Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

NAEAeIEOeUeEEE

AIAAeAI IAO?IAE*

OAeE 631.411.2: 631.6: 626.8

NO*ANI? I?IOeANE O *I?IICAIAO I?AAeAIIEO C?IOOAAIEO III??II? OA
OIEIAeII? OAOe?E

11.00.05 — a?iaaia?ao?y ? aaia?ao?y a?oio?a

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aaia?ao?? a?oio?a Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iiciye Noaiai Iaaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aaia?ao?? a?oio?a

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Na?oee/iee Ieaenaiae? Ieaen?eiae/,

eaoaae?a o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? ? i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy

Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? ?.?.Ia/i?eiaa;

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiaaeeoei Aeaii?c?y ?aai?aia,

eaoaae?a o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? Oa?iii?euenueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? A.Aiaothea

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?io?i??
?i.I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI, i.Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 21 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.35.051.08 o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290000, i.Euea?a, aoe. Aei?ioaiea, 41)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290000,
i.Euea?a, aoe.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oiiei ss.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE TC «CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE»

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ieoaiiy iie?ioaiiy aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a
i?aaeaiieo c?iooaaieo oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?o i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaaoaa?
iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy ia no/aniiio aoai? niaaeo ?ioaineo?eaoe??
caiea?ianoaa. Inoaii?i /anii o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? c’yaeeinue aaaaoi
ioae?eaoe?e, ye? aena?oeththoue ci?ie aeanoeainoae a?oio?a i?ae aieeaii
c?ioaiiy, a o./. i?ioeane ?o aeaa?aaeaoe??, aea o?aeooaaiiy ?o
iaiaeiicia/ia. A oeaio?? oaaae i?e c?ioaii? a noaio iiaeiia noiyoe aeiey
“oea?y a?oio?a” — /i?iicaio. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iai?aaeai? ia?o ca
ana ia aea/aiiy no/anieo i?ioean?a a?oioioai?aiiy o /i?iicaiao
i?aaeaiieo c?iooaaieo ??cieo a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oaoe?e (AEO) c oei,
uia ia i?aenoaa? i?ciaiiy ?o nooiino?, ni?yioaaoe ?icaeoie a aaaeaiiio
iai?yi?, oiaoi caaacia/eoe i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?iaeth/ino? oa caa?aaeaiiy.
Aea/aiiy oeeo i?ioean?a o /i?iicaiao i?aaeaiieo iii??ii?
no?aeii?a?iiaenueei? AEO ia oa?eoi??? ?iaoeaoeueei? c?iooaaii? nenoaie
(?CN) oa oieiaeii? cao?aeiinea??nueei? AEO ia oa?eoi??? Aeaenueei?
c?iooaaii? nenoaie (ACN) aeaei ciiao aeyaeoe caaaeuei? oa niaoeeo?/i?
iai?yiee ?icaeoeo no/anieo i?ioean?a a?oioiooai?aiiy. Aei caaaeueieo
a?aeiinyoueny ieo/i?iiy, aeani?aoe?y Na2+, ciaioaiiy ?ieino? aae?aiiy,
i?aeeoaeaiiy, aeacaa?aaaoe?y oa ou?eueiaiiy, oi/ nooi?iue ?o i?iyao ia?
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iniaeeaino?; aei niaoeeo?/ieo — i?ioeane iaeii/aniiai
iaacnieaiiy ? aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy ia ?CN oa i?ioeane iaacnieaiiy
? aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy ia ACN. Aeooaeueieie ? i?iaaaeai? iiaeaeaaei?
?aaeeii? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ACN, ye? aeaee ciiao aeaoaeueii aea/eoe
i?a?aoe?th eaaei?ic/eiieo nieae (EN) ? aieiae o a?oioia?e oiau? oa
anoaiiaeoe ?o ca’ycie c iieeaieie ? a?oioiaeie aiaeaie. ?aaeeii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiiaieee e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee c?iooaaieo
/i?iicai?a ? ?icoe?eee iiaeeeaino? aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aoaeii?a c?iooaaieo
/i?iicai?a oa ia?aiao??a aeiionoeieo ci?i. Ciaiiy oaeeo ia?aiao??a
ii?yae c ?acoeueoaoaie iii?oi?eiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeicaieyoue
iia?aoeaii ?aaaoaaoe ia ia?aoiaee /a?ac aeiionoei? ??ai? ci?i ?
ei?aeooaaoe ?o oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy aa?ioaoi?/ieo oa iae?i?aoeaieo
caoiae?a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy — aoee aiaa?i? oa c?iooaai? /i?iicaie i?aaeaii?
iii??ii? oa oieiaeii? AEO. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy — no/ani? i?ioeane
o ci?iaieo c?ioaiiyi oiiaao a?oioioai?aiiy, ye? i?iyaeeenue o
aiaeii-nieueiaiio ?aaeei?, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoyo
/i?iicai?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aea?aiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue
iia’ycaiee c eaoaae?aeueiith oaiaoeeith “I?iaeaie aaiace, aaia?ao?? ?
eeaneo?eaoe?? a?oio?a” oa aea?aeaaiith i?ia?aiith ?ic?iaee
aa?iaeieia?/ii? eiioeaioe?? c?ioaiiy /i?iicai?a.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa — aea/eoe caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo
no/anieo i?ioean?a a?oioioai?aiiy ? aeyaeoe iaeaaaeeea?o? ci?ie
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo i?ae
aieeaii c?ioaiiy o no?aeii?a?iiaenuee?e iii??i?e ? cao?aeiinea??nuee?e
oieiaei?e AEO oa ii??aiyoe ?o, a oaeiae aeyaeoe aeaa?aaeaoe?ei? i?ioeane
? ?ic?iaeoe caoiaee iie?ioaiiy iae?i?aoeaiiai noaio ia ?CN oa ACN.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaaee o oiio, uia:

— aea/eoe aieea c?ioaiiy ia ci?io i?e?iaeieo oiia a?oioioai?aiiy a
iaaeao ?iaoeaoeueei? oa Aeaenueei? c?iooaaeueieo nenoai;

— aeyaeoe ci?ie aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo i?e ??ci?e o?eaaeino?
c?ioaiiy oa ??cieie ca ye?noth iieeaieie aiaeaie;

— aeyaeoe naciiio oa aaaaoi??/io aeeiai?eo no/anieo a?oioioai?ieo
i?ioean?a oa ia?aiao??a aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo a oiiaao
c?ioaiiy;

— aea/eoe no/aniee iae?i?aoeaiee noai c?iooaaeueieo nenoai oa iia’ycaio
c iei a?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?;

— ?ic?iaeoe iae?i?aoeai? oa aa?ioaoi?/i? caoiaee uiaei iie?ioaiiy
iae?i?aoeaiiai noaio oa i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ie ?aaeei?a oa aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo
i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy a?eueoa coiiaeththoueny i?noeaaeie oaeoi?aie
(nooiaiai ae?aiiaaiino? oa?eoi??e, ye?noth iieeaieo aiae, oaoiieia?yie
c?ioaiiy oa ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?), i?ae
oaoe?aeueieie;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui oaoe?aeuei? oaeoi?e aieeaathoue aieiaiei /eiii ia
o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo, i?ioyaii yeiai ci?ie aeanoeainoae ? ?aaeei?a
/i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy i?eoiaeyoue o
eaac???aiiaaaeiee noai ?c iiaeie oiiaaie na?aaeiaeua (30 ?ie?a ia ACN ?
15 ?ie?a ia ?CN);

— iaa?oioiaaii, ui i?e eeaneo?eaoe?? aoi?eiii-canieaieo /i?iicai?a
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia o?eueee na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee ai?no EN a oa?ao:
0-30, 30-50, 50-100 oa 100-150ni, aea e ?o na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?ei?
aaee/eie;

— aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui a na?aaeei? aa?aniy, i?ney cae?aiiy ca?iiaeo ?
neeinieo eoeueoo? (eoeo?oaece ? niiyoieea) ia ACN iieacieee ??aiy
a?oioiaeo aiae (AA) oa ?o i?ia?ae?caoe??, a oaeiae e?eueeino? EN o
aoi?eiii-canieaieo a?oioao iaaeeaeathoueny aei na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?eieo
iieaciee?a, ui aea? i?aenoaao aeey ?o iaeii?aciaiai aecia/aiiy;

— aia?oa aecia/aii ao?aoe o?iaeath ioaieoe? aiane?aeie aoi?eiiiai
canieaiiy /i?iicai?a ia ACN;

— aia?oa ia i?aenoaa? aeyaeaii? caeaaeiino? i?ae i?eai?/ai?noth ioaieoe?
ia?aae aeieaaie ? aeeaeiith caeyaaiiy EN, ?o e?euee?noth ? ye?noth
?aeiiaiaeiaaii i?iaiaeeoe ea?oia?aooaaiiy aoi?eiii-canieaieo a?oio?a ca
noaiii ca?iiaeo ? neeinieo eoeueoo? o ia?aaeaeieaiee ia??iae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o:

