aei ca??ee
iaoa??ae?a i?i “aiaiiue” A.A.E?aa/aiea // Ia?a?nia a?iiaaeyinoai. —
1927. — Aei. 1 — 3. — N. 146.. *eneaii? caaaeee i?i iaoeiao oa
iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue A.A.E?aa/aiea cono??/athoueny
ai?iaeiaae on??? ae?oai? iieiaeie 20-o ??. o a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iaeyaeao oa
o?ii?eao iacaaieo /aniien?a.

Ia?oo ni?iao eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeoo?aiai oa iaoeiaiai oeyoo
A. E?aa/aiea cae?eniea eiai o/aiue I. Aeieo?oe, i?aeaiooaaaoe 1929 ?.
tha?eaeio noaooth c iaaiaee 45-e?ooy ii/aoeo iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?
a/aiiai Aeieo?oe I.E. 45 ?ie?a aoiia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino? A.A.E?aa/aiea
// Ia?iaeia oai?/?noue oa aoiia?ao?y. — E., 1990. — ? 3. — N. 61 — 71..
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aacoaaeiny ia iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??aeao, eiia??ii,
a?aoiaoaaei oaeiae ? iniaeno? niiaaaee Aaneey A?eai?iae/a. Noaooy
i?noeea aeineoue ia’?iiee oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae i?i aeeoeinoai ?
thi?noue, iniiai? a?oe noaiiaeaiiy ye a?iiaaeyieia ? ia?iaeiciaaoey,
/eiaei oaaae i?eae?eyeiny a i?e ? iaoeiai-i?aai?caoi?nuee?e ae?yeueiino?
a/aiiai. Iaeiae iie?oe/i? ia?ane?aeoaaiiy, ui ?icii/aeeny c i?eoyaiaiiy
A.A.E?aa/aiea aei ne?aenoaa a ni?aa? “NAO”, caaaaeeee ioae?eaoe??
iacaaii? noaoo? ? aiia iiaa/eea na?o eeoa /a?ac 60 ?ie?a — o 1990 ?.

Inoaiiueith ioae?/iith caaaeeith i?i Aaneey A?eai?iae/a, i?e/iio
a?aeaa?oi iaeeaiieoeueeiai oa?aeoa?o, noaea aacaoia ioae?eaoe?y A.Ai?aa
Ai?a A. Eoaei iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? eiio??aaiethoe?eii? i?iiaaaiaee (i?i
?iaioo ?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/iiai iocath) // aac. “Ci?y”. —
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1933. — 27 na?iiy., ui aeeoea a 1933 ?. I?ney oeueiai
?i’y a/aiiai iaaeiaai cieeei c iiey ci?o iaoeiaoe?a oa a?iiaaenueeino?.

A oiiaao ei?ioei/anii? e?aa?ae?caoe?? o noa?? ?aeaieia?? e?ioey 60-o —
ii/aoeo 70-o ??. iaa i?noea ? iao?eaaeee ia??iae “eaaae?caoe??” ?iai?
A.A.E?aa/aiea a aacaoieo oa aeo?iaeueieo noaooyo ?.I.Aa?acianueeiai,
A.Ne?eiee, E.*oaeinueei? Aa?acianueeee ?.I. Oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea
oieueeei?enoeea. Aoaie ?icaeoeo ? i?iaeaiaoeea. — E.: Aeae-ai “Iaoeiaa
aeoiea”, 1968. — N. 51, 145, 158, 335; Ne?eiea A. Ia?iaeiciaa/? i?aoe?
A.E?aa/aiea // Ia?iaeia oai?/?noue oa aoiia?ao?y. — 1970. — ? 6. — N. 54
— 57; *oaeinueea E. Aeaeaoiee o/aiee-aoiia?ao // aac. “?aaeyinueea
AEeoiie?ueia. — 1971. — 25 eeiiy.. I?ioa e oiae? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
oiiae ia aeicaieeee aaoi?ai aaeaeaaoii aena?oeeoe e ioe?ieoe
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee? iai?aoethaaiiy a/aiiai, neacaoe /eoa/ai i?aaaeo
i?i eiai noni?euei? iiaeyaee, o/anoue o aecaieueieo ciaaaiiyo, a oaeiae
iie?oe/i? ia?ane?aeoaaiiy a ?iee noae?inueeeo ?ai?an?e.

Eeoa iai?ee?ioe? 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ??. c’yaeythoueny aacaoi? noaoo?
I.Eino?eoe?, A.Iie?eoeueeiai, I.Caoa?aae/, iaoeiaa ?ica?aeea I.Iaethea,
a yeeo ?iaeoueny ni?iaa ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aeia?iai ?iai? a/aiiai Iaethe I.
Aaneeue E?aa/aiei. Ni?iaa aeeoo?ieno // Oe?a?ia. Iaoea ? eoeueoo?a. — E:
Aeae-ai “Ciaiiy”, 1991. — Aei. 25. — N. 183 — 190. . Ie?ai? aniaeoe
iocaeii? i?aoe? Aaneey A?eai?iae/a oa ?yae oaeo?a a?ia?ao?? iaoeiaoey
iaaiaeyoueny a iiiia?ao?yo A.A.Ne?eiiee oa I.Ianooe? Ne?eiiee A.A.
Aoiia?ao?/i? ioca? Oe?a?ie. Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie. — E.: Aeae-ai
“Iaoeiaa aeoiea”, 1989.- 300 n.; Ianooey I. A?ey aeoie?a aea?aeaaii?
nenoaie ioi?iie iai”yoie eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i? (Aeiaa Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
Aaoueiaiueie, Aee?aeoi??? ). — Ee?a — Iieoaaa, 1994.- 240 n..

I?e ae?iaeaii? i?aeoiae?a aei ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaieo a ?iaio? caaaeaiue
aaoi? a?aeooiaooaaany a?ae oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo ?ic?iaie o aaeoc?
a?ia?ao?noeee, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo o aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.N.*eoea *eoei
A.N. A?ia?ao?/ia o?aaeeoe?y oa iaoeiaa a?ia?ao?y a ?noi??? ? no/aniino?
Oe?a?ie.- E.: Aeae-ai “AIO”, 1996.- 240 n..

Oaeei /eiii, ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c cana?ae/o? iai?aeeia?i?noue
iniaenoino? A.A.E?aa/aiea, iayai?noue no?eeiai ?ioa?ano iaoeiaoe?a oa
a?iiaaenueeino? aei eiai aeeooy oa iaoeiaeo caeiaooe?a. I?ioa,
aiaeii/an, aaniethoii i/aaeaeiei ? oaeo iaaeinoaoiueiai caaeeaeaiiy
aeine?aeiee?a o oai?/o eaai?aoi??th a/aiiai, iiaa?oiaaee oa?aeoa?
cai?oie a?ia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, iaaio ?o iaaeinoia??i?noue ?
noia?a/eea?noue. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ? oie oaeo, ui iiaeaaaeaiiy
?ioa?ano aei iniaenoino? a/aiiai oa a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a caaaeaee
a?aeaoaaeiny a /ane iineaaeaiiy ?aeaieia?/iiai aeeeoaoo oioae?oa?iiai
?aaeeio. Oae naii ? caiia/oaaiiy ie?aieo noi??iie a?ia?ao?? a/aiiai,
cie?aia o/ano? o aecaieueieo ciaaaiiyo, i?eoyaiaiiy aei ne?aenoaa o
ni?aa? “NAO”, caai?iie ia i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue oiui, iineei
ia’?eoeaiee oa?aeoa? ? aoei iaoiiaeaii iie?oe/ieie oa ?aeaieia?/ieie
caai?iiaie ?aaeeio.

