2

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEA IAAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss I?NEssAeEIEIIII? INA?OE ?i.I.E.Ooieea

AIEOAIAE* Iao?i Eaii?aeiae/

OAeE 340.624.2:340.661:340.68:578.087.1:611.717.5/6-071.3

NOAeIAI–IAAeE*IA ?AeAIOEO?EAOe?ss INIAE

CA NIAEAIEIE E?NOEAIE AII?EEE

14.I1.25 — noaeiaa iaaeeoeeia

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ooiee TH??e
Ieaoiiiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith noaeiai? iaaeeoeeie Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe Oeeei/oe Ieaa Aieiaeeie?iae/, caa?aeoaa/
iaaeeei-e?ei?iae?noe/iiai a?aeae?eo Aieiaiiai ath?i noaeiai-iaaee/ii?
aenia?oece

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe Oaa/oe Aaaeei Aa?aaiiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
noaeiai? iaaeeoeeie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24.09.99 ?ieo i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.613.03 i?e Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea, ca aae?anith: 254112,
i.Ee?a, aoe.Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, aoae.9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea ca aae?anith: 254112,
i.Ee?a, aoe.Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, aoae.9.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “23”08 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiae.iaae.iaoe, aeioeaio
A.A.Ao?/einueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

O noaeiai-iaaee/iiio iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii? niaeaieo e?noeiaeo
caeeoe?a o?aaeeoe?eii iaea?eueoa oaaae i?eae?eyeiny aeiaaei o?oa/anoei
e?noeai. Na?aae inoaii?o iaee?aua aea/aieie ? iea/ia? oa noaaiia?
e?noee. Cie?aia, I.I.No??eaoeue (1972) cai?iiiioaaa iaoiaeeeo
anoaiia-eaiiy aeaeiai? iaeaaeiino? ciee oeeo e?noie n??iai
?icaea?thaaiiy. A.?.Aaoiaoue?a (1977) cai?iaaaeea iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy
a?eo caaeaei? ethaeeie ca e?euee?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ??cieo oi?i
inoaiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, ui i?ae?aoiaothoueny ia ieiu? 1ii2 ia iiia?a/ieo
c??cao aai oe?oao ae?ao?c?a oeacaieo e?noie, niaeaieo aei /i?iiai /e
n??iai ?icaea?thaaiiy. E.E.Aieoaiae/ (1978-1991) oaeineiiaeea iaoiaeeeo
I.I.No??eueoey oaeei /eiii, ui aiia aea? iiaeeea?noue a??ia?aeii
aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe cieo e?noie ethaeeie ? iaea?eueo iioe?aieo ia Oe?a?i?
na?enueeeo oaa?ei ca ?ici??aie e?noeiaeo eaeoi oa ?o e?euee?noth ia
iaeeieoe? ieiu?. E??i oiai, aaoi? ?ic?iaea eiiieaenio iaoiaeeeo
aeine?aeaeaiiy iea/iai? ? noaaiiai? e?noie i?e ??cieo nooiaiyo
?icaea?thaaiiy, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue ae??ooaaoe ieceo ieoaiue, ui
caaaeaee oe?eaaeyoue ne?ae/? i?aaie, a naia: i?i noaoaao iaeaaei?noue,
c??no oa a?e caaeaei? ethaeeie.

E??i aeine?aeaeaiiy noaaiiai? oa iea/iai? e?noie, cai?iiiiiaaia
eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iniae ca ie?aieie /e iaa?oue
o?aaiaioiaaieie e?noeaie /a?aia (A.I.Cayaei,1981). Ca oaa?aeaeaiiyi
aaoi?a, iaoiaeeea iiaea canoiniaoaaoeny oaeiae i?e aeine?aeaeaii? e?noie
/i?iiai oa n??iai ?icaea?thaaiiy.

?yae aaoi??a i?aee?aneth? no?ee?noue aei ae?? aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e e
?ioeo e?noie neaeaoa – e?noie /a?aia, aeiaaeo, ei?ioeeo o?oa/anoeo,
ieineeo ? iaa?oue aoa/anoeo e?noie (Dokladal M., 1963 – 1970;
E.E.Aieo-aiae/, 1991). Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, iaa?oue oae? ianeai? e?noee,
ye aaeeea e iaea aii?eeia?, caeeoathoueny ia aea/aieie.

Aei 1991 ?ieo aoei iaiao?aeiei ioiieaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiyi yeiiiaa
a?eueoi? oa?eoi???, cia/ii? e?eueeino? iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, a oi e ??cieo
?an. Oea i?ecaaei aei a?aenooiino? eiie?aoieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a
noinoaaeeny aeeeth/ii oa?eoi??? e aeeoae?a Oe?a?ie, oi/a iio?aaa a
oeueiio aacia?a/-

ii ?.Aeoiaey/e c aeua aeeeaaeaiiai, aeine?aeaeaiiy ua ia aea/aieo
niaeaieo e?noie aii?eee c iaoith ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iniae ? nai?/aniei ?
aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi noaeiai-iaaee/ii? inoaieia??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie,ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeeiiaia ?iaioa ? /anoeiith oaie “?aeaioeo?eaoe?y iniae ca niaeaieie
e?noeaie”, ui aeeiio?oueny o Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio ia-aee/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ia eaoaae?? noaeiai? iaaeeoeeie (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??:
0197U001359).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe.

Ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaea?aeaoe iaa?oioiaai? e?eoa???
noaeiai-iaaee/iiai ioioiaeiaiiy iniae ca o?aaiaioaie aaeeei? oa iaei?
aii?eeiaeo e?noie ??ciiai nooiaiy ?icaea?thaaiiy.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa iio?aaoaaea ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue.

1.Aea/eoe oa?aeoa? oa iniaeeaino? ci?ie e?noie aii?eee a caeaae-iino?
a?ae oiia niaeaiiy oa iniaenoeo oa?aeoa?enoee e?noeiai? oeaieie.

2.Ciaeoe e?eoa??? aeaeiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? e?noie aii?eee ??ciiai
nooiaiy ?icaea?thaaiiy ? o?aaiaioaoe??.

3.Io?eiaoe a??ia?aei? e?eoa??? noaoaai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? o?aaiaio?a
niaeaieo e?noie n??iai (/i?iiai) ? a?eiai nooiai?a ?icaea?thaaiiy.

4.Ia iniia? /eneiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee o?aaiaio?a aeaanoe iaoaia-oe/io
oi?ioeo aeey ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea caaeaei? ethaeeie.

5.Aea/eoe iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeaiiy iioiaeaeaiiy aii?eeiaeo e?noie a?ae
eiie?aoii? ethaeeie.

6.?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey canoinoaaiiy a
noaeiai-iaaee/i?e aenia?oi?e i?aeoeoe?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Oia?oa a noaeia?e iaaeeoeei? canoiniaaiee eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei
aea/aiiy niaeaieo e?noie aii?eee. Iaoa??aeii iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
neoaoaaee e?noee neaeao?a caaeaeeo ethaeae ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, aea
oaeeo, ui i?iaeeaaee aeeeth/ii a Oe?a?i?. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue
aeei-?enoiaoaaoe io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ia oa?eoi??? an??? e?a?ie.

A aenia?eiaioao ia aeinoaoiueiio iaoa??ae? aea/ai? iniaeeaino? e
caeiiii??iino? ci?i e?noeiai? oeaieie ??cieo a?aeae?e?a aaeeei? oa iaei?
aii?eeiaeo e?noie i?ae ae??th ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ieo ?aaeei?a ? oiia
niaeaiiy.

