IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?I.?.?.IA*IEEIAA

OAeE 911.3 (4Oe):574.9

AeIIAOeUe ??EIA AIAOIE??AIA

NONI?EUeII-AAIA?AO?*IA IOe?IEA OA IAA?OIOOAAIIss I?EI?EOAOIEO IAI?ssI?A
?ICA’ssCAIIss AEIEIA?*IEO I?IAEAI AAEEEIAI I?IIENEIAIAI I?NOA (IA
I?EEEAAe? I.CAII??AEAEss).

.

11.00.02. — Aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iae?oiiieuenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
?inoeooo? ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: ae.aaia?.i., i?ioani? ?aiaoaiei Ieeiea A?eai?iae/,
Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aeieia?? ? aeiiii?ee i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: ae.a.i.,?iioani? Noaiaiia Ay/aneaa Ieeieaeiae/,
?inoeooo i?iaeai ?eieo ? aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, canooiiee
aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe, i. Iaeana.

e.aaia?.i. Eociaoeia Ieoaeei Aaneeueiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii?
? nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??, N?ioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
aeiiii?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 17-00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.051.03 a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith 270058, i.Iaeana,
Oaiiainueeee i?iaoeie 2, AAO, aoae. 110.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaoeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 25 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

e.aaia?.i., aeioeaio
AEAIOAEAE I. ?.

I. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ?
i?yia caeaaei?noue ?inoo aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?ae oiia oa ??aiy
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ? aa?aaeeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aaaaonoaa. Aeieia?y oa aeiiii?/iee c??no – oea oie ooiaeaiaio, ia yeiio
a?oioo?oueny iaeaooi? iaoi? aea?aeaae, ina?oa oa eoeueoo?a ia?iaeo.
Iaaei?aaaeaia i?aaiaiiy aei yeiaeoaeaeoi? aeaiaee, aeieia?/ii
ia?aaoeueiaaia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ia?iuoaaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ca?aaee eiai ae i?aeo?eiee o ieioeiio nueiaiaei? iaa?ioeiny
aeeaieith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith e?ecith. Iieiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
oneeaaeith?oueny ? oei, ui na?aae ?ioeo e?a?i NIAe aiia iaeaaeeoue aei
/enea e?aea??a ca u?euei?noth ianaeaiiy, ieoiiith aaaith i?nueeeo
aeeoae?a, eiioeaio?aoe??th i?iieneiaeo oa aia?aaoe/ieo eiiieaen?a,
?iaeaia?ieo, ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo eiioi?eaoe?e.

Ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ni?eyoeeaeo aeieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeiae?eey
noathoue iniaeeai aeooaeueieie aeey i?no, a ia?oo /a?ao iaea?eueoeo oa
aaeeeeo. Aaeee? i?noa cina?aaeaeothoue iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, iaoee, ina?oe, noa?e iineoa, eoeueoo?e. ?acii c
oei eiioeaio?aoe?y an?o aeae?a ae?yeueiino? o i?no? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny,
ye i?aaeei, iaaaoeaieie aeieia?/ieie oaiaeaioe?yie ?icaeoeo –
caa?oaeiaiiyi eiiiiiaio?a ie?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, aeano?oeoe??th
eaiaeoaoo?a, iaaaoeaiei aieeaii ia naiiii/oooy, caei?ia’y, iaa?oue
o?eaae?noue aeeooy ethaeae. Oiio aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi noni?eueii?
aaia?ao?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy anaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai
aaeeeeo i?no oa iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a ? cania?a ii ?o ae??oaiith.

Iaeiei c iaea?eueoeo aaeeeeo ?iaeono??aeueieo oeaio??a Oe?a?ie yeee
aieiae?? iiooaeiei i?e?iaeii-?ano?niei, ae?iaie/ei,
ae?iaie/i-?io?ano?oeoo?iei, o o./. o?ainii?oiei, iaoeiaei iioaioe?aeii,
? i.Caii??aeaey. ?acii c oei aeey iueiai oa?aeoa?i? neeaaeia aeieia?/ia
ianoaiiaea, aenieee ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey. Caeiath/e o?ao?
i?noea a Oe?a?i? ca ??aiai ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
eiioeaio?aoe??th aaeocae aaaeei? i?iieneiaino?, oea i?noi iin?aea? o?ao?
i?noea i?ney E?eaiai ?iao oa Ia??oiiey ca caaaeueiei ??aiai
caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey, /aoaa?oa – ca ianyaaie iaeiie/aieo oiene/ieo
a?aeoiae?a, ia?oa – ca ianyaii aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy (10% aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy
?.Aei?i?a). A e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo, oea iaa?oa?oueny cia/ieie aeiiii?/ieie
ao?aoaie, ?iaeyoue na?aaeiaeua i.Caii??aeaey iaeii?eaaaeeaei aeey
ae?oo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy. A ca’yceo c oeei ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai i?noa iaaoaa? aaeeeiai oai?aoe/iiai oa
i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy. Oe?ioa i?aaeiaoo noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaiey? aeyaeoe iniiai? neeaaeieee, no?oeoo?i? ca’ycee
a aeinenoai? i.Caii??aeaey, ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ca
nooiaiai aino?ioe, i?inoi?iaiai iioe?aiiy oa i??i?eoaoaie ?ica’ycaiiy;
i?iaiae?coaaoe /eiieee aeieeiaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, ioe?ieoe
i?ioeane, caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aeinenoaie c iaoith
?ic?iaee eiiieaeno caoiae?a ii noaa?e?caoe?? ?? ?icaeoeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c oaiaoeeith iaeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
Iae?oiiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, cie?aia c
oaiith “Aeine?aeaeaiiy c o?ce/ii?, aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??
Caii??cueei? iaeano?”, yea aeeiio?oueny ia i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/iiio
oaeoeueoao?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai i.Caii??aeaey ia iniia?
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy eiiieaeno cania?a ? oeyo?a
iaeaooiuei? ae?yeueiino?. Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeiaaaei
ae??oaiiy ne?aeoth/eo caaaeaiue:

— c’ynoaaiiy noo?, nooiaiy aino?ioe, iniaeeainoae aaiethoe?? oa
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai o aaeeeiio i?no?;

— aecia/aiiy neeaaeo, no?oeoo?e aeinenoaie aaeeeiai i?noa, ?? ca’yce?a,
a?aeiinei, i?ioean?a, caeiiii??iinoae ? i?eioeei?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy;

— ?ice?eooy iniaeeainoae aeieia?ieo i?iaeai o i.Caii??aeaey oa ioe?iee
ia?aaeoiia i?e?iaeii- ? noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? ?o
ni?e/eiythoue;

— aiae?co aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, i?e?iaeieo
eiiiiiaio?a, ianaeaiiy i?noa;

— aeieia?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Caii??aeaey c aeyaeaiiyi ?aeii?a
aeieia?/ii /enoeo, na?aaeiueiai caa?oaeiaiiy, iaeneiaeueiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo aeinenoaie i.Caii??aeaey c iaoith
ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiae?ea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith oa
iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?aoe?
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c i?iaeai aca?iia?aeiinei noni?euenoaa
? i?e?iaee, aeieia?? i?no, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy:
A.A.Aea?aa, ?.I.Ai?eaiei, A.I.Aie?eiaa, O.?.Canoaaiiai, I.A.?aiaoaiea,
N.A.Eaa?iaa, A.I.Eaiii, ?.I.Ia?oeeea, I.Ae.I?nooia, E.A.?oaeaiea,
A.I.Noaiaiiaa, I.A.Oii/??aa, I.?.Oaae?y, I.?.Oauaanueeiai; ii?iaoeai?
aeoe aeaaeieo no?oeoo? Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie,
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, aeieia??, oi?aae?iiy.

