1

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OEA*OE IEAA NOAIAIIAE*

OAeE 343.139.

NOAeIAEE ?ICAEssAe E?EI?IAEUeIEO NI?AA

I?I II?OOAIIss NOAOOOIEO I?AAEE

ACA?IIA?AeIINEI I?AE A?ENUeEIAINEOAEAIAOessIE

CA?IEIEO NEE OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.09 — e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioean

oa e?ei?iae?noeea; noaeiaa aenia?oeca

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

EE?A-1999

Aeena?oaoe?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?aainoaeaey th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee:

Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? — Ieoa?iei Ieoaeei Iaea?iae/ —
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, Caneoaeaiee th?eno
Oe?a?ie.

Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio — Oea?ei Aaneeue Iao?iae/ —
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
i?aainoaeaey th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? — A?ioaaie TH??e Ieoaeeiae/ —
Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, a?oea-i?aceaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?iai?
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano.

Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio — Ooieei Ieeiea ?ai?iae/ —
Aeaaeai?y Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie,
i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_21__” ____/a?aiy___ ?ieo i __10___ aiaeei? a
aoaeeoi??? 253 ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.05
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo
(i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_ 20____” ___o?aaiy___1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oea?ei A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei no.381 Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “ I?i noaeiono??e” a?enueeia? noaee cae?eniththoue i?aainoaeaey
o Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiiyo, ia?aaeaa/aieo
caeiiiaeaanoaii.

Ae?yeuei?noue a?enueeiaeo noae?a ni?yiiaaia ia ioi?iio a?ae aoaeue-yeeo
iinyaaiue aaciaee Oe?a?ie, ai?caeaoiino? ?? Ca?ieieo Nee, caoeno i?aa ?
naiaiae on?o a?iiaaeyi aea?aeaae, i?aa ? caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a a?enueeiaeo
/anoei, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e.

A?enueeia? noaee Oe?a?ie ?icaeyaeathoue e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae i?i an?
cei/eie, a/eiai? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie Ca?ieieo Nee, Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaa?ae??, I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee, Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue, ui noai?ththoueny Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie ?
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae a?enueeiaiciaia’ycaieie i?ae /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy ieie cai??a; an? ni?aae i?i oieaoinoai, e?ei?iaeuei?
ni?aae i?i cei/eie i?ioe anoaiiaeaiiai ii?yaeeo ianaiiy neoaeae, a/eiai?
iniaaie ia/aeueieoeueeiai neeaaeo aei?aaii-o?oaeiaeo onoaiia, ne?ae/eo
?cieyoi??a; ni?aae i?i cei/eie; a/eiai? ?ioeie, aecia/aieie
caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie, eaoaai??yie in?a.

Cei/eii?noue a a?i?? ? aeoaea iaaacia/iei aeanoaa?e?coth/ei oaeoi?ii,
eio?ee iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia o?eueee ia Ca?iei? Neee, aea e ia aea?aeaao
a oe?eiio, a noai ni?aa o a?i?? aaaaeathoue ca iaeei c ?iaeeeaoi??a,
aacoth/enue ia yeiio, iiaeia aecia/eoe noai nioe?aeueii? aaciaee. I?i
cia/io noni?eueio iaaaciaeo a?enueeiaeo cei/ei?a aiai?eoue oie oaeo, ui
a oiae? Aeeieiiaoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, eio?a a?aeaoaaeany c 15 /a?aiy ii
17 eeiiy 1998 ?ieo o ?ei? c o/anoth iiaiiaaaeieo i?aaenoaaiee?a oa i?ae
aa?aeith III, aoei ae??oaii — canioaaoe I?aeia?iaeiee e?ei?iaeueiee
noae. Cei/eioeyie, ye? i?aeiaaeaoeiooue i?ae th?enaeeeoe?th noaeo, o
eiai noaooo? aoei cai?iiiiiaaii aeciaoe oaeiae in?a, ye? a/eieee
a?enueeia? cei/eie.

Iaea?eueo iaaacia/iei oa iaaecae/aeii o?eaiaeiei iane?aeeii
e?ei?iiaaiii? neooaoe?? a a?i?? ? ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
ei?eneeai-ianeeueieoeueeeo cei/ei?a oa i?aaiii?ooaiue, ui oe?iei
a?aeii? i?ae iacaith “ae?aeiaueia”, a a e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?
Oe?a?ie ioiieth?oueny iiiyooyi “ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie”, aai “ianoaoooi?
aca?iia?aeiineie”.

Ia oii? iaaaoeaieo yaeu, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a a?i??, i/aaeaeiei ?
aino?ee aeao?oeeo iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaeo oa
e?ei?iieia?/ieo aniaeo?a ai?ioueae c ianoaoooieie i?iyaaie.

Iaaeinoaoi?noue iaoeiaeo oa i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iaaaoeaii
a?aeaeaa?oueny ia i?aeaeuaii? aoaeoeaiino? ai?ioueae c iacaaieie
i?aaiii?ooaiiyie. Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie c?inoa? oaeiae ? o ca’yceo c
iaaaeueiith iio?aaith oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ?aaeaiaioo?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oe? cei/eie oa noaeiaee ?icaeyae e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aa iia’ycaieo c ii?ooaiiyi noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie. I?iaaeeie a caeiiiaeaanoa? oneeaaeiththoue
iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa (no.2 EIE
Oe?a?ie) uiaei ioi?iie i?aa oa caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a i?aenoaeieo,
iioa?i?eeo, a oaeiae a?enueeiaeo /anoei oa i?ae?icae?e?a a?enuee
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaa?ae?? Oe?a?ie, Neoaeae aaciaee, I?eei?aeiiieo ?
Aioo??oi?o a?enuee oiui.

A oiae? i?aeaioiaee aei iaienaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe aoea aea/aia oa
i?iaiae?ciaaia noaeiaa i?aeoeea a?enueeiaeo noae?a noiniaii ?icaeyaeo
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie a ia??iae c 1950 ii 1998 ?iee. Ia?aaaaeii
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a?o?ae a?enueeiaeo o?eaoiae?a I?eea?iaonueeiai
a?enueeiaiai ie?oao, a?enueeiaeo o?eaoiae?a ?aeaoieo a?enuee
no?aoaa?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy N?N? oa a?enueeiaeo noae?a Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?ie. Aei neeaaeo a?enueeiaeo noae?a Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie
aoiaeyoue a?enueeia? noaee A?iieoeueeiai, Eaeei?anueeiai
(*a?i?aaoeueeiai), Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ??aiainueeiai,
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai, Euea?anueeiai oa Oaeai?iaenueeiai aa?i?cii?a.

Aeyaeeiny, ui ia?o? e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae i?i cei/eie, ye?
aeine?aeaeothoueny, c’yaeeeny ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a, aea oea aoee
iiiaeeiie? aeiaaeee. Iaeiae aaea /a?ac aeanyoue ?ie?a a?enueeia? th?enoe
ii/aee aiai?eoe i?i ?nioaaiiy i?iaeaie “ae?aeiaueie” a a?i??. A?aeaoany
iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae ??aeeeo aeiaaee?a o nioe?aeueii-iaaaoeai? i?iyae.
Nii/aoeo aoea “nieaeaonueea i?enyaa”, ?? o/anieeaie noaaaee o?eueee
aaaeath/?. ?acii c oei aaaaeaeiny, ui oie, ooi a?aeiiaeany a?ae ??
i?eeiyooy — aiyaoc. Iio?i oey “i?enyaa” ia?a?inea a iaaiee iaia’yceiaee
?eooae. I?ney oeueiai c’yaeeany aeiaeaoeiaa ei?eneeai-ianeeueieoeueea
iioeaaoe?y. Ia /an ?iciaaeo ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco ianoaoooi?
i?aaiii?ooaiiy iaoyaeeeeny caaino?aiiyi i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai.

Oaeei /eiii, aeoiee “ae?aeiaueie” ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaaoeaieo i?iyaao
noni?eueiiai aeeooy ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a, iniaeeai eiee a a?i?th ii/aee
i?eceaaoe in?a, eio?? ?ai?oa a?aeaoaaee iiea?aiiy a i?noeyo iicaaaeaiiy
aie?. Cia/iiai ?icaeoeo iaaoee i?aaiii?ooaiiy oe??? eaoaai??? i?ioyaii
1970-1980 ?ie?a, eiee ?icea?oee aiiiae?? nioe?aeueii? oa aeooiaii?
noa?e, a a iieiae? ii/aa ia?aaaaeaoe eoeueo a?oai? o?ce/ii? neee.

Iio??aii aeae?eeoe e?eueea ia??iae?a o ?icaeoeo cei/ei?a ia a?oio?
ianoaoooieo aca?iia?aeiinei o Ca?ieieo Neeao. Ia?oee — aei ii/aoeo
1950-o ?ie?a, eiee na?eicieo aeieac?a uiaei ?nioaaiiy a a?i??
i?aaiii?ooaiue aeaii? eaoaai??? ia aoei. Ae?oaee — c na?aaeeie 1950-o
?ie?a ? aei ii/aoeo 1960-o ?ie?a, eiee a?aei?/aany ia?oee niaeao
cacia/aieo i?aaiii?ooaiue oa cei/ei?a. Iia’ycaii oea aoei c nei?i/aiiyi
no?ie?a neoaeae oa ca?eueiaiiyi a caian aaoa?ai?a a?eie. A Ca?iei? Ceee
ii/aee iaae?aoe, a oiio /ene? ? a/i?aoi?o canoaeaeaieo, eio??
a?ae?iaeaeoaaee a a?i?enueeeo eieaeoeaao oth?aii? oa e?ei?iaeuei?
o?aaeeoe??. Eiee a 1957-1958 ?ieao aeieeee a?i?enuee? ?inoeoooe
a?iiaaenueeino?, a a?aeaoooy iiea?aiiy ia aaoioaaoo? ii/aee cai?ithaaoe
“acyooyi ia ii?oee”, aeiaaeee i?aaiii?ooaiue o noa?? i?aeiniaiaeo
a?aeiinei aeineoue aei?aieeeny. Naia a oeae ia??iae cacia/ai?
i?aaiii?ooaiiy ii/aee ia?a?inoaoe a naiino?ei? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?
e?ei?iaeuei? i?iyae. O?ao?e ia??iae — c na?aaeeie 1960-o ?ie?a ? aei
na?aaeeie 1980-o ?ie?a: aoai niaeao?a ? niaae?a “ae?aeiaueie”. I?e
oeueiio, ye i?aaeei, cieaeaiiy ?o e?eueeino? o io?oe?ei?e ca?oiino? aoei
“i?enay/aii” ??ciei iiae?yi ? aeaoai. C 1985 ?ieo ii/aany iiaee aoai.
I?i i?aaiii?ooaiiy a a?i?? aiai?youe ? ieoooue a?aee?eoi. Aeaye?
aeaeaiiy, ia??aeei ? io?oe?ei?, na?ae/aoue i?i no??ieee niaae (iniaeeai
a 1996 ?ioe?) cei/eiiino? a a?i??. I?ioa iani?aaae? e?ei?iaeuei? i?iyae
a noa?? i?aeiniaiaeo noinoie?a ia o?eueee ia ciaioeeenue, aea noaee ua
a?eueo aeoii/aieie oa aei?noieeie.