Ine?eueee ?noi??ia?ao?/ia ?ic?iaeai?noue i?iaeaie ? iaaeinoaoiueith, oi
iniiao aeaea?aeueii? aace aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee
caeaa?eueoiai a?o?ai? oa, aei iaaii? i??e, iioae?eiaai? aeieoiaioe.

Iaea?eueoa iaoa??ae?a noiniaii aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie i?noyoue eieaeoe??
naeoi?o ?oeiienieo oiiae?a ?inoeoooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?o oa
aoiieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?i. I.O.?eeuenueeiai. Cie?aia, aeineoue
??ciiieaiiaei ca oa?aeoa?ii ? O.15 “E?aa/aiei A.A.”, yeee ai?uo?
/eneaii? aieaoe, niiaaaee, uiaeaiieee, eenooaaiiy, ?oeiiene iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue oiui. Aiae?c iacaaieo aeaea?ae aeicaiey? anaa?/ii
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiai ye ethaeeio, a?iiaaeyieia, iaoeiaoey, ie?aneeoe
noni?eueii-iie?oe/io, aoiieia?/io oa iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue. Aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? aianeo A.A.E?aa/aiea o ?icaeoie
iocaeii? ni?aae a Oe?a?i?, c’ynoaaiiy eiai oai?aoe/ieo i?eioeei?a
i?aai?caoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy iocaeieo onoaiia, a oaeiae niinia?a ?o
i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? caeo/aeeny aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee O.16
“Aieeinueeee e?a?ciaa/ee iocae”.

Ia’?iiee ianea aeoiaeo iaoa??ae?a c i?iaeaiaoeee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy caa??aa?oueny o O.166 “Ia?iaeiee eii?na??ao ina?oe”
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?ie i. Ee?aa. Iayai? ooo aeiiia?aei? caienee, iia?aoe?ei? ieaie,
eenooaaiiy c iocayie, iaoa??aee i?i ?o ?iaioo, /eneaii? ca?oe, atheaoi?,
iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie oiui — aeiiiiaaathoue e?aua c’ynoaaoe iiaaoi?noai
A.A.E?aa/aiea o noa?? iaaeaaia?/ii?, i?ina?oiuei? ? iocaeii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Ua iaeei, iaaecae/aeii oe?iiee ei?ion aeaea?ae, ui ioiieth?
aei?aaiethoe?eiee ia??iae aeeooy iaoeiaoey, i?noeoueny o Oeaio?aeueiiio
aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie a i. Ee?a?. Ianaiia?aae ooo
oaaao i?eaa?oa? O.442 “Eaioeaey??y ee?anueeiai, iiae?euenueeiai ?
aieeinueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a. Nae?aoia /anoeia” oa O.1599 “Iii?/iee
ia/aeueieea aieeinueeiai aoaa?inueeiai aeaiaea?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy a
AEeoiie?nueeiio, Ia?ooeueeiio, Noa?ieinoyioei?anueeiio iia?oao. i.
AEeoiie?”. Iaoa??aee cacia/aieo oiiae?a iineoaeeeeny aeey anoaiiaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?o noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a A.A.E?aa/aiea, aecia/aiiy eiai
i?noey o noni?eueiiio ?on? Aieei? iaia?aaeiaei? ?aaiethoe?eieo c?ooaiue.

Oaio iie?oe/ieo ia?ane?aeoaaiue A.A.E?aa/aiea, aea oeueiai ?aco aaea c
aieo oioae?oa?iiai noae?inueeiai ?aaeeio, ?ice?eaathoue aeieoiaioaeuei?
iaoa??aee, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? AEeoiie?nueei?
iaeano?. Cie?aia, O.67093-NI i?noeoue oe?iiee ianea aeieoiaio?a noiniaii
iiae?e, iia’ycaieo c i?eoyaiaiiyi Aaneey A?eai?iae/a aei ne?aenoaa o
ni?aa? “NAO”.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey aea/aiiy ii/aoeiaiai aoaio iaoeiaeo iiooe?a
A.A.E?aa/aiea oa eiai c?inoaiiy ye iaoeiaoey ? oiiaee ?inoooooo
?oeiien?a Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?iai? A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai,
ianaiia?aae O.3 “Eenooaaiiy” oa O.10 “A?o?a AI Oe?a?ie. C iaoa??ae?a
Iino?eii? eii?n?? aeey neeaaeaiiy A?ia?ao?/iiai neiaieea oe?a?inueeeo
ae?y/?a”. Caaaeyee aeieoiaioai, ui i?noyoueny a iacaaieo oiiaeao, aaoi?o
aaeaeiny c?iaeoe iaai? ooi/iaiiy uiaei i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo
a/aiiai, iiooe?a iaoeiaeo oiiaeiaaiue, i??i?eoao?a oa niaoe?ae?caoe??,
aoai?a eiai oaoiaiai oaeineiiaeaiiy.

I?e ?ice?eoo? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aoee caeo/ai?
oaeiae iioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea. Oi/a, aa?oi a?aecia/eoe, ui ianueiaiaei?
aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao ?o oaaaeaii iaaecae/aeii iaei, a oiio e ?o
aeei?enoaiiy iaei aeiiii?aeiee oa?aeoa?. C-iii?ae iioae?eiaaieo
aeaea?ae, ianaiia?aae aa?oi a?aei?oeoe iaoeia? ?iaioe, ?ica?aeee,
noaoo?, i?ia?aie A.A.E?aa/aiea, iioae?eiaai? a ??ciiiai?oieo ca??ieeao ?
/aniienao E?aa/aiei A.A. Ec ia?iaeiuo ?anneacia i i?ieeyouo aeaoyo //
Eeaaneay noa?eia. — 1899. — O. XXVI. — N. 772 — 774; E?aa/aiei A.A.
Aoaeaiia aeeoo?. Ineoieueia?/i? iaethiee. — Euea?a, 1902. — 301 n.;
E?aa/aiei A.A. Yoiia?aoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu, nia?aiiua a Aieuineie e
ninaaeieo n iae aoaa?ieyo // O?oaeu Iauanoaa enneaaeiaaoaeae Aieuie. —
AEeoiie?, 1911. — O. 5; 1914. — O.12; E?aa/aiei A.A. I?ia?ai aea/aiiy
aii/a?noaa // E?a?ciaanoai. — Oa?e?a: Oe?a?inueeee eii?oao e?a?ciaanoaa,
1927. — ? 2. — N. 11 — 15; ? 3. — N. 17 — 19; E?aa/aiei A.A. Iaoa??aee
i?i aiaiiue // Ia?a?nia a?iiaaeyinoai. — 1927. — Ei. 1 — 3.- N. 147 —
182; E?aa/aiei A.A. Ieai aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ca i?ioeanii iaaiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa /e oi caiyooy // Atheaoaiue Aa?aee/?anueei? Ie?ia?ina?oe. —
1927. — ? 5 — 7; E?aa/aiei A.A. C iiaooo e ia?yae?a i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie // Ca??iee Aieeinueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai iocath. — AEeoiie?,
1928. — o. 1. — N. 67 — 144; E?aa/aiei A.A. Aoiia?ao?/iee ia?en i?i
Aieeiue / I?aeaioiaea aei ae?oeo oa anooiia noaooy Eiaiaee O.I. //
Aa?aaeiy. — E., 1995. -? 1 — 2. — N. 14 — 25; 1995. — ?3 — 4. — N. 111
— 121 oa ?i.. ?o aiae?c aea? ciiao aeine?aeeoe ni?yioaaiiy iaoeiaeo
iiooe?a, iaoeiai-aeine?aei? iaoiaee ? i?aeoiaee aei ?iaioe, c’ynoaaoe
iaoiaeieia?th oa iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiue a/aiiai, a?aeoai?eoe niaeo?
eiai iaoeiaeo ?ioa?an?a. Ooi/iaiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a a?ia?ao?? a/aiiai,
anoaiiaeaiiy eiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai oa iaoeiaiai ii?o?aoo noaei
iiaeeeaei caaaeyee eiai eenooaaiith c Oa. Aiaeii, a oaeiae ai?noiey?i?e
niaaeuei?, cina?aaeaeai?e o c?a?aii? oai??a I.I.Eioethaeinueeiai. Iaaia
?ioi?iaoe?y noiniaii iai?yi?a ?iaioe iocaeieo onoaiia Oe?a?ie a 1920 —
1930 ??. i?noeoueny o ca??ieeo aeieoiaio?a “Eoeueoo?ia aoae?aieoeoai a
O?N?. Aaaeeea?o? ??oaiiy Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? ? ?aaeyinueeiai o?yaeo
1917 — 1959 ??.” Eoeueoo?ia aoae?aieoeoai a O?N?. Aaaeeea?o? ??oaiiy
Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? ? ?aaeyinueeiai o?yaeo 1917 — 1959 ??.: Ca.
aeieoiaio?a. — E.: Aea?ae. aeae-ai iie?oe/ii? e?oa?aoo?e O?N?, 1959. —
O. 1. — N. 175 — 532.