O eiioaeno? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai
aaeeeiai i?noa aoee canoaniaai? iaoiaee: ?noi?e/iee, ?iaeoeoeaiee,
aiaeia?a, aeno?aiieyoe??, noaoenoe/iee, iiiia?ao?/iee, ?aeiioaaiiy,
ea?oia?ao?/iee; eiioeaioe?? – aeinenoaie, noaeiai ?icaeoeo, iiey?ecaoe??
eaiaeoaoo?a.

Aii??e/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee Caii??cueeiai
iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy noaoenoeee; Aoaeeieo i?e?iaee; ie?aieo
i?aei?e?inoa; oi?aae?iiy a?o?oaeoo?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Iniiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie, ye? iathoue iaoeiao
iiaecio oa aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ? oae?:

— iiaeeaeaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai aaeeeeo i?no, cie?aia ?o nenoaiaoecaoe?? c aeae?eaiiyi
ne?aeoth/eo i?iaeai: i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ianaeaiiy,
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, oi?aae?iiy aeieia?/iith aaciaeith i?noa a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ?aoe?iiaeueii? oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? aeinenoaie i?noa;

— ?ice?eooy iaoai?cio caeaaeiino? aeieeiaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai a?ae
neeaaeo, no?oeoo?e, i?ioean?a, no?oeoo?ieo a?aeiioaiue oa ca’yce?a
aeinenoaie oiai aai ?ioiai aaeeeiai i?noa;

— niieo/aiiy eiioeaioe?? aeinenoaie ? noaeiai ?icaeoeo a iaoiaeieia??
aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaee/ii? noaie oa a?aeiia?aeiiai eiiieaeno iieaciee?a
e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai;

— aeeth/aiiy /eiieeo iaaecia/aiiino? o noeoii?noue ia?aaeoiia, ye?
aecia/athoue aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie;

— aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae no/aniiai aoaio o aeieeiaii? aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai, ye? iieyaathoue o ca?eueoaii? iiaeeeainoae ?o ae??oaiiy
(nioe?aeuei? i?ei?eoaoe ?icaeoeo, i?aeo?eiea ?aa?iiaeueiiai oa
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i?aei?e?iieoeueea aeoeai?noue, oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a), a oaeiae ? a neeaaeiino?
(a?aenooiino? ai?iaiaaiiai iaoai?cio i?noii, o o./. e aeieia?/iei
?icaeoeii, iioe?aiiyi ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? oa ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?e
iaaeinoaoi?e aeieia?/i?e ina?o? ?o noa’?eo?a);

— ioe?iea i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aaeoiia
aeieeiaiiy ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai i?noa Caii??aeaey;

— nenoaiiee aiae?c iniiaieo aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai i.Caii??aeaey
(ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno; iia?o?yiiai oa aiaeiiai aanaei?a, a?oio?a,
caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue, ianaeaiiy) o ?ic??c? aaeocaai?, eiiiiiaioii?
?ia?aae??ioii?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?, i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueei?,
oa?eoi??aeueii? no?oeoo? eiai aeinenoaie;

— aeieia?/ia ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? i.Caii??aeaey c aecia/aiiyi nooiaiy
aino?ioe oa oa?aeoa?o aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai;

— i?iaiic oaiaeaioe?? aeieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeinenoaie i.Caii??aeaey,
iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo cania?a oa oeyo?a ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai o
ia?niaeoea?.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoeei-iaoieia?/iith iniiaith aeey noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/iiai ae??oaiiy
aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai ia ??ai? aaeeeeo i?no – i?iieneiaeo oeaio??a
Oe?a?ie, cie?aia I?eaei?i?ia’y.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai i.Caii??aeaey
ia?aaeai? aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiiei i?aai?caoe?yi
i.Caii??aeaey. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiio i?ioean? Iae?oiiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a: “Iniiae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy”, “O?ce/ia aaia?ao?y Oe?a?ie”,
“Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia aaia?ao?y Oe?a?ie”, “Aaia?ao?y nai?? iaeano?”,
“Iniiae aeieia??”, i?e i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo IAeI? (1994-1997);
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?aeaeuaiiy
aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai AIE
I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie” (Iae?oiiieue, 1994); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “?a?i?aa?ii Aoa: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae o?ainei?aeiiiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa” (Eooeuee, 1996); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aaca?aeoiaeia oaoiieia?y, eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy ne?iaeie – oeyoe
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao ?eieo” (Iae?oiiieue,
1996); tha?eaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeieiai-aeiiii?/i?
i?iaeaie aiaeiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno I?e/i?iiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio ?
iai?yie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai ?icaeoeo” (Oa?nii, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,2 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo aeena?oaioa a ?ic?iaeo
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Aecia/aii noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/io nooi?noue aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai oa
anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie i?ae ?o aeieeiaiiyi ? neeaaeii, no?oeoo?ith,
no?oeoo?ieie a?aeiioaiiyie aeinenoaie aaeeeiai i?noa aaoi?ii iniaenoi.
Iaa?oioiaai? oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, ?o i?iaiic oa
caniae ? oeyoe ae??oaiiy.

O ni?eueieo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 70% ianyao.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia noi??ieao
ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, yeee neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 3 ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (118
iaeiaioaaiue). ?iaioa aeeth/a? 7 oaaeeoeue ? 9 ?enoie?a, o o./. 1
ea?oinoaia.

??. INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss OA ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

?icae?e 1. Aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie aaeeeeo i?no ye ia’?eo
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith oai??? oa
iaoiaeieia?? noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeieia?? aaeeeiai
i?noa ? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y, nenoaiaoecaoe?y, aecia/aiiy aino?ioe oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaiai ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai. Aeieia?/ia
i?iaeaia ?icoi??oueny ye iaaecae/aeii oe?iea yaeua, yea ioiieth?
i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua, nioe?aeueio noa?o, ainiiaea?noai, niin?a aeeooy
ianaeaiiy a oe?eiio. O aaeeeeo i?noao ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo
aeieeathoue ne?aeoth/? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie: i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a
(iia?o?y, aiaee, a?oioo, oei?e ? oaoie); aaeocae oa aeae?a ae?yeueiino?
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno; i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy; oi?aae?iiy aeieia?/iith
aaciaeith a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? iiaeae? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo;
i?iaeaie iaaecia/aiiino? o oaiaeaioe?yo ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.
A?aecia/eii, ui aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y, aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie aaeeeiai i?noa
oa?eoi??aeueii aeaoa?i?iiaai?. Oiio i?iaeaia ?aoe?iiaeueii?
oa??oi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua ? aaaeeeaei iai?yieii
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai.

Iaea?eueo eiiieaenii oa ?acoeueoaoeaii ae??ooaaoe aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie
aaeeeiai i?noa aeicaiey? eiioeaioe?y aeinenoaie, yea ii?aeio? ia?aaaae
nenoaiiiai oa oa?eoi??aeueiiai i?aeoiae?a. Aaeaea an? aeieia?/i?
i?iaeaie – oea iaai? nenoaii? a?aeiioaiiy aai ?o ii?ooaiiy, ye?
aeieeathoue ia iaaieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo i?noa ia o?e aai ?io?e eiai
oa?eoi???.

Aeinenoaia ? ooiaeaiaioaeueiei iiiyooyi noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeieia?? i?noa. Oea aecia/a?oueny aeaiia aaaeeeaeie
/eiieeaie: a)i?noi ? na?aaeiaeuai aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy; a) i?noi
? nenoaiith a ?ioeo oa?eoi??aeueieo nenoaiao. Aeinenoaia aaeeeiai i?noa
– oea neeaaeia ooai?aiiy, ?acoeueoao aca?iiae?? i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy,
ioi/oth/iai oaoiiaaiiiai (o?aai?ciaaiiai) na?aaeiaeua, i?e?iaeieo
eiiiiiaio?a aeiae?eey, i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?, ye?
cae?eniththoueny a oiiaao oa?eoi??? eiie?aoiiai i?noa ? eiai i?ei?nueei?
ciie. Aei neeaaeo aeinenoaie aaeeeiai i?noa aoiaeyoue ne?aeoth/?
aeaiaioe: i?nueea ianaeaiiy; i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua; aoae?ae? ? nii?oaee;
aia?aaoe/i?, i?iieneia?, o?ainii?oi?, ?io?ano?oeoo?i? i?aei?e?inoaa oa
?o oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane; na?aaeiaeua niiaeeaaiiy (ieoia aiaea,
i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy, e?ee, aeeoeia? iaoa??aee oiui); oeyoe ?
eiioi?eaoe??; iiaooia? oa i?iieneia? oaa?ae? a?aeoiaee; ??aee? oa
aaciiiae?ai? ?ia?aae??ioe – caa?oaeithaa/?.

Nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe a aeinenoai?
ne?aeoth/? no?oeoo?i? c??ce (no?oeoo?e): aaeocaao (aeaea?aea
caa?oaeiaiiy); ?ia?aae??ioio (?a/iaeie-caa?oaeithaa/?); ooieoe?iiaeueio
(iai?aaeai?noue aieea?a caa?oaeiaiiy); oa?eoi??aeueio (aeaiaioe ? oi?ie
?ici?uaiiy /e i?iyao aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai); i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeo
(nenoaia i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy aeieia?/iei ?icaeoeii i?noa);
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iith (ianaeaiiy oa eiai iniaeeaino?).

Oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie aeineoaie aaeeeiai i?noa ?: a) caeaaei?noue;
a) aeoioeyoeai?noue; a) a?aee?eo?noue oa iaa??aiiaaaeai?noue; a)
aeeiai?ci; ae) ?ia?oe?ei?noue; ?) eiioe?eoi?noue neooaoe?e /a?ac
oa?eoi??aeueio iaiaaeai?noue; ae) iaiiaeeea?noue aenia?eiaioo. Aieiaieie
i?eioeeiaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeinenoaie ? i?eioeeie: i?e?iaeiino?;
iaiiaiioe ?ioi?iaoe??; iaaecia/aiino?; a?aeaeaeaiino? iiae?e. Aeinenoaia
ooieoe?iio? ca i?aaeeaie: aeaiia?ao?/iiai iane/aiiy, cai?uaiiy
aeieia?/ieo oiia; ?ioaa?aeueiiai ?ano?no; i??e ia?aoai?thaaiino?
i?e?iaeieo nenoai.

?icae?e 2. I?e?iaei? oa nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy
aeieia?/ieo i?ieai a aeinenoai? i.Caii??aeaey. Aei /enea iniiaieo
/eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue iniaeeaino? aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai oa aeinenoaie
i.Caii??aeaey, iaeaaeaoue ne?aeoth/?: iaaecae/aeii aea?aeia aaia?ao?/ia
iieiaeaiiy, caaania/ai?noue aiaeieie oa aeaoaaeie aia?aaoe/ieie
?ano?naie ni?e/eieee ao?oeea? oaiie ?inoo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo oa
ianaeaiiy. Ca ieie “ia anoeaee” nioe?aeuei? oa aeieia?/i? caoiaee.
Cia/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y aia?ai- oa ?ano?ni?ieeo i?aei?e?inoa (ia 20%
a?eueoa, i?ae o na?aaeiueiio ii aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo oeaio?ao NIAe),
ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?ieo i?iii?oe?e i?ae a?oiaie “A” ? “A” (a?aeiia?aeii
81:19 o 1990 ?. ? 77:23 o 1996 ?.) i?ecaaei aei ia?aiane/aiiy oa?eoi???
i?noa aeieiaiiaaacia/ieie aaeocyie, ciaioeei iiaeeeaino?
naiia?aeiiaeaiiy eiiiiiaio?a i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Anoaoe/ii? i?eaaaeeaino?i?noo iaaea? ?icoaooaaiiy ia iaeueiaie/eo
iaai?aao I?eaei?i?ianueei? aeni/eie, ia iaio aa?aaao Aei?i?a. Aea cia/ia
ia?an?/ai?noue ?aeue?oo (ia?aaeuaiiy aenio aeinyaa? 60 i), iayai?noue
aaaaoi/eneaieo y??a oa aaeie oo?oaeiththoue ?iaeaia?ia caaacia/aiiy
i?noiaoae?ai?oeoai, niieo/aiiy i?ae ie?aieie ?aeiiaie, ? i?e?iaeieie
iaaeaie ?o ?icoe?aiiy. Aeey iniiaieo a?oioioai?ieo ii??ae – ean?a ?
eaniaeaeieo noaeeie?a, oa?aeoa?i? a?ae?iaaieia?/i? i?ioeane, ye?
ioe?iththoueny ye iani?eyoeea? (i?e oiia? cia/iiai caii/oaaiiy /a?ac
iani?aai?noue, ao?aoe aiaee, aaa??ei? neooaoe?? ia aiaeii?ia?aeieo,
oaieiaeo, eaiae?caoe?eieo ia?aaeao ooai?ththoueny cia/i? i?inaaeee).
Aiie aeeeeeathoue o??ueie oa ?io? ?oeioaaiiy i?nueeeo ao?aaeue. Aeey
i?noa oa?aeoa?i? oaeiae cieae, iiaa?oiaaee no?e oa ooai?aiiy eiion?a
aeiino o ?oneao aaeie ? y??a, aa?ac?y aa?aa?a Aei?i?anueeiai
aiaeinoiaeua, ia?aa?thaaiiy iane?a.

Eeeiao ye /eiiee aeieeiaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
ye i’yeee oa eiioi?oiee aeey ianaeaiiy ca oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
na?aaeiuei??/ieo oaiia?aoo? (+8,2-9N), aaeeeith e?euee?noth niiy/ieo
aei?a. Cia/iee aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae (210-220 aei?a) aeicaiey? ?icoe?eoe
ieiu? caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue, caaaa/oaaoe ?o i?aaeaiieie, aecioe/ieie
aeaeaie. ?acii c oei iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue iiaae?a (450 ii ia ??e a
na?aaeiueiio) ni?eythoue canooeeaino?, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia
ethaenueeee i?aai?ci, ni?ey? caieeaiino? oa caa?oaeiaiith aoiinoa?e. O
i?no? niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia iiaoi?thaai?noue ooee?a, ia aeicaiey?
iia?o?yiiio aanaeio i?noa ca?eueiyoeny a?ae oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie.
Cia/iith ? iiaoi?thaai?noue a?o??a i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?oia?a oa
iaa?aooaaiiy oeueiai /eiieea i?e aeai?? ?ici?uaiiy i?iieneiai? ciie
ni?e/eiy? caa?oaeiaiiy cii a?aeii/eieo oa canaeaiiy, ye? ?icoaoiaai? ia
i?aaeaiiiio caoiae?. Aei iani?eyoeeaeo iiaiaeieo yaeu a?aeiinyoue
ooiaie, ui??/i? aaniyi? nooia?? oa ia??iaee/i? canooe.

A?eueo ni?eyoeeaith a aeieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? ? iaio cia/ia o
ii??aiyii? c i?ai?/ieie oa oeaio?aeueieie ?aa?iiaie Oe?a?ie aeeaeia
i?iia?caiiy a?oioo (140 ni). aiia aeicaiey? aeiiiieoe cia/i? eiooe i?e
aoae?aieoeoa? oa aenieoaoaoe?? eiioi?eaoe?eieo ia?aae.

Aea iane/ai?noue i?noa ooo/ieie ia’?eoaie (aoae?ae?, aei?iae)
aeeeeeathoue ??ce? ci?ie ?aae?aoe?eiiai ? oaieiaiai ?aaeeio, a?ae/ooi?
i?e?iee?iaoe/i? iniaeeaino?. Noaa?e?coth/ee aieea ia aeinenoaio
Caii??aeaey cae?eniththoue caeai? ianaaeaeaiiy. Ca oi?iaeueiith iciaeith
oaeoe/ia ieiua ianaaeaeaiue (14i2 ia 1 /ie.) iaa?oue ia?aaeuth?
ii?iaoeaio (12i2). Aea a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao aeey i?iieneiaeo ?aa?ii?a
i?eeiyoee ii?iaoea 27i2//ie., oiaoi ieiuo caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue a
Caii??aeae? oa i?ei?nuee?e cii? iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe iaeaea aaeai?.