— aaeineiiaeaii? iaoiaeeee iieueiaeo a?oioiai-iae?i?aoeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeicaiey? ciaioeoe cao?aoe ia ?o i?iaaaeaiiy oa
aianaii? iii?aaie aei eeaneo?eaoe?? a?oio?a ca nooiaiai aoi?eiiiai
canieaiiy;

— ?ic?iaoe? aa?iiae?i?aoeaiiai caoiaeo i?neoaaiiy aeey iie?ioaiiy
aiaeii-nieueiaiai ?aaeeio aoi?eiii-nieii/aeiaeo a?oio?a, yeee ? iaei??th
?c neeaaeiaeo ?aeiiaiaeiaaii? nenoaie caoiae?a uiaei iie?ioaiiy
iae?i?aoeaiiai noaio c?iooaaieo a?oio?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o:

— aecia/aii? ia?aiao??a ci?ie a?ae?ieia?/ieo, a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo,
i?e?iee?iaoe/ieo oiia oa no?oeoo?e a?oioiaiai iie?eao ia ACN;

— aecia/aii? ia?aiao??a ci?ie aiaeiiai oa nieueiaiai ?aaeei?a /i?iicai?a
i?aaeaiieo, a oaeiae ?o o?i?/ieo, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy;

— aecia/aii? ia?aiao??a iiieaeaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ioaieoe? caeaaeii a?ae
?ioaineaiino? aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a;

— aaeineiiaeaii? iaoiaeo ea?oia?aooaaiiy aoi?eiii-canieaieo c?iooaaieo
a?oio?a ca o?c?ieia?/iei noaiii ?ineei o ia?aaeaeieaiee ia??iae;

— aaeineiiaeaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? c?iooaaieo aoi?eiii-canieaieo a?oio?a;

— ?ic?iaoe? caoiaeo i?neoaaiiy aoi?eiii-nieii/aeiaeo a?oio?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii ? ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe a?oioiaeo oa
a?oioiai-iae?i?aoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue 1969-1993??. ia oa?eoi???
Aeoaenueeiai e?ath (?in?y) oa Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? (Oe?a?ia), ye?
aeeiioaaeenue iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith eaai?aoi???th a?oioiai-aaia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea c
o/anoth aaoi?a. E??i oiai aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue ??cieo
i?iaeoieo oa iaoeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e i?iaaaeai? ca 52-??/iee ia??iae
c?ioaiiy ia ACN ? 30-??/iee–ia ?CN.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia Ananithci?e ia?aae? a i.Oa?eia?
“Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia ioeaiee canieaiiuo ii/a, i?iaiice?iaaiea e
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea aoi?e/iiai canieaiey” (Iineaa, 1973); ia?aae? a
i.Iaean? “Ii/aaiii-iaeei?aoeaiua i?iaeaiu e iooe iiauoaiey ieiaei?iaeey
i?ioaaiuo caiaeue thaa ONN?” (Iineaa, 1978); ?, V c’?caeao
a?oioiciaaoe?a ? aa?io?i?e?a Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?a, 1982,1998); ea?oia?ao?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? a ??eoonueeo “Ea?oia?aoe/aneia iaania/aiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo
ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiuo i?ia?aii” (??eoonuee, 1983); nai?ia?? c
iae?i?aoeaii? aaia?ao?? a Iinea? “I?e?iaeii-iaeei?aoeaiue iiieoi?eia a
NNN?” (Iineaa, 1984); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a Aa?iaoe?
“I?iaeaiu i?ioaiey ii/a Neae?e” (Aa?iaoe, 1988); I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea aaiii?oieia?y: noai ?
ia?niaeoeae” (Euea?a, 1997) oa ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o 20
ae?oeiaaieo noaooyo, ui iiai?noth a?aeia?aaeathoue ci?no aeena?oaoe??,
17 ?c ieo i?eaaaeai? a aaoi?aoa?ao?.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 129
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, naie ?icae?e?a
oa aeniiae?a. A ?iaio? iaaaaeaii 24 ?enoiee, 7 oaaeeoeue oa 24 oaaeeoe?
a aeiaeaoeao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae neeaaea?oueny ?c 345
iaeiaioaaiue. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe — 280 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE TC «INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE»

I?e?iaei? oiiae ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeine?aeaeoaai? /i?iicaie i?aaeaii? iii??ii? AEO noi?ioaaeenue a
Aoeaioeei-eiioeiaioaeuei?e noaiia?e iaeano? (Ae?nia, 1962) i?ae
eino?eoeaai-eiaeeueiith ?ineeii?noth (A?eee, A?aae?n, 1962) o
Aei?i?i-Aocueeiio ?aeii? I?e/i?iiii?nueei? ieciaeie (Aiiaea?/oe, 1949;
Ia?eie/, 1982). ?aeue?o ?aeiio — oeiiai ??aieiiee ?c neaaei iaoeeii aei
*i?iiai ii?y, ii/eaiiaaiee oe?ieeie ??/eiaeie aeieeiaie oa aaeeaie c
aeiieiaeaieie noeeaie. Aio?iiiaaii? a?aeeeaaee i?aaenoaaeai? 2-3-ia
ai?eciioaie ean?a, ?icae?eaieo ou?eueiaieie aeeiaie. Iaoa?einueeeie
ii?iaeaie /i?iicai?a ? aa?oi?e i?e/i?iiii?nueeee y?on eano. Iiooaei?noue
eiai 2,5-3,5i. A?i ea?aiiaoiee, eoaeiee, iacanieaiee aaaeeinoaeeieiaiai
aai eaaeiaeeienoiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo (AN) c a?aenooi?noth
o?aeoe?e a?oaiai ? na?aaeiueiai i?neo.

AA ia Aei?i?i-Aocueeiio iaaee??//? iathoue nii?aaee/ia caeyaaiiy ? ia
ooai?ththoue nooe?eueiiai aiaeiiiniiai ai?eciioo o ieaenoioeaiiaeo
a?aeeeaaeao. Iaaiaeiai? e?ice caeyaathoue, a iniiaiiio, ia aeeaei? 5-10
i, ??aeoa – 15-17i. I?ia?ae?caoe?y ?o 0,2 — 13,2a/e. I??ni? aiaee, ye
i?aaeei, a?ae?iea?aiiaoi?,
neaaii?ia?ae?ciaai?-a?ae?iea?aiiaoii-noeueoaoi?, aai
a?ae?iea?aiiaoii-oei?eaei?, na?aaeiuei- ?
neeueiii?ia?ae?ciaai?-noeueoaoi? ca ai?iiaie. Ca eao?iiaie an? aiie
eaeueoe??ai-iaai??a?, aai eaeueoe??ai-iao???a?.

*i?iicaie i?aaeaii? iii??ii? AEO caeiathoue aeecueei 15% oa?eoi???
?iaoeaoeueeiai ianeao. Aiie aaaeeinoaeeieia?, na?aaeiueiaeeaie?
(40-46ni), neaaiaoioniaai? (3,2-4,0% aoiono), neaaieoaei? a aoioniaiio
ai?eciio? (?I-7,2-7,5), neeiathoue a?ae INl a?ae?aco i?ae aoioniaei
ai?eciioii (NaNI3 — 8,4-15,1%). Na?aae iai?iieo eao?ii?a ia?aaaaeathoue
Na2+ (79-82%) ? Ig2+ (16-19%) i?e noi? aa?a?aieo iniia 34-36 iaea./100a
a?oioo. EN a oiene/ieo e?eueeinoyo oa aeaeei? oi?ie a?ino caeyaathoue
aeeaoa 2i.