.

A oe?eiio, ioe?ithth/e noai aeaea?aeueii? aace aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, aa?oi caoaaaeeoe, ui nooi?iue ?? aeieoiaioaeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy ? aeineoue iiaiei. Iayai? ?noi?e/i? aeaea?aea o?iiieia?/ii
ioiieththoue ia??iae c 1877 ii 1945 ??., oaiaoe/ii aeieoiaioaeueiee
iaoa??ae ? aeineoue ??ciia?/iei, iioiaeeoue c ??cieo aeaea?ae, a oiio ?
an? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui eiai aiae?c aeicaieea cia?aceoe iiaio e
ia”?eoeaio ea?oeio i?aeoe/ii an?o ia??iae?a aeeooy oa iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino? A.A.E?aa/aiea, ioe?ieoe eiai aianie o ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeiciaanoaa, aoiieia?/ii? iaoee, ?noi?e/iiai
e?a?ciaanoaa oa iocaeii? ni?aae, ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiai ye iaoeiaoey,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a, a?iiaaeyieia, aecia/eoe i?noea a
iaoeiaiio oa a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a oa
noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ioa?an?a A.A.E?aa/aiea” ?icaeyaea?oueny ?aii?e
ia??iae a?ia?ao?? a/aiiai, aeine?aeaeothoueny aeoiee oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaeo
oiiaeiaaiue iaeaooiueiai iaoeiaoey, a oaeiae aecia/athoueny /eiieee,
ye? iaee ia oie /an ae??oaeueiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy eiai na?oiaeyaeo oa
?aeaieia?/ieo ia?aeiiaiue; ?aeiino?oth?oueny ae?yeuei?noue o ?iee
?aaiethoe?eieo iio?yn?iue, aiae?co?oueny eiai iie?oe/ia iiceoe?y,
o?ainoi?iaoe?y oe?iiinieo i???ioaoe?e oa ia?aeiiaiue.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaioea aeioiaeeoue
aeniiaeo, ui aaea i?ae /an iaa/aiiy a Aa?aeyinuee?e ii/aoeia?e oeie?
i?ae aieeaii ia?iaeiaieueoe?a A.Ia?oeiiae/a ? A.*i?iiaa?aa
?icii/eia?oueny oi?ioaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii-ia?iaeieoeueei? i???ioaoe??
A.E?aa/aiea. Anooieaoe 1877 ?. aei Oaiaein?enueeiai a/eoaeuenueeiai
?inoeoooo, thiae i?iaeiaaeo? i?aeo?eioaaoe o?ni? eiioaeoe c? nai?ie
noa?oeie oiaa?eoaie-ia?iaeiaieueoeyie. Naia “a?eueiiethaea?” iioeae,
aeyaeai? iie?oe??th 1880 ?. i?ae /an ia?ethno?aoe?? eeno?a A.E?aa/aiea
aei A.Ia?oeiiae/a oa A.*i?iiaa?aa, ia aeicaieeee eiio caaa?oeoe iaa/aiiy
a ?inoeooo?, io?eiaoe aeeieii ? ia?ae?aneeee ieaie uiaei iaeaooiuei?
ae?yeueiino? ia ina?oyinuee?e iea?. Caai?iia ia caiyooy iaaeaaia?/iith
i?aoeath, i?eioniaa iia?e?caoe?y “aeey aei?aaeaiiy” a a?i?th, cioneee
thiaea anooieoe aei Iaeanueei? thiea?nueei? oeiee. Aea e ooo aeiey caaea
eiai c a?aeiiei a?iiaae?aoeai, aeecueeei oiaa?eoai I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa —
E.I.Niieainueeei. Naia inoaii?e, ca iaoei ia?aeiiaiiyi, a?ae?a?aa
aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? na?oiaeyaeo Aaneey A?eai?iae/a. I?ae aieeaii
Niieainueeiai E?aa/aiei noaa aeoeaiei /eaiii “ao?oea iieiae?” — noa?oi?
a?oie iaeanueeeo a?iiaae?aoe?a. Iaea?eueo a??ia?aeii, ui naia a oeae /an
? oi?io?oueny iaoe?iiaeueia naiina?aeii?noue thiaea, eiai aeoea?nonueea
iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a.

E??i caeo/aiiy aei o/ano? o iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiio ?on?, a ?iee
iaa/aiiy a Iaeanuee?e thiea?nuee?e oeie? caaaeyee coneeeyi Niieainueeiai
A.E?aa/aiei i?eeo/eany oaeiae aei iaoeiai? oa i?ina?oieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?. A ianooii? ?iee, iacaaaeath/e ia oiiae a?enueeiai?
neoaeae, Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ i?iaeiaaeoaaa oe?eaaeoeny ia?iaeiciaanoaii,
ianaiia?aae aeoeaii caeiaoenue cae?aoeueeith ?iaioith. Ia?a?cae ca
iai?aaeaiiyi aei ?eeuenueeiai iieeo, eio?ee aeeneieoaaany ia Aieei?, a
Ino?icueeiio iia?o?, iaoiiaea aea?? aaia?ao?? eiai iiaeaeueoi?
ia?iaeiciaa/i? ae?yeueiino?. C oiai /ano cae/a?, iiaoo, a??oaaiiy oa
oieueeei? aieeiyi aeii?io? o iaoeiaeo iiooeao Aaneey A?eai?iae/a.

Aiae?coth/e i?iaeaio noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiaeo oiiaeiaaiue, ae?iaeaiiy
iaoiaeieia?? oa iaoiaeeee iaoeiai? i?aoe?, ?c aiaaiai?noth iiaeia
eiinoaooaaoe cia/iee aieea iaeiiai c iniiaiiieiaeiee?a oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeiciaanoaa A.Ae.A??i/aiea. Eiinoeueooth/enue c inoaii?i, Aaneeue
A?eai?iae/ cae?a? ia?iaeiciaa/ee iaoa??ae, yeee iiaa/ea na?o a
iioae?eiaaieo A??i/aieii “Aoiia?ao?/ieo iaoa??aeao”, i?iaiaeeoue nai?
ia?o? aoiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeo?ae A.E?aa/aiea ia oeyo naiino?eii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe a yeino? cae?a/a oa oeeaaea/a ca??ie
aoiia?ao?/ieo iaoa?ae?a oaeiae cia/iith i??ith aoa iaoiiaeaiee
i?eeeaaeii a/eoaey.