?c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiiy e iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaii a??ia?aei? e?eoa???
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iniae ca oe?eeie e?noeaie, o?aaiaioaie /i?iiai, n??iai,
a?eiai ?icaea?thaaiiy e cieith. Oe? e?eoa??? caniiaai? ia iiaeeeainoyo:

a) a??ia?aeii? aeaeiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? e?noeiai? oeaieie ??ciiai

nooiaiy ?icaea?thaaiiy oa o?aaiaioaoe?? (a?ae aaeeeeo o?aaiaio?a aei
aeania ciee);

a) anoaiiaeaiiy noaoaai? iaeaaeiino? e?noie ca e?i?eieie /enei-aeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie o?aaiaioiaaieo e?noie;

a) ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea ca o?aaiaioaie e?noie i?e a?aeii?e oa ia
anoaiiaeai?e noaoaa?e iaeaaeiino?;

a) aeyaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eo iciae e?noie iniae.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aea/aiiy ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?noie ??ciiai nooiaiy ?icaea?thaaiiy (/i?ia, n??a, a?ea,
ci?-oaia) oa o?aaiaioaoe?? (aaeeeeo o?aaiaio?a, iaeeo oeaie?a, aeania
ciee).

Io?eiai? e ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aei aeei?enoaiiy o noaeiai-iaaee/-i?e
aenia?oi?e i?aeoeoe?:

1) a??ia?aei? iciaee, oaaeeoe? oa a?ao?ee aeey aeaeiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
e?noeiai? oeaieie;

2) a?ao?ee e oaaeeoe? i’yoe?ioa?aaeueii? ioe?iee aeey anoaiiaeaiiy
noaoaai? iaeaaeiino? ca o?aaiaioaie e oeaieaie aaeeei? ? iaei?
aii?eeiaeo e?noie n??iai (/i?iiai) ? a?eiai ?icaea?thaaiiy;

3) ??aiyiiy ia?ii? ?aa?an?? aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea caaeaei?
ethaeeie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aeei?enoai? o i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe iaoiaeeee, io?eiai? ?a-coeueoaoe
? neeaaeaiee aeai?eoi aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ecia/ai? aeey canoinoaaiiy ?o o
i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? iaaeeei-e?ei?iae?noe/ieo a?aeae?eaiue iaeanieo ath?i
oa iaeiieiaiiiai a?aeae?eo Aieiaiiai ath?i noaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?-oece
Oe?a?ie. Aiie aeathoue iiaeeea?noue:

1. Iine?aeiaii aeeiioaaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, on?eyei caa??aath/e iaoa-??ae
? ae??ooth/e iaeneioi iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue.

2. Anoaiiaethaaoe aeaeiao iaeaaei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo e?noie:

a) ca aaeeeeie o?aaiaioaie, iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy ?icaea-?thaaiiy,
aeei?enoiaoth/e aiaoiii-ii?oieia?/i? iciaee, ui caa?aaeeny;

a) ca oeaieaie ae?ao?c?a n??iai /e a?eiai ?icaea?thaaiiy, a?aoiaoth/e
iniaeeaino? i?e?ineii?/ii? aoaeiae ia iiia?a/ieo oe?oao-aeieao;

a) ca e?noeiaith cieith n??iai (/i?iiai) ?icaea?thaaiiy, ei?enooth-/enue
ae?aaiinoe/ieie a?ao?eaie ? oaaeeoeyie.

3.O ?ac? iioiaeaeaiiy e?noie a?ae neaeao?a ethaeeie ca e?i?eieie
/eneiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie o?aaiaio?a /e oeaie?a iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy
?icaea?thaaiiy, ?ica’ycothoueny oae? ieoaiiy:

a) anoaiiaeth?oueny ?o noaoaaa iaeaaei?noue, nie?ath/enue ia iiaoaeiaai?
oaaeeoe? ? a?ao?ee;

a) ia/eneth?oueny aeiaaeeia o?ea caaeaei? ethaeeie, aeei?enoiaoth/e
??aiyiiy ia?ii? ?aa?an??;

a) aeyaeythoueny iniaeea? ci?ie e?noie (noa?? ia?aeiie, aeaoaeoe
?icaeoeo, niaoeeo?/i? caoai?thaaiiy, iia?/i? i?aaeiaoe), ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iniae.

Canoinoaaiiy aeai?eoio aeine?aeaeaiiy cia/ii nei?i/o? oa?i?i aeeiiaiiy
noaeiai-iaaeeei-e?ei?iae?noe/ieo aenia?oec niaeaieo e?noei-aeo caeeoe?a.
Aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ni?ey? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iniae e aaaea
aei ?ice?eooy cei/ei?a i?ioe aeeooy ethaeeie.

Iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy, cai?iaaaeaeai? aaoi?ii, aei?iaoaai? o “ne?ieo”
aeine?aeao, i?ney /iai canoiniaoaaeeny i?e aeeiiaii? eiie?aoieo
noaeiai-iaaee/ieo aenia?oec ca niaeaieie e?noeiaeie caeeoeaie. I?e
oeueiio iaea?aeaii iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aoee i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
ne?ae/eie ae?yie.

Aeeiiaiiy i?aeoe/ieo noaeiai-iaaeeei-e?ei?iae?noe/ieo aenia?-oec
i?iaiaeeeiny o Caii??cueeiio, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio iaeanieo oa o
Aieiaiiio ath?i noaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?oece.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o aeineoue iiaiiio aea/aii? niaeaieo
e?noie aii?eee, ui aei iueiai ia i?iaiaeeeiny, e io?eiaii? a??i-a?aeieo
e?eoa???a, ye? aeicaieythoue ioioiaeithaaoe iniao ia ??ai? a?oiiaeo, a
?iiae? e ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eo iciae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoiaee/ieo ia?aaeao ?
can?aeaiiyo oiaa?enoaa noaeiai-iaaee/ieo aenia?o?a oa e?ei?-iae?no?a
Caii??cueei? iaeano? (1994-1999), ia i?aeiaeani?e eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 50-??//th Caii??cueeiai iaeaniiai ath?i noaeiai-iaaee/ii?
aenia?oece, ia i?aeaoc?anuee?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a
(i.Caii??aeaey,1995) ? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 100-??//th c aeiy
ia?iae-aeaiiy i?ioani?a TH.N.Naiiaeieeiaa (i.Ee?a, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo
eii-oa?aioe?e (Caii??aeaey, 1996; Ee?a, 1997) oa a aeo?iae?
«Noaeiai-iaaee/iee a?niee Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a, 1997, 1999). Onueiai
iioae?eiaaii n?i ?ia?o.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Aeai?eoi aea/aiiy niaeaieo e?noie aii?eee c iaoith ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
iniae, eio?ee ?aaeaiaioo? ianya aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiaee oa
iine?aeiai?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy niaeaiiy ?
o?aaiaioaoe?? e?noie.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? ci?i e?noeiai? oeaieie, ui
niinoa??aathoueny i?e niaeaii? ? caeaaeaoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e, oa?i?io
niaeaiiy, a oaeiae a?ae oeio e?noeiai? oeaieie (eiiiaeoia, aoa/anoa), ??
ianeaiino?, a?ae a?eo caaeaei? ethaeeie ? o.ae.

Eiiieaen iaoiaeee ? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c aaeeeith i??ith iaaiino?
ioioiaeithaaoe iniao ca niaeaieie e?noeaie aii?eee ia an?e oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie. Aeaeiaa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y i?iaiaeeoueny iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy
?icaea?thaaiiy oa o?aaiaioaoe??. Noaoaaa iaeaaei?noue anoaiia-eth?oueny
o 54-98% aeiaaee?a, o caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? aeei?enoaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ? nooiaiy ?icaea?thaaiiy e?noie. Aeiaaeeia o?ea
ia/eneth?oueny c a?aeoeeaiiyi a?ae ae?enii? ia 7,19–11,64ni.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieno
iaoa??aeo e iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, 7 ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaaiai-?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

?iaioa aeeeaaeaia oe?a?inueeith iiaith, ia 142 noi??ieao oaenoo,
?ethno?iaaia 14 ?enoieaie, 34 oaaeeoeyie, 9 a?ao?eaie. Nienie
e?oa-?aoo?e ioiieth? 179 aeaea?ae, c ieo oe?a?inueeith ? ?in?enueeith
iiaaie – 122, ?iicaiieie iiaaie – 57.