Oea iaiao?aeii oaeiae ? oiio, ui ui??/ii c?inoa? e?euee?noue
iai?aai?ciaaieo ?ae?aaio?a.

Na?aae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aaeoiia caaino?aiiy aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai o i.Caii??aeae? aeae?eythoueny ne?aeoth/?: ??cea ia?aaaaeaiiy o
no?oeoo?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aeieiaiiaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa
(aia?aaoe/i? aaeoc? caaacia/othoue 37,7% ianyao ae?iaethaaii?
i?iaeoeoe??, /i?ia ? eieuei?iaa iaoaeo?a?y – 38,2%). I?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
?ioa?an?a i?noa ?icaeoeo naia oeeo aaeocae, caeeoeiaee i?eioeei
o?iainoaaiiy i?ecaaee aei iaaeinoaoiueiai ??aiy ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai. A ?acoeueoao? noeoiiino? ae?? ?yaeo
oaeoi??a nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy, ii/eiath/e c 1960?., c?inea aaea?/?.

A ?acoeueoao? e?eciaeo yaeu o i?iieneiaino? (ciaioaiiy ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa) aaaaoi aenia?o?a aeacothoue ia ciaioaiiy caaaeueiiai oiio
caa?oaeiaiiy. Aea i?e ciaioaii? eiai aaniethoieo neeae?a, iai?eeeaae o
aiaeieiie, ieoiia aaaa iai/euaiieo noie?a a ?o no?oeoo??, caeeoa?oueny
ia ??ai? ieioeeo ?ie?a ? iaa?oue ca?eueoo?oueny. Oea iiynith?oueny oei,
ui ciaioaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa i?ecaaei aei ??ceiai cieaeaiiy eiai
o?iainiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui cia/ii oneeaaeieei iiaeeeaino? o?iainoaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ieo caoiae?a.

A Oe?a?i? aaci?aoeaiaeaioieo ?ici???a aeinyaea o?iueiaa aeiiii?ea –
50-60% AAI. Oea oaeiae iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoo,
aea?aeaaia o?iainoaaiiy oa ?iaanoeoe?? a i?e?iaeiioi?iii? caoiaee oa
aeieia?/io aaciaeo. Cieaeaiiy aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy, i?eoiaaia aac?ia?ooy,
cao?eiee ca?ia?oii? ieaoe i?ecaaee aei ??ceiai cieaeaiiy ??aiy
iniaenoiai niiaeeaaiiy, iniaeeai i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy. Oae, aia?aaoe/ia
oe?ii?noue oa?/iaiai ?aoe?iio ciaioeeany ia 30%. Aeey aeaiia?ao?/ii?
neooaoe?? oa?aeoa?iei a 90-o ?ieao ? ia?aaeuaiiy nia?oiino? iaae
ia?iaeaeoaai?noth o 2 ?ace, ciaioaiiy o?eaaeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy, eiai
noa??iiy (ia 1000 /ie. i?eoiaeeoueny 790 in?a iain?eiiai a?eo).

Na?aae ia?aaeoiia, ui iiaeeaeththoue iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe?? a aeinenoai?
i.Caii??aeaey, cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?a? o?aiceoia caa?oaeiaiiy. Iaea?eueo
a?ae/ooiei ?: caa?oaeiaiiy aiaee o Aei?i?? i?iieneiaeie oeaio?aie ?
i?noaie, ye? ?icoaoiaai? aeua ii oa/?. O?eueee i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee
ui??/ii neeaea? o Aei?i?i 300-350 iei.i3 noie?a. Iaaacia/iei ?
caa?oaeiaiiy a?oio?a oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??
??ciiiai?oieie oieneiaie. Iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?aa cieaeaiiy ??aiy
aeei?enoaiiy (ia 50%), a iaeano? caa??aa?oueny iiiaae 500o iai?eaeaoieo
aai caai?iiaieo aeey aeei?enoaiiy ianoeoeeae?a. O 44% ianoaaeaieo
c?ace?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? aeyaeaii ca?eoaiiy aienoo
aaaeeeo iaoae?a oa ieo’yeo.

?icae?e 3. Iniiai? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie i.Caii??aeaey oa
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a ? cania?a ?o ae??oaiiy.

Iniiai? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie i.Caii??aeaey iia’ycai? ?c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi
ianaiia?aae aia?ai- oa ?ano?ni?ieeo ae?iaieoeoa ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno, a oaeiae aaoio?ainii?oo. Iaea?eueo? aia?aaoe/i? i?aei?e?inoaa
I?eaei?i?ia’y – Caii??cueea Ae?N oa Caii??cueea AAN – ?icoaoiaai? o
i.Aia?aiaea? ? oi/a ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/ieie ianyaaie aeeeae?a
oe?aeeeaeo ?a/iaei o aeiae?eey, cae?eniththoue iiina?aaeeiaaiee aieea ia
aeinenoaio i.Caii??aeaey.

Iaea?eueoeie caa?oaeithaa/aie aeiae?eey ? noaoe?iia?i? aeaea?aea
aeeeae?a eiia?iaoo “Caii??aenoaeue” (27,5%), aethi?i??aiai eiia?iaoo
(4,0%), eiia?iaoo “Aei?i?iniaoenoaeue” (9,4%), caaiaeo aiaiao?ea?a
(7,8%), oeoaiiiaai??aiai eiia?iaoo (7,2%), aa?aceaiiai eiia?iaoo (4,4%),
eienio?i?/iiai caaiaeo (3,2%), caaiaeo oa?inieaa?a (2,3%). Caaaeii aea
eiaeia 14-a i?aei?e?inoai i?noa ii?oooaaei ii?ie neeae?a caa?oaeithth/eo
?a/iaei o aiaeieieua, eiaeia 8-a – a aoiinoa?ia iia?o?y. E??i oiai,
aoaathoue aaa??ei? neeaee caa?oaeiaieo aiae (ethoee 1996 ?.).

Eaoano?io?/iiai ianyao iaaoei ooai?aiiy oaa?aeeo iiaooiaeo oa
i?iieneiaeo a?aeoiae?a. Oae, oi?iaeiaae 1996 ?. o Caii??aeae? ? eiai
ia?aaei?noyo aoei iaeiie/aii 1918,3 oen.o oiene/ieo oaa?aeeo i?iieneiaeo
a?aeoiae?a. Oea neeaei 58,8% a?ae oaeoe/ii ooai?aieo a?aeoiae?a ii an?e
Caii??cueeee iaeano? ? aeinyaei 2,2 o a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeiiai i?nueeiai
aeeoaey. O no?oeoo?? a?aeoiae?a ia?aaaaeathoue ?a/iaeie 3-ai oa 4-ai
eean?a iaaaciaee (99,97%). 88,1% an?o i?iieneiaeo caaeeu aoei noi?iiaaii
ca ?aooiie eiia?iaoo “Caii??aenoaeue” (62,5% caaaeueiii?nueeiai ianyao),
caaiaeo oa?inieaa?a (13,8%), aethi?i??aiai eiia?iaoo (11,8%). Oiio naia
ia oeeo i?aei?e?inoaao iio??aii i?iaaaeeoe ?aaeeeaeuei? caoiaee ii
ae??oaiith aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai. Aea ca 1996 ?. aoei inai?ii o?eueee 66%
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, ia?aaeaa/aieo ia i?e?iaeiioi?iii? caoiaee. Oea
aeicaieeei ia?a?iaeoe ? aeei?enoaoe 335 oen.o ia?oai?anueeiai oeaeo ia
eiia?iao? “Caii??aenoaeue”; aaanoe a ae?th i/eni? onoaiiaee aeey
ciaoeiaeaeaiiy aeo?aeieo aac?a caaaeueiith iiooaei?noth 984 oen.i3 aaco
a ??e ia AAO “Caii??aeeien”, “Caii??aeaiaiao?ea”, oa?inieaaiiio caaiae?.