Aeine?aeaeoaai? /i?iicaie i?aaeaii? oieiaeii? oaoe?? noi?ioaaeenue o
eiioeiaioaeueii-noaiia?e cao?aeiinea??nuee?e ee?iaoe/i?e iaeano? i?ae
??ciio?aaii-eino?eoeaai-eiaeeueieie noaiaie (Iao?aaaa, 1978) a aeieei?
?.Aeae (?? ? ??? iaaecaieaai? oa?ane) ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae?
I?eianueeiai ianiiai-oaaeenoiai ?ic/eaiiaaiiai ieaoi c aeaiaioaie
aeaioaeaoe?eii? ia?iaee (Ai?iaeaoeeay, Eacoiia, 1975). Oa?aniaaia
aeieeia ?.Aeae c ie?aieie ica?aie ooai?eeanue o ieaenoioeai? ia i?noe?
ae?aaiuei? eiueie noieo, a iaeiiio c iaioaeoii?/ieo ?iceii?a, ui
i?iyaeany a ?aeue?o? (Aaeaiaiei, 1976). A?oioioai?ieie ii?iaeaie ?
aa?oiueiieaenoioeai-aieioeaiia? eaniaeaei? noaeeiee. Aiie
na?aaeiueinoaeeieia?, ea?aiiaoi? (NaNI3 — 3-12%), na?aaeiueieoaei? (?I —
7,9-8,3) ?c ai?noii EN 0,093-0,907% ? noeueoaoiei aai noeueoaoiei ?c
ne?aeaie niaee, a iiaeaeoaee niaeiai-noeueoaoiei oeiii canieaiiy. C
aeeaeie 1,5-2,5i aiie i?aenoeeathoueny noi?uaieie oa i?uaieie ica?ieie
a?aeeeaaeaie einiaeeinueei? naeoe, a yeeo caeyaa? ia?oee a?ae iiaa?oi?
aiaeiiiniee ai?eciio. I?ia?ae?caoe?y AA, ye? o /i?iicaiao caeyaathoue ia
aeeaei? 5i ? aeeaoa, ia ia?aaeuo? 2,2a/e c ia?aaaaeaiiyi o ?o neeaae?
SO42-, HCO3- oa Na+. Oa?eoi??y a oe?eiio ae?aio?oueny ?.Aeae.

*i?iicaie i?aaeaii? oieiaeii? AEO caeiathoue 73% ieiu? a iaaeao ACN.
Aiie na?aaeiueinoaeeieia?, neaaiaoioniaai? (3,0-3,8% aoiono),
na?aaeiueiaeeaie? (40-42ni), neeiathoue a?ae nieyii? eeneioe a ieaei?e
/anoei? aoioniaiai ai?eciioo, aai a?ae?aco i?ae iei (NaNI3 -3-10%),
neaaieoaei? a i?iiio oa?? ? na?aaeiueieoaei? a na?aaei?e oa ieaei?e
/anoei? a?oioiaiai i?io?eth (?I — 7,3-8,4). A neeaae? iai?iieo eao?ii?a
ia?aaaaeathoue Na2+ (74-80%) ? Ig2+ (14-19%) i?e ?ieino? aae?aiiy 26-30
iaea./100a a?oioo. EN a oiene/ieo e?eueeinoyo caeyaathoue c aeeaeie
120-180ni, oei canieaiiy ia?aaaaeii noeueoaoiee ?c ne?aeaie niaee.
Ai?iie NI32- c’yaeythoueny ?c 70-100ni, ae?oce a?ino — 150-180ni.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeey aea/aiiy no/anieo a?oioioai?ieo i?ioean?a o /i?iicaiao i?aaeaiieo
c?iooaaieo iii??ii? no?aeiiaa?iiaenueei? oa oieiaeii?
cao?aeiinea??nueei? AEO canoiniaoaaeenue ii??aiyeueii-aaia?ao?/iee oa
noaoe?iia?iee iaoiaee. Ii??aiyeueii-aaia?ao?/iee iaoiae iieyaaa o
ii??aiyeueiiio aea/aii? /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo c?iooaaieo ??cieo AEO
(iii??ii? oa oieiaeii?), a oaeiae o ii??aiyii? /i?iicai?a c?iooaaieo ?
iac?iooaaieo, ye? aei c?ioaiiy ?icaeaaeenue a iaeiioeiieo oiiaao
caieiaeaiiy oa ae?aiiaaiino? ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue iaeiaeiaeie
ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie. Aeey oeueiai
i?ae?a?aii ia?e aeine?aeieo ae?eyiie (AeAe) ia iac?iooaaieo ? c?iooaaieo
/i?iicaiao a iaaeao ?iaoeaoeueei? oa Aeaenueei? c?iooaaeueieo nenoai. Ia
ACN aeine?aeaeaiiy ii/aee i?iaiaeeoe ia 30-ee ??e c?ioaiiy ?
i?iaeiaaeoaaee 24 ?iee, ia ?CN – ia 17-e ??e ? i?iaeiaaeoaaee 5 ?ie?a.
E??i oiai aeei?enoaii iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue N.I.Iiciyea (1997) ia ?CN
o 15-??/iee oa 30-??/iee ia??iaee c?ioaiiy.

Ia AeAe a iaaeao ?CN aea/aeenue i?ioeane iaacnieaiiy ? aoi?eiiiai
inieiioethaaiiy, a a iaaeao ACN i?ioeane iaacnieaiiy ? aoi?eiiiai
canieaiiy, a oaeiae iia’ycai? c ieie ci?ie aeanoeainoae c?iooaaieo
/i?iicai?a. E??i oiai, a aeieei? ?.Aeae ia iniiaieo AeAe o aaaaoaoe?ei?
ia??iaee 31-33-ai oa 44-ai ?ie?a c?ioaiiy, i?iaiaeeeenue iiaeaeaaei?
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aieia?noth a?oio?a, aoiinoa?ieie iiaaeaie oa iieeaaie.
Ia AeAe c aoi?eiii-canieaieie /i?iicaiaie i?iaiaeeeenue niinoa?aaeaiiy
ca aeeiai?eith EN o a?oioia?e oiau? oa ca ??aiai AA ? ?o
i?ia?ae?caoe??th. Iaea?eueo i?ieea? iieacieee ooi/ithaaeenue ia 10
aeiiii?aeieo AeAe. C?acee a?oio?a aeey aecia/aiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa
o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae a?aeae?aeenue a e?ioe? e?oa — ia ii/aoeo inai? a
3-9-e e?aoieo iiaoi?ao. Ia?iaeo aeaieo ?aaeeiieo niinoa?aaeaiue,
ii?oieia?/ieo iciae oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae cae?enithaaee
iaoiaeii iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee. O ?icae?e? iaaiaeeoueny ia?ae?e
eaai?aoi?ii-aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aieea c?ioaiiy ia i?e?iaei? oiiae, ci?io i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e

/i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo oa ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue TC «Aieea c?ioaiiy ia
i?e?iaei? oiiae, ci?io i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e

/i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo oa ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue»

??eaaoe?ei? aiaee. C?ioaiiy ia ACN i?iaiaeeoueny aiaeaie ?.Aeae,
i?ia?ae?caoe?y ?o 0,230-0,428a/e, neeaae a?ae?iea?aiiaoii-eaeueoe??aee,
aaee/eia ?I 7-8. Ia ?CN — ci?oaieie aiaeaie ??e Aei?i?a (75-80%) oa
?iaoeueoey. I?ia?ae?caoe?y ?o 0,63-1,51a/e, ?I 7,3-8,4, o?i?ci —
noeueoaoii-oei?eaeiee aai oei?eaeii-noeueoaoiee ca ai?iiaie oa
eaeueoe??ai-iaai??ai-iao???aee ca eao?iiaie. I?ney 1986 ?. o neeaae?
??eaaoe?eieo aiae ?CN c?inea /anoea ?ii?a INI3- oa iiyaeeenue ?iie
NI32-. ??eaaoe?ei? aiaee aeine?aeaeoaaieo nenoai ? ??cieie ca ye?noth,
oiio aieea ?o ia c?iooaai? a?oioe — ??ciee. Ia ?CN c ieie iia’ycai?
i?ioeane i?aeeoaeaiiy, iaacnieaiiy oa aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy, ia ACN
— iaacnieaiiy oa ia??iaee/iiai i?aeeoaeaiiy.

C?ioaiiy, yea ii/aeinue ia ACN o 1940?., a ia ?CN o 1957?. cia/ii
oneeaaeieei i?e?iaei? oiiae a?oioioai?aiiy. A i?ioean? aoae?aieoeoaa ?
aenieoaoaoe?? c?iooaaeueieo nenoai a?aeaoeinue ae??aithaaiiy i?e?ioi?i
?aeue?oo oa caeaaeaeaiiy ia?aoiae?a i?ae eiai iacioi?iaie. C ia?oeo
?ie?a c?ioaiiy ii/aeenue ci?ie a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia, ni?e/eiai?
iia??oaiiyi oiia ae?aiiaaiino?, aiane?aeie iaaeineiiaei? ??eaaoe?eii?
n?oee ? cia/ii? ?io?eueo?aoe?? aiaee c eaiae?a oa c?iooaaieo iie?a.