IAOA??AE ? IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaee 410 aaeeeeo ? iaeeo aii?eeiaeo
e?noie neaeao?a ethaeae, ?a?iiai?ae?a 16 iaoe?iiaeueiinoae ?
ia?iaeiinoae, ui i?iaeeaaee ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, oa 120 iaeiieiaiieo
e?noie iaea?eueo iioe?aieo na?enueeeo oaa?ei (ei?iae, naei?, a?aoe?).

E?noee caae?aeeny a?ae 102 caaeaeeo ae?iie oa 103 /ieia?e?a a?eii a?ae
20 aei 91 ?ieo. Ieaeiy a?eiaa iaaea iaoiiaethaaeany c?iuaiiyi ai?o?c?a
e?noie c ae?ao?caie. E?noee caae?aeeny ??aiii??ii o aeanyoe??/ieo
?ioa?aaeao ? a ?ioa?aaeao aeiaaeeie o?ea a?ae 146 aei 175ni – ae?ii/i?
noao? oa a?ae 150 aei 184 – /ieia?/i? noao?.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aanue iaoa??ae aoei ?icae?eaii ia
i’youe na??e. O ia?oo na??th aa?eoei 410 aeua iacaaieo e?noie neaeao?a
ethaeae, a a ae?oao – 120 e?noie oaa?ei. O?aoy na??y neeaaeaeany c? 180
c?ace?a aa?oiuei?, na?aaeiuei? e ieaeiuei? o?aoei ae?ao?c?a e?aeo
aii?eeiaeo e?noie ethaeeie ? 60 c?ace?a e?noie oaa?ei, o aeaeyae? aeie?a
aeiaaeeiith 2ni. O /aoaa?oo na??th aa?eoei 110 c?ace?a aeania ciee
e?noie n??iai ?icaea?thaaiiy ethaeeie ? 30 c?ace?a ciee e?noie oaa?ei.
Aei i’yoi? na??? aeeth/aii 19 e?noie ethaeae, ui iaee i?eaeeoo?a?
oai?iaeea? ci?ie /e o?aaiaoe/i? ci?ie e?noie.Onueiai aea/aii 929
ia’?eo?a.

Iaa?aiee e?noeiaee iaoa??ae neaeao?a ethaeae niaethaaany o aaaaooyo ia
ci?oaieo ae?iaao (20%) oa o iooaeuei?e ia/? I?-2OI (80%) i?e oaiia?aoo??
450°N ? 950°+20°N. *anoeia oeeo e?noie iine?aeiaii niaethaaeany i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 500°, 600°, 700°, 800°, 900° ? 1000°N. Oai-ia?aoo?a 450°N
i?ioyaii iaei??? aiaeeie caaacia/oaaea niaeaiiy aei ??aiii??iiai n??iai
?icaea?thaaiiy, a i?e 950°N – a?ea ?icaea?thaaiiy e oe?eeiaeoo onaaeeo
e?noeiai? oeaieie. 10% e?noie niaethaaeeny c i’yeeie oeaieiaie. O
i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??aeo canoiniaoaaeeny oae? iaoiaee.

Inoaineii?y – ni?yiiaaia ia aeyaeaiiy ci?i e?noeiai? oeaieie aiane?aeie
niaeaiiy a ??cieo aiaieuao i?e caaeaieo oaiia?aoo?ieo ?aaeeiao ?
oa?i?iao ai??iiy, a oaeiae aeey aeyaeaiiy aiaoiii-ii?oieia?/ieo iciae
aeaeiai? iaeaaeiino?, ye? caa?aaeeny i?ney niaeaiiy e?noie na??e 1 ? 2.

Inoaiiao??y – canoiniaoaaeany aeey aecia/aiiy nooiaiy onaaeee ??cieo
a?aeae?e?a e?noie na??? 1 ii??aiyeueiei iiaoaiiei aei??thaaiiyi oa aeey
/eneiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ie?aieo iciae, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey
aecia/aiiy noao? oa ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea. Aeey ii??aiyiiy aaeeea
aii?eeiaa e?noea ii aeiaaeei? aoea ?icae?eaia ia a?n?i, a iaea aii?eeiaa
– ia i’youe o?aaiaio?a. O?aaiaioe aaeeei? aii?eeiai? e?noee iaee oae?
iaae?: ?- i?ae aa?oiueith oi/eith iaae?aeueiiai i?aeae?inoeiaiai
ai?aea(1) ? aa?oiueith oi/eith iaae?aeueiiai ae?inoea(2); ??- i?ae
oi/eith 2 ? aa?oiueith oi/eith ai?aenoino? ii ia?aaei?e iiaa?oi?(3);
???- i?ae oi/eith 3 ? oi/eith ai?aenoino? , ui iaea?eueo aenooia?
aia?aae(4); ?V- i?ae oi/eith 4 ? ieaei?i e?a?i ai?aenoino? ; V- i?ae
oi/eith 5 ? ieaei?i e?a?i aeeaeeueiiai ioai?o ii caaei?e iiaa?oi?(6);
V?- i?ae oi/eith 6 ? oi/eith ia?aoiaeo ia?aaeiueiai a?aaaiy ia
iaae?aeueio iiaa?oith(7); V??- i?ae oi/eith 7 ? aa?oi?i e?a?i noaeiaiai?
ae??cee ii eaoa?aeuei?e iiaa?oi?(8); V???- i?ae oi/eith 8 ?
iaea?aeaeaeai?oith oi/eith iaae?aeueii? ueeieioee(9). Ia iae?e
aii?eeia?e e?nooe?: ?- i?ae aa?oiueith oi/eith aie?aee(1) ? ieaeiueith
oi/eith i?aee?noeiai? ai?aenoino? aa?oiueiai e?ioey ae?ao?ca ii
iaae?aeuei?e iiaa?oi?(2); ??- i?ae oi/eith 2 ? ieaei?i e?a?i
aeeaeeueiiai ioai?o ii iaae?aeuei?e iiaa?oi?(3); ???- i?ae oi/eith 3 ?
aa?oi?i e?ioeai ai?aenoino? ieaeiueiai e?ioey ae?ao?ca ii iaae?aeuei?e
iiaa?oi?(4); ?V- i?ae oi/eith 4 ? aa?oi?i e?a?i noaeiaiai? iiaa?oi?
eaoa?aeueii? ueeieioee(5); V- i?ae oi/eith 5 ? ieaeiueith oi/eith
ueeieioee(6).

I?e?iinoaineii?y – aeei?enoaia aeey aeyaeaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo? ? ?o
eiiieaen?a, i?eoaiaiieo e?noeai ethaeeie aai oaa?ei, a oaeiae aeey
aeyaeaiiy oai?iaeeaeo ci?i ? ?ioeo iniaeeainoae e?noeiai? oeaieie
ethaeae. Aeey oeueiai ia ae??aiica?ienoiio aa?aceaiiio eaiai?
caoe?-oiaoaaeeny aea? iiia?a/i? oa aea? iiaeiaaei? iiaa?oi? ?icieeyieo
iaai?e ii naa?oaeuei?e e?i?? aeie?a na??? 3. Iio?i caoe?oiaai? iiaa?oi?
iie?eaaeeny ?ic/eiii iie?noe?ieo a oieoie? aeey i?ina?oeaiiy
i?e?ino?oeoo?. I?aia-?aoe aea/aeeny i?ae noa?aii?e?ineiiii IAN-9 i?e
ca?eueoaii? o 28-56 ?ac?a. C?acee na??? 4 ?icoe?aeeny i?ae aeaiia
i?aaeiaoieie noaeeaie aei ii?ioeiiiae?aiiai noaio, i?ina?oethaaeeny
?ic/eiii iie?noe?ieo a oieoie? e aea/aeeny o na?oe?, ui i?ioiaeeoue,
i?ae i?e?ineiiii IA?-1A i?e ca?eueoaii? o 300 ?ac?a.