?acii c oei nenoaie iai?ioiiai aiaeiiinoa/aiiy ia eiia?iaoao
“Caii??aenoaeue” oa aethi?i??aiio iiai?noth a ae?. Ia aaaaeai?. Oaea ae
iaao?oia neooaoe?y ? c ii/aoeii aenieoaoaoe?? noaioe?? i/enoee no?/ieo
aiae ia caaiae? aiaiao?ea?a.

Caaaeii aea a i?no? Caii??aeae?, iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?aa nei?i/aiiy
ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey (ia 15,3%), ?ici?uo?oueny 11337
noaoe?iia?ieo aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy. ? c ieo o?eueee 7019 aai 61,9%
iathoue ae?th/a i/enia iaeaaeiaiiy. I?e oeueiio an? aaei?i?no?aoeai?
?aeiie i?noa ca ??aiai eiioeaio?aoe?? i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeia
?icae?eeoe ia 2 oeie: c aenieith eiioeaio?aoe??th – Caaiaenueeee,
Eai?inueeee, I?aeaeii?e?aecaanueeee, Oaa/aie?anueeee (a?ae 24 aei 30
i?aei?e?inoa), ?c cia/iith eiioeaio?aoe??th ae?iaieoeoaa (a?ae 8 aei 17)
– Oi?oeoeueeee, AEiaoiaaee, Eiioia?nueeee.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie o iia?o?? iaa?oue iaae oeaio?aeueieie
?aeiiaie i?noa iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe AAeE o 5 ?ac?a. A ?aeii? i?iieneiai?
ciie aiia aeinyaa? 10 AAeE. Aei aaaiieo caa?oaeithaa/?a a?aeiineoueny
o?ainii?o. O 1996 ?. aeeeaee aaoio?ainii?oo aeinyaee 67,1 oen.o aai
19,5% an?o aeeeae?a a aoiinoa?o. ?acii c oei ianya aeeeae?a a?ae
ia?anoaieo aeaea?ae, — aaoiiaoei – cieceany ia 10,2 oen.o aai ia 13,0%.
I?e aaniethoiiio, aeineoue cia/iiio ca?eueoaii? ia?eo aaoiiaoei oea
iia’yco?oueny ?c ciaioaiiyi ?o i?ia?ao, ia?aoiaeii ia aaciaa iaeeai,
cia/ii? e?eueeino? iaeeieoeue aaoio?ainii?oo, aei?noeei aeieia?/iei
eiio?ieai c aieo iao?oeueieo aeieia?/ieo neoaea. Iaea?eueoee aieea
o?ainii?oo ia aeiae?eey niinoa??aa?oueny ia oaeeo iaa?no?aeyo, ye
I?ai?/ia oa I?aaeaiia oina, aoe.Eai?ia, Eini?/ia oa ?i. Caa?oaeiaiiy ye
? ia aaoiiaa?no?aeyo, oae ? o i?iieneiaeo ciiao niinoa??aa?oueny cia/iei
ooiii. Ooi ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaaacia/iee aeae caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey.
Aeey ai?ioueae c iei aeei?enoiao?oueny u?eueia caaoaeiaa oaeeo aoeeoeue
ooiicaoenieie aoaeeieaie; ?aoe?iiaeueiee i?io?eue ? oe?eia aoeeoeue;
caoenia icaeaiaiiy; ooiicaoeni? oaoiieia?? o aoae?aieoeoa?.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea o ooieoe?iioaaii? aeinenoaie i.Caii??aeaey caeiathoue
i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c aeieia??th aeeoea. sseui iia? i?e?i?aeiie
iiaoaeiaai? c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo a?o?oaeoo?ieo oa aoae?aaeueieo ??oaiue,
oi oeaio?aeuei?, “noa?? /anoeie” i?noa, iathoue aeeoeiaee oiiae, yeee ia
caaaeaee a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai no/anii? eoeueoo?e aeeoea ? iiaooo, oey
i?iaeaia iiaea ae??ooaaoeny (a?aoiaoth/e iaaaoeai? aeieia?/i? aieeae ia
oeaioa?euei? ?aeiie c aieo i?iieneiai? ciie) ca ?aooiie aoae?aieoeoaa
iaeii-, aeaiiiaa?oiaeo no/anieo i?eaaoieo aoaeeie?a o ia?aaei?noyo. Oea
aeicaieeoue ia o?eueee ae??oeoe aaciina?aaeiuei aeieiai-aeeoeia?
i?iaeaie, aea e aeaoe iiaee ?iioeuen ?icaeoeo i?ei?nueeeo oa?eoi??e.

Ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i.Caii??aeaey, cie?aia, eiai
aeieiaiaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa, aeeeeea? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie eiiiiiaio?a
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa ianaeaiiy. Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiiai aieeao
caa?oaeiaiiy cacia? iia?o?yiee aanaei. Ca ianyaii caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y
(344,1 oen.o o 1996 ?.) i.Caii??aeaey ciaoiaeeoueny ia 3-io i?noe?
na?aae iaea?eueo caa?oaeiaieo i?no Oe?a?ie. Niaoe?ae?caoe?y
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno coiiaeea iniaeeaino? ?ia?aae??ioii? no?oeoo?e
aeeeae?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ?ia?aae??io?a
cia/ii ciaioeee na?e ai?no o iia?o??, a?i ana ua eeoa?oueny aenieei. O
1996 ?. o iia?o?yiiio aanaei? aecia/aeany i?enooi?noue ieeo ia ??ai? 1,7
AAeE, ae?ieneaeo acioo – 2,4 AAeE, oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo – 2,7 AAeE,
ooi?enoiai aiaeith – 1,7 AAeE, aaicai??aio – ia ??ai? 3,9 AAeE. A?aeiii,
ui iino?eiee ai?no oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie a aoiinoa?? a ianyc? 1,1-1,5 AAeE
caeaoiee aeeeeeaoe aaaee? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?iceaaee ethaenueeiai
i?aai?cio.

Iiiaae 20 aeae?a oiene/ieo niieoe i?noyoue a?aei?aoeueiaai? aace
aaoio?ainii?oo. Naeioeai caa?oaeiai? i?eoeyoia? nioae oe?eiith 10-15 i.
Oea o?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe i?e ?o aeei?enoaii?.

No?oeoo?a oe?aeeeaeo aeeeae?a i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa cia/ii
a?ae??ciy?oueny i?ae niaith. Oae, ae?iaieoeoaa “Caii??aenoae?”
caa?oaeiththoue aeiae?eey acioieie niieoeaie (iiiaae 60%), ooi?ii (13%),
cae?cii (8,9%), i?eaeai (12,9%), oaiieaie (0,8%). Aiie aeeeeeathoue
caoai?thaaiiy aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a, aieiaiiai iiceo, ia/?iee, ie?ie.

Ia oeoaii-iaai??aiio eiia?iao? ia?aaaaeathoue aeeeaee iai?aai?/iiai ieeo
(73,5%), e?aii??aeo niieoe (13,8%), oei?enoiai aiaeith (10,6%). Eoiie
caa?oaeiaiiy iaae “Aei?i?iniaoenoaeeth” neeaaeathoue ia?aaaaeii iee
(41,1%). Oea oaeiae i?aeaeuo? /anoioo ??ciiiai?oieo caoai?thaaiue.

