I?EAeI?I?IANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

AOAe?AIEOeOAA OA A?O?OAEOO?E

Eaaeie Ea?ena Aanee?aia

OAeE 666.972.59

NOEUeOAOINO?EEEE AAOII IA CAE*AEIEO

II?OEAIAeOeAIAIOAO C I?AAII-I?IA?AEUeIEI EIIIEAENII

05.23.05 — Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999

— 3 —

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?eaei?i?ianuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa
oa a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,

I?e?oi?ia Ieaen?e Iao?iae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo, i?ioani? eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Caa?i Eaa Na?a?eiae/, I?eaei?i?ianueea
aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeieia??;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee A?aoi
Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aenieoaoaoe?? a?ae?iiae?i?aoeaieo nenoai
? oaoiieia?? aoae?aieoeoaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a
ae?iaieoeoaa aoae?aaeueieo ae?ia?a oa eiino?oeoe?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “27” n?/iy 2000?. i 13-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.085.01 I?eaei?i?ianueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith: 49600, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe.*a?ieoaanueeiai, 24-a, aoae. 202.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? I?eaei?i?ianueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith: 49600,
i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe. *a?ieoaanueeiai, 24a.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “25” a?oaeiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aaoaoaaa E.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Noaiiaeaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae aenoioei iiaee eiiieaen
caaaeaiue, iaoe?eaieo ye ia aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa, oae,
iniaeeai, ia ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy aoi?eiieo oaoiiaaiieo
i?iaeoeo?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono??? iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe aac
ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?, aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ca??iiai cae?ciaaoiio. Iniaeeai ne?ae aeae?eeoe aeineoue aeooaeueio
i?iaeaio i?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? aaoiio oa ae?ia?a ia
eiai iniia?, ye? a ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? i?aeaeathoueny ae?? aa?aneaieo
noeueoaoieo aiae oa a?oio?a.

Noeueoaoino?ee?noue aaoiio iieaco? eiai cae?ai?noue caa??aaoe caaeaiee
??aaiue i?oeiino? ai?iaeiaae anueiai ia?aaeaa/aiiai oa?i?io neoaeae o
aa?aneaieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino?
aaoiio ia cae/aeieo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao ca’ycaii c aeyaii oiia
iioeiaeueiiai no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?ae aieeaii eiiieaeno oaoiieia?/ieo
oaeoi??a. Aei oaeeo oaeoi??a iaeaaeeoue a?aeianoe aeei?enoaiiy o
aaoiii?e noi?o? i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiiai eiiieaeno iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii?
ae??, ni?yiiaaiiai ia no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy aeiaaia?/ieo oa aeiiii?/ii
aea?aeieo iaoa??ae?a oa ae?ia?a. Oaea iinoaiiaea caaaeaiiy iaea?eueo
aeooaeueia aeey ioe?iee oa i?iaiicoaaiiy no?eeino? aaoiio aeaiaio?a, ye?
?icoaoiaai? o canieaieo a?oioao ? caciathoue aieeao noeueoaoieo aiae.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaaooee ae?iaie/ee aeina?ae aeyaeee, ui ia
no/aniiio aoai? aaaaoi ye? aniaeoe i?aeaeuaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?
aaoiio ua iaaeineiiaei aea/ai?, aeine?aei? aeai? a?aeie?aieai?, a
eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o aieeao ia noeueoaoino?ee?noue aaoiio c
aeei?enoaiiyi oaoiiaaiieo i?iaeoeo?a ae?iaieoeoaa iathoue iaai? iaae?.

?iaioa ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy aeooaeueiiai caaaeaiiy — aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa ?ic?iaeo ?ano?nicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?? iiaeeo?eiaaieo aaoii?a
i?aeaeuaii? ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy i?noeaaeo
o?i?/ieo aeii?oie o niieooe? c oeaiiaeie a?aeoiaeaie ACE oa iniaeeaeie
aeoeaaoi?aie ?aaeoe?e a?ae?aoaoe??. A iniia? eaaeeoue canoinoaaiiy
aoaeoeaiiai i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiiai eiiieaeno (IIE), yeee aiane?aeie
niieo/aiiy o?ce/ii?, o?i?/ii? oa o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ae?e caaacia/o?
noeueoaoino?ee?noue aaoiio ye ia noeueoaoino?eeeo, oae ? ia cae/aeieo
na?aaeiueiaethi?iaoieo oeaiaioao. I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii c’ynoaaoe
aeanoeaino? aieiaieo eiiiiiaio?a i?noeaaeo a?aeoiae?a i?iieneiaino?, ye?
a niieooe? c ieanoeo?eaoi?aie eiiieaenii aieeaathoue ia
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy iaoa??aeo. Oe? oiiae aecia/athoue iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a oaoiieia?? noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio i?e caaacia/ai?
o?ceei-o?i?/ii? no?eeino? iaoa??aeo.

Aaca ne?iaeie aeey ae?iaieoeoaa noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie aaeueie cia/ia, ui ooai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ianiaiai
aeei?enoaiiy aaoiio c iaoiiaeaieie aeanoeainoyie ?, cie?aia, iecueeith
nia?aa?o?noth.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie,

ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? aea?aeaai?e iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ?iaio?,
ui aeeiio?oueny eaoaae?aie oaoiieia?? aaoii?a oa a,yaeo/eo ?
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a I?eaei?i?ianueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e “?ic?iaea iiaeo aoaeoeaieo aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a oa ae?ia?a, aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a ??cieo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ?ioaineo?eaoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo iniia aaoiio i?aeaeuaii?
noeueoaoino?eeino? ia cae/aeieo iecueei- oa na?aaeiueiaethi?iaoieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaiiai
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiiai eiiieaeno, io?eiaiiai ?c aoi?eiieo ?ano?n?a
a??ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueiiai i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

· e?euee?nii ioe?ieoe aieea ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia ei?ic?eio
no?ee?noue ? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy aaoiio oa eiai eiiiiiaio?a;

· aeei?enoiaoth/e oaoi?/i? e?aiinoeueoiiaoe o niieooe? c aiaeiith
noniaic??th oeai?a ACE, iaea?aeaoe aenieiaoaeoeaiee i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiee
eiiieaen (IIE) aeey caaacia/aiiy noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoii?a ia cae/aeieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao;

· aeine?aeeoe iaoai?ci aieeao IIE ia i?ioean? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy
ee?iea?ieo i?ia?ae?a, ??cieo aeae?a ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio?a ? aaoii?a o
aa?aneaieo noeueoaoieo na?aaeiaeuao;

· ?ic?iaeoe ?ic?aooieiai-aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoiae i?ecia/aiiy oa
iioei?caoe?? neeaae?a aaoiio i?aeaeuaii? noeueoaoino?eeino? c
iiaeeo?eoth/ei eiiieaenii (ia noeueoaoino?eeeo oa cae/aeieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao);

· cae?enieoe ae?iaie/o ai?iaaoe?th oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ano?nicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?? aaoiio i?aeaeuaii? ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? c
iioeiaeueiei aeiaeaoeii IIE.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

· ?ic?iaeai? o?ceei-o?i?/i? iniiae ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? aaoiio oeyoii
iiaeeo?eaoe?? eiai i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa ii?oieia?/iiai neeaaeo a,yaeo/i?
?a/iaeie i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiei eiiieaenii iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae??;

· aeyaeai? ci?ie no?oeoo?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae IIE ye aeii?oee aei aaoiio, ui i?aeeyaa? aeniei?ioaineai?e
ia?iaoe? oeyoii aa?aiooaaiiy ieanoeo?eoth/iai iiaeeo?eaoi?a c
noeueoaoiith noniaic??th oeai?a ACE;

· aeiaaaeaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio ia cae/aeieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao c aeiaeaoeii IIE aeieea? ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy
noeueoaoiiai aa?,??o, ii?oieia?/ii? ci?ie a?ae?iaethi?iao?a a,yaeo/i?
?a/iaeie oa cia/ii? eieueiaoaoe?? eai?ey?ieo ii?;

· aeine?aeaeai? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? aaoii?a i?aeaeuaii?
ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? ia cae/aeieo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao ca oiia ae??
aenieieiioeaio?iaaiiai noeueoaoiiai na?aaeiaeua;

· ii?aoeueiaaia iaoiaeeea i?ecia/aiiy oa iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo aaoiio c
IIE, yea noaea oiiaith caaacia/aiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy eiai
aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? oa aeiaaia?/iino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iieyaa? o ?icoe?aii? ne?iaeiii? aace iniiaieo iaoa??ae?a aeey
?ano?nicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?? aaoii?a i?aeaeuaii? noeueoaoino?eeino?.
Aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy cae/aeieo na?aaeiueiaethi?iaoieo
oeaiaio?a c aeii?oeith IIE aeey io?eiaiiy aaoii?a iaeaaeii?
aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino?. Cie?aia, aeyaeaia aeniea aoaeoeai?noue
niieoee e?aiinoeueoiiao?a, aoi?eiieo i?iaeoeo?a ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy
aoaeoeaii? no?oeoo?iooai?thth/i? aeii?oee aei aaoiio, yea aeyaey?
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueio ae?th.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaoiieia?? aaoiiieo oa cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a aoee
iaaeai? II “Iiiie?o” (i. E?eaee ??a). Ia oeueiio i?aei?e?inoa? aeiouaii
iiiaae 1 oen. i3 ae?ia?a i?aeaeuaii? noeueoaoino?eeino? ia cae/aeieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao aeey ??cieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie. I???ioiaiee ??/iee
aeiiii?/iee aoaeo neeaa iiiaae 90 oen. a?eaaiue ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy
nia?aa?oino? aaoiio, aeiiii?? oa cai?ie aeaeo oeaiaioo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii, aeeiiaii aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?ieo oa aeine?aeieo aeaieo i?i iaoai?ci ei?ic?eii? ae??
aa?aneaiiai na?aaeiaeua ia aaoii oa eiai eiiiiiaioe. ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea i?ecia/aiiy neeaae?a noeueoaoino?eeeo aaoii?a c IIE ?c
cieaeaiith aeo?aoith cae/aeieo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio?a. ?ic?iaeai?
oaoiieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa aeeiiaia i?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa
ae?ia?a ?c noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio. C iioae?eiaaieo a ni?aaaoi?noa?
?acoeueoao?a aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiai?: aeine?aee uiaei aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiiai eiiieaeno ye aenieiaoaeoeaii?
aeii?oee aei aaoiiii? noi?o?, a oaeiae aenia?eiaioe c aea/aiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae aaaeeeo aaoii?a o ??ciiiai?oieo oiiaao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iia?aeiieai? ia IV i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoa??aee aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e”
ICMB’96, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, IAeAAoaA, 1996?., ia ae?oaee
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?iaeea?aeoaeueiee
aeeoeiaee aoaeeiie”, A?iieoey, 1998 ?., ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia??
“Aeiaaaee aei aaoiio. Nenoaia ?aeaenie”, Caii??aeaey, 1999?.

Ioae?eaoe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a 7 ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i,yoe ?icae?e?a,
caaaeueieo aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ia?ae?eo e?oa?aoo?e c 106
iaeiaioaaiue oa aeiaeaoe?a.

?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 156 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/a? 45
iaethie?a ? 23 oaaeeoe?.

iniiaiee Ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue, aeeeaaeai? iaoa oa caaea/?
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aaoi?
aeiineoue ia caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny noai ieoaiue, iia,ycaieo c i?iaeaiith
i?aeaeuaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio, ye? a?aeia?aaeai? o a?o/eciyi?e
oa caei?aeiii?e e?oa?aoo??, oa aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo aeae?a
aaoiio a noeueoaoiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

I?iaeai? i?aeaeuaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? aaoiio i?eae?eyeanue iino?eia
oaaaa o a?o/eciyi?e oa caei?aeiii?e aeine?aei?e ?iaio?. O i?aoeyo
Aaaooe?ia A.?., Aaaeaiiaa TH.I., Aeaniaa I.A., Aii/a?iaa A.A, E?eaaiea
I.A., Eoioeaae/a I.A., I??iiiaa N.A., Iiuainueeiai I.A., Iaoiiiaa A.A,
?aa?iaea?a I.I., Ne?aioa?aa A.A., Noieuei?eiaa A.A., Oanoiia?iaa N.A., a
oaeiae Aaeaioa I., Aeai?aeueniia Oae., Eiee?ica I., Eaiiaae? O., Iaoa?na
O. ?icaeioo? oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? iniiae i?aeaeuaiiy
caaaeueii? no?eeino? oa noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio.

Cia/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? o ??cieo e?a?iao c aea/aiiy no?eeino?
aaoiio o noeueoaoiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue ?iaioe
Ieaen??aa N.I, Aaaooe?ia A.?, Aao?aeiaa A.A., Ao?aae/a A.A., I?iana
A.?., Iinea?ia A.I., Naaaeiai? A.A, Ne?eeueieeiaa A.I., THiaa A.I. oa
?i. Iaeiae i?e ae?iaieoeoa? eiino?oeoe?e, ui ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae ae??th
aa?aneaiiai noeueoaoiiai na?aaeiaeua, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
niaoe?aeuei? noeueoaoino?ee? oeaiaioe oneeaaeiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea
aaoiii? aeaiaioe a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo, i?iieneiaeo, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
nii?oae, ?icoaoiaaieo o aa?oiueiio oa?? a?oioo aai a cii? ci?iiiai
caieiaeaiiy oa aenoooaaiiy. Aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue, a oaeiae
aeiaaia?/i?noue oeeo aaoii?a iiaeia aecia/eoe ?o iii?ii aeeooc??
aa?aneaiiai ioi/aiiy a na?aaeeio iaoa??aeo oa o?i?/iith no?ee?noth eiai
no?oeoo?ieo iiaiooai?aiue. ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo ?ica’ycaiith i?iaeaie
i?aeaeuaii? no?eeino? aaoiio ia cae/aeieo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao o iiae?aieo
oiiaao, ua ae?ae iaei: ie?ai? ieoaiiy oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iathoue
i?noea o ?iaioao E?eaaiea I.A. o noi?nieoeoa? c Iooea?ueiaith ?.E., a
oaeiae Aa?aeoeueeiai A.I., A?oaeaii I., Aeaa?aeniia I.A., Iiuainueeiai
I.A. oa ?i.

