OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

AACIINIA Ieoaeei Aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE 316.42

NO*ANI? O?AINOI?IAOe?EI? I?IOeANE

(II??AIssEUeIEE NIOe?IEIA?*IEE AIAE?C)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 22.00.01 – Oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

ssEOAA Ieaia Ieaenaiae??aia,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith nioe?ieia??

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

IIIIAA ??eia Ia?e?aia,

eaoaae?a nioe?ieia??

?inoeoooo nioe?aeueieo iaoe

Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i. ?.?.Ia/i?eiaa

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iinooiiee Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith nioe?ieia?? ? i?aaa

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie

?i.ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, eaoaae?a nioe?ieia?? ? iie?oieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 18 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.15. Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 310002, aoe. Ie?iiineoeueea, 1. Aoae 2-25

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? OAeO ca aae?anith: 310077, Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 18 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee:
?.?.Oa?aiao

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

Eieain nioe?ae?cio a 1989-1991 ?ieao i?eca?a aei ia??iaeo nooo?aeo
aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo ? iie?oe/ieo ci?i. Aeey nioe?ieia?a ?
iie?oieia?a, ye? oe?eaaeyoueny aeeiai?eith oeeo ci?i, iaaooue, ia
?nio? a?eueo oe?eaai? noa?e aeine?aeaeaiue, i?ae i?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe??
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i. Aace?/ oai o aaeee?e e?eueeino? aeaea?ae, ye?
c’yaeeenue inoaii?i /anii, na?ae/eoue, ui i?aeoe/ii iaia? oai?aoe/ieo
i?iaeai a nioe?aeueieo iaoeao, ye? a ia iiaeia aoei ie?aeii aea/eoe a
aii??e/iiio eiioaeno? No?aeii? ?a?iie oa eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco: a?ae ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa eieaeoeaii?
?aeaioe/iino? aei ?iciaaeo ? noai?aiiy iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.
A/ai?-noni?euenoaiciaaoe? aoee caeo/ai? aei eiinoeueoaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, aeiiiiaaath/e iinonioe?ae?noe/iei o?yaeai ae??ooaaoe
ieoaiiy no?aoaa?? oa iie?oeee o?ainoi?iaoe??. Oaeoe/ii, iaeiei c
iniiaieo ieoaiue a aeeneon?yo i?i o?ainoi?iaoe?th aoea i?iaeaia
no?aoaa??: ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea iiaeiia aooe noai?aia /e oeyoii oaeaeeeo ?
iaeii/anieo ci?i /a?ac oae caaio “oieiao oa?ai?th”, /e iinooiiai, c
ieeiii /ano. Naia oea i?ioe??//y i?ae “?aaeeeae?ciii” ? “a?aaeoae?ciii”
(iinooiia?noth) oa iaoiaeaie ?o i?aeoe/iiai cae?eniaiiy ? ? iaei??th c
iniiaieo i?iaeai, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?. sseith
i??ith ? ca yeeo oiia no/ani? noni?euenoaa iiaeooue aooe
ooiaeaiaioaeueii ooo/ii ?ano?oeoo?iaai??

Iaeaea oi?aa?naeueiei i?eiouaiiyi aei oaia??oiueiai /ano aoei oa, ui
eieeoi? nioe?ae?noe/i? noni?euenoaa iiaeooue aooe ooo/ii ?ano?oeoo?iaai?
ca c?aceii ?icaeiooeo eai?oae?noe/ieo aeaiie?ao?e ia Caoiae? ? ui oiiae
aeey oeueiai aeieeee i?ae /an iaae?iiy nioe?ae?noe/ieo ?aaeei?a. Iaeiae,
iioei?ci ?aoi?iaoi??a iioeoioany ?acii c oei, ye iinonioe?ae?noe/i?
noni?euenoaa i?enoiniaoaaeeny aei aeiiii?/iiai niaaeo, nioe?aeueieo
i?iaeai ? iie?oe/ii? iaaecia/aiino?. Iaia? iaiao?aeiino? iiee ui
iaieiooaaoe oeae i?iaeo anainyaeieo nioe?aeueieo ci?i oni?oii aai
iaaaea/ath. Ua ?aii aeaaaoe caaaeueio ioe?ieo. A?eueo oiai, oiiae ?
?acoeueoaoe a?ae??ciythoueny a ??cieo e?a?iao. ? o?eueee
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee aiae?c iiaea caaacia/eoe a?eueo /e iaio caaeainiaaio
ioe?ieo iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai i?inoi?o.

I?iaeaiia neooaoe?y iieyaa? o ?ic??ciaiino? i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? oeyo?a aeoiaeo c e?eciaiai noaio, a oaeiae o
iaaeinoaoi?e aea/aiino? aeina?aeo oni?oieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e ?
ia?ic?iaeaiino? eiioeaioe?? nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeeeaeo nioe?aeueieo iane?aee?a ?aaeeeaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo ?
iie?oe/ieo ?aoi?i.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e oai? “Ci?ie nioe?aeueiiai i?inoi?o a ia??iae
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa” eaoaae?e nioe?ieia??
nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?
?ic?iaey?oueny a ?? iaaeao.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie.

Aea/aiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a ? aeinoaoiuei iiioey?iith oaiith o
no/anieo nioe?aeueieo iaoeao. Ca inoaii? 15 ?ie?a “o?aiceoieia?y” oa
oai??y o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?icaeaaeeny oaeaeeeie oaiiaie ? iaaoee noaoono
ie?aieo aeenoeeie?i. Caoe?eaaeai?noue oe??th oaiith aeeeeeaia aeaiia
cia/ieie i?ioeanaie o no/aniiio na?o? — ia?aoiaeii e?a?i I?aaeaiii?
?a?iie a?ae aaoi?eoa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao?? ? o?ainoi?iaoe?eieie
i?ioeanaie a iinonioe?ae?noe/iiio na?o?.

Iaeia c ia?oeo ni?ia aea/aiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a aoea iia’ycaia
c aecia/aiiyi i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy aeaiie?ao??. Aiia aoea cae?eniaia
a/aieie, ye? iia’ycoaaee ia?niaeoeae aeaiie?ao?? c ??aiai aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo.

Na?aae ieo aoee oae? a/ai?-noni?euenoaiciaaoe?, ye Ae. Aioa?, N. Ia?o?i
E?inao, O. ?anoio, N. Oaiao?iaoii ? A. Ni?o, ye? aaaaeathoueny
niaoe?ae?noaie c iiaea?i?caoe??, oiio ui ?o aieiaia i?eiouaiiy
i?noeoueny a ?aea?, ui aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie ? iiaea?i?caoe?y yaeythoue
niaith ia?aaeoiiae iie?oe/ii? aeaiie?ao??.

Oi/a a?eueo?noue a/aieo ? iiae?ey? ooiaeaiaioaeueio ?aeath i?i oa, ui
aeaiie?aoe/iee ?aaeei ? i?eoaiaiiei ia?aaaaeii ?icaeioo?e e?a?i?, i?ioa
?niothoue na?eici? ?ica?aeiino? c i?eaiaeo ?ioeo aniaeo?a oeueiai
a?aoiaioo. E??i oiai, ??ci? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaee, ui
iaaeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e, oae?, ye eoeueoo?i? iniaeeaino? ? ?ieue
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ea??aieoeoaa, oaeiae ? aaaeeeaeie aeey iiyniaiiy
iie?oe/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo ci?i.