Oey aeena?oaoe?y ? ni?iaith i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie c
oi/ee ci?o e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano, eiai iniiaieo caaaeaiue, ye?
aecia/ai? o noaoo? 2 EIE Oe?a?ie. O iiaeai?e ?iaio? aia?oa a Oe?a?i?
aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino? i?iaaaeaeaiiy a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i
a?enueeia? cei/eie, a naia i?i ianoaoooi? aca?iia?aeiineie
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, ?ice?eaathoueny iniaeeaino? i?aaeiaoo
aeieacoaaiiy a oaeeo ni?aaao, ?o ?icaeyaeo ? ae??oaiiy a?enueeiaeie
noaeaie Oe?a?ie. Anaa?/i?noue ? iiaiioa aeine?aeaeaiiy ianoaaei
e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae, a ioaea ? i?eeiyooy caeiiiiai, iaa?oioiaaiiai oa
ni?aaaaeeeaiai ??oaiiy a i?e caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, iane?eueee /?oei
a?enueeiaee noae oyaey? nia? eiei oaeo?a ? ianoaaei, ye? i?aeeyaathoue
c’ynoaaiith o e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i ianoaoooi? aca?iia?aeiineie
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; iane?eueee /?oei aoei ?ic’yniai? iei
i?ioeanoaeuei? i?aaa i?aenoaeiiio, iioa?i?eiio oa ?ioei o/anieeai
noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo oa iane?eueee ?aaeueii aoee caaacia/ai? iei
iiaeeeaino? aeey ?aae?caoe?? oeeo i?aa o noaeiaiio can?aeaii?.

I?aaeeueia ae??oaiiy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ni?ey? caoenoo aeeooy ?
caei?ia’y a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, ?o /ano? ? a?aeiino?, iaaeioi?eaiino?
? aaciaee, ui aeciathoueny Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie iaeaaaeeea?oith
nioe?aeueiith oe?ii?noth (no. 3), a a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo — ci?oeiaiith
aeenoeeie?ie o a?enueeiaeo i?ae?icae?eao Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie,
iie?ioaiith ?o ai?aioiaiino? oa ai?caeaoiino?, ooaa?aeaeaiith a
a?iiaaeyi a??e a ni?aaaaeeea?noue caeiio ? aeoiaaiith a ieo
caeiiineooiyii? iiaaae?iee.

Ana oea aecia/eei aea?? oaie ? eiie?aoieo ieoaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie.

O i?ioeanoaeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? anaa?/ii oa eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii
caaaeuei? aniaeoe noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa. Oeueiio
i?enay/aii i?aoe? N.A.Aeueia?oa, I.?.Aaaeaiiaa, E.I.Aiaineianueei?,
A.A. Aii/a?aiea, TH.I.A?ioaaiai, A.ss. Aeoaeinueeiai,
A.N.Caeaiaoeueeiai, A.A. Eaiiaiea, I.?. Ieoaeeaiea, I.I.Ieoa?iea,
A.O.Ii?a, A.I. Iiaeueyiaiei, I.?. N??iai, Ae.N. Nonea, I.I. Oiei/ea,
A.?. *aiaoe?, N.N. ssoeaiea oa ?ioeo a/aieo Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae a/aieo
eieeoi?o ?anioae?e N?N?, cie?aia I.N. Aeaen??aa, I.Ae. Aieeiaa, A.?.
Aooo?aa, A.?. Caai?nueeiai, E.Ae. Eiei??aa, ?.A. Ia?oei/eea, N.A.
Ie?aoeueeiai, O.A. Ii?uaeiai?, ?.E. Iao?oo?ia, ?.Ae. Ia?eiaa, A.I.
Naaeoeueeiai, I.N. No?iaiae/a, O.A. *aaeaeaiiaa.

I?ioa, a Oe?a?i? ?ai?oa ie?aii ia aea/aeenue iniaeeaino? a?enueeiaiai
noaei/einoaa, cie?aia noiniaii ?icaeyaeo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i
ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie.
Ia aeena?oaoe?eiiio ? iiiia?ao?/iiio ??aiyo oey i?iaeaia ia aea/aeanue
oaeiae ? a N?N? oa e?a?iao NIAe.

Ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? /eiia
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai, ?inoeoooe
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa oa noaeiaa i?aeoeea a?enueeiaeo
noae?a Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioeanoaeuei? iniaeeaino? cae?eniaiiy
ooieoe?? i?aainoaeaey i?e ?icaeyae? a?enueeiaeie noaeaie e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a eiiieaeniiio aea/aii?
iaeaaaeeea?oeo aniaeo?a i?ioeanoaeueieo iniaeeainoae cae?eniaiiy
i?aainoaeaey a?enueeiaeie noaeaie i?e ?icaeyae? e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i
ianoaoooi? aca?iia?aeiineie o Ca?ieieo Neeao, c’ynoaaii? aoaeoeaiino?
/eiiiai e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a iaa?oiooaaii?
oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue ? oi?ioethaaii? i?iiiceoe?e noiniaii
aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaaee a
ianooiiiio:

n ?ice?eoe i?aaeiao aeieacoaaiiy a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i ii?ooaiiy
noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a;

n aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa i?e ?icaeyae?
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie;

n c’ynoaaoe ?ieue noaeiaeo aeaaao?a oa i?noey inoaiiueiai neiaa
i?aenoaeiiai o noaeiaiio ?icaeyae? e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae i?i ianoaoooi?
aca?iia?aeiineie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ? a cae?eniaii? i?aa
i?aenoaeiiai, iioa?i?eiai oa ?ioeo eiai o/aniee?a;

n ?icaeyiooe i?iaeaie iaa?oiooaaiiy oa iioeaoaaiiy ae?ieo a?enueeiaiai
noaeo a ni?aaao i?i ianoaoooi? aca?iia?aeiineie o Ca?ieieo Neeao;

n aea/eoe iaoiaeeeo noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa a?enueeiaeie
noaeaie;

n c o?aooaaiiyi iaea?aeaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aianoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ? /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ? i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue
ae?aeaeoe/iee, ?noi?e/iee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, nenoaiiee,
oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee,
eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/iee iaoiaee.

Canoinoaaiiy caeii?a oi?iaeueii? eia?ee aeicaieeei aaoi?o ae?iaeoe
i?aaeeueia noaaeaiiy aei i?iaeaie, aeiiiiiaei o aea/aii? noo? ? ci?noo
iniiaieo iiiyoue oaie, c?iaeoe ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaa?oioiaai? aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe??. ?noi?e/iee aniaeo aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie iaa ia o?eueee i?ciaaaeueia cia/aiiy, aea e aeaa ciiao
ie?aneeoe iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aea/aiiy oaie. A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ae?th/eo i?aaiaeo ii?i Oe?a?ie c aiaeia?/ieie
ii?iaie e?a?i NIAe, a oaeiae aeayeeo ?ioeo e?a?i. Iaoith oaeiai
ii??aiyiiy aoei aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo iioeiaeueieo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo ii?i ? ae?iaeaiiy i?iiiceoe?e uiaei ?o
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?. I?iaaaeaia nioe?ieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
(aaoi?ii iieoaii 105 ne?ae/eo a?enueeiaeo i?ieo?aoo? Oeaio?aeueiiai ?
Cao?aeiiai ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie, 25 a?enueeiaeo noaeae?a), aeaei
iiaeeea?noue aea/eoe ??ciia?/i? oi?ie i?aeoeee i?aai?a a?enueeiai?
thnoeoe??. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae? caniae iaea?aeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe??, ye niinoa?aaeaiiy, iieooaaiiy, aiae?c i?ioeanoaeueieo
aeieoiaio?a, noaeiaeo i?iiia, ioae?eaoe?e a caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??,
aea/aiiy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa iaaii? eaoaai???. Cie?aia, aoei aea/aii oa
i?iaiae?ciaaii 1280 e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie, ii?aoeueiaaii iaeaea
i?aoeny/? i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo. Aeei?enoaii oaeiae
iaoa??aee aeanii? noaeiai? i?aeoeee aaoi?a-a?enueeiaiai noaeae?. Oaeei
/eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? aacoaaeiny ia eeoa ia
oai?aoe/iiio ??ai?, aea e ia ni?anoaaeaii? ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa c
eiai ?aaeueiei ao?eaiiyi a ae?yeueiino? a?enueeiaiai noaeo, i?ieo?aoo?e,
i?aai?a a?enueeiaiai oi?aae?iiy. Aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii? ae??
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa ia aii??e/iiio ??ai? aeicaieeei
aeyaeoe oeiia? noaeia? oa ne?ae/? iiieeee ? aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae
iiaeaeueoiai iie?ioaiiy i?aeoeee oa ae?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aianaiiy
ci?i aei /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Ii?iaoeaiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie,
e?ei?iaeueia, e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia oa a?enueeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai,
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe c ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa, i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? aeoe a
aaeoc? i?aa ethaeeie, ii?iaoeai? iaoa??aee I?i?noa?noaa iai?iie Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue, ia?o ca
ana, i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo a/aieo: TH.I. A?ioaaiai, I.I. Ieoa?iea oa A.O.
Ii?a. I?ae /an iaienaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe aea/aeeny oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
I.N. Aeaen??aa, N.N. Aeaen??aa, N.A. Aeueia?oa, I.?. Aaaeaiiaa, A.?.
Aaneiaa, I.N. Aa?aoiaa, N.A. Aiaioiaa, E.I. Aiaineianueei?, I.Ae.
Aieeiaa, A.?. Aooo?aa, O.A. Aa?oieiia?ai?, ?.A. Aa?ieaeoaiaa, ?.N.
Aaeaaaia, O.I. Aeia?iaieuenueei?, A.?. Caai?nueeiai, I.N. Eiae?eiaa,
A.I. Eoae?yaoeaaa, I.I. Eo/einueei?, A.A. Eaiiaiea, ?.A. Ia?oei/eea,
A.A. Iieaeiaaia, O.A. Ii?uaeiai?, ss.I. Iioia?eiaea?a, ?.Ae. Ia?eiaa,
I.O. Iaoeaae/a, ?. E. Iao?oo?ia, A.I.Naaeoeueeiai, I.N. No?iaiae/a,
I.Ae. Nayoioeueeiai, I.?. N??iai, A.?. *aiaoe?, O.A. *aaeaeaiiaa, A.I.
Oea?ee, I.A. Ooinueeiai oa ?ioeo a/aieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei a iaooe?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a noaeiaiai i?ioeano a?enueeiaiai noaeo,
? cie?aia, noiniaii ?icaeyaeo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ianoaoooi?
aca?iia?aeiineie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a Ca?ieieo Nee. Iaea?aeai?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aena?oeai? o oaeeo iieiaeaiiyo, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