Ia ?CN ca 10 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy a?aeaoeinue i?aeiyooy na?aaeiuei??/iiai
??aiy AA c 11-12i aei 1,9 i a i?ai?/i?e /anoei? c?iooaaeueiiai ianeao ?
aei 4,9 i a i?aaeaii?e (A?oaeeinueea, 1970). ??ai? ??eaaoe?eieo
a?oioiaeo aiae (?AA) iaaeeceeenue aei noaa?e?caoe??, yea
i?iaeiaaeoaaeanue o ianooii? 5 ?ie?a. Iaeiae, i?ioyaii ?ieo
niinoa??aaeinue a?aeoeeaiiy ?o ??ai?a a?ae na?aaeiuei??/ieo cia/aiue a
a?eueoo aai iaioo noi?iio ia 0,4-0,7 i a i?ai?/i?e /anoei? ?CN ? ia
0,5-1,0 i a i?aaeaii?e. Aei c?ioaiiy ooo ia?aaaaeaee na?aaeiuei- oa
neaaii?ia?ae?ciaai? AA (1-10 a/e). I?ney 10-??/iiai c?ioaiiy aiie noaee
i??nieie oa neaaii?ia?ae?ciaaieie. I?e i?aeiyoo? ??aiy ?AA aeua
nieueiaiai ai?eciioo, oiaoi aeua 2 i i?ia?ae?caoe?y ?o iaaeeaea?oueny
aei i?ia?ae?caoe?? iieeaieo aiae (0,6-1,5 a/e). I?e i?aeiyoo? ??aiy aei
2-3 i i?ia?ae?caoe?y eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 1-3 a/e, a i?e i?aeiyoo? aei
3-5 i — 3-10 a/e. O i??nieo aiaeao na?aae ai?ii?a ia?aaaaeathoue INI3-,
o neaai- oa na?aaeiueii?ia?ae?ciaaieo – SI42- ? NL-, a na?aae eao?ii?a o
an?o aiaeao — Mg2+ oa Na+.

Ia ACN ca 30 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?eiee ??aaiue AA a aeia?a
ae?aiiaaieo oiiaao i?aeiyany ia 0,9 i ? noaa?e?coaaany i?e aeeaei? 5,3
i. A?i caa??aa?oueny aei oaia? c iacia/ieie a?aeoeeaiiyie (aei 0,1 i) oa
eieeaaiiyie o aaaaoaoe?ei? ia??iaee a iaaeao 5,0-5,6 i. I?ia?ae?caoe?y
?o ca oeae ia??iae iiieceeanue c 1,32 a/e aei 0,48 a/e ? aiie
caeeoeeenue i??nieie a ianooii? 23 ?iee c?ioaiiy. O nieueiaiio neeaae?
??cei ciaioeeanue e?euee?noue INI3-, Na+, Ca2+. A oiiaao iia??oaiiai
ae?aiaaeo ca 30 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?eiee ??aaiue AA
i?aeiyany c 5,2 i aei 3,1 i ? noaa?e?coaaany, ia ci?ithth/enue a
ianooii? 23 ?iee c?ioaiiy. A oaeeo oiiaao ?AA ?ic/eiyee cia/io
e?euee?noue aeoioeueiaaieo a iaoa?einuee?e oa i?aenoeeath/?e ii?iaeao EN
? i?aeaeuoaaee naith i?ia?ae?caoe?th. Ca 30 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy aiia c?inea c
0,64 a/e aei 1,78 a/e. A ianooii? 23 ?iee c?ioaiiy i?ia?ae?caoe?y
eieeaaeanue a iaaeao 1,01-3,13 a/e i?e na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?eieo aaee/eiao
1,74-1,95 a/e. O ?o neeaae? ia?aaaaeaee INI3-, SI42- oa Na+, i?ney
30-??/iiai c?ioaiiy cia/ii c?inea e?euee?noue SI42- , Mg2+ ? Na+ oa
iiyaeeenue ?iie NI32-.

Aea/aiiy i?e?iee?iaoe/ieo iieaciee?a a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? ACN
iieacaee, ui eeiiaa? oa na?iiaa? oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ia aenio? 2 i a?ae
iiaa?oi? a?oioo i 9 aiae aoee ia 1-70N aeueie, a i 12 oa 18 aiae ia
1-80N ieae/eie a aea?e? aei? ? ia 1-40N aeueie — o i?ioieiaei? aei?,
i?ae ia ciiaeuei?e iaoainoaioe?? ?oaoeianuee. Aiaeia?/ii ? iaeaea a
oaeeo aea iaaeao ci?ithaaeenue oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oi? a?oioo. Aiie?ooaee
eieeaaiue ?o a aeaii? aiaeeie eeiiy ciaioeeenue ia 52-54%, a na?iiy —
33-36%. Aeuith ia 6-10% a ?aieia? aiaeeie ? ia 15-22% a aeaii? aiaeeie
noaea a?aeiinia aieia?noue iia?o?y ia aenio? 2i a?ae iiaa?oi? a?oioo.
Iiae?ai? ci?ie niinoa??aathoueny ia ?CN.

C?ioaiiy oa iia’ycai? c iei i?ioeane iaacnieaiiy, aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy
oa inieiioethaaiiy, cia/ii oneeaaeieee i?inoi?iao no?oeoo?o /i?iicai?a
i?aaeaiieo ia aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?iooaaieo nenoaiao. Ia i?noe? aiaa?ieo
iacanieaieo oa aeeaieinieii/aeoaaoeo /i?iicai?a a iaaeao ACN ca 30-oe
??/iee ia??iae c?ioaiiy ?icaeioeenue /i?iicaie i?aaeaii? c?iooaai?
iacanieai? (iaacnieai?), aeeaieicanieai?, aoi?eiii-aeeaieinieii/aeoaao?,
aoi?eiii-nieii/aeoaao?, aoi?eiii-aenieinieii/aeoaao? oa
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeia?, oiaoi aiie noaee no?ieao?oeie ca nooiaiai oa
aeeaeiith canieaiiy. Iiainoai?aia i?inoi?iaa no?oeoo?a a?oioiaiai
iie?eao ia ACN iaeaea ia ci?ieeanue i?e iiaeaeueoiio c?ioaii?. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ?acoeueoaoaie iiaoi?ieo a?oioiai-iae?i?aoeaieo
ianoaaeaiue ia 44-47 ?ieao c?ioaiiy oa iiaeaeueoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie.
Ca?aeii oeeo iaoa??ae?a 26% c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a ?
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeie, 14% — aoi?eiii-aenieinieii/aeoaaoeie, 12% —
aoi?eiii-nieii/aeoaaoeie, 10% — aoi?eiii-aeeaieinieii/aeoaaoeie, 9% —
aeeaieicanieaieie oa 29% iacanieaieie aai iaacnieaieie. Aei c?ioaiiy 59%
/i?iicai?a aoee iacanieaieie ? 41% — aeeaieinieii/aeoaaoeie.

Aieea c?ioaiiy ia a?iaeaei?noue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aiane?aeie
c?ioaiiy a?iaeaei?noue ioaieoe? ia iacanieaieo /i?iicaiao c?inoa? a
2,1-2,3 ?ace. Iaeiae, ?icaeoie aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy, canieaiiy,
i?aeeoaeaiiy oa ?ioeo aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a cia/ii cieaeothoue ??.
Ao?aoe a?iaeaeiino? ioaieoe? oa ?ioeo ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ? eoeo?oaece i?e
aoi?eiiiio canieaii? ia aoi?eiii-nieii/aeoaaoeo /i?iicaiao ACN
noaiiaeyoue 10,2-10,4%, ia aoi?eiii-aenieinieii/aeoaaoeo — 25,1 — 26,6%,
ia aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo — 47,3-49,5%. Ia aeaio inoaii?o a?oioao
oe? ao?aoe aeia?a aeaeii a ia??iae aeic??aaiiy aiane?aeie neaaiai ?
na?aaeiueiai i?eai?/aiiy eoeueoo?. Ca noaiii ?o i?eai?/aiino?
i?iaiaeeeinue ea?oia?aooaaiiy a?oio?a oa ieii??ia aecia/aiiy nooiaith
aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy, yeee ocaiaeaeoaaany c iieacieeaie nieueiaiai
neeaaeo aiaeii? aeoyaeee a?oio?a.

Iniaeeaino? aiaeii-nieueiaiai ?aaeeio /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo TC
«Iniaeeaino? aiaeii-nieueiaiai ?aaeeio /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo»

Aea/aii aeeiai?eo aieiaino? i?ioyaii 4 aaaaoaoe?eieo ia??iae?a a
aiaa?ieo ? c?iooaaieo iaacnieaieo oa aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo
/i?iicaiao ACN, a oaeiae ca’ycie ?? c aoiinoa?ieie iiaaeaie, ?aaeeiaie
iieeao ??cieo eoeueoo? oa aeeaeiith ?AA. Aeeiai?ea aieiaino? aiaa?ieo
/i?iicai?a iaoiiaeaia iai?iieaiei aiaeiei ?aaeeiii, a aeeiai?ea
aieiaino? c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a – ioeuenaoe?eiei, i?e yeiio /a?aothoueny
i?iieai? ? aeiioi? oiiae. Ioeuenaoe?eiee aiaeiee ?aaeei noi?ioaaany
i?ney 15-??/iiai c?ioaiiy ia ?CN oa 30-??/iiai c?ioaiiy ia ACN. I?e
ioeuenaoe?eiiio aiaeiiio ?aaeei? c ia?aaaaeaiiyi i?iieaii? neeaaeiai?
ooai?eeenue iaacnieai? /i?iicaie, a i?e ia?aaaaeaii? aeiioii? neeaaeiai?
— aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeia? /i?iicaie.

