Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai

AIOEIAIEI

AIEIAeEIE? OAAeI?IAE*

OAeE 343.91

NO*ANIEE OA?I?ECI: NOAI ? OEssOE

EIAI CAIIA?AAIIss A OE?A?I?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12..00.08. – e?ei?iaeueia i?aai ? e?ei?iieia?y;

e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Einoaiei Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo Aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie

Oo?eaae/ ?iia Einoyioei?aia,

i?ioani?, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith ?inoeoooo aaeaieaoo?e i?e

Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

2. Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Iii?eue A?eoi? ?aaiiae/

aeioeaio eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? i?ioeano Aeaaeai?? Neoaeae

aaciaee Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie IAN Oe?a?ie, Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “19” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 12.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.236.02 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia

caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo?

aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001,

i.Ee?a-1, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo

aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001,

i.Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “14” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe ?.I.Eo/a?aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icaeoie no/aniiai na?oo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
?nioaaiiyi aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai, aea, ii?yae c oaeeie “o?aaeeoe?eieie”,
ye oa?iiyaea?ia, aeieia?/ia, aia?aaoe/ia, aeaiia?ao?/ia, i?iaeiaieue/a,
ana a?eueo cia/ia i?noea caeiathoue i?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue ?
oa?i?eci.

sseui o 1980 ?ioe? o na?o? aoei cao?eniaaii 500 oa?aeo?a, oi o 1996
?ioe? ?o e?euee?noue noaiiaeoue a?eueoa i?ae 5 oeny/. Aiane?aeie
i?aeia?iaeieo oa?i?enoe/ieo aeo?a o 1996 ?ioe? caaeioei o Ac?? 1409
in?a, ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? 711 in?a, o ?a?ii? 473 iniae.

Oa?i?eci ye iaaacia/ia yaeua o iie?oe/iiio, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
aeeoo?, i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiineiao na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa noaa
i?aaeiaoii ieeueii? oaaae iie?oieia?a, th?eno?a, ?noi?ee?a, ineoieia?a
oa ?ioeo iaoeiaoe?a. Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia cia/iee noni?eueiee ?ioa?an,
/?oei? eiioeaioe?? oa?i?ecio, yea a c oi/ee ci?o e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee
?ice?eaaea nooo?a? oa?aeoa?enoeee oe??? iaaaciaee ?, oei naiei, aeacaea
ia oeyoe ?? caiia?aaiiy oa noai?aiiy iiaeeeainoae i?ioeae??, iiee ui ia
?ic?iaeaii.

Oaea neaaea iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia ica?i?i?noue i?ioe oa?i?ecio ia?
iiyniaiiy. Iaea?eueo cia/i? iai?aoethaaiiy iaoeiaoe?a o oe?e aaeoc?, ui
aeeaiei aeine?aeaeothoue ?noi??th oa?i?ecio, eiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?,
nioe?aeueii aeiiii?/i?, ?ae?a?ei? oa ?io? i?e/eie, i?eiaaeathoue ia
60-80-o? ?iee. Na?aae ieo iiaeia iacaaoe i?aoe? A.Eaea?a “Oa?i?eci”,
O.Oannaiaei?? “I?i /a?aii? a?eaaaee”, ss.Iaiaoa “Oa?i?enoe o O?I (a?oiia
Aaaaea?a-Iaeioio)”, E.A.Iiaeaei?yi “Oa?i?eci: i?aaaea ? aeaaaeee”,
?.A.Eyoiaa “Oa?i?eci ? i?aeaea?aeaai? a?aeiineie”, AE.Ae?nii “Iaoeia
oa?i?o”, a oaeiae iiiia?ao?? oa noaoo? A.Aeaenaiaea?a, Aeae.Aaeea?a,
Aeae.Aaeea, *.Aeianiia, A.Aeaeaie?ina, I.E?aioio, Ae.I”A?aeaia,
A.Iie?o?, I.O?ee?iniia, A.Eo?oea, I.?ainoi?ia oa ?ioeo. O o. ca.
iinoia?aaoaeiaiee ia??iae aeeoee a na?o ?ic?iaee TH.I.Aioiiyia,
A.A.A?othea, I.N.A?aeiai?, I.ss.Eaca??aa, A.N.Eii?nna?iaa,
A.A.AEae?inueeiai, N.I.Ao??iaa, A.A.Eoi??aa oa ?ioeo. A Oe?a?i?
oai?aoe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie uiaei i?iaeai ai?ioueae c oa?i?eciii, ia
aeaeue, caeia?oueny iaaaaaoi niaoe?ae?no?a (A.I.Aeooeia, A.A.E?ooia,
A.I.?iaeueyiia, Ae.A.Aeouaiei oa ?i.).

Ia i?aeaeath/e noii?ao iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueio oe?ii?noue oa
iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy oeeo iai?aoethaaiue, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe
ui aaaaoi c ieo ?ic?iaeai? a ia??iae aeoeaiiai ?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai
i?ioenoiyiiy aeaio nenoai (/e i?ae ?o ?ia?oe?eiei aieeaii); aei oiai ae
c ieeiii /ano oa?i?eci cacia? ci?i, aeoea?co?oueny, oiio e?eoa???
iaoai?ci?a ca?iaeaeaiiy, ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oa aaeaiooaaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee
oeueiai neeaaeiiai cei/eio aei iiiyoue e?ei?iieia?? ii?aaothoue
ei?eaoaaiiy ? a?eueo iiaeeaeaii? ?ic?iaee.

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo no/anieo oao?aoe?a a iniiaiiio i?aaaeth? oaiaeaioe?y
ioe?ithaaiiy noaio oa?i?ecio, i?iaiico?oueny iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy eiai
iaaacia/iino?.

Aeiei??ii? i?e/eie e?ei?iieia?/iiai, aoii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai, iie?oe/iiai
oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, onoiaiiy aai iineaaeaiiy yeeo
nooo?ai a i?ae??aaei aaco, ia ye?e ?nio? oa ia?aceoo? oa?i?eci,
caeeoathoueny iiee ui aac iaeaaeii? oaaae.

Ine?eueee iinoa? ieoaiiy i?i ?ic?iaeo ? iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? eiiieaenii? nenoaie caoiae?a uiaei i?ioeae??
oa?i?ecio, aeieea? iaaaeueia iio?aaa iiaeeaeaii aea/eoe e?ei?iieia?th
oeueiai yaeua e??cue i?ecio iaaeiaoe?iiaeueii? ioe?iee, i?iaiae?coaaoe
na?oiaee aeina?ae ai?ioueae c iei oa oynieoe, /iio, iacaaaeath/e ia
cia/i? coneeey i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa na?oo, oni?oe a ai?iouea? c
oa?i?eciii o oe?eiio ua aeineoue ne?iii?.

Aac anaa?/iiai e?ei?iieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiei??iieo i?e/ei oa
aeoie?a oa?i?ecio ia iiaeia ae?eoe aei ?icoi?iiy iaoai?cio eiai
ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy. C?inoath/a oaiaeaioe?y i???ioaoe?? ia
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? iaoiaee i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio aenoaa? ia iio?aao
iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy ? onoiaiiy ia?aoeiae ia oeyoo ?o iioei?caoe??.
Oaeee i?aeo?ae aaa/a?oueny iine?aeiaiei ? a?aee?eaa? a?eueo oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? aeey aecia/aiiy oeyo?a i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiiaii ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae
? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ia 1998 ?. ? ia?niaeoeaiei
ieaiii ia 1998-2000??., aea ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ooiaeaiaioaeueiee iai?yi
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo c oaie: “Ai?ioueaa ?c cei/eii?noth a
noa?? i?aei?e?inoaa. I?iaeaia e?ei?iieia?/ii? aaciaee noni?euenoaa”
(4.4.08.?E 0196 ?012889).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. – c’ynoaaoe ?noi?e/io, iie?oe/io,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io oa nioe?aeueii-a?ieia?/io aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue
oa?i?ecio, ui neoaeeoeia iaa?oiooaaiiyi iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a eiai
caiia?aaiiy.