I?e?iii?oiiao??y – aei??thaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith ieoey?iiai i?e?iiao?a
IIA-1-15O i?e?ino?oeoo? (aeiaaeeie ? oe?eie e?noeiaeo eaeoi, oe?eie
aaaa?niaeo eaiae?a, i?ae?aooiie e?eueeino? e?noeiaeo eaeoi ia iaeeieoe?
ieiu?) aeey aeaeiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? e?noeiai? oeaieie na??? 4.

Iaoaiaoe/iee iaoiae – canoiniaaiee aeey ia?iaee io?eiaiiai /eneiaiai
iaoa??aeo. Aeey aea/aiiy aeaeiai? ? noaoaai? iaeaaeiino? i?iaa-aeaii
noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo iaoa??aeo, i’yoe?ioa?aaeueio ioe?ieo aeaieo.
Io?eiaii oi?ioeo ? iaoaiaoe/i? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a, ia iniia? yeeo
neeaaeaii 102 ?aa?an?ei? ??aiyiiy aeey ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea ca
ie?aieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e?noie i?e anoaiiaeai?e aai iaa?aeii?e
noaoaa?e iaeaaeiino?.

Iaeaaeiaiiy: ?inoii??, ooaoea aeey aei??thaaiiy e?noie (aeioea A?iea),
ooaiaaioee?eoeue, aio/ea iaoaeaaa no??/ea aeey aei??thaaiiy ie?aieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, noa?aii?e?ineii IAN-9, a?ieia?/iee i?e?ineii IA?-1A,
ieoey?iee i?e?iiao? IIA-1-15O, iooaeueia i?/ I?-2OI, eiaiiao? I?U c
o?iiaeue-eaiaeaaeie oa?iiia?aie aeey aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e niaeaiiy.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Caeiiii??iino? ci?i aii?eeiaeo e?noie i?ae ae??th aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e.

I?e niaeaii? e?noie caeiiii??iei ? ?o ?oeioaaiiy (a?ae ooai?aiiy aaeeeeo
o?aaiaio?a aei aeania ciee), aeaoi?iaoe?y oa ciaioaiiy ?ici???a
(onaaeea). ?oeioaaiiy ii/eia?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?? 300-350°N, oiaoi i?e
/i?iiio ?icaea?thaaii? e?noee, ? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ioyaii onueiai
niaeaiiy. Aeyaey?oueny aiii o a?aeuaieaii? /anoie e?noie, ooai?aii?
iiaa?oiaaeo oa iane??cieo ?iceieei ? a?aeae?eaii? aeineoue aaeeeeo
oeaie?a. Iaea?eueoith i??ith ?oeioaaiith ni?ey? ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo?, ui
ae?thoue ii aeiaaeei? iaei??? e?noee, oiio o aaaaooyo e?noee
?oeiothoueny a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae o iooaeuei?e ia/?. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae niaeaiiyi c i’yeeie oeaieiaie, ai
o?aaiaioaoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iaae? e?noee, i?ee?eoi? i’yeeie
oeaieiaie, oa a?eueiith a?ae ieo. I?e iiaeaeueoiio niaeaii? aei n??iai
(400-680°N) oa a?eiai (680-950°N) ?icaea?thaaiiy ?oeioaaiiy e?noie
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny.

Aeaoi?iaoe?y e onaaeea e?noeiai? oeaieie ii/eia?oueny i?ney 700°N ?
ia?inoa? aei 900-950°N. Oeei yaeuai ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ?
oa?i?i niaeaiiy. Aeaoi?iaoe?y iaoiiaeaia ?ici’yeoaiiyi i?ia?aeueii?
/anoeie e?noie, oiane?aeie /iai ianooia? ?o aee?eaeaiiy. Ai?o?ce e?noie
aeaoi?iaoe?? iaeaea ia i?aeaeathoueny. Aeey oe?eeiaeoi? onaaeee i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 950°N iio??aii ia iaioa iaei??? aiaeeie. ??ci? a?aeae?ee
e?noie onaaeaeothoueny ii-??ciiio. Iaea?eueoith i??ith ciaioothoueny
ai?o?ce (aei 22,05%), a iaeiaioith – ae?ao?ce (aei 13,48%).

Anoaiiaeaiiy iioiaeaeaiiy e?noie a?ae neaeao?a ethaeeie /e oaa?eie.

Iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?a?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy
o?aaiaioaoe?? e?noie. Cia/i? ca ?ici??aie oeaiee aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny
ii??aiyeueii-aiaoii?/iei iaoiaeii. Aa?oi? ai?o?ce aaeeeiaii?eeiaeo
e?n-oie oaa?ei, ia a?aei?io a?ae ethaenueeeo, ii ia?aaei?o iiaa?oiyo
iathoue ae??c-eo aeey nooiaeeeea ? ia iathoue ia eaoa?aeueiiio aioe?
noaeiaiai? iiaa?oi? aeey c/eaioaaiiy c aie?aeith iaei? aii?eeiai?
e?noee. Ieaei?e ai?o?c oe??? e?noee o oaa?ei ia ia? iaae?aeueii?
ueeieioee ? ae??cee aeey c’?aeiaiiy c iaeith aii?eeiaith e?noeith. Ui
noino?oueny ae?ao?c?a, oi iaa?oue aaeee? ?o o?aaiaioe aeioe?eueii
aeine?aeaeoaaoe i?e?ineii?/iei iaoiaeii, uia ia i?eionoeoeny iiieeee.
Iiaa ia eaea i?i aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th iaeeo aii?eeiaeo e?noie, ai o oaa?ei
aiie ?oaeeiaioa?i?, aa?oi?e e?iaoeue ?o ieineee, a ieaei?e –
aieeiiiae?aii caaino?aiee ? ia nyaa? ieaeiueiai ai?o?co.

I?e?ineii?/iee iaoiae o a?aeaeoiio na?oe? canoiniao?oueny aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy oeaie?a ae?ao?c?a. E?noee ethaeae a?aecia/athoueny
/eneaiieie ia?aaoaeiaaie aoi?eiieo inoaii?a c ooai?aiiyi
iaoa?einueei-aei/??i?o eiino?oeoe?e 3-4 ? a?eueoa aaia?aoe?e, iaeaea
iiaiith a?aenooi?noth ia?aei-ieo oeee?iae?e/ieo ? n?oeiiiae?aieo
inoaii?a, a?aenooi?noth eaeoia?ieo inoaii?a o aiaeinoaeueiiai e?ath.
Aeey e?noie oaa?ei i?eoaiaiia ana ia?a-?aoiaaia, ui ia oa?aeoa?ia aeey
ethaeae, ? iniaeeai – aaeee? ae?eyiee n?oei-iiae?aieo inoaii?a.