Aeaye? iaoeiaoe? iaiaaaeeny c?iaeoe iiaea?i?caoe?eiee i?aeo?ae a?eueo
aeeiai?/iei /a?ac aeeth/aiiy eoeueoo?ieo oaeoi??a. Aaa??aeue Aeiiiae,
Aeai?ae Ea?ia?, Aoiia? Ia?aeae ? N?aeiae Aa?aa noaa?aeaeoaaee, ui
iie?oeea a e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny, ? caeaaeiith ci?iiith ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ?o eoeueoo?ieo no?oeoo?, a ia noiniaii ??aiy ?o
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Ne?aeii ca Iaenii Aaaa?ii oe? iaoeiaoe?
caa?oathoue oaaao ia aeooiai? yeino? noni?euenoaa (oe?iiino?,
i???ioaoe??, aooeouethaee) ye ia iacaeaaei? ci?ii? aeey iie?oe/iiai
?aaeeio a e?a?i?.

Ia?aeaeueii aei oiai, ye a?aeaoaaeenue aeaiie?aoe/i? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
Ii?ooaae??, ?niai??, I?aaeaii?e Aia?eoe? ? No?aei?e ?a?ii?, aeieeea
iio?aaa a a?eueo oi/iiio iiyniaii? i?e/ei ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?ao??.
sseui iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a aoea iaaeinoaoi?i iiyniaiiyi oi, iaaii, ye?nue
?io? oaeoi?e iiaeii? aoee a?aeiia?aeaoe ca ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny.

Ianooiiee i?aeo?ae (iie?oeei-aeaoa?i?ioth/ee) aa?a na?e ii/aoie c?
noaoo? Aeaieoi?oa ?anoio “Ia?aoiaee aei aeaiie?ao?? a 1970, a oaeiae c
ioae?eaoe?? a 1971 ?ioe? “Iie?a?o??” ?iaa?oa Aeaea ? o?eoiiieea Ooaia
E?ioea ? Aeo?aaea Noaoaia “Iaae?iiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aaeei?a”.
I?aaenoaaieee oeueiai i?aeoiaeo a?aeiiaeeenue a?ae i?neyai?iieo
oai?aoe/ieo ni?ia aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeeio /a?ac
aeiiii?/i?, eeania? aai eoeueoo?i? iniaeeaino?. Cai?noue oeueiai aiie
ooeaee iiyniaiiy a /anoi ia/?oeeo ci?iieo ( noeeue iiaaae?iee e?aea??a,
?o iniaeno? yeino? ? oa, ye aiie a?aeiia?aeathoue iio?aaai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa). Oi/a iaoeiaoe?, ye? ei?enoothoueny oeei
i?aeoiaeii, ia?aaaaeii oieonoaaee nai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia I?aaeaii?e
?a?ii? ? Eaoeinuee?e Aia?eoe?, ca?ac o oieon? aeine?aeaeaiue iieieeenue
?io? e?a?ie ? ?aa?iie (iniaeeai No?aeia ?a?iia).

?nio? iaeei iniaeeaee oieon, iaeei niaoeeo?/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aoa
a?aeiinii caaooee i?e aiae?c? iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e ? yeee
aoei cai?iaaaeaeaii a iiaiio o?aeooaaii? Iao?ii Ooiiieie a e?ioe? 80-o.
Oea oae caaiee eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiee i?aeo?ae, cai?iiiiiaaiee ua
Aeaen?nii aea Oiea?eai.

C iiceoe?e no?oeoo?iiai ooieoe?iiae?cio aoee ni?iae o aeine?aeaeaii?
oe??? i?iaeaie, ye? iaeaaeaee Aaeaio Oeaio, Aeaeiio Oaca?aeo ?
Aeaei?aeaeo A?oiia?o, ia yeeo na?eicii aieeioee i?aoe? Oaeeiooa Ia?niina
? ?iaa?oa Ia?oiia.

A 1989 ?ioe? c’yaeeanue iiaa aeenoeeie?ia a nioe?aeueieo iaoeao, yea
io?eiaea iacao “o?aiceoieia?y”. A oeae /an aei aiae?co aeaii? i?iaeaie
i?aeeeth/a?oueny ?aeueo Aea?aiaei?o, yeee i?aeo?eiaa ?aeath
?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i ? a?aee?eoi aenooiea i?ioe iiiia?ianueei? ?aea?
“nioe?aeueii? ?iaeaia???”.

C ?ioiai aieo, c e?eoeeith ?aaeeeaeueii? no?aoaa?? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aenooiathoue Ai?oa? Aooe?ii? ? Aaeai Ioaai?ne?. E?enoioa? A?aeaio a
nai?o i?aoeyo i?aee?aneth? ooii?/i?noue ?aaeeeaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo ?
caeeeea? aei ?aoaeuei?oiai nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a.

No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? o o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioeanao iaaiith i??ith aoee
?icaeyioo? a i?aoeyo iieuenueeeo nioe?ieia?a ? iie?oieia?a. Aaeioiae
Iieaeeoeueeee caeia?oueny aiae?cii ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo ci?i o e?a?iao,
ui o?ainoi?iothoueny. Aiaeaeae ?e/a?ae ?icaeyaea? o nai?o i?aoeyo
i?iaeaie ?aoi?i oa aaeaioaoe?? aei ieo. Iie?oe/i? aniaeoe o?ainoi?iaoe??
e?aua ?ice?eo? a i?aoeyo Aeiaeceiaaea Aanieianueeiai. Aiae?c oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?e o noni?euenoa?, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny, iiaeia ciaeoe a i?aoeyo
Eaie Eiea?nueei-Aiaeinueei?. A i?aoeyo /anueeiai nioe?ieiaa Iaaaea
Iaoii?ia aea?oueny ?aoaeueiee aiae?c ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei aea/aiiy
nenoaiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e.

Na?aae no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a o oe?e aaeoc? iiaeia aeae?eeoe i?aoe? c
nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao Ceaioioa
Aaoiaia, No?aaia Oieina, Oaeueiooa A?caiooaey ? Aiae?aana I?eaey. Aei
ieo ne?ae aeiaeaoe ua aeaio oai?aoee?a a aaeoc? nenoaiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e
— Aiae?th A?aoi ? Eaia Aeaeia?ooa.

O a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? i?iaeaia nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iiee ui oe?iei ia
aena?oeaia. Aei ie?aieo aniaeo?a aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee caa?oathoueny A.
Aae??ia, A. Aieiae/, N. Iae??a, A. Iai?iooi, I. Iai?ia, ?. Iiiiaa, A.
?o/ea, A. Oiaeueei, I. sseoaa oa ?io? nioe?ieiae. Iaeiiai?oith i?aoeath
a aeai?e aaeoc?, o ye?e ?iaeoueny ni?iaa eiiieaeniiai aiae?co
iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa ? iiiia?ao?y ?. Aieiaaoe
“Noni?euenoai, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny”(1997).

Iniiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?icaeyae i?iaeaie
aca?iiae?? i?ae nioe?aeueieie, iie?oe/ieie oa aeiiii?/ieie aniaeoaie
o?ainoi?iaoe?e ? iiaeeeaeie iane?aeeaie oe??? aca?iiae??.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoe a
aeena?oaoe?? aenoioo? oae? iaoiaeieia?/i? ? i?eeeaaei? caaaeaiiy:

I?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaiiiaia
nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? iiaeeeaino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe?
i?iaeoo iinooiiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??;

Ooi/ieoe ci?no iiiyoue “o?ainoi?iaoe?y” ? “nenoaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y”;

?icaeyiooe i?iaeoe ? i?aeoeeo nenoaiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e a ?niai??,
Iieueu?, *ao?? ? Oe?a?i?;

C?iaeoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ??cieo o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo no?aoaa?e ?
i?aeoeee;

Cai?iiiioaaoe i?iaeo nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ui eiio?ieth?oueny.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeaia ?iaioa nie?a?oueny ia ?ic?iaee ?
aeinyaiaiiy ?yaeo iaoeiaeo aeenoeeie?i: nioe?ieia??, iie?oieia?? oa
iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??. Aaoi? ni?iaoaaa a?aooaaoe ??ci?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee.

Aaoi?nueeee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeai iinonioe?ae?noe/ii? nenoaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? caciaa neeueiiai aieeao e?eoe/iiai ?aoe?iiae?cio E.
Iiiia?a. Aaoi? oaeiae caa?oa?oueny aei eiioeaioe?? no?oeoo?iiai
ooieoe?iiae?cio O. Ia?niina, eiino?oeoea?nonueei? oai??? nioe?aeueieo
nenoai I. Eoaiaia ? iaaeiaiaoe/ii? oai??? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o ?.
Aenoa?a. Iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee nioe?ieia?/ii? eiioeaioe?? iinooiiai?
nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? noaee i?aoe? A. Aooe?ii?, A. Ioaai?ne? ? E.
A?aeaioa.

Iniiaiei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy a i?aoe? ? iaoiae ye?niiai aiae?co
eiie?aoieo neooaoe?e (case-study). Oeae iaoiae aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
ii??aiyiiy cia/ieo iae?inioe?aeueieo iaeeieoeue. ?iaioa nie?a?oueny ia
aaeeeo oaeoe/io aaco.

Aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c ?acoeueoao?a
nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai eaoaae?ith nioe?ieia??
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ca o/anoth aaoi?a a 1996-97 ?ieao o i.
Oa?eia?, “Ci?ie nioe?aeueii-eeaniai? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe??”. sse ?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo a ??cieo e?a?iao,
?noi?e/i? ? noaoenoe/i? aeaea?aea.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — iniiai? nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe noni?euenoaa o
ia??iae o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?iaeoe ? i?aeoeea nenoaiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e, a
oaeiae aca?iiae?y aeiiii?/iiai ? iie?oe/iiai oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue
ia i?ioean nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea?oueny ?c ianooiieo iieiaeaiue, ye?
aenoaathoueny ia caoeno:

Eiie?aoeciaaii iiiyooy “o?ainoi?iaoe?y” ? “nenoaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y”.
Aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaaii ?iai/a aecia/aiiy “nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??”, yea
i?aee?aneth? eiai eiiieaenio i?e?iaeo;

Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a a ??cieo
e?a?iao, cai?iiiiiaaii aeueoa?iaoeaiee i?aeo?ae aei nenoaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe??, caniiaaiee ia iinooiiaino? ? iaa?oioiaai?e
?aoe?iiaeueiino?;

Ia iniia? aaoi?nueei? eiioeaioe?? cae?eniaii ye?niee ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c eiie?aoieo i?iaeo?a ? i?aeoeee o?ainoi?iaoe?? a ??cieo e?a?iao;

Ia aac? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co i?iaeaiiino?iaaii, ui oie?noe/iee i?iaeo
nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aoei iaa?oioiaaii ia ii/aoeia?e noaae??, a
caiaeii nenoaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y i?ioeaaeo?ii iiaeiia iineoe anenoaiiee
oa?aeoa?;

I?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?iioaco i?i iaiao?aei?noue nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeiiii?/iee oaeoi? ia ? ?aeeiei ?, oei
a?eueoa, aecia/aeueiei aeey oni?oo iinonioe?ae?noe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??;

Iieacaia a??i?noue a?iioace i?i oa, ui oaia??oi? o?oaeiiu? aeey
nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?noyoueny a eaoaioieo i?ioeanao;

Aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue na?eiciiai a?aeiioaiiy aei eoeueoo?ieo
aniaeo?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? aei ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? i?aeoeee eiii?ii?n?a
i?ae ??cieie ?ioa?anaie.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue ye oai?aoe/ia, oae ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy. Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue i?noeoueny o aianeo a ?ic?iaeo
oe?e?nii? nioe?ieia?/ii? eiioeaioe?? nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa, o ?icoe?aiiy iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue i?i
nenoaiio o?ainoi?iaoe?th ye iniaeeaee nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a iia’ycaia c oei, ui nioe?ieia?/ia
eiioeaioe?y nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa, yeo cai?iiiiiaaii aei
?icaeyaeo, aeicaiey? iioei?coaaoe i?aeoeeo aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a
noni?euenoa?, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny.

A ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii aeueoa?iaoeaiee i?aeo?ae aei nioe?aeueii?
o?ainoi?iaoe??, yeee i?noeoueny o iinooiiaino? ? iaa?oioiaai?e
?aoe?iiaeueiino?.

Oeae i?aeo?ae i?eionea? o?e ?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

nioe?aeueia iie?oeea iiaeiia aooe ?ic?iaeaia ? cae?eniaia aei oiai, ye
aoaea aeaii noa?o noaa?e?caoe?? aai e?aa?ae?caoe??;

iaeao ?aoi?i iiaeiai aooe aoaeoeaiei a i?i?i?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo aeo?ao
? noai?thaaoeny c a?aooaaiiyi aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo;

i?ia?aie ?aoi?i iiaeii? aooe noi?ioeueiaai? ? cae?eniai? o nenoai?
aeai?/eo ?inoeooo?a.

Oaeei /eiii, cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei nioe?aeueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
nea?iaaiei ia i???ioaoe?th ?aoi?i, ia aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, caoeno
iaoa??aeueiiai aeia?iaooo a?ae aeo?ao o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? ia iiaiioe?iia
aeei?enoaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeooo?a aeey aecia/aiiy ? ?aae?caoe??
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o
i?aeoeoe? aea?aeaaieo ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e i?e
iaa?oiooaaii? ? aiae?c? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee.

Cai?iiiiiaai? a ?iaio? iieiaeaiiy ? iaoiaeieia?y iiaeooue noaoe aacith
aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?euenoaa, a oaeiae iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee
eo?no “No/ani? nenoaii? o?ainoi?iaoe??” aeey nooaeaio?a nioe?ieia?/ieo
oaeoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe.

A?eueo?noue iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea
aeeeaaeaia a aeiiia?aeyo ? aenooiao ia Oa?e?anueeeo nioe?ieia?/ieo
/eoaiiyo (Oa?e?a, 1997-1998), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoea ? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie noni?euenoaa” (Oa?e?a,
/a?aaiue 1998 ?ieo), a oaeiae ia I?aeia?iaeiiio Caeueoeao?cueeiio
nai?ia?? (Caeueoeao?a, aa?acaiue 1998 ?ieo). Aiie oaeiae aoee iiaeai? ia
iaaiai?aiiy ia 93-e ui??/i?e eiioa?aioe?? Aia?eeainueei? iie?oieia?/ii?
anioe?aoe?? “Iia? ?inoeoooe o iiaiio noie?oo?” (Aaoeiaoii, na?iaiue 1997
?ieo) ? ia 19-e ui??/i?e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c ?a?iiaenueeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue (Iiaoa, Iaa?anea, aeiaoaiue 1994).