O ca’yceo c oeei ae??ooaaeenue ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

— iieac oa?i?ecio ye noni?eueii iaaacia/iiai i?ioei?aaiiai ae?yiiy o
iaaeao iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo ? eaoaai??e e?ei?iieia?? ?c a?aooaaiiyi eiai
niaoeeo?/ieo ?en (ianeeuenoai, iie?oe/ia iioeaaoe?y oa oe?eaaecia/aiiy,
caeyeoaaiiy, iayai?noue iaaeiieo aea?oa oa ?i.);

— aiae?c ?noi?e/ieo aeoie?a, iie?oe/ii?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa
a?ieia?/ii? nooiino? ianeeuenoaa, ui noaiiaeoue iniiaiee ci?no
no/aniiai oa?i?ecio; i?e oeueiio aeioe?eueii iieacaoe aaciina?aaeith (a
ia iiina?aaeeiaaio, ye o oe?eiio aeey e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino?)
iaoiiaeai?noue oa?i?ecio aeuacacia/aieie /eiieeaie, ui aeyaey?oueny o
iie?oe/i?e iioeaaoe?? oa oe?eani?yiiaaiino? cei/eio;

— ?ice?eooy i?e/ei oa ianoaaei, ca yeeo no/aniee oa?i?eci iaaoa
i?eiaaeiino? ? ciaoiaeeoue ana a?eueo aeoeaia canoinoaaiiy ye oi?ia
ianeeuenoaa; iaaieineoe ia oiio, ui iniiai? aocee i?ioe??/, ui
coiiaeththoue canoinoaaiiy oa?i?ecio, yeee cai?ith? a?eie ? ai?ii?
eiioe?eoe, ooai?ththoueny iaaeiei i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaiai ii?yaeeo
? iia’ycai?, a iniiaiiio, c ?iciiae?eii ?ano?n?a;

— ii?aoethaaiiy iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, i?aeia?iaeii- oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-i?aaiaeo oeyo?a aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio, caaeey
/iai ne?ae cai?iiiioaaoe aecia/aiiy oa?i?ecio o i?aeia?iaeiiio i?aa?, a
oaeiae o iaoe?iiaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie;

— aeyaeaiiy ia?aoeiae, ye? ia aeicaieythoue aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? oa iaoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? (caeiiiaeaa/?,
i?aaicanoinia/? oa ?i.) i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio;

— aacoth/enue ia ?aaeueiino? c?inoaiiy iaaaciaee oa?i?ecio a Oe?a?i?,
?icaeyiooe caoiaee uiaei eiai caiia?aaiiy, aea ia oe? caaaeaii?
aea?aeaaii-noni?eueii? iie?oeee, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo e?ie?a
aecia/eoe aaaiio ?ieue i?aaa, yea ia? aeoiaeeoe ?c i?eioeeio i?aaaioe??
o eiioaeno? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo coneeue na?oiaiai noni?euenoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?iaioa ? ia?oei a Oe?a?i?
niaoe?aeueiei aeena?oaoe?eiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi iniiaieo i?iaeai
e?ei?iieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa?i?ecio ye cei/eio ? ye nioe?aeueiiai
yaeua, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy, ianaiia?aae, nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaeo oeyo?a
i?ioeae?? eiio.

Ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ieo aeoie?a oa aeiei??iieo
i?e/ei oa?i?ecio, eiai e?ei?iieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeena?oaio iieacaa
ia?aaaao aeaoa?i?iaio iaaeiaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o o e?ei?iieia?/i?e
noanoaioe?? oa?i?ecio ye nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai yaeua, noi?ioethaaa iia?
i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee aecia/aiiy oa?i?ecio o i?aeia?iaeiiio i?aa?, a
oaeiae iaoe?iiaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/aii nioe?aeueii-i?aaia? oa ?io? oeyoe i?ioeae??
oa?i?ecio, ?icaeyiooi oa nenoaiaoeciaaii iniiai? oaeoi?e oa ianoaaeie,
ye? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue nooo?aei iiceoeaiei c?ooaiiyi oe??? i?iaeaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? aenoiooi ?yae iiaeo o oai?aoe/iiio ieai? oa aaaeeeaeo
aeey th?eaee/ii? i?aeoeee iieiaeaiue, i?iiiceoe?e oa aeniiae?a, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a naia:

1. Aeiaaeuei?noue oa?i?ecio coiiaeaia eiai i?aeia?iaeiith nooi?noth.
Oeae aeniiaie a?oioo?oueny ia e?ei?iieia?? oa?i?ecio, aiae?c? eiai
iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo oa ineoio?ce/ieo i?e/ei, a oaeiae
?noi?e/ieo aeoie?a oeueiai yaeua.

2. Oa?i?eci ye cei/ei ? oeiiaei i?iyaii caoenii? aa?an??, yea aaiaoe/ii
iaoiiaeaia ? i?aeeyaa? iiceoeaiiio aieeaia? oeyoii ?? ei?aeoe?? aai
onoiaiiy ia?aeiii? (“ceiye?nii?”) aa?an??.

3. Oa?i?eci neia?ioe/ii ooieoe?iio? a ?aieao noni?eueii-aea?aeaaii?
nenoaie ye aioenenoaia, ia?aceoo? ia aeinyaiaiiyo IO? ? ethaenueeiai
i?ia?ano, aeyaey? ni?iiiaei?noue i?iaeoeoaaoe ana a?eueo iaaacia/i?
eaoano?ioiaaii? oi?ie ae?yeueiino?, o ca”yceo c /ei noai?th? caa?ico
aeey onueiai i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa.

4. Aeoiaey/e c iaaeiaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o no/aniiai oa?i?ecio oa
aecia/aii? oaiaeaioe?? aei i?aaethaaiiy iaae? i?ae
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiei ? i?aeia?iaeiei oa?i?eciii, ae??oeoe caaaeaiiy
i?ioeae?? eiio iiaeia eeoa oeyoii ooai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai
ioaeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?ino?oiaioa??th, aa?iii?caoe?? iniiaieo
aeaiaio?a ?nioth/iai na?oiaiai ii?yaeeo, onoiaiiy (iineaaeaiiy) i?e/ei,
ye? eiai ii?iaeaeothoue ? ni?eythoue aeoea?caoe??.

5. Iecueea aoaeoeai?noue ?nioth/i? nenoaie i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo
caoiae?a uiaei i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio iiynith?oueny iayai?noth iecee
?ica?aeiinoae oa ?ioeo ia?aoeiae, ye? coiiaeai? ??cieie iie?oe/ieie oa
aeiiii?/ieie ?ioa?anaie aea?aeaa, a?oi aea?aeaa, eiio?iioaoe??th ia
?aeaei?e, ?ania?e, ?ae?a?ei?e iniiaao ? aeyaeythoueny o ??cieo
i?aeoiaeao aei i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy oa?i?ecio oa onoiaiiy eiai
aeiei??iieo i?e/ei.

6. ?aaeueia caa?ica aeoea?caoe?? oa?i?ecio a Oe?a?i? ia?aaeaa/a?
iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaenieo iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, i?aaiaeo
oa i?aaicanoinia/eo caoiae?a ii caiia?aaiith oeueiai yaeua, a oaeiae
?ioaineaiiai aoiaeaeaiiy aei i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai i?inoi?o ?
aioeoa?i?enoe/ieo no?oeoo?.

Nai?/ani?noue aeacaieo caoiae?a caaacia/eea a i?aaaioeaiee oa?aeoa? (ia
a?aei?io a?ae e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie) oa a?eueo aenieo aoaeoeai?noue
ai?ioueae c oa?i?eciii o iao?e aea?aeaa?.

7. Cai?iiiiiaai? aaoi?nuee? aa??aioe aecia/aiue oa?i?ecio
(i?aeia?iaeiiai oa aioo??oiueiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ) aacothoueny ia oaeeo
aeii?ioth/eo neeaaeiaeo oeueiai cei/eio, ui aeine?aeaeai? o ?iaio?, ye
iie?oe/ia iioeaaoe?y ? oe?ea aecia/aiiy, canoinoaaiiy ianeeuenoaa,
caeyeoaaiiy, iayai?noue iaaeiieo aea?oa (ye nooi?noi? oa?aeoa?enoeee
oa?i?ecio), a?aeiaaeoaaiiy oa?i?ecio c oi/ee ci?o iioeaaoe?? oa iaoiae?a
a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeeo ioe?iie oa?i?ecio aeine?aeaeaii e iniiai? eiai
i?e/eie, ye? aecia/aii o aeiiii?/i?e, ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i?e oa
ineoio?ce/i?e noa?ao, a naia:

— c?inoath/a ??cieoey o aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo aea?aeaa ? iaoe?e, yea
ooai?eeany aiane?aeie ianeeueieoeueeiai ?iciiae?eo ? aeei?enoaiiy
?ano?n?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue oaeiae ? aei nioe?aeueii? iani?aaaaeeeaino? ia
an?o oaaaeyo noni?euenoaa;

— /enaeuei? aocee i?aeoeea?e?caoe?eieo i?ioe??/, ye? ?noi?e/ii neeaeeny
? ooai?ththoue oiiae aeey aeene?ei?iaoe?? iaaieo a?oi ethaeae ca
iaoe?iiaeueieie, ?ae?a?eieie, aoii-oa?eoi??aeueieie oa ?ioeie iiae?aieie
iciaeaie;

— ethaenueea aeano?oeoeai?noue, ui aeyaey?oueny o ineoio?ce/i?e noa??
iniaenoino? /e a?oi iniaenoinoae.

Oaea aecia/aiiy i?e/ei oa?i?ecio neeaaea? iniiao iiaecie i?aoe? o
oe?eiio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa ?ioeo ia?aaeoiia
aeieeiaiiy e aeoea?caoe?? oa?i?ecio a Oe?a?i? ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei caoiae?a iie?oe/iiai, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa i?aaiaiai
oa?aeoa?o eiai caiia?aaiiy a aea?aeaa?.

Ia aac? ia”?iiiai oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo iieacaii iiceoe?? aaaaoueio
aea?aeaa noiniaii ?o ioe?iie oa?i?ecio, oeyo?a oa niinia?a ai?ioueae c
iei.