Ia?ao?ae A.E?aa/aiea ia oeea?eueio neoaeao a aeoeecia oi?aae?iiy 1892 ?.
aeicaieea a?eueoa /ano i?eae?eyoe iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e i?aoe?, ni?iaoaaoe
nai? neee ia iea? e?aniiai ienueiainoaa, aeoeaii ae?oeoaaoeny o
“Caieneao Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?iai? Oaa/aiea”, aeeoiie?nueeiio
oeaeiaaeeo “Aieeiue”, “E?oa?aoo?ii-Iaoeiaiio a?nieeo”, iaeanueeiio
aeueiaian? “C-iaae oia? ? aeieei”, i?acueeiio ui??/ieeo “Ia?iaei?
eenoe”, aaeeoeueeeo oa aoeiaeinueeeo /aniienao “?oneai”, “Iinooi”,
“Ci?y”, “Ae?ei”, “Aoeiaeia”.

Ia?a?oaaoe 1900 ?. ca iio?aaaie neoaeae aei AEeoiie?a, Aaneeue
A?eai?iae/ aeoeaii aeeth/a?oueny a noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia ? iaoeiaa aeeooy
i?noa. Cie?aia, ?acii c ?noi?eeii e?oa?aoo?e oa aoiieiaii I.?.Ei?iaeith
oa I.I.Oioeinueeei A.A.E?aa/aiei i?aai?ciao? ia?oee a Oe?a?i?
e?a?ciaa/ee ina?aaeie — “Oiaa?enoai aeine?aeiee?a Aieei?”, yeee
a?ae?a?aa cia/io ?ieue o aeine?aeaeaii? ?noi???, aoiieia??, oieueeei?o,
aaieia?? oa aioai?ee Aieeinueeiai e?ath. I?ioyaii ianooiieo aeanyoee?oue
Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ aeoeaii ni?ai?aoeth? c Oiaa?enoaii, i/iethth/e eiai
aoiia?ao?/io naeoe?th. Caaaeyee coneeeyi o/aiiai aoei c?a?aii e
oii?yaeeiaaii aea? eieae ia?iaeiciaa/iai iaoa??aeo, ye? iiaa/eee na?o ye
V-ee oa XII-ee oiie “I?aoeue Oiaa?enoaa aeine?aeiee?a Aieei?”.
Oii?yaeeiaai? A.A.E?aa/aieii c?a?aiiy noaee iii?oiith a?oith a ?icaeoeo
a?o/eciyii? aoiieia?/ii? iaoee, io?eiaee noaaeuei? a?aeaoee oao?aoe?a.

O?nia ni?ai?aoey Aaneey A?eai?iae/a c Oiaa?enoaii aeine?aeiee?a Aieei?
iaoiiaeea eiai o/anoue o ?aae?caoe?? ieai?a noai?aiiy iaei??? c
iaenoa??oeo a Oe?a?i? iocaeii? onoaiiae — Aieeinueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai iocath. A?aoiaoth/e iaoeia? oiiaeiaaiiy a/aiiai,
eiai aeina?ae iaoeiai? ?iaioe, 1900 ?. A.E?aa/aiea iae?athoue
caa?aeoaa/ai aoiia?ao?/iei a?aeae?eii iocath, ia iinaae? yeiai a?i
caeeoaany aae aei 1931 ?. Caaaeyee noa?aii?e ? eii?oe?e i?aoe? Aaneey
A?eai?iae/a aoiia?ao?/iee a?aeae?e, iino?eii ?icoe?thth/enue oa
caaaa/oth/enue iiaeie aeniiiaoaie, a?aoo? noaa iaei??th c iaea?eueoeo oa
iaeoe?ii?oeo eieaeoe?e iocath.

A?aeaeath/e /eiaei nee ? aia?a?? iaoeia?e i?aoe? (yeith aei 1917 ?.
caeiaany ia iai?ioan?ei?e iniia?, caeeoath/enue ia neoaea? a aeoeeciiio
oi?aae?ii?), Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ ciaoiaeeoue /an aeey aeoeaii? o/ano? a
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? AEeoiie?a. Cie?aia, 1905 ?. a?i caniiao?
eiiia?aoea “Niiaeea/a oiaa?enoai”, 1909 ?. — “Oiaa?enoai naiiaeiiiiiae”.

Aea iaeaieiai?oith a oiai/ani?e noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
A.A.E?aa/aiea aacia?a/ii aoea eiai o/anoue o ?iaio? aeeoiie?nueei?
“I?ina?oe”. ?acii c A.Iiaeoeueeei, I.Iao?ianueeei, A.Ea?oeith,
ae?oaeeiith — Ie?ii?aaeith Ieoaee?aiith, Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ aenooia?
iaeiei c i?aai?caoi??a i?noeaai? o?e?? “I?ina?oe”, e i?ioyaii 1907 —
1912 ??. caeia?oueny aeoeaiith i?ina?oieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth na?aae
aieeiyi. Ca caeioaa/aiiyi o “naia?aoeci?-oe?a?iio?euenoa?” oa
“iacai?auei?”- ae?yeueiino?, ni?yiiaai?e ia i?ae?ea ?in?enueei?
aea?aeaaiino?, a?aeiniaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo i?ioe A.A.E?aa/aiea
?icii/aee noaeia? ia?ane?aeoaaiiy, ?acoeueoaoii yeeo 1914 ?. noaea eiai
aeneeea ca iaae? Oe?a?ie, aei i. Eia?iaa Aieiaeeie?nueei? aoaa?i??.

Ethoiaaa ?aaiethoe?y a Iaoa?ao?c? 1917 ?. ciaiaioaaea a aeeoo?
A.A.E?aa/aiea ia eeoa iiaa?iaiiy ia Aaouee?aueio, a e caeo/aiiy aei
aeoeaii? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?, a?iiaaenueei? oa iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?.
O ?iee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ caeia?
aeoeaio a?iiaaenueeo iiceoe?th. Cie?aia, iaaani? 1917 ?. a?i aenooiea
iaeiei c ?i?oe?aoi??a neeeeaiiy a AEeoiie?? I-ai oa II-ai Naeyinueeeo
c’?cae?a, a?aa aeoeaio o/anoue o ae?yeueiino? i?nueei? aeoie, I-ai oa
II-ai c’?cae?a ?ia?oie/eo, naeyinueeeo ? nieaeaonueeeo aeaiooao?a
Aieei?. O iie?oe/iiio ieai? Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ nie?aea?ecoaaany c
ieaooi?iith caniiaaiiai ca aeoeaii? o/ano? I.N.A?ooaanueeiai “Oiaa?enoaa
oe?a?inueeeo iinooiiaoe?a”, aeoeaii ni?ai?aoethaaa c oe??th i?ia?aeiith
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iith i?aai?caoe??th Oe?a?ie, caiaeii noaa
/eaiii noai?aii? ia ?? iniia? ia?o?? nioe?ae?no?a-oaaea?ae?no?a. Ia
cai?ioaiiy e?aea??a OOIo A.A.E?aa/aiei 1917 ?. aa?a o/anoue o ?iaio?
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai c’?caeo, i?aeo?eio? aeiiao uiaei iaaeaiiy Oe?a?i?
aaoiiii??. I?ae /an cono??/ae c I.N.A?ooaanueeei o aei? ?iaioe oi?oio
ciaeiieoue inoaiiueiai c? noaiii noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo Aieei?,
iaaiai?th? oeyoe i?aeianaiiy ooo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