n a?enueeia? noaee Oe?a?ie ? ?, c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ni?aa i?i
a?enueeia? cei/eie, ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo oa i?aaiaiai noaoono
a?enueeiai? thnoeoe?? acaaae? ? a?enueeiaeo noaeae?a cie?aia, iathoue ?
iaaeae? caeeoaoeny i?aai?/iith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith noaeiai? nenoaie
aea?aeaae, ui iiaeiii aooe cao?eniaaii o iiaiio Caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i
noaeiono??e” ? EIE Oe?a?ie ye ?icaeoie eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio
niaoe?ae?caoe?? noae?a caaaeueii? th?enaeeeoe?? (/.1 no. 125
Eiinoeoooe??);

n noaeiaee ?icaeyae e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i a?enueeia? cei/eie, cie?aia
i?i ianoaoooi? aca?iia?aeiineie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, aacoth/enue ia
caaaeueieo canaaeao noaei/einoaa, aecia/aieo Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie (/.3
no.129), ia? iaai? iniaeeaino? ii??aiyii c ?icaeyaeii ni?aa a ?ioeo
noaeao. Oe? iniaeeaino? i?inoaaeothoueny a i?aaeiao? aeieacoaaiiy, a
eie? o/aniee?a noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo (a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?), o i?noeyo
i?iaaaeaiiy noaeiaeo can?aeaiue (aeecueei 70% e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa
a?enueeia? noaee ?icaeyaeathoue ia oa?eoi??? a?enueeiaeo /anoei), o
iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy niaoeeo?/iiai aeaeo iiea?aiue (oo?eiaiiy ia
aaoioaaoo?, iai?aaeaiiy aei aeenoeeie?ia?iiai aaoaeueeiio). Caeiiia,
iaa?oioiaaia ? ni?aaaaeeeaa ae??oaiiy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy
noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a caaacia/o?
caoeno /ano?, a?aeiino?, caei?ia’y, aeeooy oa iaaeioi?eaiino? ? aaciaee
iniae, ni?ey? ci?oeiaiith aeenoeeie?ie o Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie,
i?aeo?eiaiith ?o ai?aioiaiino? oa iai?iiicaeaoiino?;

n ae?yeuei?noue a?enueeiaeo noae?a a oiae? ?icaeyaeo e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aa, iia’ycaieo c ii?ooaiiyi noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, iiaeiia aooe ia?o ca ana ni?yiiaaia ia
c’ynoaaiiy oaeeo ianoaaei: /e iaei i?noea ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; ye? eiie?aoii noaoooi? aeiiae
ii?ooaii; a yeeo neoaeaiaeo noinoieao ia?aaoaathoue i?aenoaeiee oa
iioa?i?eee; /ano, i?noey, niiniao oa ianoaaei a/eiaiiy ii?ooaiiy
noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; ciaoiaeaeaiiy
o/aniee?a eiioe?eoo i?e aeeiiaii? iaia’yce?a a?enueeiai? neoaeae;
oa?aeoa?o ianeeuenoaa, canoiniaaiiai aei iioa?i?eiai; aeiiino?
i?aenoaeiiai o a/eiaii? cei/eio, iioeao ? iaoe eiai ae?e; oi?ie, ?ici??o
oa oyaeeino? oeiaee, caiiae?yii? ii?ooaiiyi noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; ianoaaei, ui iii’yeoothoue,
iaoyaeothoue /e aeeeth/athoue e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
i?aenoaeiiai oa eio?? oa?aeoa?ecothoue o/aniee?a eiioe?eoo; ?ici??o
aeo?ao ia noaoe?iia?ia e?eoaaiiy iioa?i?eiai; aaciina?aaei?o i?e/ei
cei/eio oa oiia, ye? ni?eyee eiai a/eiaiith;

n aeoiaey/e c aeiia Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, ?a?iiaenueei? Eiiaaioe?? i?i
caoeno i?aa ethaeeie ? iniiaieo naiaiae, iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue
aianaiiy ci?i aei noaoo? 2 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i nioe?aeueiee ? i?aaiaee
caoeno a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa /eai?a ?o n?iae”. I?iiiio?oueny
cacia/eoe a Caeii?, ui a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? ia iathoue iaiaaeaiiai
i?aaiaiai noaoono, o ieo ? iniaeeaee i?aaiaee noaoon, eio?ee iieyaa? a
oiio, ui a ia??iae i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ia ieo ia a iiai?e
i??? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny aeaye? i?aaa oa naiaiaee, cae??ieai? o
?icae?e? ?? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie. Ae?th/o ?aaeaeoe?th no. 385 Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “I?i noaeiono??e”, no.231 EE Oe?a?ie c aeac?aeith i?i oa, ui ca
a?aeiia?aeieie noaooyie aeaae O? EE Oe?a?ie i?aeeyaathoue
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? “iniae, uiaei yeeo ? niaoe?aeueia aeac?aea a
caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie”, ia iiaeia aeciaoe /?oeeie o ?aaeaiaioaoe??
iiiyooy “noa’?eo a?enueeiaiai cei/eio”. Oiio i?iiiio?oueny iiaa
?aaeaeoe?y no. 231 EE Oe?a?ie c ae/a?iiei ia?ae?eii in?a ia eio?eo
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ae?y aeaae O? EE Oe?a?ie, oa a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie aei
noaoo? 385 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i noaeiono??e”;

n a?aoiaoth/e iieiaeaiiy noaoo? 121, /.3 no. 129 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie,
i?iiiio?oueny aianoe ci?ie aei no.36 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i i?ieo?aoo?o”,
no.no.264, 282 EIE Oe?a?ie. A oeeo ii?iao, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeioe?eueii
cae??ieoe iaia’yceiao o/anoue i?ieo?i?a a on?o noaeiaeo can?aeaiiyo c
iaoith i?aeo?eiaiiy aea?aeaaiiai iaaeioaa/aiiy. A?aeiiaa a?ae
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeioaa/aiiy ia? oyaoe ca niaith cae?eooy e?ei?iaeueii?
ni?aae, e??i aeiaaee?a, eiee iioa?i?eee oa ?io? o/anieee noaeiaiai
?icaeyaeo i?ioe oeueiai caia?a/othoue;

n iaa?oioiao?oueny aeioe?euei?noue aianaiiy ci?i aei noaoo? 318 EIE
Oe?a?ie uiaei iaaeaiiy i?aenoaeiiio i?aaa o an?o e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao
ia aenooi a noaeiaeo aeaaaoao;

n i?iiiio?oueny nooo?ai ?icoe?eoe ?nioth/? i?aaa iioa?i?eeo a?ae
cei/ei?a, oeea?eueieo iiceaa/?a oa oeea?eueieo a?aeiia?aea/?a, cie?aia
o??aiyaoe ?o a i?aaao c iaaeioaa/aiei i?e i?ecia/aii? oa i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?oec i?ae /an aeinoaeiaiai ne?aenoaa, a oaeiae oeyoii iaaeaiiy
iioa?i?eei i?aaa ia aenooi a noaeiaeo aeaaaoao o an?o e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aaao. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aianaiiy
ci?i aei noaoae 197, 202 oa 318 EIE Oe?a?ie;

n c iaoith caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaiiio aieeao ia na?aee?a oa iioa?i?eeo,
eio?? ? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie no?ieiai? neoaeae, i?iiiio?oueny
aeiiiaieoe ioieo 32 Oei/aniaiai iieiaeaiiy “I?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae nieaeaoaie, iao?inaie, na?aeaioaie ? noa?oeiaie”
(caoaa?aeaeaiiai Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie 13 o?aaiy 1993 ?ieo ?
174/93) iiaith /anoeiith oaeiai ci?noo: “A?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue oaeiae
iiaea aooe ia?aaaaeaiee aei iiaiai i?noey neoaeae ca aiioeaiaaiith
iinoaiiaith i?ieo?i?a aai noaeo c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?ioa?an?a
i?aainoaeaey oa caoenoo i?aa na?aee?a ? iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/ei?a. Oey
iinoaiiaa i?aeeyaa? iaaaeiiio aeeiiaiith eiiaiaee?aie a?aeiia?aeieo
/anoei”;

n o no. 20 EIE i?iiiio?oueny ia?aaeaa/eoe iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyaeo ni?aae
a cae?eoiio noaeiaiio can?aeaii? oaeiae c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
iioa?i?eeo, na?aee?a oa ?ioeo in?a, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o noaeiaiio
?icaeyae?;

n iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui, caaacia/aiiy iioa?i?eiio iiaeeeaino?
aacia?aoeiaeii ? aeoeaii ?aae?ciaoaaoe nai? i?aaa i?ae /an
iiia?aaeiueiai ?icne?aeoaaiiy ni?aae oa a oiae? noaeiaiai can?aeaiiy,
ni?ey? aeyaeaiith ae?enieo i?e/ei oa oiia a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a i?ioe
ii?yaeeo i?aeeaaeino? ? a?enueeiai? aa?/eeaino?. Oea aea? ciiao aaeeaaoe
caoiaee aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiieo i?iya?a o a?enueeiaiio
i?ae?icae?e?, a oiio /ene? oeo, ui iinyaathoue ia noaoooi? i?aaeea
aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a;