Iaoa??aee iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? caeiiiaeaa/eie oa i?aaiioi?iiieie
i?aaiaie i?e oi?ioaaii? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? aioeoa?i?enoe/ii? nenoaie
caoiae?a. Aiae?c oa ioe?iee aioeoa?i?enoe/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ?in?? oa
?ioeo e?a?i iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny i?e oi?ioaaii? aiaeia?/iiai
a?o/eciyiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie o ?iaio? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i?aai?a,
i?aaenoaaieoeoa Oe?a?ie ca ei?aeiiii aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iiceoe?? iaoi?
aea?aeaae uiaei oa?i?ecio ? i?aai?caoe?? ai?ioueae c iei, a oaeiae o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee
ai?iaiaai? i?ae /an iaaiai?aiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa ie?aieo ?? i?ae?icae?e?a
ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aaeocaaeo i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i (e?ei?iaeueiiai
i?aaa ? i?ioeano) Aeaaeai?? Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ia
nai?ia??–ia?aae? ea??aiee?a niaoei?ae?icae?e?a NA Oe?a?ie ii ai?iouea? c
oa?i?eciii.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iiiia?ao??, iaoeia?e a?ioo?? oa
aeaio iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, ui ia”?aeiothoue o?noue i?ae?icae?e?a oa aeaa ioieoe,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (254 iaeiaioaaiiy). Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 178 noi??iie, ?c ieo iniiaiiai oaenoo – 157.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino? oaie,
aeeeaaea?oueny iaoa, caaaeaiiy, iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue, iaoiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e iiiaeeii?noue ??aiae oaiiiaio oa?i?ecio, ?o aca?iica”ycie,
aaoi? aea?aa iioeiaeueiee oeyo: iiaoaeoaaoe ?iaioo o aeaeyae?
e?ei?iieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c aiae?cii e?ei?iieia?/ii? nooiino?,
iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa ?noi?e/ieo aniaeo?a
oa?i?ecio.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea no/aniiai oa?i?ecio”
– aeine?aeaeaii iioiaeaeaiiy oa?i?ecio, ?noi?e/i? ei?ai?,
e?ei?iieia?/i?, iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeuei?, a?ieia?/i? i?e/eie oa oiiae, ye?
eiai ii?iaeaeothoue, a oaeiae iioeae oa oe?e?, ui niiioeathoue
cei/eioe?a aei oa?i?enoe/ieo aeo?a. O ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny i?e/eie
aeoea?caoe?? oa?i?ecio iai?ee?ioe? XX noi??//y.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1. – “Nooi?noue ? aeoieo oa?i?ecio” – iaaieioo?oueny ia
oiio, ui a iniia? oa?i?ecio a oe?eiio, ye ? a?eueoino? oa?i?enoe/ieo
aeo?a, eaaeaoue iai??e aei ae??oaiiy eiioe?eo?a, i?e?iaeo, i?e/eie oa
ia?aaeoiiae yeeo c”yniao? aaoi?. Naia ia ?noi?e/iiio oe? iecee
eiioe?eo?a ??ciiai ??aiy ? ianooaao ciaoiaeeoue na?e ?icaeoie oa?i?eci
ye yaeua, yea aecia?oueny ao?eaooii ?noi??? ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa.

C?iaeaoe ?noi?e/iee iaeyae aeieeiaiiy oa aaiethoe?? oa?i?enoe/iiai
ianeeuenoaa, a?ae XIV-ai oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a. aei iaoeo aei?a, aaoi?
?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui on?i oiaeii ?noi??? aoee noi?iiaai? ? cae??ieai? o
iania?e na?aeiiino? iaai? o?aaeeoe?? iie?oe/ii? i?aeoeee oa
nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy, ye? a no/anieo oiiaao iaaiei /eiii niiioeathoue
aei aeai?o oa?i?enoe/ieo iaoiae?a oa caoiae?a ae??oaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
eiioe?eo?a. C oe??? ae oi/ee ci?o aoei c?iaeaii aiae?c eiioe?eoo i?ae
a?aanueeei na?oii, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ?c?a?eai, NOA e ?ioeie cao?aeieie
aea?aeaaaie, c ae?oaiai, a oaeiae eiioe?eoai iaaeiei eo?aenueei?,
aanenueei?, i?ai?/ii-??eaiaenueei? i?iaeai.

I?eeiath/e aei oaaae iaaoaaea iioe?aiiy e aeoea?caoe?th oa?i?ecio a iao?
/ane, aaoi? ?ice?eaa? oae? ieoaiiy: /ei i?eaaaeth? oa?i?eci, /iio
ia??aeei eiio a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao iaae ?ioeie caniaaie ae??oaiiy
eiioe?eo?a, /iio o ai?iouea? c oa?i?eciii ia aaea?oueny ia”?aeiaoe
coneeey na?oiaiai noni?euenoaa.

Aeena?oaio a?aecia/a?, ui oa?i?eci ye can?a oa iaoiae ae??oaiiy
eiioe?eo?a ia? ianooii? ?ene:

Ii-ia?oea, ia iiaeia iiaiaeeoeny c aeniiaeaie aeayeeo niaoe?ae?no?a, i?i
oa, ui oa?i?eci – oea ca?iy neaaeeo. Oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy o ??cieo
ieiueiao oa aa?aneaiiai oa?aeoa?o a?i caeiaoa naia i?ae /an caaithaaiue
oa i?aeei?thaaiiy neeueieie, a?eueo oeea?e?ciaaieie ia?iaeaie ia?iae?a
oa oa?eoi??e iaio ?icaeiooeo. O iao? /ane, eiee noni?euenoai
?inoeooae?ciaaia, oa?i?eci ? niiniaii, ui caaacia/o? eieeoi?i
iao?iiie?yi i?eoiaaiee aieea ia ??ci? na?oia? i?ioeane c iaoith
caa?aaeaiiy nai?o ?ioa?an?a.

Ii-ae?oaa, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui nooi?noue oa?i?ecio neeaaea?
caeyeoaaiiy, ianeeuenoai oa iayai?noue iaaeiieo aea?oa, a?i ye can?a
ai?ioueae ciaoiaeeoue iiaeaaeeea?noue, aei?aaaeaiiy ? iaa?oue i?aeo?eieo
aeayeeo o?einio?a, ?aeaieia?a oa ?ioeo niaoe?ae?no?a, a oaeiae ie?aieo
nioe?aeueieo a?oi.

Ii-o?ao?, aaaiiee aniaeo iiioey?iino? oa?i?ecio na?aae nie?aea?ii? c
eiai oe?eyie /anoeie ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai na?aae iieiae? e?e?oueny o
aenieiio nooiai? ii?aeueiiai aei?aaaeaiiy a ii??aiyii? c e?ei?iaeueiith
cei/eii?noth, yea oaeiae ? iaei??th c aieth/eo i?iaeai ethaenoaa.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, nai?th aeoea?caoe??th oa?i?eci o cia/i?e i??? ciaia”ycaiee
c?inoaiith ?ie? ?ae?a??.

Ii-i”yoa, o oiae? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano
oa?i?eci iiaea iaea?aeoaaoe a?eueoa ia?aaaa ii??aiyii c i?ioeae?th/ith
eiio i?aaiioi?iiiith nenoaiith aea?aeaa ? na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa.

Ii-oinoa, iioaioe?eii a oa?i?eci? caeeaaeaii iaaecae/aeiee ?ioa?an aei
oeueiai yaeua. Canoinoaaiiy oa?i?ecio iaa?oioiao?oueny oei, ui
caaeiaieueiyth/e na?e ?ioa?an (iae/ano?oa /a?ac CI?), oa?i?enoe
caeaa?eueoiai aeinyaathoue nai?? iniiaii? a?aeaeaeaii? iaoe – oi?ioaaiiy
iaaii? noni?eueii? aeoiee.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2.1. (“Eiioeaioe?? i?e/ei oa oiia, ye? ii?iaeaeothoue
oa?i?eci”), aacoth/enue ia aeniiaeao c iiia?aaeiuei aeeeaaeaiiai
iaoa??aeo, aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia iie?oe/io
iniiao, oa aeei?enoaiiy aeey ae??oaiiy /anoi ianooaaieo eiioe?eo?a,
oa?i?eci i?iyaey?oueny o eiie?aoieo oa?i?enoe/ieo aeoao, ui aea?
i?aenoaae ioe?ithaaoe eiai ye noni?eueii iaaacia/ia i?ioei?aaia ae?yiiy,
oiaoi ye cei/ei. Oeei coiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy o ?aieao
e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee na?oiaiai aeina?aeo i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? oa
aaeaiooaaiiy eiai aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai i?ioeae?? naia oa?i?ecio.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaea?eueo a?aeii? eiioeaioe?? (eeane/ia, aio?iiieia?/ia,
nioe?ieia?/ia oeiee oa aeaye? no/ani? eiioeaioe??), aaoi? c
aeine?aeieoeueeith iaoith aeae?ey? oa ocaaaeueith? oaeoi?e, ye?
aecia/athoue i?e/eie oa?i?ecio ? a?aee?eaathoue oeyoe i?ioeae?? oeueiio
cei/eio. Aaa/a?oueny, ui oaeee iaoiae aeieeaa? ?c eia?/iiai ?icaeoeo
e?ei?iieia?/ii? aeoiee oa e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee, a oaeiae iaaea?
aoaeoeai? caniae iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy oa?i?ecio.