Iaaecae/aeii caa?oaeiaiei ? aiaeia na?aaeiaeua i.Caii??aeaey. aiaee
?.Aei?i?i iaeaaeaoue aei 5-6 eean?a yeino?, ui icia/a? “aeoaea
caa?oaeiai?”. A inoaii? ?iee o ?.Aei?i?i ui??/ii an?ia
aiaeiei?enooaa/aie neeaea?oueny 8,3 oen.o nieae, 4 oen.o i?aai?/ieo
?a/iaei, 40 o niieoe ??ciiiai?oieo iaoae?a, 60 o oaiie?a, 470 o acioo
aiii?eiiai, 200 o iaooii?iaeoeo?a. A?aeoeeaiiy yeino? aiaee a?ae
noaiaea?oo ii nai?oa?ii-o?i?/ieo oa aaeoa??ieia?/ieo iieacieeao a
na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeoue 20-21%. Iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?aa cieaeaiiy
caa?oaeiaiiy o 1995-1996 ??., o 1996 ?. o Aei?i?i aoei neeiooi 380
iei.i3 no?/ieo aiae, c ieo 18,4% aoee iai/euai?.

A ?acoeueoao? ai?no eaaeiieenieo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei neeaa 1,2 AAeE,
acioo i?o?eoiiai 1,2-2,1 AAeE, niieoe oeeieo – 9-32 AAeE, oaiie?a – 2-6
AAeE, niieoe i?ae? – 4-11 AAeE, niieoe ia?aaioeth – 6-10 AAeE,
iaooii?iaeoeo?a – 3-4 AAeE. Iaaecae/aeii caa?oaeiaiith ? i?eoiea Aei?i?a
– ?.Iie?a Iineiaea. Na?aaeiuei??/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? o ?? aiae? acioo
aiii?eiiai aeinyaee 13 AAeE, i?o?eoiiai – 8 AAeE, niieoe i?ae? – 7 AAeE,
oeeieo – 10 AAeE, ia?aaioeth – 18 AAeE. O aeiaaeeao aaa??eieo neeae?a
eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo aiii?eiiai aei??aithaaea 39 AAeE, , i?o?eoiiai – 13
AAeE, niieoe i?ae? – 36 AAeE, oeeieo – 20 AAeE, ia?aaioeth – 70 AAeE. A
oeeo oiiaao ? aaniethoii iaiao?aeieie i/enoea aiae, a oaeiae iiaoi?ia oa
iai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy. A inoaii? ?iee ??aaiue i/eoaieo aiae o
no?oeoo?? neeae?a ia?aaoaa? ia ??ai? 70-85%. Ianya iine?aeiaii
aeei?enoaii? aiaee aeinyaa? 70%. Iaea?eueoeie caa?oaeithaa/aie aiaee ?
eiia?iao “Caii??aenoaeue”, I?nueeaiaeeiioiaini, neeaee ea?’??ieo aiae.

A?aoiaoth/e neeaaeiee aeieia?/iee noai aanaeio Aei?i?a, O?yae Oe?a?ie
aecia/ea ?.Aei?i?i i??i?eoaoiei iai?yieii aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee. Oeacii
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie noai?aia Iaaecae/aeia eii?n?y c i?iaeai aeieia?/iiai
noaio ?.Aei?i?i oa yeino? ieoii? aiaee. Caii??cuee? i?nuee? oa iaeani?
aeieia?/i?, ainiiaea?nuee?, oi?aae?inuee? i?aaie ? i?aai?caoe?? iiaeii?
o?nii ni?ai?aoethaaoe c iath. Oea iiaea caaacia/eoe ae??oaiiy
aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai Aei?i?a.

O i.Caii??aeae? oa eiai i?ei?nuee?e cii? cia/iiai iioe?aiiy iaaoei
caa?oaeiaiiy a?oio?a, neeaaeoaaiiy oaa?aeeo i?iieneiaeo ?
eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaeo a?aeoiae?a, aeeo/aiiy ieiu
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue i?ae caaeeua. I?e anoaiiaeaieo ii?iao
o iaaeao 0,47 i3/??e iiaooiaeo a?aeoiae?a oeae iieaciee o i?no?
ia?aaeuaiee a?eueo i?ae o 2 ?ace. Aea iniaeeai iaaacia/ieo ianooaa?a
iaaoee ianyae i?iieneiaeo a?aeoiae?a. Oae, o 1996 ?. a iaeano?
iaeiie/eeiny 46 iei.o a?aeoiae?a. Na?aae ieo aei ??? eeano iaaaciaee
iaeaaeaei 54,8%. O i?iieneiaeo ciiao ?ici?uaiiy aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia caa?oaeiaiiy a?oioo a ?aae?on? 5-15
ei. Oae, ai?no oeeieo ia?aaeuo? 4 AAeE, ?ooo? – 1,5 AAeE, eaaei?th – 3-4
AAeE. Oea i?eai?/o? ?ineeii?noue ? iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy
caeaieo caoenieo cii. Oiio cia/iiai i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
i?iaeaia oaoiieia?/iiai iiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a.
O ?? ae??oaii? ea?aeeiaeueieie caniaaie ? aoae?aieoeoai
ni?oo?ia?a?iaiiai caaiaeo, aa?o?noue yeiai a ieoieeany /a?ac 5-6 ?ie?a;
iiaoi?ia aeei?enoaiiy i?iieneiaeo a?aeoiae?a.

A?aeiiaethth/? ooieoe?? o aeinenoai? i?noa cae?eniththoue caeai?
ianaaeaeaiiy. Ia aeaeue, Caii??cueea iaeanoue ae?ae iaaeinoaoiuei
caaacia/aia ianaaeaeaiiyie. E?niiieo?eoa ieiua a i?e – iaeiaioa a
Oe?a?i? ? noaiiaeoue anueiai 23,7 oen.aa. Oea o 1,5 ?ac?a iaioa, i?ae o
Ieeiea?anuee?e ? o 3 ?ace – i?ae o Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iaeanoyo. A
na?aaeiueiio ia iaeiiai aeeoaey i.Caii??aeaey i?eoiaeeoueny 14 i2
caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue. Aea aiie ?ici?uai? ia??aiii??ii. Ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue ?o ieiu caeia? i.Oi?oeoeth, i?ai?/ii-cao?aei? ia?aaei?noy
(ciia a?aeii/eieo). Iaaeinoaoiuei icaeaiai? aeeoeia? ianeae ? iniaeeai,
i?iieneiaa ciia i?noa o iaaeao Caaiaenueeiai ?aeiio.

Aenieee caaaeueiee ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy i?aeoe/ii an?o i?e?iaeieo
eiiiiiaio?a aeinenoaie i.Caii??aeaey, aaaee? i?iieneia? ae?iaieoeoaa,
o?ainii?oia ia?aaaioaaeaiiy i?ecaiaeyoue aei iia??oaiiy naiiii/oooy,
caei?ia’y, a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy, cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ?
yeino? oiia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio. Ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a oaiie
ca?eueoaiiy caoai?thaaiue i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy aeaui ciaioeeeny, aea ana
ua eeoathoueny aenieeie. Oae, e?euee?noue caoai?thaaiue ceiye?nieie
ooai?aiiyie ca?eueoeeany ia 2,2%, ?ioa?eoii i?iea?aeo – ia 6,5%,
a?iio?aeueiith anoiith – ia 6,8%, o?ii?/iei a?iio?oii – ia 17,1%. Oea ia
10-12% a?eueoa, i?ae o na?aaeiueiio ii Oe?a?i?. I?ney aaaaoi??/ii?
oaiaeaioe?? cieaeaiiy ii/aany ??no ia?aceoa?ieo oa ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia,
cie?aia ooaa?eoeueico (ia 5%), oai?ia na/i-noaoaai? nenoaie (ia 3%),
oieaoeenoeoo (ia 5-8%), aaiaoeoo A, aea?a?/ieo oai?ia. Cia/ieie
aaee/eiaie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iieacieee ?iaae?aeiino? – 3 /ie. ia 1000
aeeoae?a, o?aaiaoecio ia ae?iaieoeoa?. O 1996 ?. iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
iioa?i?eeo ca?a?no?iaaia ia eiia?iao? “Caii??aenoaeue” (49 /ie.),
aethi?i??aiio (43 /ie.), aeaeo?i?aiiioiiio caaiae? (40 /ie.). Iiiaae 14%
ae?oae o i?no? ia?iaeaeothoueny c ineo?/ieie oa o?ce/ieie a?aeoeeaiiyie.