n c a?aooaaiiyi eiinoeoooe?eii? ii?ie i?i oa, ui iniaa ia iana
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca a?aeiiao aeaaaoe iieacaiiy aai iiyniaiiy uiaei
naaa, /eai?a n?i’? /e aeecueeeo ?iaee/?a (/. 1 no.63 Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie), aaoi? i?iiiio? iiao ?aaeaeoe?th no.302 EIE Oe?a?ie;

n a?aoiaoth/e, ui ?nio? eiinoeoooe?eia caai?iia (no. 62 Eiinoeoooe??)
a?oiooaaoe iaaeioaa/aiiy ia aeieacao, iaea?aeaieo iacaeiiiei oeyoii,
aiineoueny i?iiiceoe?y aeiiiaieoe noaooth 65 EIE /anoeiith o?aoueith:
“C’ynoaaaoe, ui o? /e ?io? aeieace io?eiai? c ?noioiei ii?ooaiiyi
caeiio, noae iiaeiai aeciaoe ?o oaeeie, ui ia iathoue th?eaee/ii? neee.
Iiaeaeueoa iineeaiiy ia ieo i?e iaa?oiooaaii? aeiiino? iniae ?
iai?eionoeiei”;

n iaa?oioiaothoueny i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?aaeaeoe?eiiai ooi/iaiiy noaoae
332 ? 334 EIE Oe?a?ie, c iaeyaeo ia oa, ui, e??i anooiii?,
iioeaoaaeueii? oa ?aciethoeaii? /anoei, ae?ie i?noeoue ua e iieniao
/anoeio.

Iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa a
Oe?a?i? i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaiieo ieoaiue
noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo ni?aa i?i cei/eii? ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a o Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie, ye?
noaiiaeyoue iaeaea 30% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? a?enueeiaeo cei/ei?a.
Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aianaii i?iiiceoe?? i?i
oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai, e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai oa
a?enueeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? oaeiae a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? o th?eaee/ieo aocao i?e
aea/ai? eo?no e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano, a o a?enueeiaeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao o oiae? aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoo “A?enueeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai”.
Iiaeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeaiue ?iaioe ? a iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ?iaio?
aeeeaaea/?a, ani??aio?a oa nooaeaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aieiai? aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e i?aainoaeaey Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ia iaa/aeueii-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo a?enueeiaeo noaeae?a Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie a
1995-1998 ?ieao.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii /ioe?e iaoeia?
noaoo? oa iaeei i?aeoe/iee iin?aiee aeey a?enueeiaeo th?eno?a (Oea/oe
I.N. I?aai?caoe?ei? iniaeeaino? noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa
o i?enooiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo a?enueeiaeo /anoei. I?aeoe/iee iin?aiee
a?enueeiaiai th?enoa.-Euea?a, aeaeaaieoeoai ooaao Cao?aeiiai
iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy.-1998.-51n.). I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui
aeeeaaeai? a oeeo ?iaioao, aeei?enoiaothoueny noaeaeyie a?enueeiaeo
noae?a Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie, ne?ae/eie a?enueeiaeo i?ieo?aoo? oa
?ioeie a?enueeiaeie th?enoaie a?enueeiaeo /anoei, i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo
Cao?aeiiio iia?aoeaiiio eiiaiaeoaaiith (?ai?oa I?eea?iaonueeee
a?enueeiaee ie?oa). Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny i?aeoe/iiai iin?aieea,
aeaeaiiai aeaeaaieoeoaii Cao?aeiiai iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy oe?aaeai
350 i?ei??iee?a ? iaae?neaiiai o a?enueeia? /anoeie, ?icoaoiaai? ia
oa?eoi??? cao?aeieo oa aeayeeo oeaio?aeueieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie.

I?iiiceoe?? i?i aaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai,
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai, a?enueeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa ?ioeo
aaeocae i?aaa, ye? iaa?oioiaothoueny a aeena?oaoe??, aoee iai?aaeai?
aeey iciaeiieaiiy ? iiaeeeaiai a?aooaaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? oa i?eeiyoo?
a?aeiia?aeieo caeiiii?iaeo?a a Eii?oao c ieoaiue i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, TH?eaee/ia oi?aae?iiy Nae?aoa??aoo Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie oa o Aa?oiaiee Noae Oe?a?ie. Ca?aeoe iaae?eoee iiceoeai?
a?aeaoee.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii
/ioe?e iaoeia? noaoo? ( aac ni?aaaoi??a) oa aeaeaii iaeei i?aeoe/iee
iin?aiee aeey a?enueeiaeo th?eno?a (ianya — 51 a?eoo, oe?aae 350
i?ei??iee?a, aeaeaaieoeoai ooaao Cao?aeiiai iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe aecia/aia i?aaeiaoii oa coiiaeaia iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, ui i?noyoue a?n?i i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (445 iaeiaioaaiue) oa aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya
?iaioe noaiiaeoue 238 a?eoo?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, cacia/athoueny eiai iaoa oa caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?/ia oa
aii??e/ia aace, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue,
a oaeiae aeeeaaeathoueny iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

?icae?e ia?oee aeena?oaoe??: “Iniaeeaino? i?aaeiaoo aeieacoaaiiy a
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie”, yeee i?noeoue aeaa i?ae?icae?ee
“Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea a?enueeiaeo cei/ei?a, ui iinyaathoueny ia
noaoooi? i?aaeea aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie” ?
“Iniaeeaino? i?aaeiaoo aeieacoaaiiy o e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i
ii?ooaiiy aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie”, i?enay/aii
aea/aiith oaeiai neeaaeo a?enueeiaeo cei/ei?a, ye cei/eie i?ioe ii?yaeeo
i?aeeaaeino? oa a?enueeiai? aa?/eeaino?. Aeoiaey/e c ?o niaoeeo?ee, a
aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny ni?iaa c’ynoaaoe, ui ae ia?oueny ia oaac? i?ae
iiiyooyi “ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie” aai ye eiai /ano?oa iaceaathoue — “ianoaoooi?
aca?iia?aeiineie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a”, ye? ii?ie E?ei?iaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie ?o ia?aaeaa/athoue. Aeena?oaio ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui i?i
ianoaoooi? a?aeiineie o Ca?ieieo Neeao iiaeia aiai?eoe a “oe?ieiio” oa
“aocueeiio” ?icoi?ii?. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo — oea on? a?enueeia? cei/eie
i?ioe ii?yaeeo i?aeeaaeino? ? aeio?eiaiiy a?enueeiai? aa?/eeaino?:
iaiiei?a (no. 232 EE), iaaeeiiaiiy iaeaco (no. 233 EE), ii??
ia/aeueieeia? aai i?eiooaiiy eiai aei ii?ooaiiy neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a
(no. 234 EE), iia?ica ia/aeueieeia? (no.235 EE), ianeeueieoeuee? ae??
uiaei ia/aeueieea (no. 236 EE), ia?aca i?aeeaaeei ia/aeueieea, aai
ia/aeueieeii i?aeeaaeiai (no. 237 EE), ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie i?e a?aenooiino? i?ae ieie
a?aeiinei i?aeeaaeino? (no. 238 EE). Neeaae cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiee no.
238 EE ? ? oei, ui iae/ano?oa iaceaathoue “ae?aeiaueiith”, oiaoi
iiiyooyi ianoaoooi? aca?iia?aeiineie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a o
“aocueeiio” ?icoi?ii?.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? eiie?aoeco? ia?ae?e
ianoaaei, ui i?aeeyaathoue aeieacoaaiith a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao,
iia’ycaieo c ii?ooaiiyi noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie. O oeueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii
aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy oeo aeiia noaooo?a Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie, ui
cae??ieththoue i?aaeea i?aeeaaeino?, a?enueeiai? aa?/eeaino?, iiaaae?iee
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, oiaoi noaoooi? i?aaeea aca?iia?aeiinei
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. Cie?aia, i?iaiae?ciaaii noaoo? 8, 11, 15, 28, 29
oa 84 Oei/aniaiai Noaoooo Aioo??oiuei? Neoaeae Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie,
noaoo? 1, 4, 48, 87 oa 107 Oei/aniaiai Aeenoeeie?ia?iiai Noaoooo
Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie. Aeoiaey/e c aeeniiceoe?? noaoae 232-238 EE Oe?a?ie
oa ia?ae?eo ianoaaei, ui i?aeeyaathoue aeieacoaaiith a e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aaao, iia’ycaieo c a/eiaiiyi oeeo cei/ei?a, aaoi? iaaieioo?, ui
a?enueeiaee noae ia? iaia’yceiai anoaiiaeoe: /e iaei i?noea ii?ooaiiy
noaoooieo i?aaee iiaaae?iee a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; ye? eiie?aoii
noaoooi? aeiiae ii?ooai?; /an, i?noea, niin?a oa ?io? ianoaaeie a/eiaiiy
ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie
(ie?iee /an, ai?iiee /an, aieiaa ianoaiiaea); /e ia?aaoaaa ooinue c
o/aniee?a eiioe?eoo i?e aeeiiaii? iaia’yce?a a?enueeiai? neoaeae; a yeeo
neoaeaiaeo noinoieao ia?aaoaathoue i?aenoaeiee oa iioa?i?eee (??ai? ca
nai?i neoaeaiaei noaiiaeuai ? a?enueeiaei caaiiyi /e i??); a /iio
eiie?aoii aeyaeeiny ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie (a?aee?eoa a?aeiiaa aeeiiaoe iaeac, ?ioa
iaaienia iaaeeiiaiiy iaeaco, iaiaa?aaeia iaaeeiiaiiy iaeaco, ii?? /e
i?eiooaiiy ia/aeueieea aei ii?ooaiiy neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a, iia?ica
ia/aeueieeo, caiiae?yiiy ia/aeueieeo aai i?aeeaaeiio o?eanieo
ooeiaeaeaiue, iiai?a /e ia?ace, a/eiaiiy ianeeueieoeueeeo ae?e uiaei
oiaa?eoa ii neoaea?, oiaoi iniae ??aii? ca a?enueeiaei caaiiyi,
iinaaeith); oa?aeoa?, ?ici?? ? oyaee?noue oeiaee, caiiae?yii?
ii?ooaiiyi noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie
(c?ea caoiae?a ii caaacia/aiith iino?eii? aieiai? aioiaiino? /anoeie,
i?ae?icae?eo, iauani? aeiaaeee c ethaeueie, cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy
aieiai? oaoi?ee, caiiae?yiiy ?noioii? iaeiiai? oeiaee, ni?e/eiaiiy
iiai?a /e o?eanieo ooeiaeaeaiue iniaiaiio neeaaeo, caiiae?yiiy nia?o?,
aeiaaaeaiiy iioa?i?eiai aei naiiaoanoaa, ineo?/ia caoai?thaaiiy
iioa?i?eiai); aeii?noue i?aenoaeiiai o a/eiaii? cei/eio, iioea ? iaoa
eiai ae?e; ianoaaeie, ye? iaoyaeothoue /e iii’yeoothoue e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?aenoaeiiai; ianoaaeie, ui aeeeth/athoue
e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue; ianoaaeie, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
o/aniee?a eiioe?eoo; ?ici?? aeo?ao ia noaoe?iia?ia e?eoaaiiy
iioa?i?eiai; aaciina?aaei? i?e/eie cei/eio oa oiiae, ye? ni?eyee eiai
a/eiaiith.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “Noaeiaa ne?aenoai a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao
i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie” ai?uo? o?e i?ae?icae?ee.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy i?aoeue a/aieo-i?ioeanoae?no?a uiaei aecia/aiiy
i?noey noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa a noaeiaiio ?icaeyae? ni?aae, o anaa?/iiio,
iiaiiio oa ia’?eoeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ianoaaei e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae
aaoi? ni?iaoaaa c’ynoaaoe, ye? caaaeaiiy ae??oo? a?enueeiaee noae i?ae
/an noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa, /ei inoaii? a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae i?ioeano
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieac?a a oiae? iiia?aaeiueiai ne?aenoaa. I?e oeueiio
aoei c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aaciina?aaei?noue, oni?noue, aeani?noue oa
ciaaaeuei?noue, ye? i?eoaiaii? noaeiaiio ne?aenoao, aa?aioothoue
iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeaiiy ?noeie ? i?eeiyooy caeiiiiai ? iaa?oioiaaiiai
??oaiiy o ni?aa?.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo — “Aeiieo i?aenoaeiiai,
iioa?i?eiai, na?aee?a oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o iieacaiue” — i?iaiae?ciaaii
eiei caieoaiue, a?aeiia?ae? ia ye? noae iiaea ? iiaeiai io?eiaoe c oeeo
aeaea?ae aeieac?a c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae neeaaeo eiie?aoiiai ?c
cei/ei?a, ye? ioiieththoueny iiiyooyi “ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie” (no.232-238 EE Oe?a?ie).
I?e oeueiio aeine?aeaeothoueny oaeoe/i? i?eeiie io?eiaiiy iiaieo ?
aeinoia??ieo a?aeiiinoae uiaei ianoaaei, eio?? i?aeeyaathoue c’ynoaaiith
a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i ianoaoooi? aca?iia?aeiineie
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui a iiaiio EIE Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeii cae??ieoe ii?io,
a?aeiia?aeii aei eio?i?, ?icii/eiath/e aeiieo i?aenoaeiiai, noae iiaeiai
iia?aeiieoe eiio iane?aeee, ye? iiaeooue i?ney oeueiai ianoaoe: a) ana
iia?aeiieaia i?aenoaeiei iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii aeey iaaeioaa/aiiy eiai
o a/eiaii? cei/eio; a) i?ye? iieacaiiy i?aenoaeiiai ia iathoue ia?aaaae
iaae ?ioeie aeieacaie; a) aeniiaee noaeo i?i aeioaao?noue /e
iaaeioaao?noue i?aenoaeiiai ia iiaeooue a?oiooaaoenue o?eueee ia
iieacaiiyo i?aenoaeiiai, oaeee aeniiaie ia? i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaoeny on??th
noeoii?noth aeieac?a o ni?aa?; a) aeciaiiy aeie ? ue?a ?iceayiiy ?
iii’yeooth/ith e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ianoaaeiith (i. 8 /. 1
no. 40 EE).