Iaaio oaaao aaoi? i?eae?ey? ?icaeyaeo nioe?ia?ieia?/iiai iai?yieo a
e?ei?iieia??, yeee noi?ioaaany o iiooeao iiyniaiue oaeei yaeuai,
iia”ycaiei c? cei/eii?noth, ye aei?noie?noue, aa?aneai?noue, aaiaeae?ci.

A eiioaeno? i?iaeai oa?i?ecio caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia caaaeueiiaeciaio o
e?ei?iieia?? oai??th noeaie (a?ae eao “oaa?i”). I?iaeaia ia?aa?eueoaii?
ae?aiaoecaoe?? cea, a?ae??ciaiiy cei/eioe?a a?ae iacei/eioe?a o
oa?i?eci? oa?aeoa?ii aeyaey?oueny, iai?eeeaae, o i?ioean? iieai?ee i?i
?iciaaeoaaiiy oa?i?ecio ? ai?ioueae ia?iae?a ca iaoe?iiaeueia
aecaieaiiy, oa?eoi??aeueia iaeaoooaaiiy. I?aeo?eiothoueny ia?aeiieea?
iiceoe?? a?aeiinii oiiaiiai ?iciiae?eo noni?euenoaa ia cei/eioe?a oa
iacei/eioe?a a ?yae? ioae?eaoe?e ?iicaiieo aaoi??a, ye? iieacaee, ui
eiio?ieuei? ?inoeoooe noni?euenoaa aee?eaathoue cei/eii?noue oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy naieoe?e uiaei ieae/eo aa?noa c iaoith oo?eiaiiy aeaaee
iai?aieo eean?a.

Oe? aeoiee aaoi? ocaaaeueith? oa aeno?aiieth? ia iaoai?ci no/aniiai
oa?i?ecio. O ca”yceo c oeei, ii-ia?oa, aeieea? i?iaeaia eaoaioiiai
oa?i?ecio. Ii-ae?oaa, i/aaeaeia oaiaeaioe?y aei oaa?oaaiiy oaa?ii
“oa?i?eno?a” oe?eeo ia?iae?a, iaoe?iiaeueieo, aoi?/ieo eiioan?iiaeueieo
a?oi oiui. Ii-o?ao?, iaaoaa? aeooaeueiino? i?iaeaia aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae ae?aeiao i?ae aeaaeith ? eaaaeueieie
iie?oe/ieie i?aai?caoe?yie, ui aoiaeyoue aei oa?i?enoe/ieo ?oo?a.

Ia?aoo?, ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaieo eiioeaioe?e e?ei?iieia??
aaoi? ?icaeyaea? aaaeeeao i?iaeaio eiino?othaaiiy e?ei?iieia?? oa?i?ecio
(oa?ieia??), aacoth/enue ia aea/aii? caaaeueii a?aeiieo oa?i?enoe/ieo
oa/?e, oi?ioaaiue. Ia eiai aeoieo aee?eooy ?noeiii? ea?oeie oa?i?ecio ye
iaea?eueo iaaacia/iiai oaiiiaio na?aae cei/eiiino? iiaeeeaa eeoa
aeoiaey/e, ianaiia?aae, ?c canoinoaaiiyi iiaeeaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoai?cio iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ao?o/aiiy e?a?i, ia?iae?a, ??cieo
noni?eueieo a?oi o ni?aae ?ioiai ia?iaeo.

Aaoi? aiae?co? aeoiee a?aeiieo e?ei?iieia?a, aea? iniiae aeey ?icoi?iiy
aeoie?a ? i?e/ei oa?i?ecio, o oiio /ene? a i?aeia?iaeiiio aniaeo?.
Ocaaaeueithth/e oe? iiaeyaee aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aaaeeeai?
iaoiaeieia?/ii? iiceoe?? o aeine?aeaeaii? oa?i?ecio.

Nooue ?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui noanoaioe??th oa?i?ecio (o??th iaea?eueo
iioeiaeueiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith, o ye?e i?noyoueny iniiae oeueiai yaeua)
ne?ae aaaaeaoe oa?i?eci o eiai i?aeia?iaeiiio, aeiaaeueiiio ?icoi?ii?.
Oea, ia iiaeyae aaoi?a, iaeia ?c aaaeeeaeo iniaeeainoae e?ei?iieia??
oa?i?ecio, ui a?ae??ciy? ?? a?ae e?ei?iieia?? ?ioi? cei/eiiino? (aeiyoie
iiaea /anoeiai neeaaeaoe i?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue), aea yae?i
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeiii aacoaaoeny ia ioe?ieao cei/eiiino? o eiie?aoiiio
noni?euenoa?.

?icaeyaeath/e i?e/eie oa?i?ecio, aaoi? i?aenoiiao?, ui oa?i?eci ia
niaoeeo?/ia e?ei?iaeueia yaeua ? oae naii, ye ? cei/eii?noue o oe?eiio,
ia? ia?aaeon?i nioe?aeueio aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue.

Oiiae, ui ni?eythoue nei?iith oa?i?enoe/ieo i?iya?a, oiaoi o? oaeoe
?aaeueii? ae?eniino?, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei cei/ei?a ia aeeeeeathoue, aea
?o iayai?noue iiaea ni?eyoe aeieeiaiith iai???a o/eieoe cei/ei, aaoi?
i?iiiio? eaae?o?eoaaoe ca o?ueiia iniiaieie e?eoa??yie. Oea – oiiae
nioe?aeueii? ni?yiiaaiino?; oiiae e?ei?iaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino?; oiiae
oaoiieia?/ii? ni?yiiaaiino?.

O ioieo? 1.2.2. “Iioeae oa oe?e? o iaoai?ci? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee
oa?i?eno?a” aaoi? ?iaeoue aiae?c iioeaaoe?? oa?i?ecio, o iaoai?ci? yeiai
i?enooi? neeaaei? i?ioeane ia?aoiaeo nioe?aeueiiai o ?iaeea?aeoaeueia oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai o nioe?aeueia. O aeine?aeaeaii? iaaiaeyoueny
niaoeeo?/i? ?ene oa iniaeeaino? iioeaaoe?? o oa?i?eci?.

Ii-ia?oa, o iaoai?ci? oa?i?o aieiaia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue ia aaciina?aaei?i
iioeaai nei?iiy eiie?aoiiai oa?aeoo, a aaaiiei iie?oe/iei iioeaai, ye?
aei oiai ae inay/ai? iaoe?iiaeueii-?eooaeueieie, ?ae?a?eieie oa ?ioeie
?aeayie.

Ii-ae?oaa, oa?i?eci ye e?ei?iaeueia yaeua neeaaea?oueny ?c iecee
ae?e-ai?ciae?a ? aenooia? o oi?i? neeaaeiiai aieueiaiai aeoo. Iioeae ooo
oi?iothoueny, ye i?aaeei, ia aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae eiie?aoiei
oa?i?enoe/iei i?iyaii, a cacaeaeaa?aeue.

?c oeueiai aeieeaa?, ? oea ii-o?ao?, ui oa?i?eci aaco?oueny ia ia
?aioiaeo, ai?ciaee/ieo, a ia onoaeaieo ii/oooyo, aeieeiaiiy oa
oi?ioaaiiy yeeo ioiieth? cia/i? i?ii?aeee /ano.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, iioeaaoe?? oa?i?ecio i?eoaiaiia ia ?ica?aei?noue iniaenoeo
? noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a, ye cei/eiiino? acaaae?, a “eiioe?eo”
noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a ??ciiai ??aiy, aea aa?o iaea?aeothoue ?ioa?ane
noni?eueiiai ooai?aiiy, aei yeiai iaeaaeaoue oa?i?enoe.

Ii-i”yoa, na?oiaeyae ye iioea oa?i?ecio a?aeiia?aea? iniaeeaiio
iie?oeciaaiiio na?oi?icoi?iith iaaiiai aeno?ai?nonueeiai ?ooo.

Ii-oinoa, o no?oeoo?? iioeaaoe?? oa?i?ecio aaaeeeaa i?noea iin?aea?
“?aeaae” (ye eeth/iaa neeaaeiaa na?oiaeyaeo). Iioeaii – “?aeaaeii” o
oa?i?eno?a aenooiathoue aaee/i? ?aea?, aea, iaaoaath/e
aaaioth?ii-aeno?ai?nonueeiai iaiiaiaiiy, “?aeaae” noa? iaaacia/iei
iioeaii.

? ia?aoo?, aeey oa?i?ecio ye neeaaeiiai aeaeo cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?
a?eueo i?eoaiaiia iiaeaeue iioeaaoe??, yea ?iciaaeiao? iioeae oa oe?e?
iaei??? ae?? ? iioeae oa oe?e? cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio ia
a?aei?io a?ae iiae?aieo caaaeueiie?ei?iaeueieo cei/ei?a (aaiaeeoeci,
?ica?e), aea oaea “i?aenoiiaoaaiiy” iiaeeeaa.