Aiae?c no/anieo i?aoeue oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aea?
ciiao cai?iiiioaaoe ? i a i / o a ? i i o a c o aeine?aeaeaiiy.
I?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? aaoii?a iiaeeeai ia cae/aeieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao, ye? aenieoaoothoueny o noeueoaoiiio aa?aneaiiio
na?aaeiaeu?, oeyoii ni?yiiaaiiai no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy oa ci?ie ii?oieia??
i?iaeoeo?a a?ae?aoaoe?? aiane?aeie ae?? o?ueioeiiiiiaioiiai
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiiai eiiieaeno ye aeii?oee aei aaoiio. I?eaaaeai?
oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae ? ?iai/a a?iioaca iieeaaeai? a iniiao
noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoe oa caaea/ ?iaioe.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iaa?oiooaaiith aeai?o aeae?a oeaiaioo oa
ae??aieo ? e?oiieo caiiaithaa/?a aeey aeeiiaiiy aeine?aeieo ?ia?o.
Iieacaii, ui oeaiaioe Aaeaee??anueeiai, Aia?in??anueeiai oa
E?eai??cueeiai caaiae?a iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? aeey i?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?ie, aea ia? i?noea ae?y noeueoaoieo na?aaeiaeu ia aaoii. Aeey
aeine?ae?a aeei?enoaii iiaeeo?eaoi? aaoiiii? noi?o? IOI-AN, ?ic?iaeaiee
? ai?iaaaeaeaiee o ae?iaieoeoai ae.o.i. Oaeia?ii I.O. Iiaeeo?eaoi? ?
aoi?eiiei i?iaeoeoii Eoaeainueeiai a?ae?ie?ciiai caaiaeo. Aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy IIE canoiniaaii aiaeio aeenia?n?th ieeoaaoiai oeaio
?iaoeaoeueeiai ACE.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui ieeoaaoee oeai ye i?iaeoeo iiiaeo cae?ciai?uoth/iai
eaa?oeeoo neeaaea?oueny ia 80% c e?aiiacaienoiai eiiiiiaioo, /anoee
yeiai iathoue aii?oeciaaio iiaa?oith c aeoeaieie oeaio?aie o?i?/ii?
aca?iiae??. Aiaeia noniaic?y oeaio i?noeoue ?ic/eie noeueoao?a oa
oei?eae?a o noai? aeaeo?ie?oe/ii? aeenioe?aoe??.

Aeeiiaii oaeiae iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?iaee
oa ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ?iia??ii-noaoenoe/iei iaoiaeii,
cai?iiiiiaaiei i?io. Aicianainueeei A.A.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith o?ceei-o?i?/ii? aca?iiae??
noeueoaoiiai na?aaeiaeua c oeaiaioiei eaiaiai oa iniiaieie i?ia?aeueieie
oacaie oeaiaioo.

I?aeaeuaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino? oeaiaioieo nenoai i?ae ae??th
noeueoaoiiai na?aaeiaeua iiaea aooe aeinyaiaii eiiieaenii oaoiieia?/ieo
caoiae?a, a naia: cieaeaiiyi aaee/eie A/Oe i?e iaiao?aei?e
eaaeioeeaaeaeueiino? aaoiiii? noi?o?, ea?oaaiiyi ?icaeoeii ii?oaaoino?
i?e?ino?oeoo?e oeaiaioiiai eaiaith oa ia?aaaaeaiiyi o?i?/ii iano?eeeo
i?ia?ae?a oeaiaioo a oa?iiaeeiai?/ii no?eea noaiiaeua. Noeoii?noue oaeeo
??ciiieaiiaeo caaaeaiue iiaeia cae?enieoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e niaoe?aeueiee
eiiieaen, yeee yaey? niaith iiaeeo?eaoi? aeanoeainoae oeaiaioiiai o?noa,
aaoiiii? noi?o? ? aaoiio oe?eani?yiiaaii? iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae??.
Oaeee i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiee eiiieaen (IIE) ia? aieiae?oe aeacaiei niaeo?ii
ae?e, a?ae??ciyoeny iecueeith nia?aa?o?noth oa iaaeao?oeeoi?noth a
oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee.

Ieanoeo?eaoi?ii o neeaae? IIE ia?aiee aiaeiee ?ic/ei oaoi?/ieo
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a (IOI-AN), ui a?ae??ciy?oueny aenieith aoaeoeai?noth oa
iecueeith nia?aa?o?noth. Oaeiae aea/aii iaoai?ci eiai ae?? o neeaae? IIE
ia ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioe ??ciiai i?ia?aeia?/iiai neeaaeo oa ia ee?iea?i?
iiiii?ia?aee. Ieanoeo?eoth/a ae?y e?aiinoeueoiiao?a ca’ycaia c
aaeni?aoe??th iieaeoe aeii?oee ia iiaa?oi? /anoie oeaiaioo oa i?iaeoeoao
?o a?ae?aoaoe?? c ooai?aiiyi iiaa?oiaai? ie?aee. Iayai?noue oaei?
ie?aee, yea aeeiio? ?ieue “ianoeea”, iiynith? cieaeaiiy neee oa?oy i?ae
eiiiiiaioaie aaoiiii? noi?o? oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?? eaaeioeeaaeaeueiino?.

Cia/iei iaaeie?eii aaoii?a c ENO ? oiia?eueiaiiy i?ioeano a?ae?aoaoe??
oeaiaioo ? aiane?aeie oeueiai cieaeaiiy eiai i?oeiino?, ui aeeeeeaii
aaeueioaaiiyi i?ioean?a a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo ia ii/aoeia?e noaae??
oaa?ae?iiy caaaeyee aeieeiaiith cia/iiai aeeooc?eiiai iii?o o
ia?ao?aeieo iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao /anoie oeaiaioo. Aaaaeaiiy oeeo aeii?oie
aeiaaa? /?oeiai aeio?eioaaiiy anoaiiaeaieo iaae aeicoaaiiy, oiio ui
iacia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?o e?eueeino? cia/ii ciaioo? i?oei?noue aaoiio.

Ae?oaei eiiiiiaioii IIE, yeee caaacia/o? eiiieaenio no?ee?noue aaoiio, ?
aeaeo?ie?o — aia?a?eiee i?enei?thaa/ oaa?ae?iiy (?ic/eie Na2SO4; CaCl2).
Naia oiio cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaoe aiaeio noniaic?th oeaiaanaei?a,
iai?eeeaae, ?iaoeaoeueneiai ACE, yea i?noeoue o nia?, ie??i noeueoaoo
iao??th, oaeiae noeueoaoe cae?ca oa aeaye? oei?eaee.

I?e oeueiio aaaeeeai ioe?ieoe ca’ycie noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoii?a c
i?ia?aeia?/iei neeaaeii ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioiiai ee?iea?o. Iaea?eueoith
no?ee?noth i?e ae?? noeueoaoieo ?ic/ei?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oeaiaioiee
eai?iue c aae?oiaiai ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo, iaeiaioith — c
aenieiaethi?iaoiiai. Cae/aei? ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioe caeiathoue i?ii?aeia
iieiaeaiiy. Ae??oaeueiee aieea ai?noo o oeaiaio? o?ueioeaeueoe??aiai
aethi?iaoo ia noeueoaoino?ee?noue oeaiaioiiai eaiaith iacaia?a/iee.
Noaiaea?o ia noeueoaoino?ee? ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioe aeiaaa?, uia neeaae
ee?iea?o a?aeiia?aeaa oaeei aeiiaai: ai?no N3A — ia a?eueoa 5%, noia
N3A+N4AF — ia a?eueoa 22%, a e?euee?noue N3S — ia a?eueoa 50%.

Ioaea, i?aeaeuaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio iiaeia iiynieoe ae??th
noeueoao-?ii?a, ye? i?e aca?iiae?? c aethi?iaoaie ooai?ththoue
a?ae?inoeueoiaethi?iao eaeueoe?th. Ia i?eaeaaiiy oeaiaioiei o?noii ?
aaoiiiith noi?ooth iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? oea ia ni?aaey? iaaaciaee, a
iaaiaee, ou?eueith? ?o oa iiaeeo?eo? ii?oieia?/iee neeaae oeaiaioiiai
eaiaith. Ooai?aiiy a?ae?inoeueoiaethi?iaoo eaeueoe?th o iiaeaeueoee
oa?i?i oaa?ae?iiy ia a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo iaaiiai
eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai aa?’??o.