I?e?ineii?y o i?io?aeiiio na?oe? canoiniao?oueny i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ciee
e?noie n??iai ?icaea?thaaiiy. O cie? a?aeooeoaaee /anoee ieanoei/anoi?
e?noeiai? oeaieie, i?ina?oeai? ?ic/eiii iie?noe?ieo a oieoie? ? ca
aeiiiiiaith ieoey?iiai i?e?iiao?a aei??thaaee aeiaaeeio, oe?eio 100
e?noeiaeo eaeoi eiaeiiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea ? i?ae?aoiaoaaee ?o
e?euee?noue ia ieiu? 10000iei2. *eneiaee iaoa??ae ioe?ithaaany iaoiaeii
i’yoe?ioa?aaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee c iiaoaeiaith a?ao?e?a ?iciiae?eaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee ? neeaaeaiiyi oaaeeoeue. I?eeeaaee i’yoe?ioa?aaeueii?
ioe?iee iaaaaeai? a oaae. 1,2,3. I?e canoinoaaii? i?e?iii?oiiao?e/iiai
iaoiaeo ii cie? o?eueee i?e aei??thaaii? eaeoi ae?aaiinoeea aeaeiai?
iaeaaeiino? aaea?oueny o 84-90%. Canoinoaaiiy ua e i?ae?aooieo
e?eueeino? eaeoi i?aeaeuo? a??ia?aei?noue ae?aaiinoeee aei 95-98%.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aecia/aiiy aeaeiai? iaeaaeiino? e?noeiai? oeaieie

ii aeiaaeei? e?noeiaeo eaeoi

E?noea oaa?eieAeaeiaa iaeaaei?noue ia aecia/aiaE?noea
ethaeeieiaiaaiieiia??iieiia??iiiaiaaii< 18,018,0 – 22,022,1 – 26,326,4 – 30,0> 30,0

Oaaeeoey 2

Aecia/aiiy aeaeiai? iaeaaeiino? e?noeiai? oeaieie

ca oe?eiith e?noeiaeo eaeoi

E?noea oaa?eieAeaeiaa iaeaaei?noue ia aecia/aiaE?noea
ethaeeieiaiaaiieiia??iieiia??iiiaiaaii< 2,92,9 – 3,83,3 – 5,15,2 – 6,2>
6,2

Oaaeeoey 3

Aecia/aiiy aeaeiai? iaeaaeiino? e?noeiai? oeaieie

ca e?euee?noth e?noeiaeo eaeoi ia ieiu? 10000iei2

E?noea oaa?eieAeaeiaa iaeaaei?noue ia aecia/aiaE?noea
ethaeeieiaiaaiieiia??iieiia??iiiaiaaii< 8,08,0 – 9,69,7 – 11,611,7 – 13,0> 13,0

Aecia/aiiy noao?.

Nooi?noue iaoiaeo iieyaa? a ii??aiyii? /eneiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aieo
iciae aaeeeeo ? iaeeo aii?eeiaeo e?noie ie?aii /i?iiai (n??iai) oa
a?eiai ?icaea?thaaiiy. Ia?aa??eaoe iiiaae o?noaeanyo ??cieo iciae, ie
ae?eoee aeniiaeo i?i iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaethaaoe noaoue ca iaea?eueoith
aeiaaeeiith e?noie oa ca aeayeeie ie?aieie oa?aeoa-?enoeeaie. Ia aaeee?e
aii?eeia?e e?nooe? oaeeie iciaeaie ? noeoiia aeiaaeeia o?aaiaio?a 1-7,
1-6, 2-8, 2-7, 3-7, aeiaaeeia ie?oaeiino? ia ??ai? aeeaeeueiiai ioai?o
oa ia ??ai? ia?aoiaeo ia?aaeiueiai a?aaaiy ia iaae?aeueio iiaa?oith,
oe?eia aa?oiueiai oa ieaeiueiai ai?o?c?a. Ia iae?e aii?eeia?e e?nooe?
oea noeoiia aeiaaeeia o?aaiaio?a: 1-4, 1-3, 2-5, a oaeiae naa?oaeueiee
?ici?? aie?aee. Iaeneiaeueia iiaeeea?noue iaaii? ae?aaiinoeee noao? (ca
oe?eiith aa?oiueiai ai?o?ca aaeeei? aii?eeiai? e?noee) aei??aith? 88% oa
76% a?aeiia?aeii i?e n??iio oa a?eiio ?icaea?thaaii?.I?i?iaeueia
a??ia?aei?noue ae?aaiinoeee noao? (ca naa?oaeueiei ?ici??ii aie?aee
iaei? aii?eeiai? e?noee) neeaaea? 62% ? 54% a?aeiia?aeii n??iai oa
a?eiai ?icaea?thaaiiy. I?e iiaeeeaino? ae?aaiinoeee ca e?eueeiia
iciaeaie iaai?noue ae?aaiinoeee c?inoa? aei 95-98%.

Ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea.

I?eioeei anoaiiaeaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea a?oioo?oueny ia caa?aaeaii? iaaieo
i?iii?oe?e neaeaoa ethaeeie, oiaoi inoaiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee

ie?aieo e?noie ciaoiaeyoueny o caeiiii??ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo i?ae niaith
? c caaaeueiith aenioith neaeaoa. Aea/aeeny e?noee na??? 1.
Aeine?aeaeaii a?eueoa 60 ii?oiiao?e/ieo iciae e?noie. *eneiaee iaoa??ae
i?aeaeaany noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? c ia/eneaiiyi eiao?oe??io?a ei?aeyoe??.
Aeey aecia/aiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea a?ae?a?ai? o?eueee o? iciaee, ye? aeyaeee
aeoaea neeueiee aai neeueiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie. Ei?aeyoe?ei? iiey,
neeaaeai? aeey aeiaaeeie o?ea c /eneiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie o?aaiaio?a,
aeyaeee e?i?eio caeaaei?noue ia?aiao??a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiaaei iiaeeea?noue ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy o?eueee ca e?i?eieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie noeoiieo aenio e?eueeio ?yaeii ?ici?uaieo o?aaiaio?a.
Ie aaaaea?ii aeioe?eueiei aeei?enoaiiy 17 iciae. Ia aaeee?e aii?eeia?e
e?nooe? oea iaea?eueoa aeiaaeeia, a oaeiae noeoii?noue o?aaiaio?a 1-7,
2-8, 2-7, 3-8, 3-7, 4-8, 4-7, 5-8, 5-7, 6-8, 6-7. Ia iae?e aii?eeia?e
e?nooe? oaeeie iciaeaie ? iaea?eueoa aeiaaeeia oa noeoii?noue o?aaiaio?a
1-4, 1-3, 2-5, 2-4.

Iaoaiaoe/iei oeyoii io?eiaee oi?ioeo aeey ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea:

D = a + ao + D , aea

D – aeiaaeeia o?ea, ui ia/eneth?oueny;

o – /eneiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea aeine?aeaeoaaiiai o?aaiaioa /e ?o noeoiiino?;

a, a – eiao?oe??ioe ?iai/i? oi?ioee, iaea?aeai? iaoaiaoe/iei oeyoii;

D – iiaeeeaa iaeneiaeueia a?aeoeeaiiy ia/eneaii? aeiaaeeie o?ea a?ae
oaeoe/ii?.

Ie?aii aeey e?noie /i?iiai (n??iai) oa a?eiai ?icaea?thaaiiy i?e
aecia/ai?e oa iaa?aeii?e noaoaa?e iaeaaeiino? io?eiaii eiao?oe??ioe
?iai/i? oi?ioee ia iniia? yeeo neeaaeaii 102 ?aa?an?ei? ??aiyiiy aeey
ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea.

Iaeneiaeueia a?aeoeeaiiy ia/eneaii? aeiaaeeie o?ea a?ae oaeoe/ii? iiaea
neeaaeaoe a?ae 7,19ni aei 11,64ni. Canoinoaaiiy ??aiyiue i?e ia?aa??oe?
o “ne?ieo” aeine?aeao oa i?e aeeiiaii? i?aeoe/ieo aenia?oec iieacaei, ui
a?aeoeeaiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 4-4,5ni.

?iaeea?aeoaeueia ioioiaeiaiiy iniae.