I?ney aaoueiainueeiai ia?aai?ioo Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae
aeoeaii? iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, a?eueoa oiai, caaaeath/e ia o?nio
ni?ai?aoeth c Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith, ciooaiee iaaiee /an ia?aoiaoaaoeny
a?ae ia?ane?aeoaaiue aaoueiainueei? aeaaee oa i?iaoeueei? a?enueeiai?
aaei?i?no?aoe??, caiaeii — ieoiaoe?eieo iieuenueeeo a?enuee. Aeiooaii
a?ae?eoiaoe a?ae o/ano? a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?, A.A.E?aa/aiei a oiiaao
/anoi? ci?ie iie?oe/ieo ?aaeei?a, noni?eueii? ianoaa?eueiino? aieiaio
oaaao i?eae?ey? a oeae /an caa?aaeaiith aacoe?iii? eieaeoe??
Aieeinueeiai iocath, oi?eaeueieo eieaeeiaeo c?a?aiue i?noa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aeine?aeieoeueea oa iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eia
ae?yeuei?noue A.A.E?aa/aiea a 1920 — 30-? ?iee” aeine?aeaeaii aeeooy oa
iai?yie i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? A.A.E?aa/aiea ca /an?a ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee; ?aeiino?oeiaaii neeaaeiee ia??iae aeeooy oa iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino? a/aiiai ca /an?a ?icea?oo oioae?oa?ecio, iaiiaiaiee
iiiaa??yiiyie, iaoa??aeueiith ne?ooith, aac?acoeueoaoieie iiooeaie
ni?aaaaeeeaino?, iaiaaaiiyie iiaa?iooeny aei iaoeiai? i?aoe?.

I?ney ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i? ? i?iaieioaiiy eo?no
“oe?a?i?caoe??” Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ io?eiaa ciiao iiai?noth cina?aaeeoeny
ia iaoeia?e ? iocaei?e ?iaio?. Ao?oeea? ?iee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue ii?iaeeee iiaea?io oe?a?inueeo iaoe?th, a aeiooai? iinooiee
a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeaaee a iaoe?iiaeueiiio ieoaii? aeicaieeee ?icaeiooeny
a Oe?a?i? i?ioeanai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Iie?oeea
“oe?a?i?caoe??” noai?eea ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey i?iaeoeoeaii?
aeine?aeieoeueei? i?aoe? Aaneey A?eai?iae/a. 1920-o? ??. ii i?aao iiaeia
aaaaeaoe ?icea?oii eiai iaoeiai? oa iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. A oeae /an Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ iiai?noth cina?aaeaeo?oueny
ia ?iaio? o Aieeinueeiio ioca?, aea ia i?ioan?ei?e iniia? ia?eia?
iinaaeo caa?aeoaa/a aoiia?ao?/iei a?aeae?eii. Iocaeio ?iaioo A.E?aa/aiei
ii?aeio? c aeeeaaeaoeueeith, i?aoethth/e aeeeaaea/ai AEeoiie?nueeeo
aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo eo?n?a oa AEeoiie?nueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oaoi?eoio.
Caeia?oueny a/aiee ? aeoiaaiiyi iocaeieo eaae??a, aiooth/e
o/aieo-ioca?no?a. I?e/iio, aa?oi iaaieineoe, ui iniaeeai ie?aeii oey
i?aoey i?inoaaeany ai?iaeiaae 1927 — 1931 ??., eiee iaoeiaaoeue ia?eiaa
iinaaeo caa?aeoaa/a ani??aioo?e i?e aoiia?ao?/iiio a?aeae?e?
Aieeinueeiai iocath. I/iethaaiee A.A.E?aa/aieii a?aeae?e i?ioyaii 20-o
??. ?icai?oa? oe?ieo i?ia?aio aoiia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy Aieei?,
aea/aiiy ??ciiiai?oieo i?iya?a iaoa??aeueii? oa aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ye
ei??iiiai i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, oae ? /eneaiieo a?oi iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei, ye? iaoeaee a e?a?. Aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui aeine?aeieoeuee?
i?ia?aie aoiia?ao?/iiai a?aeae?eo ?ic?iaeyeeny A.A.E?aa/aieii o
eiioaeno? ae?yeueiino? eii?n?e AOAI. A/aiee o?nii ni?ai?aoethaaa c
Eaa?iaoii iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei i?e Aoiia?ao?/i?e eii?n??, Eii?n??th
aeey aea/aiiy cae/a?aiai i?aaa, Eii?n??th ?noi?e/ii? i?naiiino?,
Eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iith eii?n??th, Eaa?iaoii i?ei?oeaii? eoeueoo?e i?e
iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. O?nia ni?ai?aoey c
eii?n?yie AOAI ciooo? a/aiiai iaiieaaeeai i?aoethaaoe iaae iiaeaeueoei
oaeineiiaeaiiyi iaoiaeeee oa iaoiaeieia?? iaoeiai? i?aoe?, iino?eii
?icoe?thaaoe niaeo? iaoeiaeo ?ioa?an?a. Aeania, ca iaoei ia?aeiiaiiyi,
naia ni?ai?aoey c AOAI aoea aeey A.A.E?aa/aiea /a?aiaei uaaeai ia oeyoo
eiai iaoeiaiai noiaeaeaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy eiai ye aoiieiaa-i?aeoeea oa
aoiieiaa-oai?aoeea.

Noaiiaeaiiy a e?a?i? oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio ni?e/eiy? cai?oaiiy iie?oeee
“oe?a?i?caoe??”, nieane ?ai?an?e ii a?aeiioaiith aei
iaoe?iiaeueii-na?aeiii? ?ioae?aaioe??. A iiaeo oiiaao aeaaea iio?aaoaaea
aaea ia ioca?no?a-o/aieo, a ioca?no?a-?aeaieia?a. A.A.E?aa/aiei, yeee
a?aecia/aany aeoeai?noth a ?iee aecaieueieo ciaaaiue ? iaiaeii?aciai
aeaiiino?oaaa naith iaoe?iiaeueii-na?aeiio iiceoe?th caiaeii, ia eeoa ia
a?aeiia?aeaa oeei iiaei caaaeaiiyi, a e aeeeeeaa iaaeia??o aeaaee.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ ye “aioe?aaeyinueee” iaeaooiaaiee
“oe?a?inueeee oia?i?no”, eio?ee i?iaiaeea aa?oaoe?th , “iai?aaeaio ia
a?aeie?aieaiiy Oe?a?ie”, a /ene? ia?oeo a?ae/oa ia nia? ea?ath/?
ooieoe?? oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio. Aaea i?ae /an ia?oiai aeoo o?aaaae??
e?ioey 20-o — 30-o ??., oae caaiiai i?ioeano “NAO”, a/aiiai aoei
caa?aooiaaii ? a?aeaeaii i?ae ne?aenoai. Ca?eueiaiiy c-i?ae a?aooo (9
aa?aciy 1930 ?.) oa iinoaiiaa i?i oa, ui “nioe?aeueia iaaacia/i?noue
E?aa/aiea ia anoaiiaeth?oueny”, a?aeiiaeaiiy ia iiia?aaei?e iinaae?
caa?aeoaa/a aoiia?ao?/iei a?aeae?eii ia i?eieieei oeaaeo oeueeoaaiue oa
ia?ane?aeoaaiue a/aiiai a i?an? oa ia ?iaio?. Oea ? noaei iaei??th c
aieiaieo i?e/ei eiai caieioaiiy ia i?iiiceoe?th Ae.?.ssai?ieoeueeiai
uiaei ia?a?caeo ia ?iaioo aei Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/iiai iocath. I?ioa i?ae /an oe?ieiianooaaii? /enoee
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai iocath o aeiaoi? 1933 ?. Aaneey A?eai?iae/a “…ca
o/anoue a oe?a?inuee?e iaoe?iiae?noe/i?e i?aai?caoe??…” ciiao aoei
ca?eueiaii c ?iaioe ii ia?o?e eaoaai???.