Inoaii?e eiiiiiaio IIE — ae??aiica?ienoee iaiiaithaa/, ui i?aaenoaaey?
niaith aeoeaio i?ia?aeueio aeii?oeo c aii?o?ciaaiiai oeaiiaiai
e?aiiacaio. Oae? iooeieai?/i? aeii?oee ca’ycothoue Na(II)2 c ooai?aiiyi
iecueeiiniiaieo a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th ci?iiiai neeaaeo c
caaaeueiith oi?ioeith NSI(I). I?e oeueiio eiioeaio?aoe?y NaI o ??aee?e
oac? cieaeo?oueny c 1,2…1,3 a/e aei 0,06…0,08 a/e, ui ni?ey? oaeiae
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? aenieiiniiaieo a?ae?iaethi?iao?a o iecueeiiniiai?.
?noioiee aieea ia i?aeaeuaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino? oeaiaio?a c IIE
a?ae?a?athoue iecueeiiniiai? a?ae?inee?eaoe eaeueoe?th eiei?aeii?
aeenia?niino?, ye? ?aeaenothoue e?enoae?caoe?eiee noeueoaoiee oene
iiaiooai?aii? no?oeoo?e.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy IIE,
ni?yiiaaiiai ia i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeeo?eoth/i? ae?? aiaeii? noniaic?? oeai?a
ACE c ieoiiith iiaa?oiath 70…280 i2/ea. Aa?aiooaaiiy noniaic??, yea
i?noeoue ?ic/ei IOI-AN, i?ecaiaeeoue aei eiai naia?aoe?? oa aaeni?aoe??
aeiaaieaioethaiaeo eiiieaen?a e?aiinoeueoiiao?a ia /anoeao oeaio. O oie
aea /an /anoeia ei?ioei- oa na?aaeiueieaioethaiaeo eiiieaen?a IOI-AN
caeeoa?oueny o ?ic/ei? ? ? iaae?eiei ieanoeo?eaoi?ii aaoiiii? noi?o?,
yeee ia cieaeo? i?oei?noue aaoiio. ??aaiue ieanoeo?eaoe?? iiaeeo?eiaaiei
e?aiinoeueoiiaoii IOI-AN iaaeeaeaany aei ae?? NI i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii?
Iee?ioe aei Ieii/aoe aeecueei 7…8. Aiaeiee ?ic/ei, yeee i?noeoue
noeueoaoe oa eiiieaen oei?eae?a ? ? aeaeo?ie?oii, ia o?eueee i?enei?th?
oaa?ae?iiy, aea e aenooia? iiaeeo?eaoi?ii i?ia?aeia?/iiai neeaaeo
iiaiooai?aii? a’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie. I?e iayaiino? 5 DSO42- (Oei) >D SO42- (Oeiie).

Ioaea, oeaiaioiee eai?iue c IIE a?aeiia?aea? a?aea??eia?e i?iieeiaiino?,
yea aeey aaaeeeo aaoii?a ciaioo?oueny a 2…3 ?ace, ui a?aeiia?aea?
iii?iaeueiiio cieaeaiith aiaeioeaiaoiiai oaeoi?o c 0,7 aei 0,4.

Ii??aiyiiy aeeooc?? ?ii?a o aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? ? oeaiaioiiio o?no?
iieacaei, ui ?ooeea?noue ?iia SO42- ci?ith?oueny o caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeaeo ni?a?nioth/eo eao?ii?a, oiaoi, Ig2+, Ca2+, Na+ ?
“no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eie” ?iiaie, a E+ — “no?oeoo?i?oei?aiei”. ?iie
ia?oi? a?oie oiia?eueiththoue ?ooeea?noue ni?a?nioth/eo c ieie ?ii?a
SO42-, ui aeeeeeaii oiiaaie aeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiino?, iaaiaee, ?ii ae?oai?
a?oie iieaaoo? ?ooeea?noue SO42-.

Aeeiiai? oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy c aecia/aiiy ??aiy e?enoae?caoe?? ?
o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ??aiiaaae o aioo??oi?e no?oeoo?? aaoiio, yea ia?
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy o aecia/aii? noeueoaoino?eeino? iaoa??aeo.

C?acee aaoiio o aeaeyae? eoa?a 10o10o10 ni oa i?eci 10o10o30 ni
oo?eioaaeeny o niaoe?aeueieo ?ieinoyo c ?ic/eiii noeueoaoo iao??th o
iai?acaio?aiiio noai?, eiioeaio?aoe?y yeiai ciaoiaeeeanue a iaaeao a?ae
1 aei 10 a/e a ia?a?aooieo ia ?iie SO42-. Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeeeny ia
i?ioyc? 360 ae?a. Aeeiiaii ii??aiyiiy ae?? aa?aneaiiai ?ic/eio ia aaoiie
n A/Oe=0,6 c IIE, a oaeiae aac aeii?oie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aa?aneaiee ?ic/ei i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeeoaeaiiy ?ii?a Na2+
? a?ae?ieneeueieo ?ii?a ?c aaoiio aac aeii?oie, ci?ithth/e ?o a
oeaiaioiiio eaiai? ia ai?iie (eeneioi? caeeoee) c ooai?aiiyi a ii?iaiio
ia’?i? aeaiaiaeiiai a?ino. A iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao aaoiio iaae iiaa?oiath
aa?aneaiiai ?ic/eio a?aeaoaaeanue oaeiae ?aaeoe?y ea?aii?caoe??. Oea
aeeeeeaei ?icaeoie ?oei?aieo i?ioean?a a aaoiiieo c?aceao ia i?ioyc?
5…10 i?nyoe?a. A oeaiaioiiio eaiai? iaoiaeii ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai
aiae?co aeyaeaii oaeiae eaeueoeeo. A ii/aoeiaee oa?i?i ooai?aiiy a?ino
oa eaeueoeeoo a no?oeoo?? aaoiio ci?oeith? eiai, a caiaeii ii/eiathoueny
iacai?ioi? ?oei?ai? i?ioeane.

C?acee aaoiio c iIE iieacaee ??cea i?aeaeuaiiy ?o no?eeino? a oeeo aea
aa?aneaieo ?ic/eiao. A?coaeueii ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?e niinoa??aaeenue eeoa
a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao aeeaeiith aei 3…6 ii. O cii?, yea ci?iii eiioaeoo?
c ?ic/eiii, o?i?/iee aiae?c aeyaea ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? eaeueoeeoo ?
aeayeeo noeueoao?a. ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee aiae?c a oeeo aea c?aceao aeyaea
eaeueoeeo, ao?eia?o, a oaeiae ieacie?o neeaaeiiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo.

C?inoaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio, iaiiaiaiiai i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiei
eiiieaenii, iiynith?oueny oaeei /eiii. Aaea ia ii/aoeia?e noaae??
a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo c i?ia?aeueiith neeaaeiaith IIE aeieeathoue
iaei?ic/eii? a?ae?inee?eaoe oeio NSH(I), a oaeiae a?ae?ia?aiaoe
3NaI(Al,Fe)2O3nSiO2(6-2)H2O, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith
noeueoaoino?ee?noth. Aea i?aeaeuaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio oaeiae
iiaeeeai i?e noai?aii? oiia aeey ?aiiueiai ooai?aiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
ao?eia?oo, a ia e?enoae?a o?enoeueoaoii? oi?ie a?ae?inoeueoiaethi?iaoo
eaeueoe?th, ??no yeeo o i?ci?oee oa?i?i oaa?ae?iiy cae/aeii i?ecaiaeeoue
aei aeano?oeoe?? aaoiio, yea ? niinoa??aa?oueny a aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeuao.