Aeine?aeaeaii 19 e?noie c? ne?aeaie o?aaeaiiy oai?iaaie aai
i?eaeeoo?aeie o?aaiaoe/ieie ci?iaie. Aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue
ae?aaiin-ooaaoe ia niaeaieo e?noeao iae?i- oa i?e?ineii?/iei iaoiaeii
ia?aeiie a?ae aeaii?ny/ii? aei o?e??/ii? aeaaiino?, iooeeie e?noie,
inoaiii?ic iaooieoe?iioth/eo e?noie ia?ae?ciaaii? ethaeeie. Ia?aeiie ?
oai?iaeea? ci?ie iiaeooue ?ici?ciaaaoeny ia e?noeao ye n??iai, oae ?
a?eiai ?icaea-?aiiy ca niaoeeo?/iith ea?oeiith ci?i oa ia?aaoaeiaith
e?noeiai? oeaieie.

Ae?aaiinoeea i?eaeeoo?aeo ooeiaeaeaiue e?noie i?e aeeiiaii? i?aeoe/ieo
aenia?oec c o?aooaaiiyi ianoaaei ni?aae aeaea iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe
eiie?aoieo caaeaeeo in?a.

?acii c oei caa?iaii oaaao ia oa, ui a ciiao caai?iiy ia?aeii?a oa a
ciiao, i?eeaaeeo aei ia?aeii?a /e ina?aaee?a caoai?thaaiiy
nii-noa??aathoueny ae?eyiee a?oaiaieieienoi? oeaieie, i?eoaiaiii? c??eei
oaa?eiai ? ia aeanoeai? aei?ineei ethaeyi. Cono??/athoueny oaeiae ciie
cia/iiai ?icoe?aiiy aaaa?niaeo eaiae?a, oa?aeoa?i? aeey e?noie noa?eo
aai ia?ae?ciaaieo ?iaeea?ae?a.

I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

Cai?iaaaeaeai? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ecia/ai? aeey aeei?enoai-iy o
iaaeeei-e?ei?iae?noe/ieo a?aeae?eaiiyo iaeanieo oa Aieiaiiai ath?i
noaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?oece IIC Oe?a?ie. Aiie caaacia/othoue
?aeaioe-o?eaoe?th iniae ca niaeaieie e?noeaie aii?eee ??ciiai nooiaiy
?icaea?thaaiiy oa o?aaiaioaoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny a aecia/ai?e iine?aeiaiino?:

1. C iaoa??aeo, ui iaae?eoia aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aeae?athoue e?noeia?
oeaiee, i?eaeaoi? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? yeui aiie iathoue ??aiii??ia
?icaea?thaaiiy, iie?eaathoue ?ic/eiii iie?noe?ieo a oieoie? aai eea?i
“IAA”. Oea cia/iith i??ith caiia?aa? iiaeaeueoiio ?oeioaaiith e?noie.
O?aaiaioe, aea aeyaeythoueny ae?eyiee /i?iiai e n??iai eieuei?o,
aeiiaeththoue i?ioyaii iaei??? aiaeeie i?e 450°N aei ??aiii??iiai n??iai
?icaea?thaaiiy. O ?ac? iayaiino? a?eiai eieuei?o o?aaiaioe aeiiaeththoue
aei a?eiai ?icaea?thaaiiy i?e 950°N i?ioyaii iaei??? aiaeeie. Oeei
caaacia/o?oueny iiaia onaaeea e?noeiai? oeaieie. Aeiiaeai? e?noee
ci?oeiththoue aeacaiei aeua niiniaii.

Ianya ieoaiue, ui iiaeooue aooe ae??oai? noaeiai-iaaee/iei aenia?oii,
iaoiiaeaiee:

– oa?aeoa?enoeeith iaoa??aeo (nooi?iue o?aaiaioaoe?? e ?icaea?thaaiiy);

– aeaieie i?i ethaeeio, ui caaeioea (noaoue, c??no, a?e);

– iaeiaioaaiiyi aeine?aeaeoaaii? e?noee (o?aaiaioe aaeeei? aii?e-

eiai? e?noee ianooue cia/ii a?eueoo ?aeaioeo?eaoe?eio ?ioi?iaoe?th
ii??aiyeueii c iaeith aii?eeiaith e?noeith).

2. Aeaeiao iaeaaei?noue iiaeia anoaiiaethaaoe:

– ca oa?aeoa?ieie aiaoiii-ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie, i?eoa-iaiieie e?noeai
ethaeeie /e na?enueeeo oaa?ei;

– ca oeiiaeie i?e?ineii?/ieie oa i?e?iii?oiiao?e/ieie icia-eaie ia
iiia?a/ieo ? iiaeiaaei?o oe?oao-aeieao oeaie?a ae?ao?c?a;

– ca i?e?iii?oiiao?e/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e?noeiaeo eaeoi ieanoei/anoi?
e?noeiai? oeaieie n??iai ?icaea?thaaiiy c ianooiiith ioe?ieith
?acoeueoao?a ca i’yoe?ioa?aaeueiith nenoaiith, ei?enooth/enue
neeaaeaieie oaaeeoeyie e iiaoaeiaaieie a?ao?eaie.

3. Noaoue caaeaei? ethaeeie anoaiiaeth?oueny iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy
?icaea?thaaiiy e?noie ca e?i?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie c ioe?ieith
?acoeueoao?a ca i’yoe?ioa?aaeueiith nenoaiith c canoinoaaiiyi
?ic?iaeaieo oaaeeoeue ? a?ao?e?a.

4. Aeiaaeeia o?ea (c??no) ia/eneth?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith io?eiaieo
??aiyiue ia?ii? ?aa?an?? iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy ?icaea?thaaiiy, ie?aii
aeey ae?ii/i?, /ieia?/i? noao? oa o aeiaaeeao, eiee noaoue ia
anoaiiaeaia. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiao?oueny oi?ioea e io?eiai?
eiao?oe??ioe. Aeiaaeeia o?ea oa noaoue ?c cia/ii a?eueoei a?aenioeii
oi/iino? anoaiiaeth?oueny i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeaio ? a?eueoa
oa?aeoa?enoee niaeaieo e?noie.

5. Iaoieia?/i? ci?ie, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/?
iniaee-aino? e?noie, aeyaeythoueny inoaineii?/iei /e inoaiiao?e/iei
iaoiaeaie.

6. Aeniiaee c ieoaiue, iinoaaeaieo ia ae??oaiiy
noaeiai-iaaeeei-e?ei?iae?noe/ii? aenia?oece, aeathoueny i?ney
aeaoaeueiiai, iine?aeiaiiai aea/aiiy an?o iciae, ye? iiaeooue aooe
aeyaeai? ia e?noeiaiio iaoa??ae?, ui iaae?eoia aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. E?noee aii?eee caa??aathoueny i?e niaeaii? o?oia /e ieaei?o e?ioe?aie
? i?eaeaoi? aeey noaeiai-iaaee/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iacaeaaeii a?ae
niiniao niaeaiiy (a?aee?eo? /e cae?eo? aiaieua), nooiaiy ?icaea?thaaiiy
(/i?ia, n??a, a?ea) oa o?aaiaioaoe?? (aaeee? o?aaiaioe, oeaiee ??cieo
?ici???a, aeania ciea).

2. Canoiniaaiee eiiieaen iaaeeei-e?ei?iae?noe/ieo iaoiaeee aea?
iiaeeea?noue ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe iniao, ui caaeioea, ca a?oiiaeie iciaeaie,
aecia/ath/e aeaeiao iaeaaei?noue, noaoue, c??no, aai ca
?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eie iciaeaie, oaeeie ye iaoieia?/i? ci?ie, aaaee
?icaeoeo e?noie, i?eaeeoo?a? ia?aeiie oiui. Aeei?enoaiiy aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?noie caaeaeeo aeeoae?a Oe?a?ie aeicaiey? canoiniaoaaoe
iaoiaeeee aeey ioioiaeiaiiy iniae ia oa?eoi??? an??? e?a?ie i?e
caaeaae? ?a?iiai?ae?a, iacaeaaeii a?ae iaoe?iiaeueiino?.