Aaoi? i?aeaea? noii?ao iaa?oioiaai?noue e?ieo caeiiiaeaaoey ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe??, eio?ee aeiiiaiea na?e EIE ii?iith, ui aeicaiey?
aieiaoth/iio i?ae /an neooaiiy ni?aae noaeii i?enyaeiei ia i?iaiaeeoe
noaeiaa ne?aenoai, yeui i?aenoaeiee aeciaa naaa aeiiei. Ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy “oea?eoe? aeieac?a” iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
iineaaeaiiy aa?aio?e caoenoo i?aenoaeieo oa iaaeioaa/aieo ? ua a?eueoa
i?aeooiaoia iaaeioaaeueio noi?iio (ne?ae/eo ? i?ieo?i??a) aei iiooeo
cania?a, ye? a aeicaieeee iaea?aeaoe a?ae i?aenoaeiiai aeciaaaeuei?
iieacaiiy. Caiice/oth/e ii?ie e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa, ye?
?, cie?aia a NOA, caeiiiaeaaaoeue ?in??, iaaooue, ia a?aooaaa, ui
nei?i/aiee i?ioean ae?? oai ii?yae c i?ioeaaeo?ith “plea bargaining”,
oiaoi c i?aeoeeith “oaiae i?i aeciaiiy aeie”. Naia inoaii? ? aeayeith
aa?aio??th i?aaa ia caoeno iniae, ui iinoaea ia?aae noaeii. ?acii c oei,
a?aenooi?noue iaeaaeii aei?iaoaaii? i?ioeaaeo?e a iaoeo oiiaao, iiaea
ni?e/eieoe ii?ooaiiy i?aa ye i?aenoaeiiai, oae ? iioa?i?eiai.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e ae?oaiai ?icae?eo — “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeniiaeo
aenia?oa” — i?enay/aii aea/aiith i?iaeai, ye? aeieeathoue i?ae /an
noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo
i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, eiee aeiaiaeeoueny
aeine?aeaeoaaoe oae? aeaea?aea aeieac?a ye aeniiaee aenia?oa. E??i oiai,
o oeueiio ae i?ae?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy i?i ii?yaeie
i?ecia/aiiy ? i?iaaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeie noaeaie Oe?a?ie noaeiaeo
aenia?oec: noaeiai-iaaee/ii?, noaeiai-ineo?ao?e/ii?, noaeiai-oaoi?/ii?
oa e?ei?iae?noe/ii?, noaeiai-ineoieia?/ii?, ii/a?eiciaa/i? oa ?ioeo
aenia?oec. Oae, c’yniaaii, ui i?e iioeiaeaeaii? oaoi?ee ? ica?i?iiy
i?ecia/a?oueny noaeiai-oaoi?/ia aenia?oeca aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o
iioeiaeaeaiue, ?ici??o caiiae?yieo caeoe?a. E??i oiai, ia?aae aenia?oii
iiaea aooe iinoaaeaii caieoaiiy ? i?i oa, /e ? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee
?acoeueoaoii iaaeeiiaiiy i?aenoaeiei iaaiiai iaeaco. Oaea caieoaiiy
aeieea? o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee a iaeac? ia/aeueieea aecia/aii ii?yaeie
aeeiiaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ae?e, iia’ycaieo c ?iaioith ia oaoi?oe?. Eiee
i?aenoaeiee, io?eiaaoe iaeac o ienueiiaiio aeaeyae?, i?aeaea? noii?ao
na?e i?aeien o a?aeiia?aeiiio aeieoiaio? a eiec? ?icii?yaeaeaiue,
i?ecia/a?oueny ii/a?eiciaa/a aenia?oeca aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aaoi?a
i?aeieno.

Noaeiai-ineo?ao?e/i? aenia?oece i?iaiaeyoueny ia o?eueee o aeiaaeeo,
eiee aeieea? noii?a c i?eaiaeo inoaeiino? i?aenoaeiiai, aea e oiae?,
eiee ? i?aenoaae i?aeic?thaaoe, ui aiane?aeie canoiniaaiiai ianeeuenoaa
ineo?/iei caoai?thaaiiyi ii/aa no?aaeaeaoe iioa?i?eee. A inoaiiueiio
aeiaaeeo aaaeeeai anoaiiaeoe ia o?eueee oaeo oai?iae, aea ? ia??iae
/ano, a eio?iio ii/aany ?? ia?aa?a, oa i?e/eie, ye? iiaee oai?iao
ni?iaieoaaoe.

Aea/ath/e i?aeoeeo a?enueeiaeo noae?a, aaoi? anoaiiaea, ui c on?o 1280
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, iaoeia?, oaoi?/i? aai ?io? niaoe?aeuei?
ciaiiy aenia?o?a ia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o?eueee o 91
e?ei?iaeuei?e ni?aa?. Iia’ycaii oea aoei c oei, ui ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo
i?aaee a?aeaoaaeiny o oi?i? “?ioiai ianeeuenoaa”, a ciouath/enue /e
ia?aaeath/e iioa?i?eiai, i?aenoaeiee i?yeeo oaea??a eiio ia iaiinea.

?acii c oei, o i?aeoeoe? a?enueeiaeo noae?a o?aieythoueny aeiaaeee
i?ecia/aiiy aenia?oece c ianoaaei, c’ynoaaiiy yeeo ia aeiaaa?
niaoe?aeueieo ciaiue. Oea noino?oueny i?ecia/aiiy noaeiaeo aenia?oec
ooaoii? ca?i?, eio?a caa??aa?oueny o a?enueeiaeo /anoeiao ? ia eio?o
caaaaeai? a?aeiia?aei? ianii?oe oa oi?ioey?e, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ??
iaeaaei?noue aei iaaiiai aeaeo, ni?aai?noue ? i?eaeaoi?noue aeey
caiiae?yiiy o?eanieo ooeiaeaeaiue. Oae? aenia?oece i?ecia/aeeny a 12
ni?aaao c aea/aieo aaoi?ii 1280 e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa (oiaoi iaeaea ii 1%
ni?aa).