Aeena?oaoe?y i?ieoea iaaiai?aiiy ia can?aeaii? iaoiaeieia?/iiai nai?ia?o
nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo OAeO.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee
eo?n?a “No/ani? nioe?aeuei? o?ainoi?iaoe??” ? “Ii??aiyeueia iie?oe/ia
nioe?ieia?y”, ye? aoei i?i/eoaii nooaeaioai nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei ii?eethaeiaii o iiiia?ao??
? o oanoe iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao oa /aniienao.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iiaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, yea i?noeoue iien:
aeooaeueiino? oaie; nooiaiy ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino?; ia’?eoo ?
i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy; iniiaii? iaoe ? caaaeaiue; iaoiaeieia?/ii? oa
aii??e/ii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy; iaoeiai? iiaecie ?acoeueoao?a, ye?
aenoaathoueny ia caoeno; iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ai?iaaoe?? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe nenoaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa” aiae?cothoueny
??ciiiai?oi? i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie “nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??”, ye?
?niothoue o no/anieo noni?eueieo iaoeao.

?icaeyiooi aeaa ??cieo oeyoe aea/aiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a , ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo noni?euenoaao a No?aei?e ?a?ii? ?
e?a?iao eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.

Ia?oee iai?yiie, yeee /ano?oa aeei?enoiaoaaany a?o/eciyieie ?
caei?aeiiieie niaoe?ae?noaie o aaeoc? aeiiii?ee ? iie?oeee, iieyaa? o
?icaeyae? ci?i, ui a?aeaoaathoueny, ye iie?oe/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo
ia?ao?aeieo ia??iae?a a?ae oioae?oa?ii? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie ?
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeiiii?ee aei ieth?ae?noe/iiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa, yea a?oioo?oueny ia ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?.

Aoei noaa?aeaeaii, ui iiiyooy “ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae” /anoi ni?iuo?
oyaeaiiy i?i eiiieaeniee i?ioean ? caiaeeoue eiai aei /anoeiaeo ci?i o
e?eueeio noa?ao nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy. Iae/ano?oa iie?oe/i?, aeiiii?/i? ?
nioe?aeuei? ci?ie ?icaeyaeathoueny ye ia?aeaeuei?, aac ?icoi?iiy ?o
aca?iicaeaaeiino?.

Ia iniia? iiia?aaeiueiai aiae?co aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii ?icaeyiooe
i?iaeaio no/anieo nioe?aeueieo ci?i ye nioe?aeueio o?ainoi?iaoe?th.
?icaeoie noni?euenoaa — oea ia o?eueee noia iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo ?
eoeueoo?ieo oaeoi??a. Oea ua e o?ainoi?iaoe?y nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e,
oiaoi ??ciiiai?oiino? nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a /a?ac aca?iii?iieeiaiiy on?o
noa? nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy: aeiiii?ee, iie?oeee, iaoa??aeueii? ?
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e, aeeoo?aeo noee?a. Ci?ie a iaei?e noa?? aeoaea /anoi
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ianiiae?aaieo ?acoeueoao?a a ?ioeo noa?ao nioe?aeueiiai
aeeooy, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ua a?eueoiai oneeaaeiaiiy oeyoo o iaeaooi?.

Oeae i?aeo?ae aei ?icoi?iiy ci?i, ui a?aeaoaathoueny, iio?aao?
aaeaeaaoii? iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeei ?c oaeeo iaoiae?a –
e?in-eoeueoo?ia ii??aiyiiy. Niaoeeo?/i? ?ene nioe?ieia?? — ??
eiiieaeni?noue ? caaeainiaaia aeei?enoaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? aii??e/ieo
i?aeoiae?a — ca?eueoaoue aianie o c?inoaiiy ?ie? oe??? iaoee o aea/aii?
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo nenoaiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e.

Iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ??ci? oai?aoe/i? eiioeaioe??, ye?
canoiniaoaaeeny o ieioeiio, no/aniiio ? iaeyaeiiio iaeaooiueiio: eeania?
eiioeaioe?? ? eiioeaioe?? no?aoeo?eaoe??, eiioeaioe??, ye? iienothoue
aeaiie?aoe/i? iie?oe/i? nenoaie, eiioeaioe??, ye? iathoue ni?aao ? c
nioe?aeueiei eiioaenoii ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, eiioeaioe?? oioae?oa?iiai ?
ath?ie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa, nioe?ieia?/i? oai??? aoi?/ieo ?
?aa?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei, oiui.

I?e aiae?c? oai??? “iiaea?i?caoe??, ui i?iaeiaaeo?oueny” aaoi?
i?aee?aneth?, ui ca oiia ?? aeei?enoaiiy ia i?eae?ey?oueny aeinoaoiuei?
oaaae /aniaiio oaeoi?ia?. Aaniethoii i/aaeaeii, ui aeey oiai, aae iia?
nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe aoee ?iieaioiaai? o noa?o iai?ac?oeiiaaio
nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o, iaiao?aeiee iaaiee /an. ? ua aeayeee /an caeia
“iaeaoea” oeeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a. I?e oeueiio ia iaia’yceiai, ui
ana oea i?ecaaaea aei ci?i ca?aeii c iaeiioei?noe/i?oei c on?o iiaeeeaeo
noeaia???a. sse iieacaa ?iaa?o Ia?oii (1968), ?niothoue ?io? iiaeeea?
iai?yiee ?icaeoeo iiae?e o neooaoe??, yeo iiaeia iacaaoe aiii?eiith. Oea
ciaeii? iai aeueoa?iaoeae “a?aeoiaeo”, “?eooae?cio”, “aoioo” ,
“?iiiaaoe??”.

Aeey oiai, uia e?aua ?icoi?oe oae? i?ioeane, iaiao?aeii /?oei
ona?aeiiethaaoe, a?ae /iai caeaaeeoue oni?oia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a. ?inoeoooe ooieoe?iiothoue o nioe?aeueiiio
na?aaeiaeu?: aiie ia o?eueee nai? aieeaathoue ia ioi/aiiy, aea e
i?aeaeathoueny aieeao c aieo oeueiai ioi/aiiy. Aoaeoeai?noue ?inoeooo?a
oaeiae caeaaeeoue a?ae uiaeaiieo ae?e ? i/?eoaaiue aeoi??a, ye?
neeaaeathoue ioi/aiiy.

Aaoi?ii aoei aeyaeaii, ui c’ynoaaiiy iniaeeainoae o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai
i?ioeano ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeyae aoaeoo a?ae oi?iaaaeaeaieo nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a (o eiioaeno? nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e) o iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo
e?a?iao. Iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai
noni?euenoaa ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a
?icaeyaeathoueny ia oii? a?aenooiino? oi?aa?naeueii? ii?iaoeaii? e
oe?ii?nii? nenoaie, yea aeicaiey? ?iaeea?aeai ? a?oiai i?aeoe/ii
ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? a e?a?iao, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aa??aioe o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a No?aei?e
?a?ii?, ?niai?? ? a Oe?a?i?” aiae?cothoueny ??ci? i?aeoe/i? aa??aioe
o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

?icaeyaea?oueny aieea i?eaaoecaoe?? ? iie?oe/ii? ieth?ae?caoe?? ia
nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o ? ia o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane caaaeii. Aaoi?
caa?oa?oueny aei aiae?co aieeao ae?o ? eiioeaioe?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa ia nenoaiio o?ainoi?iaoe?th. Ia eiie?aoieo c?aceao
i?i?ethno?iaaii aieeae oeeo oaeoi??a, c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy, ye?
aeicaieythoue i?aeoaa?aeeoe aai ni?inooaaoe aenoioo? aaoi?ii a?iioace.