Iioeae aaoi? eeaneo?eo? ca o?ueiia iniiaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie: iioeae
?aeaeii-iie?oe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino?; iioeae naiiooaa?aeaeaiiy, aai
ooaa?aeaeaiiy naaa a iaeaeeae/iio ioi/aii?; iioeae ei?eneeai?
ni?yiiaaiino? . Ia caaa?oaiiy aeine?aeaeo?oueny ieoaiiy uiaei iaoe o
oa?i?eci?, yeo aecia/aii ye i?iaiiciaaiee ? aaaeaiee ?acoeueoao,
aeinyaoe yeiai iaiaaa?oueny noa”?eo oeyoii o/eiaiiy cei/eiieo ae?e.

Iniiaiith e?ioeaaith iaoith oa?i?ecio o ?iaio? aecia/aii ci?io
iiaaae?iee ia”?eoa. I?ae ia”?eoii i?iiiio?oueny ?icoi?oe ??ci?
iaoe?iiaeuei? oa iaaeiaoe?iiaeuei? ?inoeoooe – a?ae ae??aieo a?oi,
?oo?a, onoaiia oa i?aai?caoe?e aei iaoe?e, aea?aeaa, a?oi aea?aeaa,
i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa o oe?eiio – oiio iaoith oa?i?ecio iiaeia
aaaaeaoe ii?ooaiiy iaaeioi?eaiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo oa iaaeiaoe?iiaeueieo
?inoeooo?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?oaiai i?ae?icae?eo ia?oiai ?icae?eo caaa?oo?oueny
aeniiaeii, ui oaeoi? iie?oe/ii? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? i?e/eiiino? o
oa?i?eci? iicia/a?oueny a?eueo ae?acii, i?ae o oe?eiio ii cei/eiiino?. O
oa?i?eci? oe? i?e/eie aeaoa?i?iiaai? ia iiina?aaeeiaaii, ye a ?ioeo
aeaeao cei/eiiino?, a aaciina?aaeiuei caeeaaeai? o iioeaaoe?? ?
oe?eaaecia/aii?.

Iaoai?ci cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee o oa?i?eci? a?aecia/a?oueny a?oiiaith
coiiaeai?noth, ui iniaeeai i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac iioeaaoe?th oa?i?enoe/ii?
iiaaae?iee.

Iioeaaoe?eia noi?iia oa?i?ecio aaco?oueny ia iie?oe/ieo oe?eyo oa
i?eioeeiao, ye? ae?aaeathoue ?aea? ?ooo ? iaaeiei yeeo ooai?th?oueny
iniaeeaa ineoieia?/ia iiea, ui aecia/a? ?ioa?ane, ii?aeuei? i???ioaoe??,
?aeaaee o/aniee?a aeaiiai ?ooo.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? 1.3. “Iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia c?inoaiiy aeoeaiino? oa?i?ecio”
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?e i/aaeaei?e ??ciiiai?oiino? iiceoe?e, o aaaaoueio
o/aieo a Oe?a?i? oa ca ?? iaaeaie ni?aiaaea? aeoiea, uiaei iie?oe/ii? ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? coiiaeaiino? oa?i?ecio.

Ia iaiao?aei?noue onoiaiiy aeiei??iieo i?e/ei oa?i?ecio caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa ? a aaaaoueio aeieoiaioao III, ui i?eeiathoueny c oeueiai ieoaiiy.

Aeineoue a?aei?oeoe, ui a nai?io ia?oiio aiae?c? oa?i?ecio o 1972 ?ioe?
Nae?aoa??ao III eiinoaooaaa ?nioaaiiy o na?o? aieiaiei /eiii oaeeo oi?i
oa?i?ecio, ye? aeo?eathoue ?c oaicoaa, aacaeo?aeiino?, a?ae oa a?ae/ath
? i?aeooiaoothoue ethaeae o no?aie?ii? aeiaeoeny ?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i
i?eiineoe o aea?oao ethaenuee? aeeooy o oiio /ene? ? nai? aeani?. Ia
iaiao?aei?noue e?ea?aeaoe?? ei??iieo o oiio /ene? aeiiii?/ieo i?e/ei
oa?i?ecio aeaco?oueny ? a ?aciethoe?yo Aaia?aeueii? Anaiaea? III.

Aeey iiaiioe oyaeaiiy i?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe oa?i?ecio a
on?e aai? ?o ?icia?ooy aiie ?icaeyaeathoueny o aeine?aeaeaii? /a?ac
i?ecio oa?i?enoe/ieo oa/?e, ui ?o i?aaenoaaeythoue /e iaiaaathoueny
i?aaenoaaeyoe. O oeueiio ca’yceo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io iniiao oa?i?ecio
aaoi? iiae?ey? ca o?ueiia iai?yieaie:

— nioe?aeueii-?aaiethoe?eiee (o ia?enenonueei-eai?inuee?e o?aeoiaoe?);
oaeee, ui iia’ycaiee c ?aaaoaaiiyi ia caneeey iiiiiie?e,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io iiey?ecaoe?th noni?euenoaa ca iaoa??aeueiith
iciaeith oa ?i.; i?eoaiaiiee a iniiaiiio aea?aeaaai o.ca. o?aoueiai
na?oo aeieeaa? ?c oa?aeoa?o ?o aca?iia?aeiinei c ?icaeiooeie
eai?oae?noe/ieie e?a?iaie;

— e?ai- oa i?aai?aaeeeaeueiee, caniiaaiee ia aeaaoiai?coth/eo aniaeoao
oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, i?ioe??//yo e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? aiioe
Caoiaeo, ye? niieo/athoueny ?c aiieith ica?i?iue, a?eiaie ? o.?i., a
oaeiae ia aeiaaeuei?e aca?iicaeaaeiino? iie?oe/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa ?aeaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a;

— ei?ii?aoeaii-iiiiiie?noe/iee iai?yiie, yeee iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii?
iaoiae?a oa?i?ecio c iaoith caoenoo iiiiiie?e oa o?iainiai-i?iieneiaeo
a?oi nai?o aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a oa aeaniino? a ??cieo ?aa?iiao na?oo.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — “Iiaeeeaino? oa oeyoe caiia?aaiey oa?i?ecio” —
i?enay/aii aea/aiith i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo iiaeeeainoae caiia?aaiiy
oa?i?enoe/iiai ae??oaiiy eiioe?eo?a, oaeoi??a oa ianoaaei, ui
ia?aoeiaeaeathoue oni?oi?e i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio, oeyo?a oa caoiae?a
ai?ioueae c oa?i?eciii a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae i?iaeaiai i?aaaioe??
oa?i?ecio o iaoe?iiaeueiiio i?aa?.

Aecia/aii iaea?eueo i??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? c oeueiai ieoaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1. “I?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? iiaeeeaino? caiia?aaiiy
oa?i?enoe/iiio ae??oaiith eiioe?eo?a” iio?aao o i?aeia?iaeieo caniaao
i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio aaoi? iiynith? ia?aaaaith o e?ei?iieia?/i?e
noanoaioe?? oeueiai yaeua aeaoa?i?iaio iaaeiaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Iineeath/enue ia aeoieo a?aeiieo oao?aoe?a o oe?e aaeoc?, ia oaeoi?e
i?aeia?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy oa ci?noo o oa?i?eci?, a?i i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
oea oaeeie a?aoiaioaie:

1. Aacoth/enue ia iaoai?ciao e?iaii?, ?iaeiai? iiinoe oa ?noi?e/iiio
ciai?oiuei?iaeiaiio ei??ii?, oa?i?eci a no/anieo oiiaao ana a?eueoa
i?iyaey? oaiaeaioe?th aei aeoiaeo ca iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? iaae?.

2.Iniaeeaino? oa?i?ecio ye cei/eio ia?aaaaeii i?aeia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o
aecia/athoueny oei, ui a?i, ia aoaeo/e aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiei c
ae?yie ie?aieo aea?aeaa, caaaeath/e oeiaee iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai,
iinyaa? ia ??ci? aniaeoe ie?iiai ni?a?nioaaiiy oa ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
aea?aeaa.

3. Oa?i?eci iioe?th?oueny a ?inoeooae?ciaaieo noni?euenoaao, ye? iathoue
no?ee? aeaiie?aoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, iaae?ei? iaoai?cie nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo.

4. Iie?oe/ia iioeaaoe?y oa oe?eaaecia/aiiy o oa?i?eci?, oi?eath/enue
ci?i o noni?euenoa?, oae /e ?iaeoa iathoue i?aeia?iaeiee oa?aeoa?.

5. Aoaeue-yeee aioo??oi?e oa?i?eci, iaa?oue yeui a?i oa?eoi??aeueii ia
aeoiaeea ca iaae? aea?aeaae (ui iaeieiia??ii), ia? i?aeia?iaei?
iane?aeee, iia’ycai?, iai?eeeaae, c i?iaeaiaie aeciaiiy iie?oe/ieo
iiaiooai?thaaiue, i?aaii??iino? cania?a oa iaoiae?a aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae
oa ?i.

6. Iaaeiaoe?iiaeueiiio ooaa?aeaeaiith oa?i?ecio ni?ey? oaeoi?
i?aoeaaeaioo a aeayeeo e?a?iao o ?acoeueoaoeaiiio canoinoaaii?
oa?i?enoe/ieo iaoiae?a aeinyaiaiiy iaoe.