Aeena?oaio iaaieioo?, ui, ioe?ithth/e aeniiaie aenia?oa, a?enueeia?
noaee, caa?oathoue oaaao ia oae? ianoaaeie: a) /e aeiaea?aeai? aeiiae
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiio i?e i?ecia/aii? oa i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?oece; a) yeui oe? aeiiae ia aeiaea?aeai?, oi o /iio eiie?aoii
oea aeyaeeiny, /ei aoei aeeeeeaii, /e iiaei a?aeaeoeny ia iiaiio? oa
aeinoia??iino? aeniiaeo aenia?oa; a) eaae?o?eaoe?th aenia?oa, ??aaiue
eiai oai?aoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee ? i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae, /e a?aeiia?aeathoue
aiie caaaeaiith, ui noaaeeiny aenia?oia?; /e ia aeeoia aenia?o ca iaae?
nai?o iiaiiaaaeaiue; /e ?niothoue ianoaaeie, ui ia?aoeiaeaeathoue eiai
o/ano? o ni?aa?; a) iaoa??ae, eio?ee aoa a ?icii?yaeaeaii? aenia?oa; /e
aeinoaoi?e a?i aoa aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oece; /e a?aeaeeeny ia
aeniiaeo iaiiaiioa aai iecueea ye?noue iaoa??aeo, iaaeaiiai aenia?oia?;
/e ia cae?aeeny aeo?aei? aeai? naiei aenia?oii; ae) iaoeia?noue
i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?oii aeine?aeaeaiiy, ??aaiue ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeii?
aaeoc? iaoeiaeo ciaiue; i?aaeeuei?noue canoinoaaiiy eiie?aoii? iaoiaeeee
oa aeicaieai?noue ?? aeei?enoaiiy, ia?aa??ai?noue iaoeith ? i?aeoeeith;
?) a?aeiia?aei?noue aeniiae?a aenia?oa oei aeaiei, eio?? a?i io?eiaa o
oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy; iaa?oioiaai?noue aeniiae?a, aeinoia??i?noue
aeaieo, iieeaaeaieo a iniiao aeniiae?a; ae) a?aeiia?aei?noue oaeoe/ieo
aeaieo ? i?aenoie?a, eio?? i?noyoueny o aeniiaeo aenia?oa, ?ioei
aeieacai a ni?aa?; /e ? i?ae ieie noia?a/iino?; /e iiaeia ?o iiaeieaoe
aac i?ecia/aiiy iiaoi?ii?, aeiaeaoeiai? aenia?oec.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e ae?oaiai ?icae?eo — “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?a/iaeo aeieac?a,
i?ioieie?a ne?ae/eo ? noaeiaeo ae?e, ?ioeo aeieoiaio?a”. A oeueiio
i?ae?icae?e? aaoi?, i?aeo?eioth/e i?iiiceoe?th I.I. Ieoa?iea,
iaa?oioiao? aeioe?euei?noue cai?ie a caeii? iiiyooy “?a/ia? aeieace” ia
oa?i?i “i?aaeiaoe ye aeaea?aea aeieac?a”. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iiae?e
i?aaeiao?a, ye? iathoue iciaee ?a/iaeo aeieac?a, ia e?eueea aeae?a ?
oiiaiei, ai iaei? ? o? ae i?aaeiaoe iiaeooue o eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio
aeiaaeeo aenooiaoe o ??cieo yeinoyo. Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?ae, eio?ei
caiiae?yii ii?aiaiiy iioa?i?eiio, iiaea aooe ia o?eueee cia?yaeaeyi
a/eiaiiy cei/eio, aea ? i?aaeiaoii, ia yeiio caa?aaeenue ne?aee cei/eio
(ne?aee e?ia?, a?aeaeoee iaeueoe?a ?oe), aai i?aaeiaoii, ui aeicaiey?
?ice?eoe cei/ei ? aee?eoe aeiiiai (yeui a?i caaoaeaiee i?aeic?thaaiei ia
i?noe? nei?iiy cei/eio). ?acii c oei, iiae?e oeeo i?aaeiao?a ia aeaee
aeicaiey? a?eueo oaaaeii i?ae?eoe aei ?o aea/aiiy, c’ynoaaoe, o /iio
iieyaa? ?o a?aei?ii?noue i?ae niaith, oa a?aeiaaeoaaoe ?a/ia? aeieace
a?ae ?ioeo aeieac?a, eio?? caaaeothoueny caeiiiaeaaoeai o no.no. 82 ? 83
EIE Oe?a?ie, — i?ioieie?a ne?ae/eo ? noaeiaeo ae?e oa ?ioeo aeieoiaio?a.

Aeei?enoaiiy cia?yaeue cia/ii i?aeaeuo? noni?eueio iaaaciaeo ae?yiiy.
Oeei iiynith?oueny ?ici?uaiiy a ie?aieo ii?iao E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno,
ia?aaaaeii o aeaeyae? eaae?o?eoth/eo iciae, caaaeie i?i aeei?enoaiiy
oaeeo i?aaeiao?a. Iai?eeeaae, o aeiaaeeo canoinoaaiiy aiaiaiaeueii? /e
oieiaeii? ca?i? a i?ioean? ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie i?e a?aenooiino? i?ae ieie a?aeiinei
i?aeeaaeino?, ae?? aeiiiai i?aeeyaathoue eaae?o?eaoe?? ca i.»a» no.238
EE Oe?a?ie. Aeey ii??aiyiiy — cacia/aia ii?ia, ia?aaeaa/a? o o?noue
?ac?a noai??oo a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?ae naieoe?y i. «a» oe??? ae
noaoo?.

Aeieoiaioe ye aeaea?aea aeieac?a a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i ii?ooaiiy
noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie caeiathoue
cia/ia i?noea. Aei ieo iio??aii a?aeianoe aeieoiaioe, eio?? noinothoueny
ia??iaeo i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?aenoaeiei a?enueeiai? neoaeae (aeoyae c iaeac?a
eiiaiaee?a /anoeie i?i ca?aooaaiiy a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey a nienee
iniaiaiai neeaaeo, i?i i?ecia/aiiy ? ca?eueiaiiy c iinaae, i?i
i?enai?iiy a?enueeiaiai caaiiy, i?ecia/aiiy a ia?yae oiui) ? aeieoiaioe
c i?noey i?eciao a a?i?th (oa?aeoa?enoeee, aeia?aeee c e?eoaaeueieo
onoaiia, i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy, i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, oeiee, o/eeeua ?
o.i.).

I?ioieiee ne?ae/eo ? noaeiaeo ae?e ? ie?aiei aeaeii aeieoiaio?a o
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?. Aiie — iniiaiee i?ioeanoaeueiee can?a
ioi?ieaiiy ne?ae/eo ae?e, ?o ?acoeueoao?a, a oaeiae onueiai oiaeo
noaeiaiai can?aeaiiy. C aeiiiiiaith oaeeo aeieoiaio?a o?enothoueny
a?aeiiino? i?i oaeoe, io?eiai? i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ne?ae/eo ? noaeiaeo
ae?e, a oiio /ene? a?aeiiino? i?i oaeoe, eio?? aoee ia’?eoaie
aaciina?aaeiueiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ne?ae/iai, noaeae?a oa ?ioeo o/aniee?a
i?ioeano, cie?aia iaeaea 80% ni?aa, eio?? aoee aea/ai? i?e iaienaii?
aeena?oaoe??, i?noeee i?ioieiee a?aeoai?aiiy ianoaiiaee oa ianoaaei
iiae?e ca o/anoth iaaeioaa/aiiai ? iioa?i?eeo.

Ioe?iea ?a/iaeo aeieac?a oa aeieoiaio?a iieyaa? o aecia/aii? ?o
iaeaaeiino?, aeiionoeiino? oa aeinoia??iino?. Iniaeea?noue ioe?iee
?a/iaeo aeieac?a iia’ycaia ia?o ca ana c iniaeea?noth naieo ?a/iaeo
aeieac?a, eio?ith aenooia? i?noea ?o aeyaeaiiy. Eiai aiae?c aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe iaeaaei?noue aeieaco ? ae??oeoe ?io? ieoaiiy. Oae, aeyaeaiiy
i?aaeiaoo ia i?noe? iiae?? iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i ca’ycie oeueiai i?aaeiaoo
c oei, ui oai a?aeaoeiny. Iiaeaiiy ae i?aaeiaoo o/anieeii i?ioeano, a ia
a?aeooeaiiy eiai ne?ae/ei i?ae /an iaeyaeo i?noey iiae??, iiaea aieeiooe
ia ioe?ieo aeinoia??iino? oeueiai aeieaco.

Ioe?iea aeiionoeiino? iieyaa? a aiae?c? aeiaea?aeaiiy ii?yaeeo
i?ioeanoaeueiiai ioi?ieaiiy ?a/iaiai aeieaco. Inoaii? aieeaa? ? ia
ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i aeinoia??i?noue ?a/iaiai aeieaco, oiaoi ieoaiiy
i?i oa, iane?eueee i?aaeeueii eiai yeino? oa iciaee a?aeia?aaeothoue
ae?eni? iiae?? oa ae??.

Ioe?ithth/e ?a/iaee aeieac, iaiao?aeii i?iaiae?coaaoe aanue o?ae,
i?ioean eiai ooai?aiiy: oiiae aeyaeaiiy, caa??aaiiy, noa?aii?noue
iaeyaeo, aeio?eiaiiy ii?yaeeo i?ioeanoaeueiiai ioi?ieaiiy. Aaaeeeai
ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i oa, /e oea oie i?aaeiao, yeee aoei aeyaeaii ye
?a/iaee aeieac; c’ynoaaoe ana, ui iiaei aieeiooe ia eiai oe?ii?noue,
ci?io yeinoae, oaeueneo?eaoe?th oiui.

Ioe?iea ?a/iaiai aeieaco noaeii iiaeiia aooe ?acoeueoaoii iaia’yceiaiai
iaeyaeo i?aaeiaoa a noaeiaiio can?aeaii? a?aeiia?aeii aei i?eioeeio
aaciina?aaeiueino? noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo oa aeiia no.313 EIE Oe?a?ie.