A ?acoeueoao? iiooeo cania?a aei ?nioaaiiy Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ aoa
ciooaiee ia?a?oaoe ia iino?eia iaoeaiiy aei i. ?inoiaa-ia-Aeiio (aea
i?iaeeaaa eiai ?aeeiee nei Ieoaeei). Aea ? oai i?iaeiaaeoaaeeny
o?oaeiiu? oa ii?aeueiee oene ia ?ai?aniaaiiai iaoeiaoey: iaoa??aeueia
ne?ooa (eeoa o 1934 ?., i?ney /eneaiieo eeiiioaiue eiio aoei i?ecia/aii
iaaaeeeo iain?th ii ?iaae?aeiino?, a iaeaaeio eiio aeaaeai?/io iain?th
io?eiaa eeoa 1939 ?ieo), iaiiaeeea?noue i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth, a?aoo neia ? canoaeaeaiiy eiai aei 15-e?oiueiai
oa’yciaiiy. I?ioa ? ca oaeeo oiia Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ ia i?eieiea nai?o
iaoeiaeo iiooe?a, iaiieaaeeai i?aoethth/e iaae ia?iaeith c?a?aieo ?ai?oa
iaoa??ae?a oa i?aeaioiaeith ?o aei ae?oeo (“?in?enuee? /anoooee
Aieiaeeie?nueei? oa non?aei?o c iath aoaa?i?e”, “Oieueeei? i?noa
?inoiaa”), ienaa naith i?ia?aiio i?aoeth “Iocae e?a?ciaanoaa oa eiai
?ieue a nioe?ae?noe/iiio aoae?aieoeoa? e?a?ie”).

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeeea ? iaoiaeieia?y
oieueeei?enoe/ii-aoiieia?/ii? oa iocaeii? i?aoe? A.A.E?aa/aiea”
aeine?aeaeaii iaoeiao eaai?aoi??th a/aiiai oa i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe
eiai iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eii? ?iaioe, aecia/aii aianie o ?icaeoie
a?o/eciyii? aoiieia?/ii? iaoee.

Aiae?coth/e iaoeiao ae?yeuei?noue o/aiiai, c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
niaeo? eiai iaoeiaeo caoe?eaaeaiue aoa aeineoue oe?ieei ?
aaaaoiieaiiaei. Oae, Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ oe?eaaeany i?iaeaiaie ?icaeoeo
aoiieia??, oieueeei?enoeee, ?noi?e/iiai e?a?cianoaa, ?ae?a??ciaanoaa,
ae?aeaeoieia?? oiui. Ia?iaeiciaa/? i?aoe? aeine?aeieea a?aecia/athoueny
eiiieaeni?noth ? anaa?/i?noth aea/aiiy ia?iaeiiai aeeooy, a?aooaaiiyi
??ciiiai?oiino? eiai i?iya?a ? oi?i, i?e/iio, ye o c??c? iaoa??aeueii?,
oae ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Aiane?aeie niia?aeoaaiiy oaeeo i?eioeei?a
iaoeiai? i?aoe? a aei?iaeo a/aiiai, c iaeiiai aieo, i?noyoueny
iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo i?iiene?a ? ae?iaie/eo
aaeocae, a c ae?oaiai — a??oaaiue, cae/a?a, ia?yaeiaino?, i?naiii?
eoeueoo?e, cae/a?aiai i?aaa oa ?ioeo i?iya?a aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e
aieeiyi. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ? oie oaeo, ui caoe?eaaeai?noue o Aaneey
A?eai?iae/a aeeeeeaee ia eeoa aeeooy, iiaoo, a??oaaiiy aaoiooiiiiai
ianaeaiiy Aieei?, a e /enaeueieo iaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, ye? ianaeyee e?ae
(iieye?a, ?a?a?a, i?ioe?a, /ao?a oa ?i.). Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith iaoeiai?
i?aoe? A.A.E?aa/aiea a oea?ei? ia?iaeiciaanoaa aoei caeo/aiiy aei
iiooeiai?, cae?aoeueei? ?iaioe oe?ieeo e?e a?iiaaenueeino? (a/eoae?a,
o/i?a, nooaeaio?a, neooa/?a iaaeaaia?/ieo eo?n?a, aiooc?ano?a c
i?noeue). A/aiee aoa ia?aeiiaiee, ui naia eieaeoeaiee oa?aeoa?
cae?aoeueei? ?iaioe iiaea caaacia/eoe ?icoe?aiiy aaia?ao?? iiooe?a,
aa?aiooaaoeia oni?o aoe?eiio.

A iaoeiaiio aei?iaeo a/aiiai, ii?o/ c aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeania
aoiieia?/iiai ieaio, cia/ia i?noea iin?aeathoue i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe??
iocaeii? ni?aae. O oea?ei? iocaeii? ni?aae Aaneeue A?eai?iae/
niia?aeoaaa i?eioeei eiiieaeniino? aeniiceoe??, o a?aea?aeiino? c yeei
iocae iaa yaeyoe c naaa oe?e?niee eiiieaen, yeiiiaa oe?oa a?aeaeaaoe
ca’ycie ethaeeie c noni?euenoaii. ?icaeyaeath/e iocaeio onoaiiao ye
aaaeeeaee can?a aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiina?aeiieo a?iiaaeyi,
A.A.E?aa/aiei i?ioyaii onueiai aeeooy ia eeoa iaiieaaeeai i?aoethaaa
iaae iiiiaiaiiyi eieaeoe?e oa oaeineiiaeaiiyi aeniiceoe?e Aieeinueeiai
iocath, a e a?aeaeaa /eiaei nee ? /ano aeey oiai, uia o e?a? c’yaeany
oe?eee ?yae i?nueeeo, n?euenueeeo, oe?eueieo ioca?a. Naia aiie, ia
aeoieo a/aiiai, iaee cana?ae/eoe ca’ycie iieie?iue, ? naia aiie iiaeii?
aoee aeiiiiaaaoe o aeoiaaii? iieiaeiai iieie?iiy.

O?nii ia?aaoeoaaeeny c oaeei aa/aiiyi ?ie? iocath o aeoiaaii? iieiae?
coneeey A.A.E?aa/aiea, ni?yiiaai? ia iiioey?ecaoe?th ia?iaeiciaa/eo
ciaiue. A/aiee a?aeaeaaaa aaaaoi /ano i?aai?caoe?? na?aae aieeiyi
eaeoe?eii? i?iiaaaiaee, i?iaaaeaiith nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue, eo?n?a
ia?ai?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe e eoeueoo?e. Caaaeyee coneeeyi
Aaneey A?eai?iae/a o e?a? aeiee oe?eee ?yae aoiia?ao?/ieo ao?oe?a, ye?
ia eeoa i?iiaaoaaee ia?iaeiciaa/? caeiaooee, a e aeiiiiiaee a
i?aai?caoe?? aoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeooy ? iiaooo caieye?a.