Ooai?aiiy ao?eia?oo ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioii?
nenoaie iaa?oue iineeth?oueny c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? o ??aee?e
oac? ?ii?a Na+ oa SI42-, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi ooai?aiiy
a?ae?iaethi?iao?a eaeueoe?th. Ia ?aioaaiia?ai? i?iaeoeo?a a?ae?aoaoe??
/a?ac 1 aiaeeio niinoa??aa?oueny ooai?aiiy noai?e?ie?enoae?/iiai
ao?eia?oo, a ca 3 aiaeeie ooai?th?oueny N3ANaSO4nH2O, /a?ac 8 aiaeei
ne?aee N3A iiai?noth a?aenooi?. Cia/ia e?euee?noue ao?eia?oo caaacia/o?
aenieo iaoai?/io i?oei?noue oa u?euei?noue oeaiaioiiai eaiaith oa, ye
iane?aeie, noeueoaoino?ee?noue aaoiio.

Aeeeeea? ?ioa?an oaeiae ooai?aiiy a iiaeeo?eiaaiiio IIE oeaiaioiiio
eaiai? ao?eia?oiiiae?aieo oac. I?ney ia?ii?ia??ao aaoiiii? noi?o? o
i?ioean? oa?iiniiai aeo?eioaaiiy ooai?ththoueny eoa?/i? a?ae?aoe, ye?
ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio. I?ney 4 oaeeei
a?ae?aoaoe?? N4AF o i?enooiino? Na(II)2 niinoa??aaeeny aaenaaiiaeuei?, a
/a?ac 6 aiaeei — eoa?/i? a?ae?aoe, ?aeaioeo?eiaai? ye N4(A,F)Io;
N3(A,F)NaNI3I11; N3(A,F) I6. Ao?eia?oiiiae?ai? oace (A,Ft)
ooai?ththoueny ye ia?aeii? i?e a?ae?aoaoe?? Na-Al-oa?eoo c Na(II)2 oa
a?inii. Ao?eia?o oa ao?eia?oiiiae?ai? oace e?enoae?cothoueny oiiio?i?/ii
ia iiaa?oi? aeo?aeii? oace, aeeeeeath/e ?? ?icoe?aiiy. Inoaiiy ?aaeoe?y
iaoe?aeeeaa ? iaa?oue i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? i?e
a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo, ine?eueee a?aeaoaa?oueny ua a ieanoe/iiio aaoii?,
ui ia niinoa??aaeiny i?e o?aaeeoe?ei?e oaoiieia?? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy
aaoiiii? noi?o?. Oaeei /eiii, i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiee eiiieaen a?ae?a?a?
cia/io ?ieue o no?oeoo?iooai?aii? noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee no?eeino? aaoii?a o noeueoaoiiio na?aaeiaeu?
aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiae aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a no?eeino?. Oeae
eiao?oe??io i?aaenoaaey? niaith a?aeiioaiiy: E=R*s/R*w, aea R*s —
na?aaeiy i?oei?noue aaoiio i?e caei? i?ney ae?? aa?aneaiiai ?ic/eio ia
i?ioyc? ae?a, R*w — oa ae, i?ney aeo?eioaaiiy c?acea o aiae? ia i?ioyc?
ae?a.

Aecia/aany oaeiae eiao?oe??io noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio (EN) ye
a?aeiioaiiy i?oeiino? i?e noeneo c?ace?a ?ici??ii 10o10o10 ni aaoiio,
yeee ciaoiaeeany i?ae ae??th aa?aneaiiai na?aaeiaeua a a?oe? , aei
i?oeiino? aaoiio i?ney 28-aeiaiaiai oaa?ae?iiy a ii?iaeueieo oiiaao: EN
=Rs /Ri .

Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a noeueoaoino?eeino? EN aaoii?a, iaiiaiaieo IIE,
iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 2.

Oaaeeoey 2

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue c?ace?a aaoiio neeaaeo 1:2:4 i?e A/Oe = 0,6 a
noeueoaoaa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu?

??

aeine?ae?aOa?aeoa?enoeea aaoiioEiioeaio?a- oe?y SI42-,a/eEiao?oe??io
noeueoaoino?eeino?oeaiaioi?nieEn28En3601

2na?aaeiuei-aethi?iaoiee c IIEAei?i?ianueeee

E?eai??cueeee1/5

1/50,84/0,82

0,98/0,840,97/0,95

1,18/0,951

2NNIOe

aac IIEAei?i?ianueeee

E?eai??cueeee1/5

1/50,93/0,86

0,92/0,870,90/0,88

0,91/0,891

2IOe

c IIEAei?i?ianueeee

E?eai??cueeee1/5

1/50,80/0,72

0,85/0,790,97/0,86

1,0/0,90

Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iei ? c?inoaiiy EN360 o ii??aiyii? ?c cia/aiiyi EN28 a
na?aaeiaeu? c SI42- a?ae 1,0 aei 5,0 a/e.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia iaoiaeai i?aeaeuaiiy
noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio c i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiei eiiieaenii, a oaeiae
iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo oa oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiiai
eiiieaeno.

Ia i?aenoaa? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii cia/ia
i?aeaeuaiiy aaee/ei E oa EN aaoii?a ia an?o aeaeao a,yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie.
Na?aaei?e ??aaiue cia/aiiy EN a ??/iee oa?i?i c aeiaeaoeii a IIE
10…50% i?e?iiaiiaithaa/a a?ae iane oeaiaioo aei??aith? 0,85…1,10
i?ioe 0,4…0,7 aeey aaoii?a ia cae/aeieo aai noeueoaoino?eeeo
oeaiaioao.

I?e oeueiio ne?ae a?aecia/eoe aeineoue iaea c?inoaiiy aaee/eie EN
aaoii?a ia noeueoaoino?eeiio oeaiaio? i?ioe aaoii?a ia
na?aaeiueiaethi?iaoieo oeaiaioao. Aeiaeaoie IIE aei aaoii?a i?aeaeuea ?o
noeueoaoino?ee?noue o 1,5…2,0 ?ace. I?aeaeuaiiy noeueoaoino?eeino?
oaeeo aaoii?a iiynith?oueny noiooi?i aieeaii o?ueio oaeoi??a:
iaoaii?o?ciii aethi?iaoieo oa aethiioa?eoieo oac, o?i?/iei ca’ycoaaiiyi
a?eueiiai aaiia aii?oeciaaieie /anoeaie eiiieaeno ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
a?ae?aoaoe?? oa iioei?coth/ei aieeaii oeeo i?ioean?a ia
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy aaoiio. I?e OAI aai oa?iiniiio aeo?eioaaii? aaoiiieo
c?ace?a aaee/eia ?o EN c iioeiaeueiith e?euee?noth IIE (aeecueei 20%)
ia?aaeuoaaea iaeeieoeth ? nyaaea cia/aiiy 1,1. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
ni?eyoeeaee aieea o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ae?? IIE ia iniiai? i?ioeane
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio ia cae/aeieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeiie/aiiy noeueoao?a a no?oeoo?? aaoii?a ?c ci?iiei
ai?noii IIE aeeiiaii ca iaoiaeii ?icaiaa?a O.?., yeee aaco?oueny ia
iecuee?e ?ic/eiiino? ANAE ? cia/ii a?eueo?e ?ic/eiiino? a?ino a
aaiiyiiio ?ic/ei?.

Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a EN ? e?eueeino? noeueoao?a, ia?a?aoiaaieo ia
SI42-, iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 3.

Oaaeeoey 3

Eiao?oe??ioe noeueoaoino?eeino? oa e?euee?noue noeueoao?a a aaoii?

??? iiAeae oeaiaiooEiioeaio?aoe?y noeueoao-?ii?a a na?aaeiaeu?,
a/eEiao?oe??io noeueoaoino?eeino? oa e?eueeino? noeueoao?a (%) o aaoii?
c IIE, %103050En6SO42-En6SO42-En6SO42-1na?aaeueiaethi?iao-iee1

50,9

0,80,7

1,21,1

1,01,2

1,70,8

0,71,6

2,12noeueoaoino?eeee1

50,9

1,01,0

1,60,9

1,01,3

2,00,8

0,81,9

2,43oeaeiii?o-eaiaeoeaiaio1

50,9

0,80,6

0,91,0

0,91,1

1,90,9

0,81,4

2,0Iieacaii oaeiae, ui iaeiie/aiiy noeueoao?a a aaoii? c IIE
niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao c?ace?a ia aeeaei? 7…12 ii,
a a cae/aeieo aaoiiao aiie ?iciianthaeaeoaaeenue ii an?e aeeaei? c?acea.
Oea oa?aeoa?ii iaa?oue aeey aaoii?a ia noeueoaoino?eeiio oeaiaio?
Aia?in??anueeiai caaiaeo. Oeae aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeaii oaeiae
?aioaaiioaciaei aiae?cii oeaiaioiiai eaiaith aaoii?a ia?aae ? i?ney ?o
aei?iaoaaiiy ia noeueoaoino?ee?noue.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co aeine?aeieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
i?ecia/aiiy oa iioei?caoe?? neeaae?a aaoiio c IIE, yea aeeiio?oueny o
aeaa aoaie. A ia?oiio cae/aeieie iaoiaeaie aecia/a?oueny neeaae aaoiio
aac aeiaeaoe?a, yeee iiaeiai caaeiaieueiyoe aeiiae c
eaaeioeeaaeaeueiino? aaoiiii? noi?o? ? ia?i/ii? i?oeiino? aaoiio. Ia
ae?oaiio aoai? aecia/a?oueny neeaae aaoiio c IIE ia iniia?
cai?iaeoiaaiiai neeaaeo aaoiio c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia ii aiaeii?iieeiaiino?
oa noeueoaoino?eeino?. Aecia/ai? iaiao?aei? aeiiae aei oeaiaioo,
cia/aiiy A/Oe, neeaaeiai? aeie? ae??aiiai caiiaithaa/a oa eiinenoaioe??
aaoiiii? noi?o?. Aecia/aia oaeiae iine?aeiai?noue i?ecia/aiiy neeaae?a
aaoiio c IIE.

Cia/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? ii iioei?caoe?? ?aaeeio aeaioiaeaiiy
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiiai eiiieaeno aeey noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio.

Aeniiaee

1. Aeine?aeaeaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? oa
aeiaaia?/iino? aaoiio ia cae/aeieo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao a noeueoaoino?eeeo
na?aaeiaeuao ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai eiiieaeniiai aeiaeaoeo
IIE, yeee neeaaea?oueny c i?ia?aeueii? noniaic?? ? i?aai?/iiai
iiaeeo?eaoi?a oa noeueoaoiiai ?ic/eio.

2. Anoaiiaeaii o?ceei-o?i?/iee iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? eiiiiiaio?a aaoiio c
IIE a i?ioean? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ieanoe/ii? aaoiiii? noi?o? oa
nooaeaa?eiai aaoiio.

3. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ii?oieia?y iiaiooai?aiue oeaiaioiiai eaiaith
noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio a?ae??ciy?oueny oaeeie ?enaie: ca’ycoaaiiyi
aethi?iaoii? oa aethiioa??oii? neeaaeiai? noeueoaoiei eiiiiiaioii IIE,
ia?aoai?aiiyi a?eueiiai Na(II)2 a iecueeiiniiai? a?ae?inee?eaoe
eaeueoe?th, a oaeiae ci?iith no?oeoo?e ii? oa u?eueiino? iaoa??aeo.

4. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy IIE, yea ia aeeeeea?
iacaaeia?eueii? ae?? i?aai?/iiai iiaeeo?eaoi?a ia i?ioeane a?ae?aoaoe??
oa no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy oeaiaioiiai o?noa ? eaiaith, ui caaacia/o?
io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueii u?eueii? no?oeoo?e.

5. Iiaoaeiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue noeueoaoino?eeino? iaoa??aeo a
aa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu? c ??cieie ia?aiao?aie eiioeaio?aoe?? noeueoao?a
oa oa?aeoa?enoeeaie neeaaeo aaoiio ? iioeieciaaiiith e?euee?noth IIE.

6. Aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino? aeeooc?? noeueoao-?ii?a a caoaa?ae?e?e
aaoiii?e nenoai?, yea i?noeoue IIE, oa aeiaaaeaii
aenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/ieie iaoiaeaie cia/ia cieaeaiiy aeeooc??
noeueoao-?ii?a a iiaeeo?eiaaio no?oeoo?o aaoiio ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy
noeueoaoiiai aa?’??o.

7. Aeine?aeaeaia caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa noeueoaoino?eeino? aaoiio ia
??cieo caiiaithaa/ao c IIE a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? noeueoao-?ii?a a
aa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Anoaiiaeaii ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa no?eeino?
iaiiaiaiiai aaoiio a 1,5…2,0 ?ace a ii??aiyii? c aaoiiii aac
aeiaeaoe?a.

8. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy oa iioei?caoe?? neeaae?a
noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio ia cae/aeieo na?aaeiueiaethi?iaoieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao c iioeiaeueiei neeaaeii IIE.

9. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy neeaaeo IIE a caeaaeiino? a?ae eeano
aaoiio oa iioei?caoe?? eiai aeaioiaeaiiy oeyoii i?ecia/aiiy niiniao ?
o?eaaeino? aa?aiooaaiiy neeaaeiaeo ia?aae ?o aaaaeaiiyi a aaoiiio noi?o.

10. Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia??
noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio ia cae/aeieo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao aaco?oueny ia
aeei?enoaii? oaoiiaaiieo i?iaeoeo?a i?iieneiaino?, cieaeaii? aeo?ao
oeaiaioo oa i?aeaeuaii? aeiaaia?/iino? aaoiio, yeee ia? aenieoaooaaoenue
a oiiaao aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu.

11. Aeine?aeii-i?ii?neiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
i?iaaaeaii ia E?eai??cueeiio i?aiaeiiio i?aei?e?inoa? “Iiiie?o”.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAI? O ?IAIOAO:

1. ?oaeaiei I.I., Eaaeie E.A. Aunieiyooaeoeaiue niinia iiaeeoeeaoeee
aaoiiiie niane e aaoiia // A?niee IAeAAoaA. — 1998. — ?3 – N.30-32.
(Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoiio c IIE oa
cai?iiiiiaai can?a iiaeeo?eaoe?? aaoiiii? noi?o?).