O ?icae?e? o?aoueiio “Noaeia? aeaaaoe ? inoaii? neiai i?aenoaeiiai i?e
?icaeyae? e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie” aeine?aeaeothoueny
caaaeuei? i?iaeaie o/ano? a noaeiaeo aeaaaoao a?enueeiaiai i?ieo?i?a oa
caoenieea-aaeaieaoa, a oaeiae c’yniao?oueny, ye? ieoaiiy aeiaiaeeoueny
ii?oooaaoe ? iaa?oioiaoaaoe iacaaiei o/anieeii aeaaao?a o e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aaao iia’ycaieo c ianoaoooieie aca?iia?aeiineiaie
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. C’yniao?oueny i?noea oa ?ieue inoaiiueiai neiaa
i?aenoaeiiai a iaaeaii? eiio anueiai eiiieaeno i?ioeanoaeueieo cania?a
caoenoo a?ae iaaeioaa/aiiy.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? o?aoueiai ?icae?eo: “I?iiiaa a?enueeiaiai
i?ieo?i?a” aeena?oaio, i?iaiae?coaaaoe ci?no noaoae 264, 282, 297-299
EIE Oe?a?ie oa noaoo? 36 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i i?ieo?aoo?o”, ?iaeoue
aeniiaie, ui aiie ia ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeiiaaie no. 121 Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie ? i?iiiio? oeyoii aianaiiy ci?i, aei caaaeaieo ii?i, i?eaanoe ?o
o a?aeiia?aei?noue c Iniiaiei caeiiii. I?e oeueiio aaoi? iaa?oioiao?
iaiao?aei?noue ia?aaeaa/eoe a EIE iaia’yceiao o/anoue aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeioaa/a o noaeiaiio ?icaeyae? an?o e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa,
aeioe?euei?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio iaia’yceiaino? aieaaeyaeaiiy
i?ieo?i?a aeey iiaeaeueoi? aeie? e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae: o ?ac? a?aeiiae
i?ieo?i?a a?ae iaaeioaa/aiiy noae ia? cae?eoe ni?aao aai aeianoe
aei?aaaeoaaeueiee ae?ie, yeui i?ioe oeueiai ia caia?a/o? iioa?i?eee oa
?io? o/anieee i?ioeano. Ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy ia?aa?ao?a 90,109,259 EIE
Aano???, /anoeie 7 noaoo? 317 EIE Eacaonoaio, a?aeiia?aeieo ii?i
caeiiiaeaanoaa THaineaa?? oa Aaeeeia?eoai??, aeine?aeaeaiiy noaeiai?
i?aeoeee a?enueeiaeo noae?a Oe?a?ie aeena?oaio i?eeoia aei ia?aeiiaiiy,
ui cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaeeo ii?i a e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie ca?eueieei a noae a?ae aeeiiaiiy iaaeanoeai?
eiio iaaeioaaeueii? ooieoe??.

C iaeyaeo ia oaio ?iaioe, aaoi? i?iiiio? oaeo i?eaeecio no?oeoo?o
iaaeioaaeueii? i?iiiae a?enueeiaiai i?ieo?i?a a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao
iia’ycaieo c ii?ooaiiyi noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a: 1) noni?eueia ioe?iea eiie?aoiiai ii?ooaiiy
noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie; 2)
aeeeaaeaiiy oaeoe/ieo ianoaaei ni?aae; 3) aiae?c ? ioe?iea
aeine?aeaeaiiy a noae? aeieac?a; 4) iaa?oiooaaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? cei/eio;
5) oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aenoaeiiai oa iioa?i?eiai; 6) i??eoaaiiy c i?eaiaeo
iiea?aiiy oa oeea?eueiiai iiciao; 7) aiae?c i?e/ei ? oiia, ui ni?eyee
a/eiaiith cei/eio, ? cai?iiiiiaai? caoiaee aeey ?o onoiaiiy.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? o?aoueiai ?icae?eo: “I?iiiaa caoenieea” ia
iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy 1280 e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa uiaei ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo
i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, eio?? a?enueeia?
o?eaoiaee N?N? oa a?enueeia? noaee Oe?a?ie ?icaeyioee i?ioyaii 1950-1998
?ie?a, aaoi? caoaaaeo?, ui, aa?o/e o/anoue a noaeiaeo can?aeaiiyo
a?enueeiaeo noae?a, ? cie?aia, a noaeiaeo aeaaaoao i?e ?icaeyae?
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ianoaoooi? aca?iia?aeiineie
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, caoenieee-aaeaieaoe ?ieiee aei aeeiiaiiy nai?o
i?ioeanoaeueieo iaia’yce?a noaaeyoueny ia aeineoue i?ioan?eii. Aea/eaoe
oea ieoaiiy, aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui ianeai?noue aaeaieao?a
/anoi iia’ycaia c iaaeinoaoi?i ciaiiyi caoenieeaie iniaeeainoae
a?enueeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ?aaeaiaioo? ii?yaeie i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae, i?aeo?eiaiiy aeenoeeie?ie, aeio?eiaiiy i?aaee
a?enueeiai? aa?/eeaino? oiui.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe noaooth 59 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i
aaeaieaoo?o”, aea/eaoe i?iiiceoe?? O. Aa?oieii??ai?, I. Einoeoeueeiai,
N. Eia?iiai?, I.ssiianueei?, I.Nayoioeueeiai oa I.Aa?uaanueeiai, a
oaeiae a?aeiia?aei? ii?ie EIE O?aioe??, aeena?oaio iaaieioo? ia
iaiao?aeiino? i?eeiyooy Eiaeaeno aaeaieaonueei? aoeee Oe?a?ie.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e o?aoueiai ?icae?eo ioiieth? aea/aiiy i?aaiai?
i?e?iaee oa ci?noo inoaiiueiai neiaa i?aenoaeiiai a e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aaao i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. Cie?aia, i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui na?aae ie?aieo
i?aeoee?a oa iaoeiaoe?a noaaeaiiy aei inoaiiueiai neiaa aeaui “i?o?/ia”,
oiio ui eiai aaaaeathoue ia o?eueee ca aaaeeeao i?ioeanoaeueio
aa?aio?th, aea ? ca iaea?eueoa, iaeia?aeiieea?oa na?ae/aiiy
ia’?eoeaiino? noaeo oa aeinyaiaiiy ineoieia?/iiai eiioaeoo i?ae
o/anieeaie i?ioeano ? noaeii.

Aeneiaethth/e aeoieo, ui inoaii? neiai ia? iaea?eueoee aieea naia ia
aioo??oi? ia?aeiiaiiy noaeo ? ia ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi i? ia’?eoeaiino?
noaeo, i? aeieacii ue?ino? iiyniaiue i?aenoaeiiai, aeena?oaio ia
iiaiaeaeo?oueny c i?iiiceoe??th ie?aieo aaoi??a (cie?aia, I.?. Aaaniaa)
i?i a?aeianaiiy inoaiiueiai neiaa aei iieacaiue iaaeioaa/aiiai.

Inoaii? neiai i?aenoaeiiai — oea aeaieioaia i?ney aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeieac?a ? aeneiaeaiiy o/anieeaie noaeiaeo aeaaao?a i?iiiceoe?e uiaei
ae??oaiiy ni?aae inoaii? caa?iaiiy i?aenoaeiiai aei oiai, ye oie i?aea
aei ia?aae/i? e?iiaoe aeey ae??oaiiy eiai ni?aae. sseui o oeueiio
caa?iaii? i?aenoaeiee iia?aeiieoue i?i ianoaaeie ni?aae, ye? iathoue
?noioia cia/aiiy oi noae ia? a?aeiiaeoe noaeiaa ne?aenoai ? caneooaoe
oea caa?iaiiy ye iieacaiiy i?aenoaeiiai oa aeine?aeeoe ?o c o/anoth
?ioeo noa’?eo?a i?ioeano.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee: “Iaa?oiooaaiiy oa iioeaoaaiiy iaaeioaaeueiiai ae?ieo
a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie” i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioeano
neeaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeie noaeaie ae?ie?a a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao aeaii?
eaoaai???. I?e oeueiio, i?iaiae?coaaaoe i?aoe? I.?. Aaaeaiiaa, TH.I.
A?ioaaiai, I.I. Ieoa?iea, ?.Ae. Ia?eiaa, I.N. No?iaiae/a oa ?ioeo a/aieo
? iaoa??aee e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa, ui ?icaeyioo? a?enueeiaeie noaeaie,
aaoi? aiae?co?, ye? ae i?iaeaie aeieeathoue a oiae? neeaaeaiiy,
iaa?oiooaaiiy ? iioeaoaaiiy iaaeioaaeueieo ae?ie?a oa i?e/eie
a?aenooiino? aei?aaaeoaaeueieo ae?ie?a (i?ioyaii 1990-1998 ?ie?a) a
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao iia’ycaieo c ii?ooaiiyi noaoooieo i?aaee
aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. Inoaii?, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa,
iiynith?oueny oei, ca iayaiino? i?aenoaa aeey aenoiaiiy i?aenoaeiiio
a?eueo oyaeeiai iaaeioaa/aiiy, ni?aae iiaa?oaeeny aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaiai ne?aenoaa (6 ni?aa ?c 1280, oiaoi a?ey 0,55 %) aai
cae?eaaeeny aaea ia noaae?? a?aeaeaiiy iaaeioaa/aiiai aei noaeo (2
ni?aae c 1280 aea/aieo, oiaoi 0,17%). A ?ioeo aeiaaeeao — iaea i?noea
ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?y ae?e i?aenoaeieo.

Aaoi? iiaiaeaeoth/enue c TH.I. A?ioaaei, aaaaea?, ui i?ae caeiii?noth oa
iaa?oioiaai?noth ae?ieo ?nio? i?aai?/iee aca?iica’ycie oa
aca?iicaeaaei?noue. Ae?ie iiaea aooe aai i?aainoaeiei, oiaoi caeiiiei oa
iaa?oioiaaiei aai iai?aainoaeiei, oiaoi iacaeiiiei oa iaiaa?oioiaaiei.

Iioeaoaaiiy ae?ieo ? i?iyaii aioo??oiueiai ia?aeiiaiiy noaeo. Neeaaeaiiy
aeia?a iioeaiaaiiai ae?ieo iniaeeai o aaeeeeo, neeaaeieo ni?aaao, aea
aei oiai ae ia?aaaaeathoue iai?yi? aeieace, aeiaaa? ii??aiyii a?eueoiai
/ano, i?ae aeeeaaeaiiy iaaiioeaiaaiiai ae?ieo. Iaeiae oey ianoaaeia ia
iiaea aooe i?aenoaaith aeey aei?aaaeaiiy i?iiiceoe?e ie?aieo a/aieo
noiniaii neanoaaiiy iioeaoaaiiy. Ia iiaeia aeiionoeoe, uia o
ae?ieo aoea a?aenooiy aiioeaiaai?noue o?eueee oiio, ui aiia ?iaeoue
iinoaiiaeaiiy ae?ieo a?eueo o?eaaeei i?ioeanii. ?acii c oei, iioeaoaaiiy
iiaeiii noinoaaoeny o?eueee oeo ianoaaei, eio?? iacaai? a EIE.