I?ae /an aiae?co aieeao i?eaaoecaoe?? ia o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane o
Iieueu? aeyaeaii, ui iao? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iniiaieo nioe?aeueieo
aeaoa?i?iaio i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe?? ? eiai iane?aee?a aeey nioe?aeueii?
no?oeoo?e iaeaea iiai?noth i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny ?aaeueiei oiaeii
o?ainoi?iaoe?? o Iieueu?. Iniaeeai aaaeeeaei ? aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
?aioiaee ia?a?iciiae?e noa?oiaeo iiaeeeainoae ? nioe?aeueieo iiceoe?e
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy “noaoonii? iaaaciaee”, yea iiaea iaaaoeaii
aieeiooe ia aeaiie?aoe/i? ia?niaeoeae noni?euenoaa. Oeae aiae?c oaeiae
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaoo a?iioaco i?i oa, ui ?aaeeeaeuei? ?aoi?ie iiaeooue
aaia?oaaoe iaaaoeai? iane?aeee o oaeiio ianooaa?, ui oea iiaea na?eicii
iia??oeoe oiiae aeey caaa?oaiiy i?ia?aie ?aoi?i. Nai? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
io?eio? e a?iioaca i?i oa, ui no/ani? o?oaeiiu? aeey o?ainoi?iaoe??
i?eoiaothoueny a eaoaioieo i?ioeanao, iia’ycaieo ?c cae/eaie ?
aooeouethaeaie ianaeaiiy.

I?ae /an aiae?co ?niainueei? i?aeoeee o?ainoi?iaoe?? io?eiai? oe?eaa?
aeniiaee:

Aaaeeea?noue iie?oe/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? caiaee i?e aeei?enoaii?
e?aa?aeueii? aeiiii?/ii? iiaeae?.

Aaaeeea?noue eiinie?aeaoe?? iie?oe/ii? aeaiie?ao?? ye iiia?aaeiy oiiaa
aieth/iai aeiiii?/iiai ei?eaoaaiiy.

Aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie iiaeii? aooe ?i?oe?eiaai? o?eueee oiae?, eiee
iie?oe/i? i?aaeea a?e aaea oii?yaeeiaai? e i?eeiyo?. sseui ia
aeio?eioaaoenue oe??? iine?aeiaiino?, iie?oe/ia ? nioe?aeueia
iai?oaeai?noue iiaea i?eieieoe caoiaee ei?eaoaaiiy, oiio ui o aeaaee
aoaea iaaeinoaoiuei eaa?oeiiino? aai e?aaeeo aeia??e aoaea o aeao?oeeo?.

Aaaeeea?noue aeai?/i? i?aeo?eiee o?yae?a.

O?yaee, ye? i?aeo?eiai? oe?ieith aeai?/ith a?eueo?noth, coeeathoueny c
a?eueoith aecia/ai?noth ? iiaeooue ?i?oe?thaaoe iaiao?aei? ?aoi?ie.

Ioaea, aaaeeeaei ? aeinyaiaiiy caiaee ia aeai?/iio ??ai?, yea
i?aeo?eioaaea a oi?ioaaiiy aeae?eueeio ynieo iie?oe/ieo aa??aio?a, ye?
a?oioothoueny ia eiinainon?.

?icaeyae iieuenueeiai aa??aioo iie?oe/ii? ieth?ae?caoe?? aeaiiino?o?, ui
Iieueua aeinyaea nooiaiy caiaee a?aeiinii “i?aaee a?e” aeey iie?oe/iiai
ciaaaiiy ? i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy eiinainono a?aeiinii aacenieo i?eioeei?a
aai nooi?nieo oe?iiinoae iieuenueei? aea?aeaae. Cae/aeii, i?ioeeaaei?
o?aeoe?? ? ia?o?? aoaeooue iaaeae? i?aeo?eioaaoe ??ci? niaoeeo?/i?
o?yaeia? i?ia?aie, aea ?o aeaaaoe aaaeooueny ona?aaeei? ?aeaieia?/iiai
niaeo?o, yeee caa?iaeo? aaceniei i?eioeeiai i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaae aai
aeiiii?ee. Eiinainon c i?eaiaeo nooi?nieo oe?iiinoae ? ae?ae aaaeaiei,
oiio ui oea iiaea cia/ii iieaaoeoe eiinie?aeaoe?th, aea oea ia ?
iiia?aaeiueith oiiaith aeaiie?ao??. A oie aea /an, caiaea a?aeiinii
i?aaee a?e ? iiia?aaeiueith oiiaith.

Aiae?c aeaio aa??aio?a iie?oe/ii? ieth?ae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa oa ??
aieeao ia i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeaiiino?o? a??i?noue oace i?i oa, ui
eiieo?aioia aeaiie?ao?y o No?aei?e ?a?ii? (ia a?aei?io a?ae ?niainueeiai
aa??aioo) ua ia ciaeoea naiai caeeth/iiai aeaeyaeo. Aeaiee ia?aa?ao
aeaiiino?o? oaeiae na?eici? a?aoiaioe ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a?iioace i?i
oa, ui iie?oe/ia iiiceoe?y ? iaioith aaciaeith aeey o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, i?ae oea cae/aeii i?eionea?oueny, ? ui ni?aaaei? o?oaeiiu?
i?eoiaai? o eaoaioieo i?ioeanao.

Ianooii? aeaa ia?aa?aoa aeaiiino?othoue iniaeeaino? /anueeeo
o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a. A ieo ?icaeyiooi eoeueoo?i? oaeoi?e, ye?
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo a *aoineiaae?? ? caiaeii
o *ao?? i?ney Ienaieoiai? ?aaiethoe?? o eenoiiaae? 1989 ?ieo. Ooo oaeiae
aoei ?aeaioeo?eiaaii ii??aiyeueii noaa?euei? eoeueoo?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
/anueeiai noni?euenoaa, ye? ? oaeoi?aie aacia?a?aiino? o ?aieao i?ioeano
nioe?aeueieo ci?i, ui eaeooue. ?, ia?aoo?, i?iaeaiiino?iaaii aieea oeeo
noaa?eueieo eoeueoo?ieo iieaciee?a ia eiia??iee eo?n ?ic?iaee
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o *anuee?e ?anioae?oe?.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aiae?co, noa? i/aaeaeiei, ui ?nioaaiiy aea?aeaae
aeia?iaooo a *aoineiaa//ei? noa? e?eoe/iith oiiaith an?o ?icii/aoeo
ci?i. Cia/aiiy aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo aeey caa?aaeaiiy noni?eueiiai ie?o ?
eaa?oei?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai ?ano?oeoo?oaaiiy o iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo
e?a?iao iineeth?oueny iaiao?aei?noth caiia?aoe aiii?? noni?euenoaa.
sseui aiii?y noa? ?aaeuei?noth, “oea — cai?ioaiiy aei oco?iaoe??, uia
iaa’ycaoe iai?aaaeeaa oyaeaiiy i?i ii?yaeie” (Aea?aiaei?o, 1990;164-5).