Aiaeii-nieueiaee ?aaeei aeine?aeaeoaaieo /i?iicai?a o cia/i?e i???
caeaaeeoue a?ae aiaeii?iieeeeaino?. Aea/ath/e ?? c iiaa?oi? oa c aeeaeie
40ni, iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui aiane?aeie c?ioaiiy aiaeii?iieeeea?noue ?
ei?o?oe??io o?eueo?aoe?? (EO) ciaioothoueny. Inoaii?e o /i?iicaiao ACN
anoaiiaeth?oueny /a?ac 21-22 aiae i?ini/oaaiiy aiaee, a a /i?iicaiao ?CN
/a?ac 12 aiae. O aiaa?ieo a?oioao oieiaeii? oaoe?? EO noaiiaea 0,25-0,26
ii/oa c iiaa?oi? oa 0,29-0,31 ii/oa c aeeaeie 40 ni, a o c?iooaaieo
ciaioeany aei 0,17-0,20 ii/oa c iiaa?oi? ? aei 0,20-0,23 ii/oa c aeeaeie
40 ni. O /i?iicaiao iii??ii? oaoe?? EO oaeiae ciaioeany aiane?aeie
c?ioaiiy c 0,7ii/oa aei 0,5ii/oa ia iiaa?oi? a?oioo oa c 0,8ii/oa aei
0,6 ii/oa ia aeeaei? 40ni.

Nieueiaee ?aaeei /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo aea/aee oeyoii ii??aiyiiy
iiaeaeaaeieo oa na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?eieo iieaciee?a ai?noo nieae ia AeAe.
Ci?ie na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?eieo iieaciee?a ai?noo oiene/ieo nieae
aiane?aeie iaacnieaiiy oa aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy /i?iicai?a i?eaaaeai? a
oaae.1. I?ioeane iaacnieaiiy ii/aeenue c ia?oeo ?ie?a c?ioaiiy ?
?icaeaaeenue ia an?e oa?eoi??? ?CN oa a aeia?a ae?aiiaaieo oiiaao ACN. A
oiiaao iia??oaiiai ae?aiaaeo ia oa?eoi??? ACN i?iyaeeenue i?ioeane
aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy. Aiie ii/aeenue aiane?aeie i?aeiyooy ??aiy ?AA oa
?o i?ia?ae?caoe?? aei e?eoe/ieo aaee/ei, ca yeeo EN ?acii c aieiaith
i?aeiyeenue aei iiaa?oiaaeo ai?eciio?a ? canieeee ?o. Ca ia?o? 30 ?ie?a
c?ioaiiy /i?iicaie i?aaeaii? aeeaieinieii/aeoaao? o?ainoi?ioaaeenue o
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeia?. A ianooii? 23 ?iee c?ioaiiy ?o ci?ie aoee
iacia/ieie ? ia aeoiaeeee ca iaae? neaainieii/aeiaeo, oiaoi nieueiaee
?aaeei iaaoa eaac???aiiaaaeiiai noaio (aeea.oaae.1). I?ioa ui??/i?
na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?ei? nieueia? i?io?e? ??ciyoueny i?ae niaith, ui
iia’ycaii c ?aaeeiaie iieeao ae?iuoaaieo eoeueoo?.

?aaeeiieie aaaaoaoe?eieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie nieueiaiai ?aaeeio ca
aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae ia aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo /i?iicaiao ACN
anoaiiaeaii cia/i? eieeaaiiy ai?noo EN o ?o iiaa?oiaaeo ai?eciioao. Oae,
ia 33 ?ioe? c?ioaiiy a oa?? 0-30 ni, ai?no EN ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae
eieeaaany a?ae 0,152 aei 0,400% i?e noeueoaoiiio canieaii?, oiaoi a
??ci? ia??iaee oeae oa? iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ye iacanieaiee,
neaaicanieaiee aai na?aaeiueicanieaiee. Oiio iaie cai?iiiiiaaii
aecia/aoe nooi?iue canieaiiy c?iooaaieo a?oio?a ca
na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?eiei ai?noii nieae, yeee ca?aeii iiaeaeaaeieo
aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeth?oueny a na?aaeei? aa?aniy i?e ae?iuoaaii?
ca?iiaeo ? neeinieo eoeueoo?. Ioaea, aeey anoaiiaeaiiy nooiaith
canieaiiy c?iooaaieo a?oio?a iiaeia iaiaaeeoenue aecia/aiiyi ai?noo EN
o?eueee a oeae ia??iae.

Ci?ie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy TC «Ci?ie
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy»

Aea/ai? ia i?aenoaa? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee ci?ie ai?noo aoiono,
iai?iieo eao?ii?a, aaee/eie ?I oa ea?aiiaoiino? o aeine?aeaeoaaieo
/i?iicaiao iieacaee, ui aiie ia iaeiicia/i? ? ?ioaineai?noue oeeo ci?i
iaea?eueoa a ia?o? ?iee c?ioaiiy. *a?ac 15 ?ie?a ia ?CN ? /a?ac 30 ?ie?a
ia ACN aiie cia/ii niia?eueiththoueny ? iaaeeaeathoueny aei
eaac???aiiaaaeiiai noaio.

Aeeiai?ea aoiono i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy i?iyaey?oueny o ?icoyaoaaii?
aoioniaiai ai?eciioo, ia?a?iciiae?e? ai?noo eiai ii i?io?eth, ci?i?
caian?a ? /anoeia?e ci?i? a?oiiaiai oa o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo. Ca 30 ?ie?a
c?ioaiiy ia ?CN iiooaei?noue aoioniaiai ai?eciioo c?inea ia 14 ni,
caiane aoiono a oa?? 0-100 ni — ia 96,8 o/aa, Nae:Noe ?icoe?eeinue aei
2,84-3,04. Ca oaeee aea ia??iae ia ACN iiooaei?noue aoioniaiai ai?eciioo
c?inea ia 8-9 ni, caiane aoiono a oa?? 0-100 ni c?inee ia 11,9-19,0 o/aa
i?e ciaioaii? eiai ia 1,8-2,5 o/aa a oa?? 0-50 ni, Nae:Noe ?icoe?eeinue
aei 2,30-2,77 a iaacnieaieo oa caoceeinue aei 1,88- 1,91 o
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo /i?iicaiao (aeea. oaae. 1).

Neeaae iai?iieo eao?ii?a /i?iicai?a i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy ci?ithaaany a
iai?yieo aeani?aoe?? Ca2+ ? ni?aoe?? Na+ i?e ciaioaii? ?ieino? aae?aiiy.
Iaee?aua oe? ci?ie i?iyaeeenue o /i?iicaiao ?CN ? ni?e/eieee aoi?eiia
inieiioethaaiiy ?o (aeea.oaae.1). Ni?aoe?y Na+ a iiaa?oiaaeo ai?eciioao
ni?e/eiaia neaaii?ia?ae?ciaaieie ??eaaoe?eieie aiaeaie c i?aeaeuaiei
ai?noii oeueiai eao?iia. Eiee a iiaa?oiaaeo ai?eciioao ai?no iai?iiiai
iao??th aeinyaa? aaee/eie 5,6-6,3% a?ae noie iai?iieo iniia, ni?aoe?y
eiai iioe?th?oueny o aeeao? ai?eciioe (Iiciye, 1997).

A iaacnieaieo /i?iicaiao ACN, iacia/ia ca?eueoaiiy iai?iiiai iao??th ca
30 oa 45 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy ia aeeeeea? caa?ice aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy.
O aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo /i?iicaiao ACN iaeii/anii ?c ciaioaiiyi
?ieino? aae?aiiy oa eao?iio Ca2+, a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy Na+, yeee
iinooia? c ?AA ? iaaeeaea? a?oioe aei neaainieiioethaaoeo (aeea.oaae.1).