I?e oeueiio caoai?thaai?noue o caa?oaeiaieo Caaiaenueeiio oa
I?aeaeii?e?aecaanueeiio ?aeiiao a?eueoa, i?ae o a?aeiinii /enoeo
Oi?oeoeueeiio, Oaa/aie?anueeiio (ceiye?nieie ooai?aiiyie – ia 1-2 /ie.
ia 1000 aeeoae?a, a?ia?oii??th – ia 5 /ie., i?inooaeieie ?ioaeoe?yie –
ia 30 /ie.).

O i?aoethth/eo ia eiia?iao? “Caii??aenoaeue” aai i?iaeeaath/eo iiaeeco
iueiai ethaeae ia?aaaaeathoue caoai?thaaiiy aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a, ia/?iee,
ie?ie. Ia oeoaii-iaai??aiio eiia?iao? ia?aaaaeathoue caoai?thaaiiy
ia?aiai? ? na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoai, o?ii?/iee a?iio?o, aio?caia
e?aaiue, neeeeic, aethi?i??aiio eiia?iao? – aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a, oe??e.
I?aoethth/? ia noaeai?ieaoiiio caaiae? oai??thoue ia?aaaaeii ia
na?oeaai-noaeeii?, oe??yi? caoai?thaaiiy, oai?iae aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a.

I?e aiae?c? aieeao caa?oaeiaiiy ia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?nueeiai
ianaeaiiy iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? ae?? noeoiiino? oeo aai
?ioeo aeae?a caa?oaeiaiiy. oAe, noeoiia ae?y ?aae?aoe?? o?i?/iiai
caa?oaeiaiiy a?oioo ca?eueoo? ?ecee aeieeiaiiy iaoaeia?? i?aai?a
o?aaeaiiy o ae?oae o 3 ?ace, oai?ia nenoaie e?iaiia?ao – a 2-7 ?ac?a,
oe??e – a 1,5-2,2 ?ac?a. Noi?niee aieea ?aae?aoe?? ? caa?oaeiaiiy
iia?o?y ca?eueoo? ?ecee aeieeiaiiy oai?ia i?aai?a aeeoaiiy o 1,9-2,7
?ac?a.

Iineeth? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia caei?ia’y o?i?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy
aeaeo?iiaaieoia caa?oaeiaiiy oa ooi. Oae, na?aae i?aoethth/eo ooiieo
oeao?a niinoa??aa?oueny ia 50% a?eueoa oai?ia aooa, ai?ea, iina, ae?acee
oeoieo, ?iceaae?a ia?aiai? nenoaie, o 3 ?ace aeuee o?aaiaoeci, i?ae
na?aae ?ia?oiee?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Aecia/ai? oaeei /eiii iniiai?
?ia?aae??ioe oa iai?yie aieeao caa?oaeiaiiy ia naiiii/oooy ianaeaiiy
aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeoe iniiai? caoiaee iiia?aaeaeaiiy caoai?thaaiino?.
Ii?yae c ??cieie iai?yiaie aeieia?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa aiie iathoue
iieyaaoe o i?iaaaeai? anaa?/ii? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? o noa??
ioi?iie caei?ia’y, aeio?eiaii? oaoi?ee aaciaee o ae?iaieoeoa?.

AENIIAEE.

Iniiai? iai?yie oa ia?niaeoeae ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai
iaa?oioiaothoueny ia iniia?: a) ioe?iee ?o no/aniiai noaio ?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ca nooiaiai aino?ioe, iaaaciaee, ianooaa?a i?iyaeaiiy;
a) i?iaiico ?icaeoeo o ia?niaeoea?; a) iayaieo cania?a ae??oaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e iaaio noaa?e?caoe?th (i?eieiaiiy iaae?iiy oaii?a ?icaeoeo
ae?iaieoeoaa) ia ?yae? iniiaieo i?aei?e?inoa aaaeei? ?iaeono??? i?noa,
eia?/ii c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey
ea?aeeiaeueii ia ci?ieoueny. Caeoeia?noue oa iacia/iee i?eaooie
ae?iaieoeoa niaoe?ae?caoe?? (0,6-1,0% a ??e) niiioeathoue iai?aaeyoe
iniiai? eiooe ia ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, iane?aeee yeeo
i?iyaeythoueny nueiaiaei? ? iaea?eueo c?eii. I?e oeueiio e?i?ooth/ei
oaeoi?ii iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio ? iaiiaia aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a
i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai i?ecia/aiiy – ia 60%.

Ca oaeeo neeaaeieo ianoaaei iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia? iaa?oiooaaiiy
eiioeaioe?? noaeiai ?icaeoeo aeinenoaie i.Caii??aeaey ia ia?niaeoeao. O
iaoiio ?icoi?ii? aiia aeeth/a?: caaaeuei? iieiaeaiiy; ioe?ieo oa aiae?c
no/anieo aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai; iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo cania?a oa iai?yi?a
?o ae??oaiiy; aecia/aiiy aeaea?ae ?o caaacia/aiiy; nenoaie oi?aae?iiy.

Eiioeaioe?y a?aoiao? i?eiaeii? o?e a?oie iaiaaeaiue (?iia?aoea?a) o
ae??oaii? aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai: a) iaiiaeeea?noue ea?aeeiaeueii? ci?ie
ae?iaie/i? niaoe?ae?caoe?? i?noa; a) iaiiaeeea?noue i?eiaeii? o
iaeaeeae/? 10 ?ie?a ea?aeiaeueii? ci?ie i?nueeiai ieaioaaiiy
oeaio?aeueieo oa aeeoeiaeo ?aeii?a; a) aeiiii?/i? oa oaoiieia?/i?
iaiaaeaiiy cae?eniaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo caoiae?a.

Aeoiaey/e c caaaeueieo iieiaeaiue eiioeaioe?? ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai, ?o anaa?/ii? e?euee?nii? oa ye?nii? ioe?iee, aecia/ai?
eiie?aoi? oeyoe oa caniae iioei?caoe?? aeinenoaie i.Caii??aeaey, ye?
noi?ioeueiaai? ne?aeoth/ei /eiii:

— i?eieiaiiy iiaeaeueoiai ia?iuoaaiiy iiooaeiinoae oa aoae?aieoeoaa
iiaeo i?aei?e?inoa aaaeei? ?iaeono???;

— eiooe, iai?aaeai? ia ?aiiio ? iaa?oue a?aeiiaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo
iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a iaoaeo?a?eieo i?aei?e?inoa iai?aaeyoe ia
ea?aeeiaeueio iiaea?i?caoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa; inai?iiy aeioneo iiaeo
aeae?a i?iaeoeoe??; iiaea?i?caoe?th i/enieo nii?oae;

— a?aooaaiiy a aeiiii?eiainiiaea?nuee?e ae?yeueiino? ianya?a oa iai?yi?a
o?aiceoiiai caa?oaeiaiiy ia iniia? nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ieao ca
caeoee a?ae iueiai;

— caai?iia a?aeaaaeaiiy iiaeo caiaeue i?ae aoae?aieoeoai iiaeo aai
?icoe?aiiy ?nioth/eo i?aei?e?inoa;

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e caa??aaiiy oa iioiaaiiy oaa?aeeo
oiene/ieo a?aeoiae?a, ye? ia iiaeooue aooe iiaoi?ii aeei?enoai? aai
ia?a?iaeai?;

— aoae?aieoeoai ni?oo?ia?a?iaiiai caaiaeo, ia??iae ieoiiino? yeiai
noaiiaeoue 5-6 ?ie?a;