*anueea aea?aeaaia iie?oeea iieaco? iaaio i???ioaoe?th ia o? aeaee
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee, ye? /anueea ioae?ea c a?eueoith eiia??i?noth
aoaea i?aeo?eioaaoe. Iaaiiai noni?eueiiai eiinainono c ieoaiue
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aaea aeinyaiooi. Nioe?aeueiee ie? i?ae on?ia
nioe?aeueieie i?ioa?eaie ? a?oiaie noni?euenoaa ? oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
/anueei? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Oe? ia?aa?aoe iaaiith i??ith aeaiiino?othoue i?aaeeuei?noue a?iioace i?i
oa, ui ni?aaaei? o?oaeiiu? aeey nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iieyaathoue o
eaoaioieo i?ioeanao. Ooo oaeiae i?i?ethno?iaaia iaiao?aei?noue
na?eiciiai a?aeiioaiiy aei eoeueoo?ieo aniaeo?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? aei
?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? i?aeoeee eiii?ii?n?a i?ae ??cieie ?ioa?anaie.

O ianooiiiio ia?aa?ao? ?icaeyaea?oueny aieea eiioeaioe??
“a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa” ia o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane o
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao. Aoei aeyaeaii, ui ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? ci?ie,
ye? cae?eniththoueny iinonioe?ae?noe/ieie o?yaeaie, iathoue aeoaea
iacia/iee aieea ia aaea/o ? cae/a? noni?euenoaa, ye? nooo?ai aieeaathoue
ia iiaeae? iiaaae?iee a?iiaaeyi. O e?a?iao, ui o?ainoi?iothoueny,
caaino?ththoueny noia?a/iino? i?ae iiaeie iiaeeeainoyie ? eieeoi?ie
cae/eaie. ?ica’ycaoe oeth neeaaeio i?iaeaio iiaeeeai ca ?aooiie
nioe?ae?caoe??, yea aaaea aei oi?o?eaoe?? ?aoe?iiae?noe/ieo iiaeaeae
iiaaae?iee o noni?eueiiio ? i?eaaoiiio aeeoo? a?iiaaeyi. O?eueee ca
oaeeo oiia ?iaeea?aee ?c “ianeaieo niiaeeaa/?a”, /ey aeiey oe?eeii
caeaaeeoue a?ae iniaenoeo yeinoae ? eaae?o?eaoe?? ?? ea??aiee?a,
iiaeooue ia?aoai?eoeny ia “ae?iaiee?a” nioe?aeueii? nenoaie.

Aaaeeeaee oaeiae aeniiaie i?i oa, ui oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaeoiia
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa iaeo?ni?oa iia’ycaii c ?aeiino?oeoe??th
a?iiaaeyinoaa o iinooioae?oa?ieo e?a?iao. Ia ci?io nioe?aeuei?e
aoii?caoe?? noni?euenoaa o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae i?eoiaeeoue no?oeoo?iaaia
noni?euenoai a?iiaaeyi, ye? ona?aeiieththoue nai? ?ioa?ane ? ye?
ei?enoothoueny nioe?aeueieie e iie?oe/ieie i?aaaie.

Ia?ao?aei? noni?euenoaa ni?oeaea na?eicia i?iaeaia: a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, yea ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ia?aeaeueiei
i?ioeanii ?aeiino?oeoe?e a?iiaaeyinoaa, iiaea iioyaiooe ca niaith
caoaa?aeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i aeaniioecio iaae iniaeno?noth, aea oaia? aaea
ia c aieo aea?aeaae ? ia?o??, a c aieo anioe?aoe?e ? caoe?eaaeaieo a?oi.
Aeo?ae ?c aeaii? neooaoe??, ia iiaeyae aaoi?a, i?noeoueny o noai?aii?
aeueoa?iaoeaii? aea?aeaaii? ?anioe?ae?caoe??. Eaeaoueny i?i oi?ioaaiiy
ia?aae? a?iiaaeyinueei? ina?oe, yea a aeoeaii i?aoethaaea c oeie a?oiaie
ianaeaiiy, ye? iathoue iiaeeeaino? aieeaaoe ia noni?eueio aeoieo:
aeo?iae?noaie, aeaiooaoaie ?aae on?o ??ai?a, ?ia?oieeaie nenoaie ina?oe,
aeoea?noaie iao?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e oiui. Oea ?aeeii iiaeeeaee oeyo
caiiaiaiiy oe?ii?niiai aaeooio o iinonioe?ae?noe/iiio noni?euenoa?.

O ianooiiiio ia?aa?ao? i?noeoueny aiae?c i?aeoeee o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?. ?icaeyaeathoueny ni?iae canoinoaaiiy ??cieo
i?aeoiae?a ca 7 ?ie?a iacaeaaeiino?. I?e oeueiio aea?oueny aiae?c
iaea?eueo cia/oueo aoai?a oe?a?inueei? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Ana aeacaia aeua
ciaeoei (a oiio /e ?ioiio nooiai?) a?aeia?aaeaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e
i?aeoeoe? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Aea, a?aoiaoth/e iaea?eueo iacae?i/aiee
oa?aeoa? oe??? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?c on?o, ui aoee i?iaiae?ciaai?,
iaiao?aeii aeianoe eiai aiae?c ye ie?aiee ia?aa?ao, ye aecia/aiee c?acie
aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, cai?iiiiiaaieo a inoaii?e /anoei?
?iaioe. Oe?a?inueeee aa??aio o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? o nai?io ?iae?
oi?eaeueiei. A?i i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a??i?noue iaoeo i?eiouaiue, c?iaeaieo o
ia?o?e aeaa?, ? aeaiiino?o? aaeaeaaoi?noue aeiiii?aeieo a?iioac, ui
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i i?aaeeuei?noue iniiaii? a?iioace.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “E?eca oie?noe/ieo i?ia?ai nenoaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe??” i?noeoueny ?icai?iooa e?eoeea ?aaeeeaeueieo ia?ao?aeieo
no?aoaa?e ? ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeo nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ui
eiio?ieth?oueny ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo, yeee ? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaiith aeueoa?iaoeaith iaie?aa?aeueiiio oaaeiio, yeee iei?
aeei?enoiao?oueny a Oe?a?i?.

A aiae?c? ?aaeeeaeueieo i?ia?ai o?ainoi?iaoe?? aaoi? ?icaeyaea? neeaae
a?aoiaio?a “ca” ? “i?ioe” ?aaeeeaeueii? no?aoaa??. ?nio? iia?/iee
a?aoiaio i?i oa, ui ?aae?ci ?aaeeeaeueieo ?aoi?i ? i?iaeaiiino?iaaia
aoaeoeai?noue “?eieiai? nenoaie” i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iaiao?aei?noue
canoinoaaiiy ?aaeeeaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo. Neea oeueiai a?aoiaioo i?noeoueny
o oiio oaeo?, ui ie, oi/a a, cia?ii, eoaee eaeaii. I/aaeaeii, ui ia oii?
iaaaeaeiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai aenia?eiaioo iaoa iiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeaeyaea? ia ooii?/iith, a aei iaaii? i??e ?aae?noe/iith. Iaeiae, aeoaea
noii?aii, ui nooi?iue ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? iiaea aooe iaa?oioiaaiee ??
?aaeeeae?ciii ? aeeoo?caeaoi?noth ?? oe?eae.