I?ioeane i?aeeoaeaiiy /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy
i?iyaeeenue o an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo /i?iicaiao /a?ac i?aeaeuaiiy
aaee/eie ?I, ye? i?eaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1. Iaeneiaeueia c?inoaiiy
aaee/eie ?I (0,33-0,37 iaeeieoeue) ca 30 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy a?aei?/aii o
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo oa aoi?eiii-inieiioeueiaaieo /i?iicaiao ?
cia/ii iaio? a iaacnieaieo. An? aiie noaee na?aaeiueieoaeieie ? ia
aeoiaeyoue ca ?o ?aiee i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, oiaoi
noaa?e?coaaeenue. Iaeiae, a ia?o? aiaeeie i?ney c?ioaiiy aiane?aeie
i?aeeoaeaiiy aiie iaaeeaeathoueny aei neeueiieoaeieo (Iiciye, 1997).

Ci?ia ea?aiiaoiiai i?io?eth i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy i?iyaeeanue o
ia?a?iciiae?e? NaNI3 oa ci?i? oi?i iiaiooai?aiue. I?e iaacnieaii?
/i?iicai?a a?aeaoeanue aeaea?aiiaoecaoe?y, a i?e aoi?eiiiio canieaii? –
iea?aiia/aiiy. Ca 30 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy aeeaeia neeiaiiy a?ae IN? a
iaacnieaieo /i?iicaiao ?CN iiieceeanue ia 30 ni oa a iaacnieaieo
/i?iicaiao ACN — ia 10 ni, ui iia’ycaii c aeueie iieeaieie ii?iaie ia
?CN. Ca oaeee aea ia??iae o aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo /i?iicaiao ACN
aeeaeia neeiaiiy a?ae IN? i?aeaeueeanue ia 10 ni (aeea.oaae.1).
Iiaeaeueo? ci?ie aeeaeie neeiaiiy ? iacia/ieie. Aiane?aeie
aeaea?aiiaoecaoe?? oa iea?aiia/aiiy /?oe? ae?aieeie a?eic??ee iaaoee
?icieea/aoeo oi?i.

Ci?ie o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy. TC «Ci?ie o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy.»

A?aioeiiao?e/iee, i?e?iaa?aaaoiee, no?oeoo?ii-aa?aaaoiee neeaae, a
oaeiae u?euei?noue ceiaeaiiy ? caaaeueia oa eai?ey?ia oia?oaaoino?
/i?iicai?a aecia/aeenue ia iieyo, caeiyoeo ca?iiaeie eoeueoo?aie ia?aae
aeieaaie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacothoue, ui ca ia?o? 15 ?ie?a
c?ioaiiy ia ?CN oa ia?o? 30 ?ie?a ia ACN aiie caciaee nooo?aeo ci?i ?
iaaeeceeenue aei eaac???aiiaaaeii? noaa?eueiino?, a oiio iiaeaeueo?
ci?ie aoee iacia/ieie.

A?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae ci?ithaaany i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy aiane?aeie
i?ioean?a aioo??a?oioiaiai aea?o?thaaiiy oa ?e?ia?ecaoe??, ye? c ??ciith
?ioaineai?noth i?iyaeeenue o /i?iicaiao aeine?aeaeoaaieo AEO. Ia ?CN
ia?aaaaeaee i?ioeane aioo??a?oioiaiai aea?o?thaaiiy. Aiie ni?e/eieee
iaeeiaiiy /i?iicai?a oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th ?o i?io?eth ca
aetha?aeueii-?etha?aeueiei oeiii. Oea aeaeii ?c ca?eueoaiiy caian?a
ioeenoi? o?aeoe?? ca ia?o? 30 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy ia 63 o/aa a oa?? 0-40ni oa
ia 352 o/aa a oa?? 40-80 ni. O /i?iicaiao ACN ia?aaaaeaee i?ioeane
?e?ia?ecaoe??, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi caian?a ioeo a oa??
0-80 ni oa ca?eueoaii? ?o a oa?? 80-120 ni.

I?e?iaa?aaaoiee neeaae. O c?iooaaieo /i?iicaiao iii??ii? oa oieiaeii?
oaoe?e a?aeaoaaany ?ioaineaiee ?iciaae i?e?ino?oeoo?e, ui
noi?iaiaeaeoaaany c?inoaiiyi ai?noo aeoeaiiai ioeo. Aaee/eia oaeoi?o
aeenia?niino? a aoioniaiio ai?eciio? ca 30 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy a iaacnieaieo
/i?iicaiao ?CN c?inea c 7,6-9,2% aei 13,5-17,7%; a iaacnieaieo
/i?iicaiao ACN – c 9,6-11,8% aei 17,3-19,7%; o aoi?eiii-nieii/aeiaeo ACN
– c 9,7-12,0% aei 25,0-25,8%. Ioaea, /i?iicaie i?aaeaii? c?iooaai?
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeia? ? iaea?eueo ?icieeaieie, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae iieacieeaie ?o aeacaa?aaaoe??.

No?oeoo?ii-aa?aaaoiee noai. Ca 30 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo
ai?no iia?o?yii-nooeo aa?iiii?/ii oe?iieo aa?aaao?a a ?o i?iiio oa??
ciaioeany ia 3,7-5,7%, a aiaeino?eeeo – ia 4,7-7,4% (aeea.oaae.1).
Iaeneiaeuei? ciaioaiiy i?eo?i/ai? aei /i?iicai?a ?CN, ye? iaee iaee?auo
no?oeoo?o aei c?ioaiiy, ia 5,4-7,2% ciaioeeenue oe? iieacieee o
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo /i?iicaiao ACN. Ca?aeii ioe?iee
no?oeoo?ii-aa?aaaoiiai neeaaeo, ?ic?iaeaii? N.A.Aaetheii oa ?i. (1997),
iaacnieai? /i?iicaie ia iaio c?iooaaeueieo nenoaiao caeeoeeenue, ye ?
aei c?ioaiiy na?aaeiueiaeaa?aaeiaaieie, a aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeia? –
ci?ieeenue ia neeueiiaeaa?aaeiaai?. Iaacno?oeoo?thaaiiy c?iooaaieo
/i?iicai?a i?iyaey?oueny o c?inoaii? a?eeoaaoino?, iiieaeaii?
aiaeino?eeino? no?oeoo?ieo aa?aaao?a, e??ei- ? o??ueiiooai?aii? oa
ooai?aii? a ieaei?e /anoei? i?iiai ? aa?oi?e /anoei? i?aei?iiai
ai?eciio?a no?oeoo?ii-ii?an?eiiai ai?eciioo ?c u?eueiith ai??ooaaoith oa
i?eciiaeaeiith no?oeoo?ith.

U?euei?noue oaa?aei? oace a?oioo ? iaeiei c aeineoue noaa?eueieo eiai
iieaciee?a. Oaa?aea oaca i?aaenoaaeaia ia?aeiieie ? aoi?eiieie
i?ia?aeaie, i?aai?/iith ?a/iaeiith ? aoiaoaie, ye? iaeaea ia ci?ieeenue
i?ae aieeaii a?aeiinii ei?ioeiai ia??iaeo c?ioaiiy. Aaniethoi? aaee/eie
u?eueiino? oaa?aei? oace a?oio?a eieeaathoueny a iaaeao 2,53-2,64 a/ni3.

U?euei?noue ceiaeaiiy o aeine?aeaeoaaieo /i?iicaiao c?inea ca /an
c?ioaiiy, ca?aeii ?acoeueoao?a noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee ia 0,06-0,18 a/ni3 a
i?iiio oa 0,05-0,13 a/ni3 – a i?aei?iiio ai?eciioao ? iaaeeceeanue aei
eaac???aiiaaaeiiai noaio. Aaniethoi? aaee/eie ?o i?e iaeiaio?e
aieiai?ieino? i?eaaaeaii a oaae. 1.

Oia?oaao?noue caaaeueia ? eai?ey?ia. Caaaeueia oia?oaao?noue ciaioeeanue
i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy, ui iia’ycaii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ou?eueiaiino?
c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a. Aei anoaiiaeaiiy eaac???aiiaaaeiiai noaio
aaee/eia caaaeueii? oia?oaaoino? ciaioeeanue a aoioniaiio ai?eciio?
/i?iicai?a ?CN ia 3,30-3,57 ia.%, a /i?iicai?a ACN ia 2,15-2,75 ia.%.
Eai?ey?ia oia?oaao?noue, yea e?euee?nii a?aeiia?aea? aaee/ei? iaeiaioi?
aieiai?ieino?, ae?aaeaii? a ia’?iieo % oaeiae ciaioeeanue (aeea.oaae.1).
Iaeai?ey?ia oia?oaao?noue a /i?iicaiao c?iooaaieo iaacnieaieo
ciaioeeanue ia 0,13 — 2,01 ia.%, a a /i?iicaiao
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo – ca?eueoeeanue ia 0,37-0,48 ia.% o canieaieo
ai?eciioao oa ciaioeeanue ia 0,60-1,53 ia.% o iacanieaieo. C?inoaiiy
iaeai?ey?ii? oia?oaaoino? o aoi?eiii-canieaieo ai?eciioao, i/aaeaeii,
iaoiiaeaii ?icoe?aiiyi i?aeaa?aaaoieo o??uei.