Iaoeiaee aei?iaie ia?iaeiciaaoey aoa aeniei ioe?iaiee i?aaenoaaieeaie
aeaaeai?/ii? iaoee, oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaany o ?o oai?aoe/ieo aei?iaeao.
A oea aea? i?aenoaae eiinoaooaaoe, ui iai?yie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
A.A.E?aa/aiea ?icaeaaeeny o eiioaeno? i??i?eoaoieo caaaeaiue oiai/anii?
a?o/eciyii? iaoee, a ?o oai?aoe/iee ??aaiue a?aeiia?aeaa aeiiaai
ia?aaeiai? aeaaeai?/ii? iaoee.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaei
i?aenoaae aeey aeniiae?a, iniiai? c yeeo aeiinyoueny ia caoeno :

— noaiiaeaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a A.A.E?aa/aiea a?aeaoaaeiny
nii/aoeo i?ae aieeaii ?aeae oa ae?yeueiino? ia?iaeiaieueoe?a
(A.Ia?oeiiae/a oa A.*i?iiaa?aa); a caiaeii o i?ioean? aeoeaii?
ni?ai?aoe? c a?iiaae?anueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie;

— ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaeo oiiaeiaaiue, iaoiaeeee oa iaoiaeieia??
aeine?aeieoeueei? i?aoe? a/aiiai cia/iee aieea iaa iaeei c
iniiaiiieiaeiee?a a?o/eciyiiai ia?iaeiciaanoaa A.Ae.A??i/aiei;
iiaeaeueoa oaoiaa c?inoaiiy a/aiiai a?aeaoaaeiny a i?ioean? ni?ai?aoe? c
Iaoeiaei oiaa?enoaii ?i. Oaa/aiea oa “E?oa?aoo?ii-Iaoeiaei a?nieeii”;

— A.A.E?aa/aiei ai?n cia/iee aeeaae o noaiiaeaiiy Aieeinueei?
oieueeei?ii-aoiia?ao?/ii? oeiee, aenooieaoe iaeiei c ?i?oe?aoi??a ?
i?aai?caoi??a ia?oiai a Oe?a?i? e?a?ciaa/iai ina?aaeeo — “Oiaa?enoaa
aeine?aeiee?a Aieei?”, caiaeii — Aieeinueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
iocath;

— aeoeaia o/anoue o a?iiaae?anueeiio ?on? ia ii/aoeo 1880-o ??.
noi?ioaaee iaoe?iiaeueiina?aeiio a?iiaaeyinueeo iiceoe?th oa
aeoea?nonueeee oei iie?oe/iiai ieneaiiy A.A.E?aa/aiea, ui caiaeii
aeicaieeei eiio caeiyoe /?eueia i?noea a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ?on? ia
Aieei?.

— aoiinoa?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy 1920-o ??. aeicaieeea
A.A.E?aa/aieo ?ice?eoe na?e iaoeiaee oa iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae, aianoe aaaiiee aeeaae o ?icaeoie a?o/eciyii? aoiieia??,
oieueeei?o, ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa, ioca?ciaanoaa, ae?aeaeoieia??,
?ae?a??ciaanoaa oiui. Aeoeaii ni?ai?aoethth/e c /eneaiieie eii?n?yie
AOAI (eii?n??th aeey aea/aiiy cae/a?aiai i?aaa, eii?n??th ?noi?e/ii?
i?naiiino?, eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iith eii?n??th, eaa?iaoii i?ei?oeaii?
eoeueoo?e i?e iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie AOAI,
eaa?iaoii iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei i?e aoiia?ao?/i?e eii?n??) oa
ni?eeoth/enue c a?aeiieie a?o/eciyieie a/aieie N.?o?aiiaei,
E.A?ooaanueeith, Ae.ssai?ieoeueeei oa ?i. A.A.E?aa/aiei iii?oii
i?aeaeuea na?e iaoeiaee ??aaiue, cae?eniea iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo i?iiene?a ? ae?iaie/eo aaeocae, a??oaaiue, cae/a?a,
ia?yae?a, i?naiii? eoeueoo?e, cae/a?aiai i?aaa oa ?ioeo i?iya?a
iaoa??aeueii? oa aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e aieeiyi, oaeineiiaeea iaoiaeeeo oa
iaoiaeieia?th iaoeiai? i?aoe?, ?icoe?ea eiei iaoeiaeo iiooe?a.
Aiaeii/an, ye ea??aiee ani??aioo?e i?e aoiia?ao?/iiio a?aeae?e?
Aieeinueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai iocath, caa?aeoaa/ aoiia?ao?/iiai
a?aeae?eo Aieeinueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai iocath a/aiee caeo/ea aei
iaoeiai? i?aoe? oe?eo ieayaeo oaeaiiaeoi? iieiae?, ni?eya ?icai?oaiith
ia Aieei? ianiaiai e?a?ciaa/iai ?ooo, i?aai?coaaa oa aeiiii?a
noaiiaeaiith oe?eiai ?yaeo iocaeieo onoaiia e?ath;

— ooaa?aeaeaiiy oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio, cai?oaiiy iie?oeee oe?a?i?caoe??
oa ?ai?aneai? caoiaee ii a?aeiioaiith aei oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueiina?aeiii? ?ioae?aaioe?? o?aa?/ii iicia/eeeny ia aeie?
A.A.E?aa/aiea, yeiai 1930 ?. ca caeioaa/aiiyie o aioe?aaeyinuee?e
ae?yeueiino?, ni?yiiaai?e ia a?aeie?aieaiiy Oe?a?ie, i?eoyaee aei
noaeiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a ?aieao i?ioeano “NAO”, a caiaeii,
iacaaaeath/e ia aei?aaaeaeueiee ae?ie, iicaaaeee iiaeeeaino?
i?iaeiaaeoaaoe caiyooy iaoeiaith i?aoeath.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

1. Eiaiaea O.I. I?iaeaie ?iaeeiii? ia?yaeiaino? Aieei? a aoiia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.E?aa/aiea // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??: “I?oeia ?iaeeia — i?oeia Oe?a?ia”, Ee?a, aa?anaiue 1994 ?.
— N. 14 — 16 (0,1 ae.a.).

2. Eiaiaea O.I. Aaneeue E?aa/aiei ? Aieeiue // Aa?aaeiy: ?noi??y,
cae/a?, o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Anaoe?a?inueeee ia?iaeiciaa/ee
/aniien. — 1995. — ? 1 — 2. — N. 14 — 17 (0,5 ae.a.).

3. Aaneeue E?aa/aiei. Aoiia?ao?/iee ia?en i?i Aieeiue (i?aeaioiaea aei
ae?oeo oaenoo) // Aa?aaeiy: ?noi??y, cae/a?, o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo. Anaoe?a?inueeee ia?iaeiciaa/ee /aniien. — 1995. — ? 1 — 2. — N.
17 — 25; ? 3 — 4. — N.111 — 120 (2,0 ae.a.).

4. Eiaiaea O.I. Eeoea?? ?ai?aniaaiiai A?ae?iaeaeaiiy: ia?iaeiciaaaoeue
Aaneeue E?aa/aiei // Ai?enoai. E?oa?aoo?ii-ienoaoeueeee, ioae?oeenoe/iee
oa iaoeiai-iiioey?iee uii?ny/iee. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996. — ? 8. — N.
10 — 12 (0,5 ae. a.)

5. Eiaiaea O.I. Aaneeue E?aa/aiei i?i Aieeiue // Ae?aaeyie. Ca??iee
noaoae ? iaoa??ae?a c ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e Iie?nueeiai e?ath. — Euea?a:
Aeae-ai ?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, 1996. — N. 253 — 257 (0,4
ae.a.).