O “Aeniiaeao” a eiioeaio?iaaiiio aeaeyae? aeeeaaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? ?
i?aeoe/i? i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai,
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai oa a?enueeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.

A “Aeiaeaoeao” c?a?ai? iaoa??aee uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii

oae? i?aoe? aaoi?a:

1. Oea/oe I.N. Ieoaiiy i?io?eaeoeee ianoaoooieo aca?iia?aeiinei o
Ca?ieieo Neeao //A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. TH?eaee/i?
iaoee.-1995.-?36.-N.146-151.

2. Oea/oe I.N. Ieaioaaiiy noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa o ni?aaao i?i ianoaoooi?
aca?iia?aeiineie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a // A?niee Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. TH?eaee/i? iaoee.-1995.-N.209-219.

3. Oea/oe I.N. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a noae? aeieac?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
iniao i?aenoaeiiai // I?aai Oe?a?ie.- 1996.-?12.-N.47-48.

4. Oea/oe I.N. Iaea?aeaiiy aeaieo noiniaii noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie cei/eio
i?e ?icaeyae? ni?aa // I?aai Oe?a?ie.- 1998.-?11.-N.53-58.

Oea/oe I.N. Noaeiaee ?icaeyae e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy
noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie Ca?ieieo
Nee Oe?a?ie.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.09 — e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioean oa e?ei?iae?noeea;
noaeiaa aenia?oeca — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith i?iaeaiieo ieoaiue noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie Ca?ieieo Nee. A?aoiaoth/e, ui a Oe?a?i? aia?oa
i?iaiaeeoueny iiae?aia aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaoi? i?iaiae?coaaa oaeiae
iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? iciaee ae?yeueiino? a?enueeiaeo noae?a Oe?a?ie ii
cae?eniaiith i?aainoaeaey oa i?aaeiao aeieacoaaiiy a e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aaao, iia’ycaieo ?c cei/eiaie i?ioe ii?yaeeo i?aeeaaeino? oa
a?enueeiai? aa?/eeaino?. I?e oeueiio eiie?aoeciaaii ia?ae?e ianoaaei,
ye? i?aeeyaathoue aeieacoaaiith a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao oe??? eaoaai???
?, aeoiaey/e c aeaiiai ia?ae?eo, i?ine?aeeiaaii ii?yaeie oa iniaeeaino?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieac?a i?ae /an noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa, oeyoe onoiaiiy
noia?a/iinoae oa iaiiaiioe iiia?aaeiueiai ne?aenoaa. Ia i?aenoaa?
aea/aiiy 1280 e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa iia’ycaieo c ii?ooaiiyi noaoooieo
i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie, aeena?oaio
i?iaiae?coaaa ae?yeuei?noue a?enueeiaeo i?ieo?i??a oa caoeniee?a
aaeaieao?a ye i?ae /an noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa a?enueeiaeo noae?a, oae ? a
oiae? noaeiaeo aeaaao?a. Aecia/aii, ye? i?iaeaie aeieeathoue a i?ioean?
iaa?oiooaaiiy oa iioeaoaaiiy iaaeioaaeueieo ae?ie?a a?enueeiaeo noae?a ?
cai?iiiiiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?o ae??oaiith.

?acoeueoaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee i?iiiceoe?? i?i
aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai, e?ei?iaeueiiai oa
a?enueeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie uiaei i?aaiaiai noaiiaeua
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, ?icoe?aiiy i?aa i?aenoaeieo, iioa?i?eeo,
oeea?eueieo iiceaa/?a oa oeea?eueieo a?aeiia?aea/?a, caoenoo iioa?i?eeo
? na?aee?a a?ae iai?aaii??iiai aieeao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?enueeiaee noae, noaeiaee ?icaeyae, ii?ooaiiy noaoooieo
i?aaee aca?iia?aeiinei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a.

Oea/oe I.N. Noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai oaieiaiuo aeae i ia?ooaieyo
onoaaiuo i?aaee acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aiaiiineoaeaueie Aii?oaeaiiuo
Nee Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.09 — oaieiaiue i?ioeann e e?eieiaeenoeea;
noaeaaiay yenia?oeca. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei,
Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth i?iaeaiiuo aii?inia noaeaaiiai
?acae?aoaeuenoaa oaieiaiuo aeae i ia?ooaiee onoaaiuo i?aaee
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aiaiiineoaeaueie Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee. Aaoi? aia?aua
a Oe?aeia enneaaeiaae iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou aeayoaeueiinoe aiaiiuo
noaeia Oe?aeiu ii inouanoaeaieth i?aainoaeey, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoe
i?aaeiaoa aeieacuaaiey ii oeacaiiui oaieiaiui aeaeai. ?anniio?ai
ii?yaeie, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoe i?iaa?ee aeieacaoaeuenoa a oiaea
noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey, iooe ono?aiaiey i?ioeai?a/ee e iaiieiiou
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey. Ia iniiaaiee eco/aiey 1280 oaieiaiuo
aeae, naycaiiuo n ia?ooaieai onoaaiuo i?aaee acaeiiioiioaiee
aiaiiineoaeaueo, aeenna?oaio i?iaiaeece?iaae aeayoaeueiinoue aiaiiuo
i?ieo?i?ia e caueoieeia-aaeaieaoia eae ai a?aiy noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey
aiaiiuo noaeia, oae e a oiaea noaeaaiuo i?aiee. Enneaaeiaaiu oaeaea
i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua aicieeatho a i?ioeanna iainiiaaiey e iioeae?iaee
iaaeieoaeueiuo i?eaiai?ia aiaiiuo noaeia e iaia/aiu iooe eo ?aoaiey.

Enoiaey ec i?aaeiaoa, oeaee e caaea/ aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey,
auea ii?aaeaeaia e no?oeoo?a ?aaiou. Aeenna?oaoeey ninoieo ec
anooieaiey, /aou?ao ?acaeaeia, auaiaeia, nienea eniieueciaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia e i?eeiaeaiee. ?acaeae 1 “I?aaeiao aeieacuaaiey a oaieiaiuo
aeaeao i ia?ooaiee onoaaiuo i?aaee acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aiaiiineoaeaueie” aeeth/aao a naay aeaa iiae?acaeaea: “Iauay
oa?aeoa?enoeea aieineeo i?anooieaiee, iinyaathueo ia onoaaiua i?aaeea
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aiaiiineoaeaueie” e “Iniaaiiinoe i?aaeiaoa
aeieacuaaiey ii oaieiaiui aeaeai i ia?ooaieyo onoaaiuo i?aaee
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aiaiiineoaeaueie”. ?acaeae 2 “Noaeaaiia
neaaenoaea ii oaieiaiui aeaeai i ia?ooaieyo onoaaiuo i?aaee
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aiaiiineoaeaueie” eiaao o?e iiae?acaeaea:
“Aeii?in iiaenoaeeiiai, iioa?iaaoaai, naeaeaoaeae e enneaaeiaaiea eo
iieacaiee”, “Enneaaeiaaiea caeeth/aiee yenia?oa”, “Enneaaeiaaiea
aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, i?ioieieia neaaenoaaiiuo e noaeaaiuo
aeaenoaee, eiuo aeieoiaioia”. ?acaeae 3 “Noaeaaiua i?aiey e iineaaeiaa
neiai iiaenoaeeiiai i?e ?anniio?aiee oaieiaiuo aeae i ia?ooaieyo
onoaaiuo i?aaee acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aiaiiineoaeaueie” ioaaouaaao o?e
iiae?acaeaea: “Aunooieaiea aiaiiiai i?ieo?i?a”, “Aunooieaiea aaeaieaoa”,
“Iineaaeiaa neiai iiaenoaeeiiai”. ?acaeae 4 aeenna?oaoeee iinayuai
i?iaeaiai “Iainiiaaiey e iioeae?iaee iaaeieoaeueiiai i?eaiai?a ii
oaieiaiui aeaeai i ia?ooaieyo onoaaiuo i?aaee acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aiaiiineoaeaueie”.

?acoeueoaoii aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey noaee i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeaenoaothuaai oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai, oaieiaiiai
e aiaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu ioiineoaeueii i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiey
aiaiiineoaeaueo, ?anoe?aiey i?aa iiaenoaeeiuo, iioa?iaaoeo,
a?aaeaeaineeo enooeia e a?aaeaeaineeo ioaao/eeia, caueou iioa?iaaoeo e
naeaeaoaeae io iacaeiiiiai aeeyiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaiiue noae, noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai, ia?ooaiea
onoaaiuo i?aaee acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aiaiiineoaeaueie.

O. Tkachuk Juridical examination of the criminal cases about
offences of the statute rules of the interrelations between the
servicemen of Ukrainian Armed forces.

Dissertation is order to get a degree of the juridical sciences for
specialty 12.00.09 – criminal process and science of crime detection –
T. Shevchenko university in Kiev, Kiev, 1999.

This dissertation is devoted to learning of problem questions of
juridical examinations of criminal cases about offences of the statute
rules of the interrelations between the servicemen of Ukrainian armed
forces. To the author’s mind, this examinations is the first in Ukraine,
so he showed all sides of activity of military counts in Ukraine and
showed a subject of the proof in criminal cases, connected with criminal
offences against the subordination and military politeness.

We can find a list of circumstances of the proof in criminal cases of
this category and a sequence of and the peculiarities of the proof
examination during all criminal matters. We can also find a decision of
all criminal contradictions. The author learned 1280 criminal matters
connected with offences of the statute rules of the interrelations
between the servicemen. He analyzed the activity of the military
counsels for the prosecution and advocates during the court inquest and
the court debates. The author fined all problems in such cases and gave
some recommendations about their decision.

All recommendations about the qualifying of the military legislation,
the legal law of the servicemen and the civil law in Ukraine. The key
words: a military court, the offences of the statute rules of the
interrelations between the servicemen.

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