Oeyoe ?aaoethaaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo a?oioiaeo i?ioean?a

? iie?auaiiy aeanoeainoae c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a TC «Oeyoe ?aaoethaaiiy
iani?eyoeeaeo a?oioiaeo i?ioean?a

? iie?auaiiy aeanoeainoae c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a»

?icaeyaeathoueny, ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai,
aa?ioaoi?/i? oa iae?i?aoeai? caoiaee ni?yiiaai? ia iie?auaiiy: aiaeiiai
?aaeeio, oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu,
i???ioiaaieo ia aeiiiiia aeei?enoaiiy iieeaii? aiaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aiaeicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e iieea?a, ye? a caaacia/eee iioeiaeueia
caieiaeaiiy a?oioo aei 30-50ni; nieueiaiai ?aaeeio ? ai?ioueao c
aoi?eiiei canieaiiyi, oeyoii i?neoaaiiy, aea??eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
ae?aiaaeii? ia?aae? oa i?iieaee EN; neeaaeo iai?iieo eao?ii?a aianaiiyi
a?ino; ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, oeyoii i?neyiieeaiiai ?eoeaiiy, u?ethaaiiy
??ciiaeeaeiii? i?aiee; iiaeeaiiai ?aaeeio – aianaiiyi
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, cai?thaaiiy neaea?ao?a, iiaeieaieo ?aooie ?
nieiie, aaaaeaiiy n?aici?i c aaaaoi??/ieie o?aaaie.

AENIIAEE TC «AENIIAEE»

I?iaaaeai? aaaaoi??/i? eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy /i?iicai?a aeathoue
i?aenoaao c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee:

1. C?ioaiiy aeeeeea? aeeaie? ci?ie ye iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, oae ?
?aaeei?a oa aeanoeainoae a?oio?a. Oe? ci?ie coiiaeththoueny ia no?eueee
oaoe?aeueieie oaeoi?aie, ne?eueee i?noeaaeie: nooiaiai ae?aiiaaiino?
oa?eoi???, ye?noth iieeaii? aiaee, oaoiieia?yie c?ioaiiy oa ae?iuoaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Oaoe?aeuei? /eiieee aieeaathoue
aieiaiei /eiii ia o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo, i?ioyaii yeiai ci?ie
aeanoeainoae ? ?aaeei?a /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo c?iooaaieo i?eoiaeyoue o
eaac???aiiaaaeiee noai ?c iiaeie oiiaaie na?aaeiaeua (15 ?ie?a ia ?CN ?
30 ?ie?a ia ACN).

2. I?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei aoi?aeecaoe??
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Aiia i?iyaey?oueny o ca?eueoaii? aieiaino?
iia?o?y ? a?oioo, ciaioaii? aeiaiaeo eieeaaiue ?o oaiia?aoo? oa
i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy AA. E??i oeueiai, i?iyaeythoueny i?ioeane aoi?eiiiai
canieaiiy, iaacnieaiiy, inieiioethaaiiy, aeaea?aiiaoecaoe?? oa ?io?,
cia/ii oneeaaeieeanue no?oeoo?a a?oioiaiai iie?eao.

3. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy AA ? ci?ie ?o i?ia?ae?caoe?? aoee oaeaeeeie a ia?o?
10-15 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy ia ?CN ? 30 ?ie?a ia ACN, a i?ci?oa
noaa?e?coaaeenue ? i?eeoee o ??aiiaaao c oiiaaie c?ioaiiy, oiaoi iaaoee
iiaiai ??eaaoe?eiiai eaac???aiiaaaeiiai noaio.

4. Oa?aeoa?iee aeey /i?iicai?a iai?iieaiee oei aiaeiiai ?aaeeio ci?ieany
i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy ia an?e oa?eoi??? ?CN oa a aeia?a ae?aiiaaieo
oiiaao ACN ia??iaee/ii i?iieaiei (ioeuenaoe?eiei) c ia?aaaaeaiiyi
i?iieaii? neeaaeiai? ? ni?e/eiea ?icaeoie i?ioean?a iaacnieaiiy
/i?iicai?a; a oiiaao iia??oaiiai ae?aiaaeo ia ACN a?i ci?ieany
ia??iaee/ii-i?iieaiei c ia?aaaaeaiiyi aeiioii? neeaaeiai? ? ni?e/eiea
?icaeoie aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy.

5. Aoi?eiia canieaiiy /i?iicai?a iiieceei ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue. Ao?aoe
a?iaeath ioaieoe? ia aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo /i?iicaiao noaiiaeee
47-49%, ia aoi?eiii-aenieinieii/aeoaaoeo – 25-27%, ia
aoi?eiii-nieii/aeoaaoeo — 10,2-10,4%.

6. Nooi?iue aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a oa aeeaeia
caeyaaiiy EN aecia/aeenue ca na?aaeiueiaaaaoaoe?eiei oa
na?aaeiueicaaaeaiei ai?noii ?o a oa?ao 0-30, 30-50, 50-100, 100-150 ni.
Oaeee ai?no nieae anoaiiaethaaany a na?aaeei? aa?aniy. A oeae ia??iae
i?iaiaeeeinue aecia/aiiy nooiaith aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy i?e
a?oioiai-iae?i?aoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.

7. Ci?ie aiaeiiai oa nieueiaiai ?aaeei?a c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a coiiaeee
i?iyae iiaeo i?ioean?a oaeeo ye: iaacnieaiiy, aoi?eiia canieaiiy,
inieiioethaaiiy, ieo/i?iiy, i?aeeoaeaiiy, aeaei?aiiaoecaoe?y aai
iea?aiia/aiiy, ou?eueiaiiy, aioo??a?oioiaa iaeeiaiiy oa ?e?ia?ecaoe?y.

8. Iaai? ii?aeiaiiy iacaaieo i?ioean?a, caeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia,
aeeeeeaee cia/i? ci?ie aoioniaaiino? c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a oa ?o
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae. Oe? ci?ie, ye ? ci?ie
a?ae?ieia?/ieo oa aaio?i?/ieo oiia c /anii noaa?e?coaaeenue ? /a?ac 15
?ie?a ia ?CN oa 30 ?ie?a ia ACN iaaeeceeenue aei eaac???aiiaaaeiiai
noaio.

9. Ci?ie aoioniaaiino? oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a
i?aaeaiieo aiane?aeie c?ioaiiy i?iyaeeenue o:

— iiaeeaeaii? aoioniaaii? /anoeie i?io?eth, ui /?oe?oa ae?aaeaii ia ?CN;

— ca?eueoaii? ai?noo aoiono ii anueiio i?io?eth ia ?CN, ciaioaii? eiai o
aa?oi?e /anoei? i?io?eth ? ca?eueoaii? o ieaei?e ia ACN;

— i?aeaeuaii? ai?noo aoi?iiaeo eeneio oa cieaeaii? ai?noo ooeueaieeneio
a iaacnieaieo c?iooaaieo /i?iicaiao, a oaeiae o i?aeaeuaii? ai?noo
ooeueaieeneio o /i?iicaiao aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo;

— i?aeaeuaii? aaee/eie ?I c iaeneiaeueieie cia/aiiyie o
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo /i?iicaiao oa ??ceeo c?inoaiiyo a ia?o?
aiaeeie i?ney iieeao;

— ciaioaii? ?ieino? eao?iiiiai iai?io oa iai?iiiai eaeueoe?th;

— cia/iiio i?aeaeuaii? iai?iieo iao??th ? iaai?th o a?oioiaiio aae?iiio
eiiieaen? /i?iicai?a iaacnieaieo ia ?CN, aea iieea i?iaiaeeany
i?ia?ae?ciaaieie aiaeaie oa o aeayeiio ?o ca?eueoaii? a /i?iicaiao
aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo ia ACN c i?aeaeuaiei caeyaaiiyi
i?ia?ae?ciaaieo ?AA;

— aeaea?aiiaoecaoe?? iaacnieaieo /i?iicai?a, yea c a?eueoith oaeaee?noth
i?io?ea? ia ?CN, oa a iea?aiia/aii? aoi?eiii-neaainieii/aeiaeo
/i?iicai?a

10.Ci?ie o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae aeine?aeaeoaaieo /i?iicai?a i?iyaeeenue
o:

— ia?a?iciiae?e? ioeenoi? o?aeoe??, ca aetha?aeueii-?etha?aeueiei oeiii,
yeee /?oei ae?aaeaiee o /i?iicaiao ?CN;

— ?icieeaiino? i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa ca?eueoaii? ei?o?oe??ioo aeenia?niino?;

— ciaioaii? ai?noo aa?iiii?/ii-oe?iieo ? aiaeino?eeeo aa?aaao?a,
oi?ioaaii? a?eeoaaoi? no?oeoo?e, e??ei- ? o??ueiiooai?aii? oa oi?ioaaii?
no?oeoo?ii-ii?an?eiiai oa?o ?c i?oeiith ai??ooaaoith no?oeoo?ith;

— ca?eueoaii? ou?eueiaiino? a?oio?a, yea iaea?eueoa i?iyaeeanue a i?iiio
oa?? iaacnieaieo aoi?eiii-inieiioeueiaaieo /i?iicai?a ?CN;

— ciaioaii? caaaeueii? oa eai?ey?ii? oia?oaaoino? oa ca?eueoaii?
iaeai?ey?ii? oia?oaaoino? o aoi?eiii-canieaieo a?oioao ACN.