3. Niaeaiiy e?noie i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ieo ?aaeeiao aeyaeei ?yae
caeiiii??ieo nooiai?a ?o ?icaea?thaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy. Nooi?iue
?icaea?thaaiiy caeaaeeoue aeeeth/ii a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa oa?i?io
niaeaiiy. *i?ia ?icaea?thaaiiy ooai?th?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?? aiaieua
300-350°N. I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aei 400-680°N aaaea aei ooai?aiiy
a?aeiia?aeii oaiii- /e na?oei-n??iai ?icaea?thaaiiy, a i?ney 680°N –
a?eiai ?icaea?th-aaiiy. ?oeioaaiiy e?noie ii/eia?oueny aaea i?e /i?iiio
?icaea?thaaii?. Iaea?eueoee aieea ia oeae i?ioean iathoue ia?aiaaee
oaiia?aoo?e ai??iiy oi?iaeiaae oa?i?io niaeaiiy /e ia ??cieo ae?eyieao
e?noie. Onaaeea ? aeaoi?-iaoe?y e?noie – aaaaoioaeoi?ia yaeua, yea
caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e (iiiaae 700°N), oa?i?io niaeaiiy, oeio
aiaieua, aeaeo iaeeaa, a?aeae?eo e?noee ? iaa?oue a?ae a?eo caaeaei?
ethaeeie. Iaea?eueoi? onaaeee caciathoue ai?o?ce e?noie (13,32–22,05%),
iaioith i??ith a?aeaoaa?oueny onaaeea e?ioeaaeo a?aeae?e?a ae?ao?c?a
(14,61–16,46%) ? ua iaioith – na?aaeeie ae?ao?c?a (11,55–14,38%).
Onaaeea e?noie o iieiaeeo in?a oa ethaeae na?aaeiueiai a?eo ae?aaeaia
iaioa, i?ae o noa?eo ethaeae, ia 1,5–3%.

4. Iaoiaee aeaeiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? caeaaeaoue a?ae nooiaiy
?icaea-?thaaiiy oa o?aaiaioaoe?? e?noie. Aeaeiaa iaeaaei?noue
o?aaiaio?a, ui caa?aaee niaoeeo?/i? iciaee, anoaiiaeth?oueny
ii??aiyeueiei aiaoiii-ii?oieia?/iei iaoiaeii. I?e iayaiino? oeaie?a
ae?ao?c?a ?o aeeoa-?aioe?aoe?y cae?enith?oueny i?e?iii?oineii?/iei
iaoiaeii ia iiia?a/ieo oa iiaeiaaei?o iiaa?oiyo oe?o?a-aeie?a ca
iayai?noth oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ??cieo oi?i inoaii?a. Ia?aoo?, aeaeiaa
iaeaaei?noue ae??aieo /anoie ciee aecia/a?oueny ca ?ici??aie e?noeiaeo
eaeoi ieanoei/anoi? oeaieie n??iai ?icaea?thaaiiy oa ?o e?euee?noth ia
iaeeieoe? ieiu?. I’yoe?ioa?aaeueia ioe?iea /eneiaeo iieaciee?a
aei??thaaiiy oa i?ae?aooieo e?noeiaeo eaeoi aeyae-ea iiaeeea?noue
aeaeiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ii cie? a iaaeao a?ae 90% aei 98%.

5. Noaoaaa iaeaaei?noue o?aaiaio?a niaeaieo e?noie aecia/a?oueny ca
??cieoeath iaeiieiaiieo e?i?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee, oaeeo ye iaea?eueoa
aeiaaeeia e?noie, aeiaaeeia ??cieo eiia?iaoe?e o?aaiaio?a, ie?oaeiino?
ae?ao?ca ia ??cieo ??aiyo, oe?eia aa?oiueiai e ieaeiueiai ai?o?c?a
aaeeei? aii?eeiai? e?noee, naa?oaeueiee ?ici?? aie?aee iaei? aii?eeiai?
e?noee.

?iaeea?aeoaeueia noaoaaa ae?aaiinoeea ca iaei??th ia?aiao?e/iith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith aaeeei? aii?eeiai? e?noee iiaeeeaa o 70-88%, a iaei?
aii?eeiai? – o 54-84%. Cia/ii i?aeaeuo? aeinoia??i?noue ae?aaiinoeee
noao? aeei?enoaiiy aeaio ? a?eueoa iciae.

6. Aeey ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea ?ic?iaeaia ae?aaiinoe/ia iiaeaeue ia
iniia? yei? io?eiaii 102 ?aa?an?ei? ??aiyiiy ie?aii aeey /i?iiai
(n??iai) oa a?eiai ?icaea?thaaiiy i?e aecia/ai?e aai iaa?aeii?e noaoaa?e
iaeaaeiino?. Iaeneiaeueia a?aeoeeaiiy onoaiiaeaii? aeiaaeeie o?ea a?ae
oaeoe/ii? neeaaea? ca o?aaiaioaie aaeeei? aii?eeiai? e?noee
7,19–11,08ni, a iaei? aii?eeiai? – 7,44–11,64ni. Canoinoaaiiy noeoiiino?
ia?aiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?noie cia/ii ca?eueoo? oi/i?noue ia/eneaiiy
aeiaaeeie o?ea.

7. Ia o?aaiaioao niaeaieo e?noie, iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy
?icaea?thaaiiy, iiaeia ae?aaiinooaaoe i?eaeeoo?a? ia?aeiie ??cii?
aeaaiino?, ?io? ooeiaeaeaiiy e caoai?thaaiiy, ye? ca iaaieo ianoaaei
iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eie ioioiaeithth/eie iciaeaie
iniae.

IA?AE?E ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA IAOA??AEAIE AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aieoaiae/ I.E. Oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee einoae aieaie a i?ioeanna eo
naeeaaiey // Nai?i. iao/. o?oaeia iieiaeuo o/aiuo e niaoeeaeenoia
iaaeeeia Caii?iae. ain. ei-oa oniaa?o. a?a/ae e Caii?iae. ain. iaae.
oi-oa.–Caii?iaeuea,1996.– N.88.

2. Aieoaiae/ I.E. Niaeai? e?noee aii?eee ye ia’?eo noaeiai-iaaee/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy // Oe?a?inuee. noae.-iaae. a?niee.– E., 1997.– ?2.– N.
26-27.

3. Aieoaiae/ I.E. Anoaiiaeaiiy aeaeiai? iaeaaeiino? niaeaieo e?noie
aii?eee i?e ??cieo nooiaiyo ?icaea?thaaiiy ? o?aaiaioaoe??
//Oe?a?inuee.noae.-iaae. a?niee.– E., 1997.– ?2.– N. 27-29.

4. Aieoaiae/ I.E. Iniaeeaino? ci?i e?noie aii?eee i?e niaeaii? // Iaoa?.
iaoe. eiio. i?enay/aii? iai’yo? i?io. TH.N.Naiiaeieeiaa.– E., 1997.–
N.54.

5. Aieoaiae/ I.E. Anoaiiaeaiiy noao? ca niaeaieie e?noeaie aii?eee //
Oe?a?inuee. noae.-iaae. a?niee.– E., 1999.– ?1.– N.19-22.

6. Aieoaiae/ I.E. Ia/eneaiiy aeiaaeeie o?ea ethaeeie ca nia-eaieie
e?noeaie aii?eee // Oe?a?inuee. noae.-iaae. a?niee.– E., 1999.– ?1.–
N.22-25.