Nueiaiaeaiiee ?aaeeeae?ci i?ia?aa, aea ia /a?ac ooii?/i?noue nai?o
oe?eae, a /a?ac ooii?/i?noue no?aoaa?? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Oeaio?aeueia
i?iaeaia aoaeue-yei? ?aaeeeaeueii? no?aoaa?? i?noeoueny o oiio, ui
iania? ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? ci?ie aaaeooue aei ianiaeo iaia?aaeaa/aieo
iane?aee?a, ye? c?iaeyoue ia iiaeeeaith ?aae?caoe?th oe?e?, ui aenoiooa.
Oie?noe/i? ?aoi?ie iiaeooue ia o?eueee caciaoe iaaaea/ aiane?aeie
iii?o ?ioa?an?a, ui iino?aaeaeaee a?ae ieo, aea ua e aaia?othoue nai?
ia?aoeiaee /a?ac na?eici? iacaieaiiaai? iane?aeee, ye? coieiyoue
i?ia?aio oie?noe/ieo ?aoi?i caaeiaai aei ?? caaa?oaiiy. sse
aeueoa?iaoeao ?aaeeeaeueii? no?aoaa?? ?icaeyiooi eiioeaioe?th
iinooiiaiai ?ooo aei nenoaiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e. Iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae aei
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?aoi?i o i?eioeei? ia ciaoiaeeoueny a iiiceoe?? aei
oaeaeeeo ci?i. Aea a?i, aacoiiaii, caia?a/o? i?eiouaiiy uiaei
iiaeeeaino? oie?noe/ieo ci?i aai “?inoaeyoe?? nenoaie”. Aeueoa?iaoeaia
eiioeaioe?y iinooiiaiai ia?aoiaeo aeicaiey? ?icaeyiooe iaaaoeai?
?acoeueoaoe ?aaeeeaeueieo ?aoi?i ia ye i?iaeoeo iieiaei/anoiai
?aaeeeae?cio, aea ye ?aioia? e iaia?aaeaa/ai? iine?aeiaiino? oni?oii
aaeeoeo ?aaeeeaeueieo caoiae?a. Oni?o ?aoi?i c oe??? oi/ee ci?o iiaea
icia/aoe iaaaea/o c oi/ee ci?o ?o aaciina?aaei?o aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo
oa nioe?aeueieo iine?aeiaiinoae.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeaco? ia aeaye? ?ica?aeiino? o ci?no?
o?ainoi?iaoe??, iai?eeeaae, a iaeii/aniiio cai?iaaaeaeaii? ??aiiaaae ye
i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo iie?oe/ieo i?aa ? ia??aiino? o ?iciiae?e? aeioiae?a
? oiaa??a. Iia? ?inoeoooe ia?eaiaionueei? aeaiie?ao?? ?
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeiiii?ee ia iicaaaeai? iaaeie?e?a. ? oaeiae noii?ae
uiaei iaiao?aeiino? aaeeei? oaeaeeino? ?aoi?i. Aeeaie? ? nooo?a? ci?ie
iiaeooue aooe cae?eniai? a?eueo aoaeoeaii oeyoii iinooiiaino?.

No/ania noni?euenoai c eiai ooieoe?iiaeueii ?icae?eaieie noa?aie ae??
oa ??ciiiai?oi?noth aaoiiiiieo eieaeoeaieo noa’?eo?a ? iai?eaeaoiei
ia’?eoii aeey oie?noe/ii? no?aoaa??.

Aeniiaee.

O ?iaio? i?iaeaiiino?iaaii aaaeeea?noue nioe?ieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ?icaeoeo oai??? ? i?aeoeee nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa. I?e oeueiio iieacaii iaiao?aei?noue
?ic?iaee eiioeaioe?? nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ui eiio?ieth?oueny.
Aiae?c oaeiae iieacaa, ui ia??oo/?noue o i?iaaaeaii? iiaeaeueoeo
?aaeeeaeueieo ?aoi?i, yea niinoa??aa?oueny ca?ac i?aeoe/ii a on?o
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao, ia? nooo?a? i?e/eie ? ia iiaea aooe
iiyniaia o?eueee eeoa ?io?eaaie eieeoiuei? iiiaieeaoo?e. ?nio?
na?ueeicia aaciae oiai, ui nieanee aiii??, yea aeeeeeaia nueiaiaeaiiith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith neooaoe??th, iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei iineeaiiy
iiey?ecaoe?? e ?aaeeeae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa.

Aeoiaey/e c aeuaaeeeaaeaii? e?eoeee oie?noe/ieo i?ia?ai, aaoi?ii
cai?iiiiiaaii aeueoa?iaoeaiee i?aeo?ae aei nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??,
yeee caniiaaii ia iinooiia?e oa iaa?oioiaai?e ?aoe?iiaeueiino?, ui
i?iaeaiiino?oaaea naith aoaeoeai?noue a ?niai?? ? /anoeiai — a *anuee?e
?anioae?oe?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo:

Aaciinia I. Aa?eaiou o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a ainoi/iie Aa?iia e
a iinoniaaoneii i?ino?ainoaa // Eciaiaiea nioeeaeueii-eeanniaie
no?oeoo?u iauanoaa a oneiaeyo aai o?ainoi?iaoeee / A.A. sseoaa,
I.Ae.Eooeaiei, E.I. Oeaeiye, I.A. Aaciinia, E.A. Aaaeieeiiaa. — O.:
Iniiaa, 1997. – N.36-55

Aaciinia I. Ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia
ianaeaieai no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu // Eciaiaiea nioeeaeueii-eeanniaie
no?oeoo?u iauanoaa a oneiaeyo aai o?ainoi?iaoeee / A.A. sseoaa,
I.Ae.Eooeaiei, E.I. Oeaeiye, I.A. Aaciinia, E.A. Aaaeieeiiaa. — O.:
Iniiaa, 1997. – N.55-67

Aaciinia I. Iniaaiiinoe i?ioeannia nioeeaeueiie o?ainoi?iaoeee a
Ainoi/iie Aa?iia e iinoniaaoneii i?ino?ainoaa // Oa?ueeianeea
nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey – 97: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo ?iaio.
Iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea i?aiiaeaaaiey nioeeieiae/aneeo
aeenoeeieei. – Oa?e?a: Iniiaa. – 1997. – N.26-30

Aaciinia I. Nioeeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae e eco/aieth nioeeaeueiuo
o?ainoi?iaoeee //A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ? 393:
Nioe?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai noni?euenoaa. – Oa?e?a: OAeO. –
1997. – N. 8-13

Aaciinia I. Ioiioaiea ianaeaiey e iieeoe/aneei ia?oeyi // Aecian-Eioi?i.
– 1997. — ?6(202). – N.10-13

Aaciinia I. I?iaeaiu o?ainoi?iaoeee iinoniaaoneiai iauanoaa: Auai?
no?aoaaee // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai Oi?aa?neoaoo, ? 414:
Iaoea ? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie noni?euenoaa. – Oa?e?a: OAeO. – 1998. – N.
34-37

Aaciinia I. Eiioeaioeey iinoaiaiiie nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee //
Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey – 98: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo ?iaio.
–Oa?e?a: OAeO. – 1998. N.18-22

Aaciinia I. Ia?aoiae e aeaiie?aoee: N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec
o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiuo no?aoaaee a Eniaiee, Iieueoa e a Oe?aeia //
Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe e eo eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea.
Oacenu IV iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. – Oa?ueeia: OAE IAO. –
1997. N. 89-90

Aiioaoe?y

Aaciinia I.A. No/ani? o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane (ii??aiyeueiee
nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.01 – Oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??.
Oa?e?a. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien ? ?? i?enay/aii i?iaeai? aea/aiiy nenoaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa. O ?iaio? aecia/aii
niaoeeo?eo nioe?ieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy oeueiai oaiiiaio.
Cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaioe?th ? i?iaeo nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ui
eiio?ieth?oueny, caniiaaiee ia iinooiiaino? oa iaa?oioiaai?e
?aoe?iiaeueiino?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui no/aniee e?eciaee noai noni?euenoaa
iaoiiaeaiee ni?iuaiiyi eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?ioeano nenoaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iinonioe?ae?noe/ia o?aiceoe?y; o?aiceoieia?y; nenoaiia
o?ainoi?iaoe?y; oie?noe/i? ?aoi?ie; eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae; ?aaeeeaeuei?
?aoi?ie; a?aaeoae?ci; nenoaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y, ui eiio?ieth?oueny.