7. Eaoae?coth/ee aieea ia oa?i?eci iathoue oaeoi?e, ui aecia/athoueny
ianaiia?aae o i?aeia?iaeiiio eiioaeno?: iaeaaaeueia i?a?aoe?y, oi?a?aey
ca?i?th, ia?eia?cian (ia?eioa?i?eci), i?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue.

8. Iineeth?oueny aieea ni?eyth/eo oa?i?ecio aiieae?ine/ieo,
oaoae?noe/ieo eiioeaioe?e, ui ia? i?aeia?iaeii-?ae?a?eia i?ae??oioy.

A ioe?ioe? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo iiaeeeainoae caiia?aaiiy oa?i?ecio
aaoi? aeoiaeeoue ?c iaaeaoae?aii? ?ie? i?aaa, yea naia ii nia? ia iiaea
onoiooe nioe?aeueieo ei?ai?a oeueiai yaeua.

Aecia/aeueiei e?eoa???i uiaei eaae?o?eaoe?? oa?i?ecio ye i?aeia?iaeiiai
cei/eio a aeine?aeaeaii? aa?aoueny ni?anoaaeaiiy eiai neeaaeo c?
neeaaeii oaeeo i?aeia?iaeieo cei/ei?a, ye cei/eie i?ioe ie?o, ai?ii?
cei/eie, cei/eie i?ioe ethaeyiino?, aaiioeeae.

I?aeo?ae aei oa?i?ecio ye aei cei/eio i?aeia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o ooai?th?
iniiao aeey canoinoaaiiy ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

Iineeath/enue ia aeoiee a?aeiieo oao?aoe?a, aaoi? ia??oioiao?
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy i?aeia?iaeii? e?ei?iaeueii? th?enaeeeoe??,
iniiao yei? neeaaeaee a I?aeia?iaeiee noae aai I?aeia?iaeiee
e?ei?iaeueiee noae, a oaeiae i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? no?oeoo?e III.

TH?eaee/iith iniiaith aeey e?ei?iaeueiiai ia?ane?aeoaaiiy in?a,
aeioaaoeo o iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieo oi?iao i?aeia?iaeiiai oa?i?ecio, o
yeino? caaaeueiiaeciaieo i?eioeei?a i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ? i?eioeeie
Noaoooo oa ae?ieo I?aeia?iaeiiai a?enueeiaiai o?eaoiaeo, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ?aciethoe??th Aaia?aeueii? Anaiaea? III a?ae 11 a?oaeiy
1946 ?ieo. Aea canioaaiiy oaeiai i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaio niaoe?aeueii?
eiiiaoaioe?? ia? nain eeoa i?e i?aaeeueiiio ?icoi?ii?
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? nooiino? oa aeiaia??i?e o?eniaaiino? aecia/aiiy
i?aeia?iaeiiai oa?i?ecio.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2. “Ianoaaeie, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue aoaeoeai?e
i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio” aaoi? aeae?ey? oaeoi?e, ?aii?oaaoe ye? i?e
ae??oaii? ieoaiue iiooeo aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a oa niinia?a i?ioeae??
i?aeia?iaeiiio oa?i?ecio, ia ne?ae.

Ii-ia?oa, aaciina?aaei? caoiaee, ye? cae?eniththoueny uiaei eiie?aoieo
oa?i?enoe/ieo aeo?a iica ?noi?e/iei, iie?oe/iei oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei eiioaenoii, iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeai?. sse
iieacaea i?aeoeea (iiae?? ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?, o Eaoi???, a Aeaee?? oa
?i.), oae? caoiaee a iniiaiiio ni?eythoue c?inoaiith ??aiy i?ioenoiyiiy
noi??i, eiaeia c yeeo oeoia/eoue iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy ?
oa?i?ecio ii-nai?io. Ie??i oiai, nooi?noue iaoai?cio ?nioaaiiy oa?i?ecio
naia ? aecia/a?oueny eiai caeaoi?noth ia?aceooaaoe ia i?ioe??//yo
noni?euenoaa.

Ii-ae?oaa, iiinainii aaa/a?oueny naia neooaoe?y, eiee oa?i?eci ye
cei/ei, yeee caeia? oaaao, ?icoi aaaaoueio o/aieo, oao?aoe?a, a oaeiae
na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa, ia ciaeoia th?eaee/iiai aecia/aiiy.

Ii-o?ao?, ine?eueee iniiaia a?aei?ii?noue i?ae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiei
?ooii ? oa?i?eciii e?e?oueny a noa’?eoeai?e noi?ii? ? noino?oueny
iioeaaoe?? cae?eniaiiy aeo?a ianeeuenoaa, ?iciaaeoaaeueia e?i?y iiaea a
aooe ie?aneaia a?eueo ?aeue?oii oeyoii iicia/aiiy iaia’yceiaiai aeey
neeaaeo oa?i?ecio iai??o aei cieuaiiy (ni?e/eiaiiy oeiaee) iaaeiieo
ethaeae. Aei oiai ae a?eueo ae?acii aeaeyaeaea a ? ia’?eoeaia noi?iia
cei/eio.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, aeoiaey/e ?c ia?ic?eaiiai ca’yceo i?ae
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiei ? i?aeia?iaeiei oa?i?eciii, ui iinooeth?oueny
aaaaoueia oao?aoeyie, a oaeiae I?aai?caoe??th Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e,
iiaeiia an?eyei caioi/oaaoeny oaiaeaioe?y aei oi?o?eaoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa
o oe?e noa??.

?, ia?aoo?, ii-i’yoa, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui iaei??th c iniiaieo
oiia aeeao/ino? oa aeoeaiino? oa?i?ecio ? aeineoue iioe?aia i?aeo?eiea
oeo /e ?ioeo aeno?ai?nonueeeo ?oo?a c aieo iaaieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy ?
iaa?oue ie?aieo aea?aeaa. Iicaaaeoe oa?i?eci nioe?aeueii? aace, ui
cia/ii iineaaeei a eiai, iiaeia ianaiia?aae ca oiiae /?oeiai
a?aeie?aieaiiy iiiyooy ai?ioueae ca iaoe?iiaeueia aecaieaiiy o ?aieao
aecia/aiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai oa?i?ecio.

I?eeiath/e aei oaaae aeuacacia/aia, aaoi? cai?iiiioaaa oaeee aa??aio
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “i?aeia?iaeiee oa?i?eci”. “I?aeia?iaeiee oa?i?eci —
oea nei?iiy ie?aieie iniaaie aai aea?aeaaaie aeo?a aaeanoa, aeaoo?a,
i?aeiae?a, ocyooy ca?o/iee?a aai caoiieaiiy e?oae?a /e noaeai, c iaoith
iin?yoe no?ao o iie?oe/ieo oe?eyo, i?e iayaiino? iai??o aei cieuaiiy aai
ni?e/eiaiiy oeiaee iniaai, ye? ia iathoue aaciina?aaeiueiai a?aeiioaiiy
aei cae?enithaaieo aeoe?e, ca oiiae, ui oe? aeoe?? ia ? ?aae?caoe??th
caeiiieo i?aa ia?iae?a ia naiiaecia/aiiy, iaoe?iiaeueia oa
oa?eoi??aeueia aecaieaiiy”.

I?ioe??//y c i?eaiaeo aecia/aiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai oa?i?ecio oa o?aooaaiiy
aeiei??iieo i?e/ei, ui aei iueiai i?ecaiaeyoue, aeeeeea? oaeiae ieceo
?ica?aeiinoae, ye? iineeththoue neeaaeiino? o i?ioean? ai?ioueae
na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa c oeei i?ia?anoth/ei cei/eiii. O ?iaio? oe?
?ica?aeiino? iaaiaeyoueny.

?icaeyaeath/e a ianooiiiio i?ae?icae?e? 2.3. “Oeyoe ? caoiaee
caiia?aaiiy oa?i?ecio a Oe?a?i?. [??aaaiuy oa?i?ecio o iaoe?iiaeueiiio
i?aa?” i?e/aoi?noue aei oeeo i?ioean?a Oe?a?ie, aaoi? ia iniia? aiae?co
iie?oe/ieo oa i?aaiaeo ?aae?e i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaai?noue oa a?iiaaenuee?noue ia iiaeooue oieeiooe i?iaeai,
iia’ycaieo c oa?i?eciii, oiio o iiooeao oeyo?a aoaeoeaii? i?ioeae?? eiio
ne?ae aeoiaeeoe c i?aeoiae?a oa e?eoa???a, yeeie ea?o?oueny i?aeia?iaeia
ni?aoiaa?enoai.

Iayai?noue e?ei?iaeueiiai oa?i?o a Oe?a?i? ? a oiio eiai aniaeo?, ui
cei/eii?noue noaea aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii o aeeoo? iaoiai noni?euenoaa
(noai e?ei?iae?cio), iio?aao? i?eeiyooy o ia?oo /a?ao iie?oe/ieo,
i?aaiaeo oa aeiiii?/ieo ??oaiue.