6. A.E?aa/aiei. Aoiia?ao?/iee ia?en (i?i Aieeiue) (i?aeaioiaea aei
ae?oeo oaenoo) // Ae?aaeyie. Ca??iee noaoae ? iaoa??ae?a c ?noi??? oa
eoeueoo?e Iie?nueeiai e?ath. — Euea?a: Aeae-ai ?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa
IAI Oe?a?ie, 1996. — N. 257 — 283 (2,0 ae.a.).

7. Eiaiaea O.I. Ia?iaeiciaaaoeue Aaneeue E?aa/aiei oa i?ioean “Ni?eee
Aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie” (Ca iaoa??aeaie noaeiai? ni?aae Aieeinueeiai IA
AeIO) // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. ?noi??y. —
Aei. 40. — E.: Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? “Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao”, 1998. — N.
22-24 (0,5 ae. a.).

AIIOAOe??

Eiaiaea O.I. Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia oa iaoeiaa ae?yeuei?noue A.A.E?aa/aiea
(1862 — 1945). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — ?inoeooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? eiiieaeniei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeeooy, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? oa iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?
A.A.E?aa/aiea. A ?iaio? aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi ae?yeuei?noue o/aiiai o
i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy Oiaa?enoaa aeine?aeiee?a Aieei?, Aieeinueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai iocath, i?iaiae?ciaaii iniaenoee aianie o ?icaeoie
a?o/eciyii? aoiieia??, oieueeei?enoeee, e?a?ciaanoaa, ioca?ciaanoaa.

Ia iniia? aiae?co oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace a?aeoai?aii iniiai? a?oe
aeeoo?aiai oeyoo A.A.E?aa/aiea, iieacaii eiiieaen /eiiee?a, ye? ni?aaeee
aecia/aeueiee aieea ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo iaoeiaoey, c?a?aee
ae??oaeueio ?ieue o noaiiaeaii? eiai a?iiaaeyinueei? iiceoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aieeiue, aoiieia?y, ia?iaeiciaa/? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
e?a?ciaanoai, iocae.

Eiaiaea O.I. Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay e iao/iay aeayoaeueiinoue A.A.
E?aa/aiea (1862 — 1945). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Einoeooo enoi?ee
Oe?aeiu Iaoeeiiaeueiie Aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu. — Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony ia?aui a ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?eia?aoee eiiieaeniui
enneaaeiaaieai aeeciaiiai iooe, iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie e iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe iaeiiai ec iniiaaoaeae Aieuineie
oieueeei?ii-yoiia?aoe/aneie oeieu A.A.E?aa/aiea. A ?aaioa ia iniiaa
aiaeeca iaoe?iiai e?oaa enoi/ieeia auaeaeaiu iniiaiua aaoe aeeciaiiiai
iooe o/aiiai, onoaiiaeaiu oaeoi?u, nua?aaoea ?aoathuoth ?ieue a
i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey aai ie?iaicc?aiey, noaiiaeaiey aeoeaiie
a?aaeaeaineie iiceoeee. Ioia/aaony aieueoia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie iiceoeee A.A.E?aa/aiea: aia/aea — eaeae
ia?iaeiaieueoeaa, a iicaea — a?iiaaeiaoeaa, ?aeiino?oe?othony no?aieoeu
nio?oaeie/anoaa n iacaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeaii a ?aaioa enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeaiiu au?aaioee
iiaeoiaeia e i?aaiecaoeee enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai i?ioeanna, ii?aaeaeaieth
i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, au?aaioee aa iaoiaeeee
e iaoiaeieiaee. Auyniaii, /oi noaiiaeaiea A.A.E?aa/aiea eae o/aiiai
i?ienoiaeeei iiae aeeyieai iaeiiai ec iniiaaoaeae oe?aeineiai
ia?iaeiaaaeaiey A.Ae.A?ei/aiea; iicaea — a i?ioeanna aeoeaiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa n IOO, “E?oa?aoo?ii-Iaoeiaei a?nieeii”, ?acee/iuie
i?ioeeueiuie eiienneyie AOAI. Iiae?iaii ?anniio?aiu aii?inu ee/iiai
o/anoey A.A.E?aa/aiea a i?aaiecaoeee e noaiiaeaiee Iauanoaa
enneaaeiaaoaeae Aieuie, Aieuineiai iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai iocay, a
oaeaea oeaeiai ?yaea ianoiuo e?aaaaae/aneeo iocaaa a e?aa. Neo?ioeacii
enneaaeiaaii iao/iia ianeaaeea o/aiiai. Auyniaii, /oi ia?iaeiaaae/aneea
?aaiou enneaaeiaaoaey ioee/athony eiiieaeniinoueth e anaiauaieaiinoueth
eco/aiey ia?iaeiie aeecie, o/eouaatho ?aciiia?acea aa oi?i e i?iyaeaiee,
i?e/ai, eae a n?aaea iaoa?eaeueiie, oae e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u.
Oa?aeoa?iie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe A.A.E?aa/aiea a
iaeanoe ia?iaeiaaaeaiey yaeyeinue i?eaea/aiea e iieneiaie,
niae?aoaeueneie ?aaioa oe?ieeo neiaa iauanoaaiiinoe (o/eoaeae,
nooaeaioia, neooaoaeae iaaeaaiae/aneeo eo?nia, o/aieeia, yiooceanoia n
iano), iineieueeo o/aiue aue oaaaeaeai a oii, /oi eiaiii eieeaeoeaiue
oa?aeoa? niae?aoaeueneie ?aaiou iiaeao iaania/eoue ?anoe?aiea aaia?aoee
iieneia e aa?aioe?oao oniao. Aoeaeii onoaiiaeaii, /oi enneaaeiaaiey
A.A.E?aa/aiea a iaeanoe yoiieiaee, oieueeei?enoeee, aeeaeaeoieiaee,
enoi?e/aneiai e?aaaaaeaiey, iocaaaenoeee a iieiie ia?a niioaaonoaiaaee
i?aaeuyaeyaiui e iei o?aaiaaieyi, eo ?acoeueoaou auniei ioeaieaaeenue
eieeaaaie, e, /oi naiia aeaaiia, iie nio?aiytho naith iao/ioth
cia/eiinoue e ii naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue.

A ?aaioa inaauaiu oaeaea o?aae/aneea no?aieoeu aeecie o/aiiai, auiaaoea
ia aiaeu ooaa?aeaeaiey a no?aia oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia, nai?a/eaaiey
iieeoeee oe?aeiecaoeee e anieanea ?ai?annee ii ioiioaieth e
iaoeeiiaeueiiniciaoaeueiie eioaeeeaaioeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aieuiue, yoiieiaey, ia?iaeiaaae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey,
e?aaaaaeaiea, iocae.

Loboda T.M. V.G. Kravchenko’s socio-political and scientifical activity
(1862 — 1945). — Manuscript.

The thesis for a candidate’s degree on speciality 07.00.01 — History of
Ukraine. The Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of
Sciences. — Kyiv, 1999.

In the thesis the main landmarks of V.G.Kravchenko’s life, the complex
of circumstances, wich has an influence on the process of forming of
scientist’s outlook, wich played an decisive part on forming of his
political orientations — has been restored and examined with the aid of
the extensive source foundation. The thesis is the first attempt of
complex investigation of life, social and scientific activities of V.G.
Kravchenko, his fruitful work, first of all — at the branches of
ethnology, folklorystics, regional studies, museum-keeping.

Key words: Volyn’, ethnology, people-keeping investigations, regional
studies, museum.

Похожие записи