2. Eaaeie E.A. No?oeoo?iia?aciaaiea aaoiiia n i?aaii-ieia?aeueiui
eiiieaenii // A?niee IAeAAoaA. — 1999. — ?8 – N.20-25.

3. Eaaeie E.A. Noeueoaoino?ee?noue aaoii?a ia cae/aeieo oeaiaioao //
A?niee IAeAAoaA. — 1999. — ?11 – N.30-36.

4. Eaaeie E.A. I?iaiice?iaaiea yenieoaoaoeeiiiie noieeinoe aaoiiia
//?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a o?ainii?oiii e aeae?ioaoie/aneii
no?ieoaeuenoaa. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: A?o-I?ann.- 1997. — ?3. — N. 88-89.

5. Eaaeie E.A. Aeeyiea n?aaeu e ia?aiao?ia ninoaaa ia yenieoaoaoeeiiioth
noieeinoue aaoiia //?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a o?ainii?oiii e
aeae?ioaoie/aneii no?ieoaeuenoaa.- Aeiai?iiao?iane: A?o-I?ann.- 1997. —
?4. — N. 42-43.

6. Eaaeie E.A. I?i/iinoue e aeaoi?iaoeaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aaoiio n
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiui ieanoeoeeaoi?ii //?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a
o?ainii?oiii e aeae?ioaoie/aneii no?ieoaeuenoaa. — Aeiai?iiao?iane:
A?o-I?ann.- 1997. — ?4. — N. 62-63.

7. Eaaeie E.A. Aicaeaenoaea aa?anneaiie n?aaeu ia oaa?aeathuee
oeaiaioiue eaiaiue //?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a o?ainii?oiii e
aeae?ioaoie/aneii no?ieoaeuenoaa. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: A?o-I?ann.- 1998. —
?5. — N. 136-139.

Eaaeie E.A. Noeueoaoino?eeee aaoii ia cae/aeieo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao c
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiei eiiieaenii. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.05 — aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae. —
I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e,
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi iaea?aeaiiy aeiaaia?/iiai oa
aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoeaiiai noeueoaoino?eeiai aaoiio ia cae/aeieo
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao. Oaeee iaoa??ae io?eiaii oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy
aeiaeaoeo aei aaoiiii? noi?o? i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiiai eiiieaeno (IIE)
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae??. Ooai?aiee ca aeiiiiiaith aa?aiooaaiiy
oeaiiai? noeueoaoii? noniaic?? c i?aai?/iei ieanoeo?eaoi?ii IOI-AN
eiiieaen a?ae??ciy?oueny iniaeeaei aieeaii ia aaoiiio noi?o oa aaoii, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi eiai noeueoaoino?eeino? a 1,5…2,0
?ace, aeinyaath/e cia/aiiy EN=0,8…1,1. Oea iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe
ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue ae?ia?a o ii??aiyii? c aaoiiii ia noeueoaoino?eeiio
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio?.

Neia?a?ci ae?? IIE a aaoii? iiynith?oueny ii?aeiaiiyi ??cieo oaeoi??a:
iaoaii?o?ciii aethi?iaoieo oa aethiioa?eoieo oac oeaiaioo noeueoaoiei
eiiiiiaioii a ieanoe/i?e aaoiii?e noi?o?; o?i?/iei ca’ycoaaiiyi a?eueieo
a?ae?ieneae?a eaeueoe?th aii?oeciaaiith iiaa?oiath oeaiiaeo /anoie
e?aiiacaiiiai neeaaeo ia ?aii?o noaae?yo a?ae?aoaoe??; iioei?coth/ith
ae??th IIE ia i?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy aaoiio ?c cieaeaiith aeo?aoith
oeaiaioo (aei 20%), cieaeaiei cia/aiiyi A/Oe, u?euei?noth iaoa??aeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noeueoaoino?eeee aaoii, cae/aei? na?aaeiueiaethi?iaoi?
oeaiaioe, i?aaii-i?ia?aeueiee eiiieaen, aa?aiooaaiiy, oeaie, a?aeoiaee
i?iieneiaino?, ieanoeo?eaoi?e.

Eaaeie E.A. Noeueoaoinoieeee aaoii ia iau/iuo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao n
i?aaii-ieia?aeueiui eiiieaenii. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05 — no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey. —
I?eaeiai?ianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u,
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?ino iieo/aiey noeueoaoinoieeeo aaoiiia ia
iau/iuo ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioao ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey eiiieaeniie aeiaaaee
iieeooieoeeiiaeueiiai aeaenoaey. A ninoaa aeiaaaee aoiaeyo iueaaeaeiue
oeai eae iooiae ai?ii-iaiaaoeoaeueiuo eiiaeiaoia, aeeaeeay noeueoaoiay
oaca e i?aaie/aneee iiaeeoeeaoi? aaoiiiie niane (IOI-AN). Oaeie
i?aaii-ieia?aeueiue eiiieaen (IIE) ieacuaaao iieeooieoeeiiaeueiia
aeaenoaea ia aaoiiioth nianue e aaoii, ?acei iiauoay aai
noeueoaoinoieeinoue. Aeey n?aaiaiey aeaenoaey IIE ia iau/iua e
noeueoaoinoieeea oeaiaiou eo auai? aeey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee
oa?aeoa?ai aeey thaeiiai ?aaeiia Oe?aeiu. A ea/anoaa caiieieoaeae
eniieueciaaiu ianee e uaaaiue aeiai?ianeiai e e?eai?iaeneiai ?aaeiiia.
Enneaaeiaaiea no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey e noeueoaoinoieeinoe oeaiaioiiai
eaiiy e aaoiia i?iecaiaeeeinue ii noaiaea?oiui iaoiaeai, aeiiieiyaiui
niaoeeaeueiuie iiuoaie ii ii?aaeaeaieth eioaineaiinoe i?iieoeaaiinoe
aeeoooceiiiuo iioieia a caaeneiinoe io aeeyiey IIE e eiioeaio?aoeee
aa?anneaiie n?aaeu.

?ac?aaioea aaoiiia iiauoaiiie noeueoaoinoieeinoe ia iau/iuo
n?aaeiaaethieiaoiuo oeaiaioao (N3A8%) ieacaeanue aiciiaeiie aeaaiaea?y
iieeooieoeeiiaeueiiio aeaenoaeth IIE ia ii?oieiaeth iiaiia?aciaaiee e
oece/aneea i?ioeannu no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey aaoiia.

Iieacaii, /oi a ioee/ea io i?eiaiyaiuo noeueoaoinoieeeo oeaiaioia a
ni/aoaiee n oaoie/aneeie eeaiinoeueoiiaoaie aeaenoaea IIE a aaoiia
ioee/aaony eiiieaeniui aicaeaenoaeai eae ia oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa
aaoiiiie niane, oae e ia ?acaeoea i?ioeannia no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey e
oi?ie?iaaiea iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai ieia?aeiae/aneiai ninoaaa oeaiaioiuo
iiaiia?aciaaiee. Yoi iaania/eei cia/eoaeueiue neia?aeci aicaeaenoaey
o?aoeiiiiiaioiie niane IIE ia oeaiaioioth nenoaio.

Oeceei-oeie/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie aeeyiey ?acee/iuo ninoaaia
noeueoaoiie n?aaeu n niaea?aeaieai eiiia SO42- io 1 aei 20% a aeeaeeie
oaca onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ia?acoeao oeaiaioiiai eaiiy, iaoiaeeaoaainy a
oeacaiiuo n?aaeao, ionoonoaiaaee neaaeu noeueoaoia eee eo eiee/anoai
nieaeaeinue aei 5 ?ac. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaii ?aioaaiioaciaui aiaeecii,
AeOA e eio?ae?aniui niaeo?aeueiui aiaeecii. Aieaa oiai, aaaaeaiea IIE a
oeaiaioiua nenoaiu ieacaei iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia i?i/iinoiua
naienoaa iaoa?eaea e noaaeeecaoeeth aai i?i/iinoe ia i?ioyaeaiee
o?aoeaoiaai aic?anoa. N?aaeiee i?e?ino i?i/iinoe i?aauoae 15%.