Aiiioaoeey

Aaciinia I.A. Nia?aiaiiua o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu (n?aaieoaeueiue
nioeeieiae/aneee aiaeec). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.01 – Oai?ey e enoi?ey nioeeieiaee.
Oa?ueeia. Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, 1998

Aeenna?oaoeey i?aaenoaaeaia a aeaea ?oeiiene e iinayuaia i?iaeaia
eco/aiey nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee iinonioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa. A
?aaioa ii?aaeaeaia niaoeeoeea nioeeieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth
aeaiiiai oaiiiaia. I?aaeeiaeaiu eiioeaioeey e i?iaeo eiio?iee?oaiie
nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee. Iainiiaaii, /oi nia?aiaiiia e?eceniia
ninoiyiea iauanoaa iaoneiaeaii oi?iuaieai eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea e
i?ioeanno nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee.

Ia iniiaa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aiaeeca aaoi?ii i?aaeeiaeaii ?anniao?eaaoue
i?iaeaio nia?aiaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo eciaiaiee eae nioeeaeueioth
o?ainoi?iaoeeth. ?acaeoea iauanoaa — yoi ia oieueei noiia iieeoe/aneeo,
yeiiiie/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo oaeoi?ia. Yoi aua e o?ainoi?iaoeey
nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u, o.a. iiiaiia?acey nioeeaeueiuo naycae /a?ac
acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea anao noa? nioeeaeueiie aeecie: yeiiiieee, iieeoeee,
iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u, e aeeciaiiuo noeeae. Eciaiaiey a
iaeiie noa?a i/aiue /anoi aaaeoo e iaiaeeaeaiiui ?acoeueoaoai a ae?oaeo
noa?ao nioeeaeueiie aeecie, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aua aieueoaio oneiaeiaieth
aei?iae a aoaeouaa.

Yoio iiaeoiae e iiieiaieth i?ienoiaeyueo eciaiaiee o?aaoao aaeaeaaoiie
iaoiaeieiaee enneaaeiaaiey. Iaeei ec oaeeo iaoiaeia – e?inn-eoeueoo?iia
n?aaiaiea. Niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou nioeeieiaee — aa eiiieaeniinoue e
naaeaine?iaaiiia eniieueciaaiea oai?aoe/aneeo e yiie?e/aneeo iiaeoiaeia
— aianoo aeeaae a aic?anoaiea ?iee yoie iaoee a eco/aiee
iinonioeeaeenoe/aneeo nenoaiiuo o?ainoi?iaoeee.

?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey eiatho eae oai?aoe/aneia,
oae e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. Oai?aoe/aneia cia/aiea caeeth/aaony ai
aeeaaea a ?ac?aaioeo oeaeinoiie nioeeieiae/aneie eiioeaioeee nenoaiiie
o?ainoi?iaoeee iinonioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa, ?anoe?aiee iao/iuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee eae iniaii nioeeaeueiii
oaiiiaia.

I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea ?acoeueoaoia naycaia n oai, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiiay e
?anniio?aieth nioeeieiae/aneay eiioeaioeey nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee
iauanoaa iicaieyao iioeiece?iaaoue i?aeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey
a o?ainoi?ie?othuainy iauanoaa.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeai aeueoa?iaoeaiue iiaeoiae e nioeeaeueiie
o?ainoi?iaoeee, iniiaaiiue ia iinoaiaiiinoe e iainiiaaiiie
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.

Yoio iiaeoiae i?aaeiieaaaao o?e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee:

nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea aeieaeia auoue ?ac?aaioaia, inouanoaeaia aei oiai,
eae aeai noa?o noaaeeecaoeee eee eeaa?aeecaoeee;

iaeao ?aoi?i aeieaeai auoue yooaeoeaiui a ieieiecaoeee nioeeaeueiuo
ecaea?aeae e aeieaeai nicaeaaaoueny n o/aoii yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

i?ia?aiiu ?aoi?i aeieaeiu auoue noi?ioee?iaaiu e inouanoaeaiu a
?acoeueoaoa iieeoe/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a
nenoaia auai?iuo einoeoooia.

Aaaeiui yaeyaony oaeaea auaiae i oii, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaeiinueie
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa naiui oaniui ia?acii naycaii n ?aeiino?oeoeeae
a?aaeaeainoaa a iinooioaeeoa?iuo no?aiao. Ia niaio nioeeaeueiie
aoiiecaoeee iauanoaa a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae i?eoiaeeo no?oeoo?e?iaaiiia
iauanoai a?aaeaeai, iniciathueo naie eioa?anu e iieuecothueony
nioeeaeueiuie e iieeoe/aneeie i?aaaie.

Aaoi? i?aaeeaaaao nicaeaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
?anioeeaeecaoeee. ?a/ue eaeao i oi?ie?iaaiee naoe a?aaeaeaineiai
ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ay au aeoeaii ?aaioaea n oaie a?oiiaie ianaeaiey,
eioi?ua iaeaaeatho aiciiaeiinoyie ieacuaaoue aeeyiea ia iauanoaaiiia
iiaiea: aeo?iaeenoaie, aeaiooaoaie niaaoia anao o?iaiae, ?aaioieeaie
nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey, aeoeaenoaie iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e
o.i. Yoi aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiue iooue caiieiaiey oeaiiinoiiai aaeooia a
iinonioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa.

I?aaeeaaaaiue iiaeoiae e nioeeaeueiie o?ainoi?iaoeee iai?aaeai ia
i?eaioaoeeth ?aoi?i ia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, caueoo iaoa?eaeueiiai
aeaaininoiyiey io ecaea?aeae o?ainoi?iaoeee, e ia iieiioeaiiia
eniieueciaaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneeo einoeoooia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey e
?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iinonioeeaeenoe/aneay o?aiceoeey; o?aiceoieiaey;
nenoaiiay o?ainoi?iaoeey; oieenoe/aneea ?aoi?iu; eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae;
?aaeeeaeueiua ?aoi?iu; a?aaeoaeeci; eiio?iee?oaiay nenoaiiay
o?ainoi?iaoeey.

Abstract

Beznosov M.A. Modern Transformation Processes (Comparative Sociological
Analysis). – Manuscript

Dissertation for the Candidate’s Degree in Sociology on speciality
22.00.01 – Theory and History of Sociology. Kharkov. Kharkov State
University, 1998

The dissertation is submitted as a manuscript and is devoted to the
study of post-socialist systemic transformation problem. This paper
contains the analysis of characteristic features of sociological
approach to this social phenomenon. It also suggests the concept and the
project of controlled systemic transformation. There was discovered that
contemporary crisis state of society is caused by simplification of
complex approach to the process of systemic transformation.

Key words: post-socialist transition; transitology; systemic
transformation; holistic reforms; complex approach; radical reforms;
gradualism; controlled systemic transformation.

PAGE 3

Похожие записи