O iaaeao aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae iieacaii, ui nai?/ania ?aaaoaaiiy
caeiiiaeaaoe?a ia ianoaiiaeo, i?eeiyooy aioeoa?i?enoe/ieo caeii?a, ui
aacoaaeeny a ia iaa?oioiaaieo i?iaiicao, ia? aenieo i?io?eaeoe/io
aoaeoeai?noue. Ia?aaaao ooo ne?ae a?aeaeaoe oe?eueiaiio caeiio ai?ioueae
c oa?i?eciii, yeee aei-caieea ae o caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo aecia/eoe
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? caniae ai?ioueae c i?iyaaie oa?i?ecio,
noi?ioethaaoe eiai aecia/aiiy ye nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua,
caeiiiaeaa/a aecia/eoe aea?aeaai? neeia? i?aaie, iaia’yceii yeeo aoei a
iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa i?eieiaiiy oa?i?enoe/ieo aeo?a. O ?in?? oaeee caeii
(“I?i ai?ioueao c oa?i?eciii”) i?eeiyoi 3 /a?aiy 1998 ?. O
caeiiioai?/ino? Oe?a?ie ia? i?noea i?aoeaaeaio ?ic?iaee i?iaeoo
oe?eueiaiai aioeoa?i?enoe/iiai caeiio (“I?i i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia?
iniiae ai?ioueae c oa?i?eciii”). Iiaeeeai, o nai?e iniia? a?i a
iaaeaeaeiio iaeaooiueiio iaaoaea aeciaiiy.

I?eeiyoiei ye ia?ao?aeiee iiaea aooe aa??aio, ia?aiee iaoei
caeiiiaeaaoeai, eiee a?i acya aei ?icaeyaeo i?iaeo Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i
iineeaiiy ai?ioueae c oa?i?enoe/ieie i?iyaaie”. Oeae caeiiii?iaeo
?ic?iaeaii a?oiith oao?aoe?a, aei yei? oa?eoee i?aaenoaaieee Neoaeae
aaciaee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa thnoeoe??. ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae oa i?aaa
IAI Oe?a?ie, th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
Oe?a?ie ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Caeiiii?iaeo ia?aaeaa/a? aianaiiy ci?i oa
aeiiiaiaiue aei e?ei?iaeueiiai oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, aeae?eyth/e oa?i?eci (no. 69 ) ye naiino?eiee neeaae
cei/eio c aecia/aiiyi oa?i?enoe/ii? a?oie oa oa?i?enoe/ii? i?aai?caoe??.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ci?ie aei noaoo? “Caoiieaiiy caeiaeiee?a” (no. 123′).

O caeiiii?iaeo? oa?i?eci aecia/aii ye o/eiaiiy aai caa?ica o/eiaiiy
aeaooo, i?aeiaeo /e ?ioeo ae?e, ui ooai?ththoue iaaaciaeo aeey aeeooy oa
caei?ia’y ethaeeie aai caa?ico ianoaiiy aaaeeeo iane?aee?a, yeui ?o
caiiae?yii c iaoith i?eiono i?aai?a aea?aeaae, i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy aai i?aeia?iaeii? i?aai?caoe??, a oaeiae ?oi?o
i?aaenoaaiee?a cae?enieoe /e oo?eiaoeny a?ae cae?eniaiiy yei?nue ae??
aai iaoe?eai? ia i?iaieaoe?th a?eie, ai?iiiai eiioe?eoo, ii?iaeaeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo oneeaaeiaiue, aeanoaa?e?caoe?? ianoaiiaee a aea?aeaa? /e a
ie?aiiio ?aa?ii?.

Aeath/e o oe?eiio iiceoeaio ioe?ieo oeueiio aecia/aiith, aaoi?
aiane?aeie ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aaa/a? a iueiio ie?ai? iaaeie?ee, ye?
noinothoueny ia?o ca ana iaaeinoaoiuei /?oei? oa?aeoa?enoeee oaeiai
aaaeeeaiai eiiiiiaioo oa?i?ecio, yeei aecia/a?oueny eiai nooi?noue, ye
caeyeoaaiiy, a oaeiae eiai iie?oe/ia iioeaaoe?y, iaaeii? aea?oae oa ?i.

C o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co ? i?eeiath/e aei oaaae aeoieo
i?ia?aeieo oao?aoe?a o aaeoc? i?aaiaeo ioe?iie oa?i?ecio aaoi?
cai?iiiioaaa oaea aecia/aiiy oa?i?ecio: “Oa?i?eci — oea canoinoaaiiy
ianeeuenoaa aeey ii?ooaiiy oeyoii caeyeoaaiiy iaaeioi?eaiino?
iaoe?iiaeueieo oa iaaeiaoe?iiaeueieo ?inoeooo?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iaaeiieo aea?oa, ianoaiiy ?ioeo noni?eueia iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a, /e
noai?eei caa?ico ?o ianoaiiy”.

C iaoith caiia?aaiiy iiaei oaiaeaioe?yi o ?icaeoeo oa?i?ecio, oa
iiaeaeueoi? ?ioaa?aoe?? o i?aeia?iaeia i?aaiaa iiea, ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
i?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy caeiiiaeaa/i? aace i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio a Oe?a?i?
iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe e ?io? ianoaaeie o aeine?aeaeoaai?e
aaeoc?:

1.Caaaeath/e ia aeoea?caoe?th i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo i?ioean?a ai?ioueae
c oa?i?eciii, ne?ae, aacoth/enue ia iiaeeaeaiiio aea/aii?
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai? i?aeoeee ai?ioueae c oa?i?eciii, aeina?aeo
?iicaiieo aea?aeaa uiaei canoinoaaiiy eiiaaioe?e oa oaiae, aecia/eoe
oeyoe ?iei?ii?aoe?? ?o iieiaeaiue aei aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai i?aaa

2. I?eeiath/e aei oaaae aaiiie?oe/ia ?icoaooaaiiy Oe?a?ie, aeioe?eueii
aianoe aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ii?ie i?i caiia?aaiiy
ae?yiiyi, ye? a ooai?thaaee i?aeaioiaeo aei cae?eniaiiy oa?i?enoe/ieo
aeo?a a ?io?e aea?aeaa?.

3. Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie ai?ioueae c yaea?iei oa?i?eciii o
i?aeia?iaeiiio ieai? coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaa/iai ae??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy o iao?e aea?aeaa?. Ia?aeaeueii
aei oeueiai aeioe?eueii ii?aoethaaoe ii?ie, ye? a ia?aoeiaeaeaee
aeei?enoaiith oa?i?enoaie cania?a ianiaiai cieuaiiy. Iaiao?aeii
e?ei?iae?coaaoe iiaaae?ieo, ui iia’ycaia c iiyaeaiiyi iiaiaaaaeaiue oa
neeaaeieo oaoiieia?e, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue oa?i?enoe.

4. O ?aieao i?aeia?iaeii? i?iaeaie ia?eioa?i?ecio, ui ia? aaciina?aaei?
a?aeiioaiiy aei Oe?a?ie, iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe ia’?aeiaiiy ii?i, uiaei
iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioee?a c aioeoa?i?enoe/ieie ii?iaie.

5. C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai aioeoa?i?enoe/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?eaaaeaiiy eiai o a?aeiia?aei?noue c i?aeia?iaeieie
ciaia’ycaiiyie iaoi? e?a?ie aeioe?eueii neio?ii?coaaoe i?ioeaaeo?e
?aoeo?eaoe?? Oe?a?iith i?aeia?iaeieo eiiaaioe?e, oaiae ? o. ?i. c
i?eeiyooyi aai aeiii?aoethaaiiyi iaaieo aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaieo
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a.

6. Aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino? i?aaaioe?? oa?i?ecio i??i?eoaoe ne?ae
a?aeaeaaaoe ii?iaoeaiei aeoai, ye? a ?i?oe?thaaee oa ?icaeaaee
iia?aoeaii-?icooeiao ae?yeuei?noue o noa?? ai?ioueae c oa?i?eciii.

Oiio, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iioeiaeueia i?aaiaa aaca, yea iiaoaeiaaia c
o?aooaaiiyi aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo no/aniiai oa?i?ecio, iieeeeaia aooe
iniiaith aeey a?aei?aoethaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? i?aai?caoe?eiiai,
i?aaicanoiniaiiai, iia?aoeaiiai oa ?ioeo iai?yie?a i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio o
i?aaaioeaiiio ?aaeei?.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? i?noeoueny i?aenoiie i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeeeaaeaii caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
neeaaeathoue iniiaiee ci?no iaoeiai? iiaecie aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ?
ni?iaith caiiaieoe i?iaaeeie nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai oa e?ei?iieia?/iiai
aea/aiiy oa?i?ecio.

Iaaecae/aeia neeaaei?noue oa?i?ecio ye yaeua, yea oa?eoei aei
iie?oe/ii?, aeiiii?/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, i?aaiai?, ii?aeueii-aoe/ii? oa
?ioeo noa? iaoiai aoooy, ia?aaeaa/a? iaiao?aei?noue iaeneiaeueii iiaiiai
o?aooaaiiy on??? noeoiiino? aeiaaeueieo i?ioean?a no/aniino? c iaoith
iaoeiaiai caaacia/aiiy i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio. Aeinyaiaiith oe??? iaoe ?
ni?ey?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, cae?eniaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

Iiiia?ao?y

1. Nia?aiaiiue oa??i?eci: ninoiyiea e aiciiaeiinoe aai oi?aaeaeaiey
(e?eieiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea). — E.: Aeae-ai IAOA IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998.
-191 n.