7. Aieoaiae/ I.E. ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ioioiaeiaiiy iniae ii niaeaieo
e?noeao aii?eee // Oe?a?inuee. noae.-iaae. a?niee.– E., 1999.– ?1.–
N.25-28.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aieoaiae/ I.E. Noaeiai-iaaee/ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y iniae ca niaea-ieie
e?noeaie aii?eee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.25 — noaeiaa iaaeeoeeia. — Ee?anueea iaaee/ia
aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ioioiaeiaiiy iniae ca niaeaieie
e?noeiaeie caeeoeaie. O ?iaio? canoiniaaii eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy niaeaieo e?noie aii?eee. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? ci?i e?noeiai? oeaieie i?ae ae??th aeniei?
oaiia?aoo?e i?e niaeaii? a oiiaao ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ieo ?aaeei?a. Iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy a noeoiiino? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaethaaoe oae?
a?oiia? iciaee: aeaeiao iaeaaei?noue e?noie, noaoue ? aeiaaeeio o?ea
caaeaei? ethaeeie iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy ?icaea?thaaiiy (/i?ia, n??a,
a?ea) oa o?aaiaioaoe?? (aaeee? o?aaiaioe, oeaiee ??cieo ?ici???a,
ae??ai? /anoee, ciea e?noie). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo aeeiiaiiy noaeiai-iaaee/ieo aenia?oec.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: niaeai? e?noeia? caeeoee, a?oiia? iciaee,
?aeaioeo?eaoe?y iniae.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aieoaiae/ I.E. Noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineay eaeaioeoeeaoeey ee/iinoe ii
niaeaeaiiui einoyi aieaie. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee-oeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.25 — noaeaaiay iaaeeoeeia. Eeaaneay
iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey iineaaeeieiiiiai ia?aciaaiey ei.I.E.Ooieea,
Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ioiaeaeanoaeaiey ee/iinoe ii
niaeaeaiiui einoiui inoaieai. A ?aaioa i?eiaiai eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e
enneaaeiaaieth einoae aieaie. A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey onoaiiaeaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiee einoiie oeaie iiae aeaenoaeai aunieie
oaiia?aoo?u i?e niaeaeaiee a oneiaeyo ?aciuo oaiia?aoo?iuo ?aaeeiia e
?acee/iuo oeiia i/aaia (ioe?uouo e cae?uouo). Eniieueciaaee
inoaineiie/aneee, inoaiiao?e/aneee, n?aaieoaeueii-aiaoiie/aneee,
iee?ineiie/aneee, iee?iii?oiiao?e/aneee e iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey. Noaiaiue eaeaiey einoe caaeneo eneeth/eoaeueii io
oaiia?aoo?u ai?aiey e a?aiaie naeeaaiey. *a?iia eaeaiea einoae ianooiaao
i?e oaiia?aoo?a 300-350°N. Iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u aei 400°N aaaeao e
ia?aciaaieth oaiii-na?iai eaeaiey, a aei 680°N – naaoei-na?iai eaeaiey
einoae. Eeoue iinea 680°N ia?acoaony aaeia eaeaiea. Eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeytho einoe iieiaeuo noauaeoia eee o/anoee aiiaue ia?aciaaiiie
oeaie, aaeia eaeaiea eioi?ie ianooiaao i?e aieaa ieceie oaiia?aoo?a.
?ac?ooaiea einoae ia/eiaaony oaea i?e /a?iii eaeaiee. Iaeaieueoaa
aeeyiea ia i?ioeann ?ac?ooaiey einoiie oeaie ieacuaaao auno?ay niaia
oaiia?aoo?u, iniaaiii ?aceia aa nieaeaiea. Aeaoi?iaoeey e onaaeea
(oiaiueoaiea ?acia?ia einoae) ianooiatho iinea 700°N. Oneeaiea yoeo
yaeaiee ioia/aaony aei 900-950°N. Iie caaenyo oaeaea io aeeeoaeueiinoe
naeeaaiey. Iaeneiaeueiay onaaeea i?ienoiaeeo i?e naeeaaiee a oa/aiea ia
iaiaa iaeiiai /ana. Aeieacaia aiciiaeiinoue eaeaioeoeeaoeee ee/iinoe ia
o?iaia a?oiiiauo i?eciaeia, iacaaeneii io noaiaie eaeaiey e
o?aaiaioaoeee. Iaee/ea e?oiiuo o?aaiaioia einoae ethaie noaiaie eaeaiey
iicaieyao: a) ii?aaeaeyoue aeaeiaoth i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
n?aaieoaeueii-aiaoiie/aneei iaoiaeii; a) onoaiaaeeaaoue iie iooai
iyoeeioa?aaeueiie ioeaiee ioaeaeueiuo /eneiauo oa?aeoa?enoee; a)
au/eneyoue aeeeio oaea ii /eneiaui oa?aeoa?enoeeai einoae n iiiiuueth
?aa?anneiiiuo o?aaiaiee. Aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai au/eneaiey aeeeiu oaea
auaaaeaia iaoaiaoe/aneay oi?ioea e iieo/aii 102 ?aa?anneiiiuo o?aaiaiey.
O?aaiaiou aeeaoecia, iacaaeneii io noaiaie eaeaiey, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
onoaiaaeeaaoue aeaeiaoth i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue ii oa?aeoa?o ia?ano?ieee
einoiie oeaie, ea/anoaaiiiio e eiee/anoaaiiiio ?acee/eth oi?i ia?ae/iuo
e aoi?e/iuo inoaiiia. I?e o?aaiaioao aeinoaoi/iuo ?acia?ia anoue
aiciiaeiinoue au/eneaiey aeeeiu oaea e ii?aaeaeaiey iieiaie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Nianoaaiii ciea einoiie oeaie na?iai (/a?iiai) eaeaiey
aeiioneaao ii?aaeaeaiea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe einoe /aeiaaeo eee aeeaioiiio
ii aeeeia, oe?eia einoiuo eaeoi e ii eiee/anoao eo ia aaeeieoea ieiuaaee
(10000iei2). Iaia?oaeaiea ia o?aaiaioao einoae i?eaeeciaiiuo ia?aeiiia,
neaaeia einoiuo caaieaaaiee e ae?oaeo iia?aaeaeaiee, n o/aoii
eieaeecaoeee, iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue eiaeeae-aeoaeueiie eaeaioeoeeaoeee
iiaeaoaai /aeiaaea.

Ia iniiaa auiieiaiiuo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaiu
aeeaaiinoe/aneea oaaeeoeu onoaiiaeaiey aeaeiaie i?eiaae-eaaeiinoe,
oaaeeoeu ii?aaeaeaiey iieiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, auaaaeaia oi?ioea e
iieo/aii 102 ?aa?anneiiiuo o?aaiaiey aeey au/eneaiey aeeeiu oaea.
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea

i?e auiieiaiee noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineeo yenia?oec.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: niaeaeaiiua einoiua inoaiee, a?oiiiaua i?e-ciaee,
eaeaioeoeeaoeey ee/iinoe.

ANNOTATION

Golubovich P.L. Forensic identification of subject by burnt bones of a
shin.– Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidates degree of Medicine. Speciality 14.01.25 –
Forensic medicine.– Kiev Academy of postgraduate medical studies, named
after Shupik P.L., Kiev, 1999.

The thesis deals with the problems of identification of a subject by
burnt osseous remains. The complex approach in studies of shin bones was
used in this research. In the framework of this investigation the
modifications of osseous tissues in different temperature conditions
were determined. The investigation methods, in the whole, permit to
establish the following group signs: species of bones, sex and length of
a subject, independently of incandescence rate (black, gray, white) and
fragmentation (large fragments, pieces of different size, small parts,
ashes of bones). The methods of this research were applied in practice
for the forensic examination.

Key words: burnt osseous remains, group signs, identification of a
subject.

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