Cia/eoaeueiue iauai enneaaeiaaiee iinayuai eco/aieth eciaiaiey
ii?oieiae/aneiai ninoaaa iiaiia?aciaaiee oeaiaioiiai eaiiy e aaoiia iiae
aeeyieai IIE. Iieacaii ia?aciaaiea a ieanoe/iuo nianyo N3ANSI19 , a
oaeaea yoo?eiaeoa. Oaaee/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee SO42- a aeeaeeie oaca
onei?yao ia?aciaaiea yoo?eiaeoa a ieanoe/iie aaoiiiie niane. Aiaeiae/iia
aeeyiea ieacuaaao IIE ia aethiioa??eoiua oacu oeaiaioa, ioee/athueany
aieueoae cae?enoaeeeciaaiiinoueth e ?acaeoeai e?enoaeeecaoeeiiiiai
aeaaeaiey a oaa?aeathueo nianyo. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e iiaeeoeeaoeee ii?iaiai
i?ino?ainoaa, cae?uoeth ii?, eo ia?aoiaeo a /aoi/ioth oi?io ni
nieaeaieai iauaia ii? ia 12…14%.

Oeaiiaue eiiiiiaio IIE n aii?oeciaaiiie iiaa?oiinoueth e?aiiacaia
aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaoao n aeae?ieneaeii eaeueoeey, ia?acoy
ieceiiniiaiua aeae?ineeeeaou N- S-I(I) a ioee/ea io aeae?ineeeeaoia
eaeueoeey N- S-I(II), aiaaouo ecaanoueth. Yoi aicaeaenoaea, naycuaay
naiaiaeiue Na(II)2, cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaaao noeueoaoinoieeinoue aaoiia
i?e ioiioaiee oeaiiaiai eiiiiiaioa e oeaiaioo a i?aaeaeao 0,2…0,3.
Iniaoth ?ieue a IIE ea?aao o?aoee eiiiiiaio — iieeooieoeeiiaeueiue
iiaeeoeeaoi? aaoiiiie niane, iaania/eaathuee nieaeaiea A/Oe i?e
caaeaiiie iiaeaeaeiinoe aaoiiiie niane, ia eiina?ae?othuee i?ioeannu
aeae?aoaoeee ayaeouaai. Yoi iaania/eaaaony niaoeeaeueiui niiniaii
i?eaioiaeaiey IIE, eiaaea aai eiiiiiaiou niaoeaathony iooai
aa?aioe?iaaiey aei aaaaeaiey a aaoiiioth nianue. I?e yoii i?iecaiaeeony
i?eaeaea aeeeiiioeaii/a/iuo eiiieaenia i?aaie/aneiai ieanoeoeeaoi?a ia
iee?i/anoeoeao oeaia. Oaeia eciaiaiea ninoaaa IIE niinianoaoao
aeae?aoaoeee ayaeouaai a ia/aeueiua n?iee no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey aaoiia,
iaania/eaay ?acaeoea “noeueoaoiiai aa?uea?a” ioaa?aeaaoaai iaoa?eaea.
Yoe iieiaeaiey aeieacaiu ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iuie, iee?ineiie/aneeie e
aeeoooceiiiuie enneaaeiaaieyie aaoiiiuo ia?acoeia a noeueoaoiuo n?aaeao
?acee/iie eiioeaio?aoeee io 1 aei 10 a/e. Iieacaii, /oi iiauoaiea
noeueoaoinoieeinoe aaoiia oaaee/eaaeinue a 1,5…2,0 ?aca, a
eiyooeoeeaio noeueoaoinoieeinoe EN aeinoeaae 0,8…1,1 a aiaee/iii
aic?anoa. Auea onoaiiaeaia noaaeeecaoeey i?i/iinoiuo e no?oeoo?iuo
oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai aaoiia aei o?aoeaoiaai ia?eiaea.

I?iaaaeaiiuie enneaaeiaaieyie ii ii?aaeaeaieth eiyooeoeeaioa E e EN
?ac?aaioaia oaoiieiaey iieo/aiey i?aaii-ieia?aeueiiai eiiieaena,
iai?aaeaiiay ia aaeni?aoeeth IOI-AN ia /anoeoeao e?aiiacaia aei
eniieueciaaiey a aaoiiiie niane, a oaeaea eiio?iea eiee/anoaa
iee?ie?aiiacaiiiai e noeueoaoiiai eiiiiiaioia a caaeneiinoe io aeaea
oeaiaioa e ninoaaa aaoiia. Iieo/aiiia ?aa?anneiiiia o?aaiaiea
noeueoaoinoieeinoe aaoiia iicaieyao i?iaiice?iaaoue aai i?eiaiaiea a
caaeneiinoe io iniiaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia. ?ac?aaioai oaeaea
iaoiae iacia/aiey e iioeiecaoeee ninoaaa aaoiia n IIE i?e caaeaiiie
ia?i/iie i?i/iinoe e o?aaoaiie noeueoaoinoieeinoe. Ia iniiaa auiieiaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee ecaioiaeaii aieaa 1 oun.i3 ecaeaeee iiauoaiiie
noeueoaoinoieeinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noeueoaoinoieeee aaoii, iau/iua n?aaeiaaethieiaoiua
oeaiaiou, i?aaii-ieia?aeueiue eiiieaen, aa?aioe?iaaiea, oeaiu, iooiaeu
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ieanoeoeeaoi?u.

Kadol L.V. Sulphate resistant concrete on standard portlandcements with
organo-mineral composition. — Manuscript.

The dissertation for the scientific degree of the Candidate of Technical
Sciences on a Speciality 05.23.05 — Building materials and products —
Pridnieprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture.

The dissertation deals with the question of obtaining the durable and
economically effective from the economical point of view
sulphate-resistant concrete based on the standard portlandcements. Such
material was obtained by means of adding the organic and mineral complex
of the three-compound composition and polyfunctional action to concrete
mix. The complex produced by means of bubbling of shlam sulphate
suspension with organic plasticizer differently influences on the
concrete mix and concrete and this rises the sulphateresistance of
concrete in 1,5…2,0 times, up to 0,8…1,1. It can help to rise the
corrosion resistance of parts in comparison with the concrete based on
the sulphate resistant portlandcement.

Synergism of organic and mineral complex action in concrete can be
explained by means of the unity of different factors; by the
metamorphism of the aluminate and aluminoferrite phases of cement; by
the sulphate component in the gielding concrete mix; by the chemical
bond of the free calcium hydroxide by the silicic composition sludge
particles amorphous area on the initial hydration stage; by the
optimization organic and mineral complex action on the structure forming
concrete processes with the reduced concrete consumption (up the 20%),
the reduced value and increased material density.

Key words: sulphate-resistant concrete, standard middlealluminate
cements, organic and mineral complex, bubbling, sludge, industrial
wastes, plasticizers.

Caeaii aei iaai?o 21.12.99. I?aei. aei ae?oeo 22.12.99. Oi?iao

60o90/16 Ae?oe. ”Ie?a” Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 0,6 Oe?aae 100 i?. Cai.966

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