Iaoeiaa a?ioo?a

2. Oa?i?eci: e?ei?iieia?/ia oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea.
-E.: Aeae-ai IAOA IAI Oe?a?ie, 1999. — 61 n.

Iaoeia? noaoo?

3. Iiiyooy oa?i?ecio (e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa aecia/aiiy ) // I?aai Oe?a?ie
— 1999. — ?2. — N. 92 — 95.

4. Iniaeeaino? neoaeae oa i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieth ca ineoio?ce/iei noaiii
iniaiaiai neeaaeo aioeoa?i?enoe/ieo niaoei?ae?icae?e?a //Iaoeiaee
a?niee. Aeaaeai?y Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?6-a7. — N.
184-192. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?aaiiaith I.A.).

AIIOAOe?ss

Aioeiaiei A.O. No/aniee oa?i?eci: noai ? oeyoe eiai caiia?aaiiy a
Oe?a?i?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia ?oeiai ? e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.
A.I.Ei?noeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia e?ei?iieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith oa?i?ecio ?
neeaaea?oueny ?c 2 ?icae?e?a, 6 i?ae?icae?e?a oa 2 ioieo?a.

Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
caeiiiaeaa/eo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, o oiio /ene? niaoe?aeueieo a?aeii/eo,
oa ?ioi? e?oa?aoo?e aeine?aeaeothoueny e?ei?iieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa
aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue oa?i?ecio, eiai ?noi?e/i? aeoiee,
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia ineoio?ce/ia ei??iiy. Aacoth/enue ia ?acoeueoaoao
aiae?co, aena?oeththoueny oeyoe i?ioeae?? oa?i?ecio, a oaeiae ianoaaeie,
ye? oeueiio ia?aoeiaeaeathoue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o i?ioean?
i?aeaioiaee eo?naio?a ? neooa/?a caeeaae?a ina?oe NAO, IAN, I?iiai?iie
oa ?ioeo; i?e ?ic?iaoe? e ?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe?? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii?
aioeoa?i?enoe/ii? nenoaie caoiae?a; o i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? i?aai?a
i?aaiioi?iiii? nenoaie; ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieie no?oeoo?aie,
i?aaenoaaieoeoaaie Oe?a?ie ca ei?aeiiii aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iiceoe??
iaoi? aea?aeaae uiaei oa?i?ecio e i?aai?caoe?? ai?ioueae c iei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oa?i?eci, e?ei?iieia?y oa?i?ecio, i?aeia?iaeiee
oa?i?eci, caiia?aaiiy oa?i?ecio.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aioeaeaiei A.O. Nia?aiaiiue?e oa??i?eci: ninoiyiea e iooe aai
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 — oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. — Einoeooo ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ei.
A.I.Ei?aoeeiai IAI Oe?aeie, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia e?eieiieiae/aneiio enneaaeiaaieth oa??i?ecia e
ninoieo ec 2 ?acaeaeia, 6 iiae?acaeaeia e 2 ioieoia.

Ia iniiaa nenoaiiiai aiaeeca ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee,
caeiiiaeaoayueiuo ii?iaoeaieo aeoia, a oii /enea niaoeeaeueiuo
aaaeiinoaaiiuo, e ae?oaie eeoa?aoo?u enneaaeothony e?eieiieiae/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee e aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoue oa??i?ecia, aai enoi?e/aneea
enoiee, nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea, ineoioece/aneea ei?ie. Aace?oynue ia
?acoeueoaoao aiaeeca, inaauathony i?aaiaua iooe i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
oa??i?ecio, a oaeaea ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua i?aiyonoaotho yoiio.

I?e coii iiiyoeai oa??i?ecia ioaaouaaaony niaieoiiinoue oa??i?enoe/aneeo
aeoia e ae?oaeo i?iyaeaiee oa??i?enoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, iie
?anniao?eaathony a aeaea ?aaeueiuo oaeoi?ia nioeeaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii ia eae nooea th?eaee/aneea eiino?oeoeee.

?anniao?eaay oa??i?eci e naycaiiua n iei yaeaiey eae
nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaoth ?aaeueiinoue e iie?aynue ia nioeeaeueiue iiaeoiae
a eco/aiee coiai i?anooieaiey, enneaaeiaaiea a oi aea a?aiy ia
ioaeaeaaony io th?eaee/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee oa??i?ecia.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca aeaiaieee e iaoaiecia ?acaeoey ianeeey e oa??i?ecia,
eae iniai iianiie oi?iu aai i?iyaeaiey, aeaeaaony auaiae i aai
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiie i?e?iaea. Enoiaey ec iauai?eciaiiuo e?eoa?eaa
e?eieiieiae/aneie iaoee ioia/aii, /oi a ioee/ea io iauaoaieiaiie
i?anooiiinoe, eioi?oth i?eiyoi ?anniao?eaaoue ia oiia eiie?aoiiai
iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?ie?iaaiey, oa??i?eci neaaeoao
eco/aoue neaicue i?ecio “nioeeaeueiiai oaea” iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
niiauanoaa.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaia e iainiiaaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiay nouiinoue
oa??i?ecia, eioi?ue ana aieaa auoiaeeo ca iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiua
?aiee. Aace?oynue ia i?eioeeiao iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa, oa??i?eci
i?iaiaeece?iaai eae i?anooieaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?a.
Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oa??i?ecia iainiiauaaaony ia
oieueei n iiceoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ii e n o/aoii
neeaaeuaathuaainy ie?iaiai ii?yaeea, iieeoe/aneeo, ceiiiie/aneeo e
aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie, a?oieaie ainoaea?noa.

A enneaaeiaaiee iieacaii, /oi n aoiaeaeaieai Oe?aeiu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
iieeoe/aneia e ceiiiie/aneia i?ino?ainoai aic?anoaao i?e/anoiinoue
iaoaai ainoaea?noaa e i?iaeaiai, naycaiiui n oa??i?eciii.

N eniieueciaaieai iaoiaeieiaee e?eieiieiae/aneie iaoee enneaaeiaai iiuo
ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth, /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue
iai?aaeaiey e iiaeoiaeu a ?ac?aaioea i?iaeai i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
oa??i?ecio. I?e coii iieacaii, /oi oa??i?eci eae iauanoaaiii iianiia
i?ioeaii?aaiia aeayiea iiaeao auoue aaeaioe?iaai e iiiyoeeiiio aiia?aoo
e eaoaai?eyi e?eieiieiaee.

I?a?iaaoeao enneaaeiaaiey ninoaaeyao eiioeaioeey oi?aaeaeaiey
oa??i?ecia. A nayce n yoei io?aaioaiu ia oieueei i?aaiaua, ii e
iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iooe i?ioeaiaeaenoaey aio.

I?aaeeiaeaii ii?aaeaeaiea oa??i?ecia aeey aiciiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey a
iaoeeiiaeueiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a i?ioeanna
iiaeaioiaee eo?naioia e neooaoaeae o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee NAO, IAAe,
Ieiiai?iiu e ae?oaeo; i?e ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee eiioeaioeee
iauaainoaea?noaaiiie aioeoa??i?enoe/aneie nenoaiu ia?; a i?aeoe/aneie
?aaioa i?aaiia i?aaiio?aieoaeueiie nenoaiu; aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeie
no?oeoo?aie, i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaaie Oe?aeiu ca ?oaaaeii aeey iainiiaaiey
iiceoeee iaoaai ainoaea?noaa a ioiioaiee oa??i?ecia e i?aaiecaoeee
ai?ueau n iei.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oa??i?eci, e?eieiieiaey oa??i?ecia. iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
oa??i?eci, i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea oa??i?ecia.

THE SUMMARY

Antipenko V.F. “Modem terrorism: a condition and paths of its warning in
Ukiaine”.The manuscript. A thesis on deriving of ascientific speciality
12.00.08 -criminal law; the criminal-executive degree of the candidate
of jurisprudences on aright. The institute of the state and right of
name Koretsky V. M. Of the national academy of sciences of Ukraine,
Kiev, 1999.

Is protected thesis from 2 sections and 6 subsections, on which is made
a crminal research of terrorism.

On a basis of systems analysis of domestic transactionses, materials
UNO, many of which concern to the legislative normative sertificates
(acts) including special departmental and other literature are
investigated the criminal performance of terrorism, it’s historical
sources, political, socio economic and psychophysical radicals. Being
based on outcomes of the analysis, illuminating legal paths of a
counteraction to terrorism, and also barrier, which hinder this.

The main outcomes of a transactions can be applied during preparation of
the cadets and students of educational institutions of Security Service
of Ukraine, Ministry of internal businesses, Ministry of Defense and
other; development and realizations of the concept of a nation-wide
antiterrorist system of measures; in practical work of organs of a
law-enforcement system; representations of Ukraine abroad for the
substantiation of an item of our state concerning terrorisms and
organization a struggle with terrorism.

Key words: terrorism, criminology of terrorism, international of
terrorism, warning of terrorism.

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