— caai?iia ii?ioaaiiy caa?oaeiaiiy neeae?a o aiaeieie, aeoiaey/e c
i?eioeeio ?o iai?eionoeiino?. Iniaeeai o ?.Iie?a Iineiaea, aiaeioie?a
aaeie;

— a?aeiiaeaiiy oa iine?aeoth/a aeei?enoaiiy caa?oaeiaieo ?ai?oa
eiiiiiaio?a aeiae?eey. Oaea ?iaioa i?iaiaeeoueny ia iaoaeo?a?eieo
i?aei?e?inoaao, aea iiaoi?ii ia?a?iaeythoueny a?aeaaee ia?oai?anueeiai
oeaeo, aea ianyae iaia?iaee iathoue cia/i? ?aca?ae aeey ca?eueoaiiy;

— aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaaeii aeaeo?e/iiai o?ainii?oo caaaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy; ia?ao?ae cia/ii? /anoeie aaoiiaoei ia aaciaa iaeeai;
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aei?noeiai aeieia?/iiai eiio?ieth ia aaoioeyoao;

— aaeineiiaeaiiy ia?niaeoeaiiai a?o?oaeoo?iiai ieaioaaiiy i?noa ca
?aooiie ?inoo eiai ia?aaei?noue oa ?o caaoaeiae iecueeiiiaa?oiaeie
eioaaeaeaie, ia’?eoaie nioeeoeueoiiaooo, noai?aiiy cii a?aeii/eieo;

— aeei?enoaiiy “i’yeeo” oa iaaei?iaeo, aea aoaeoeaieo caoiae?a
iae?i?aoe?? aeiae?eey, cie?aia icaeaiaiiy oa?eoi??e;

— ieaioaaiiy o ?aeiiao, i?eei?aeiiieo c i?iieneiaeie ciiaie, aeeeth/ieo
nai?oa?ieo cii c aeaei?aoeaieie ianaaeaeaiiyie;

— caaania/aiiy aeieia?/ii? ina?oe ea??aiee?a i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoa oa
oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy; iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ??oaiue;
i?aeaioiaea aenieiina?/aieo aeieia?/ieo eaae??a ia aac? AOC?a
Caii??aeaey;

— a?aoiaoaaoe “aocueee i?noey”, ye? ii?iaeaeothoue eieia?/i? i?iaeaie
/a?ac neeaaeiino? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, a oaeiae ia?aaaae o aeaeyae?
noeoiiino? aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a, ye? iaaea? ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea;

— aeey eii?aeeiaoe?? aeeiiaiiy an?o caoiae?a ii ae??oaiith aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai iaiao?aeii noai?eoe Aeieia?/io ?aaeo i?e i?nueeaeeiieii?
i.Caii??aeaey.

Nienie iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e.

1. Aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii? ? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aeinenoaie
i?iieneiaiai i?noa (ia i?eeeaae? i.Caii??aeaey). – Oa?nii, OANAO, 1998.
– 50n.

2. No/aniee noai aeieia?? i.Caii??aeaey oa oeyoe iie?auaiiy.//
Aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/i? oa aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie I?ai?/iiai I?eacia’y.
Ca.noaoae. Iae?oiiieue, 1995 ?.-n.59.

3. Noai oa ia?niaeoeae aeieiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino?
Caii??cueei? iaeano?.// Aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/i? oa aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie
I?ai?/iiai I?eacia’y. Ca.noaoae. Iae?oiiieue, 1995 ?.-n.76-78.

4. Aeieia?caoe?y iia?o?yiiai aanaeio i?noa, ye iciaea eiai
nioe?iaeieia?/iiai noaio (ia i?eeeaae? i.Caii??aeaey).//
?anioae?eainueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y. Euea?a, 1996
?.-n.43-44.

5. Aeieiai-aeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy iioaioe?aea
i.Caii??aeaey.//Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y, Iae?oiiieue, aeiaoaiue,
1995 ?.-n.41-42 (ni?aaaoi? Oaan N.I.).

6. Aeieia?caoe?y ??aiy aeeooy.// THa?eaeia eaae?o?eaoe?eia
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia eiioa?aioe?y – 65 ??//y IAeI?/ Iae?oiiieue, 1995
?.-n.19-20.

7. Aei i?iaeaie aaiethoe?? ci?noo oa?i?io “no?eeee aeieiai-aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie”.// ?anioae?eainueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y, Oa?nii,
25-27 eenoiiaaea, 1997 ?.-n.135-137 (ni?aaaoi? ?aiaoaiei I.A.).

8. Oi?ioaaiiy neeaaeo oa no?oeoo?e aeieia?/iiai eiiieaeno aaeeeiai
i?iieneiaiai oeaio?o (ia i?eeeaae? i.Caii??aeaey).// ?anioae?eainueea
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y, Oa?nii, 25-27 eenoiiaaea, 1997
?.-n.48-49.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/i? caeiie, aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie,
aeinenoaia, aeiae?eey, aeieia?/ia ?aeiioaaiiy, aeieia?/iee noai,
iioei?caoe?y, noaeee ?icaeoie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iauanoaaiii-aaia?aoe/aneea caeiiu, yeieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu, yeinenoaia, ie?oaeathuay n?aaea, yeieiae/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea,
yeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea, iioeiecaoeey, noaaeeueiia ?acaeoea.

Key words: social and geographical laws, ecological problems,
ecosystem,

environment, ecological division, ecological situation, optimisation,
steady

development.

Aiioaoe?y.Aeiiaoeue ?.A. Noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ia ioe?iea oa iaa?oiooaaiiy
i?ei?eoaoieo iai?yi?a ?ica’ycaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai aaeeeiai
i?iieneiaiai i?noa (ia i?eeeaae? i.Caii??aeaey).-?oeiien.Aeena?oaoe?y ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.02 – aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y,
Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1998 ?.A
aeena?oaoe?? aecia/ai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai aaeeeiai
i?iieneiaiai oeaio?o. Cae?eniaia ioe?iea oaeoi??a, ?o iioe?aiiy o
i.Caii??aeaey, aeine?aeaeai? nooi?iue aino?ioe oa oa?aeoa? iioe?aiiy
iaaaoeaieo aeieia?/ieo aieea?a ia iniia? eiioeaioe?e aeinenoaie oa
noaeiai ?icaeoeo. Iaa?oioiaothoueny iniiai? iai?yie oa caniae ?o
ae??oaiiy.

Aiiioaoeey.Aeiiaoe E.A. Iauanoaaiii-aaia?aoe/aneay ioeaiea e iainiiaaiea
i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee ?aoaiey yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai aieueoiai
i?iiuoeaiiiai ai?iaea (ia i?eia?a
a.Caii?iaeuea).-?oeiienue.Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.02. –
yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay aaia?aoey. Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao ei.E.E.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna, 1998 a.A aeenna?oaoeee
ii?aaeaeaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau
iauanoaaiii-aaia?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai
aieueoiai i?iiuoeaiiiai oeaio?a. Aeaia ioeaiea oaeoi?ai, eo
?ani?ino?aiaiey a a.Caii?iaeuea, enneaaeiaaia noaiaiue ino?iou e
oa?aeoa? ?ani?ino?aiaiey iaaaoeaiuo yeieiae/aneeo aeeyiee ia iniiaa
eiioeaioeee yeinenoaiu e noaaeeueiiai ?acaeoey. Iainiiauaathony iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey e niiniau eo ?aoaiey.

Summary

I.A.Donets. Social and geografical study of ecological problems in the
city of Saporizhya and grounding the main directions of their solution.

Summary of the thesis for Candidate’s Degree (Geography) — Odessa,
Odessa State University after I.M.Mechnikov, 1998.

Theoretical and methodological principles for social and geographical
research of ecological problems of a big industrial center have been
determined in the thesis. The estimation of the factors of their
spreading in Saporizhya is provided. The degree of the problem acuteness
and the character of the negative environmental impact expansion was
investigated on the basis of the ecosystem and steady development
conceptions. The main directions and means for solving the problem are
grounded.

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