11. Oeyoe ?aaoethaaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo a?oioiaeo i?ioean?a a oiiaao
c?ioaiiy caiaeyoueny aei iie?ioaiiy aiaeii-nieueiaiai ?aaeeio,
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo
aa?ioaoi?/ieie oa iae?i?aoeaieie caoiaeaie.

Iniiai? ioae?eaoe?? ia oaio aeena?oaoe??:

1. Naeaeieoeueeee A.I. Aei iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaieo
aoi?eiii-canieaieo caiaeue ia i?eeeaae? Aeaenueei? c?iooaaeueii? nenoaie
a Aeoaenueeiio e?a? // A?ni.Euea?a.o-oo., na?.aaia?ao.-
Euea?a:1972.Aei.7.-N.26-30.

2. Naeaeieoeueeee A.I. Aaiii?oieia?/ia ?aeiioaaiiy i?aaeaiii? /anoeie
I?eianueeiai ieaoi // A?ni.Euea?a.oi-oo., na??y aaia?ao. — Euea?a: Aeua
oeiea, 1980. Aei.12. — N. 101-105.

3. Naeaeieoeeee A.I. Iiaeeoeeaoeey i?e?iaeiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
eiiieaenia iiae aeeyieai i?ioaiey ia thaa Aeoaeneiai e?ay //
Aani.Eueaia.oi-oa., na?ey aaia?ao.- Eueaia: Aeua oeiea, 1984. Aui.14. —
N.56-60.

4. Naeaeieoeueeee A.I. Oaoe?aeuei? iniaeeaino? c?iooaaieo /i?iicai?a //
Aa?io?i?y ? a?oioiciaanoai. Niaoe?aeueiee aeione. A?oioe — aeieia?y —
i?iaeiaieuenoai.- Oa?e?a: OAAI, 1998.- 4.???. — N.152-153.

5. Naeaeieoeueeee A.I., Oeenue A.I., Aa?ai I.A. Iie?ioaiiy
aoi?eiii-canieaieo a?oio?a Aeaenueei? c?iooaaeueii? nenoaie iaoiaeii
i?neoaaiiy // A?ni.Euea?a.o-oo., na??y aaia?ao. — Euea?a: Na?o, 1992.
Aei.18 — N.69-73.

6. Aa?ai/oe E.?., Naeaeieoeueeee A.I. Ci?ia a?oioiaiai iie?eao i?ae
aieeaii c?ioaiiy ia Aeaenuee?e c?iooaaeuei?e nenoai? //
A?ni.Euea?a.o-oo., na??y aaia?ao. — Euea?a: Aeua oeiea, 1976. Aei.10.-
N.3-6.

7. Eaiaeoaooiue iiaeoiae e eco/aieth iaeei?aoeaiiai ninoiyiey caiaeue
Aeaeneie i?ineoaeueiie nenoaiu a Aeoaeneii e?aa (A.I.Naeaeieoeeee,
A.I.Nieiethe, I.ss.I?ieiiea, I.I.Iao?ea, A.I.Oeunue) //
Aani.Eueaia.o-oa., na?ey aaia?ao. — Eueaia: Aeua oeiea, 1986. Aui.15. —
N.74-76.

8. Ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie iiaeeoeeaoeee i?e?iaeiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
eiiieaenia i?e i?ioaiee (A.I.Naeaeieoeeee, A.I.Nieiethe, I.ss.I?ieiiea,
I.I.Iao?ea, A.A.Aa?ai, A.I.Oeunue) // Aani.Eueaia.o-oa., na?ey aaia?ao.
— Eueaia: Aeua oeiea, 1988. Aui.16.- N.56-59.

9. Iiciye N.I., Naeaeieoeueeee A.I. Aiaeii-nieueiaee ?aaeei /i?iicai?a
i?aaeaiieo c?iooaaieo iii??ii? oa oieiaeii? a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oaoe?e
// A?niee Euea?a.o-oo., na?.aaia?ao.– Euea?a:I?ino?? I, 1999.Aeione
23.-N.95-100.

10. Naeaeieoeeee A.I. Aeeyiea i?ioaiey ia aiaeiue e nieaaie ?aaeeiu ii/a
Aeaeneie i?ineoaeueiie nenoaiu Aeoaeneiai e?ay // Na.iao/.o?.ei-oa ei.
A.A.Aeieo/aaaa — I.: AANOIEE, 1973. *.2. — N. 253-260.

11. Aeeyiea Aeaeneie i?ineoaeueiie nenoaiu ia i?e?iaeiua oneiaey thaa
Aeoaeneiai e?ay (Naeaeieoeeee A.I., Eeo I.A., Eiaoo I.A., A?iieaiei
A.A., I?ieiiea I.ss.) // I?e?iaeii-iaeei?aoeaiue iiieoi?eia a NNN?.-I.:
AI NNN?, 1984.- N.126-133.

12. Naeaeieoeeee A.I., Naiieeia N.A. Aii?inu eeanneoeeaoeee i?ioaaiuo
ii/a Neae?e. Oac. e iao/i. Eiio.- Aa?iaoe: Iieea?aoeno, 1988. — N.
53-54.

13. Naeaeieoeeee A.I. Eciaiaiea aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaee ia
oa??eoi?ee Aeaeneie i?ineoaeueiie nenoaiu iiae aeeyieai i?ioaiey //
Aeieeaaeu e niiauaiey Eueaia.ioae.aaia?ao.iauanoaa ONN?.- Eueaia: “Aeua
oeiea”, 1977.Aui.6. — N. 41-44.

14. Aa?ai/oe E.?., Naeaeieoeueeee A.I., A?euoe A.I. Aieea c?ioaiiy ia
aeeiai?eo, a?oioiaee oa o?aeoe?eiee neeaae aoiono a a?oioao Aeaenueei?
c?iooaaeueii? nenoaie // Aaia?ao?y oa iae?i?aoe?y a?oio?a. — Euea?a:
Aeua oeiea, 1974.- N.3-13.

15. Naeaeieoeeee A.I. O?iaeaeiinoue ioaieoeu ia ?aciuo ii/aao Aeaeneie
i?ineoaeueiie nenoaiu a Aeoaeneii e?aa // Caiey Neae?neay,
Aeaeueiaainoi/iay.- Iine: Ecae-ai Iineay aacaoa, 1974. ? 6.- N.25-27.

16. Naeaeieoeueeee A.I. Aio?iiiaaii? oi?ie ?aeue?oo ia iae?i?aoeaieo
caieyo oa ?o aieea ia no/ani? i?ioeane a?oioioai?aiiy // Iao.
i?aeia?.iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “Oe?a?inueea aaiii?oieia?y: noai ?
ia?niaeoeae” – Euea?a: Ia?eaoi?, 1997. – N.226-228.

17. Naeaeieoeeee A.I. Eeanneoeeaoeey e e?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioaaiuo
ii/a ?oaoeianeiai yenieoaoaoeeiiiiai o/anoea Aeoaeneiai e?ay:
Na.o?.aaiaioaie/aneie yeniaaeeoeee Eueaia. oi-oa. – Eueaia: Aeua oeiea,
1976. – N.70-76.

AIIOAOe?ss

Naeaeieoeueeee A.I. No/ani? i?ioeane o /i?iicaiao i?aaeaiieo c?iooaaieo
iii??ii? oa oieiaeii? oaoe?e.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.05 — a?iaaia?ao?y ? aaia?ao?y a?oio?a —
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith ci?i oiia a?oioioai?aiiy i?ae aieeaii
c?ioaiiy oa ci?i aiaeii-nieueiaiai ?aaeeio, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo c?iooaaieo a oiiaao iii??ii?
no?aeii?a?iiaenueei? (?CN) oa oieiaeii? cao?aeii-nea??nueei? (ACN)
a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oaoe?e. Ci?ie aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a c?iooaaieo c
1940?. aea/aeenue ia ACN (Aeoaenueeee e?ae, ?in?y), a c?iooaaieo c
1957?. ia ?CN (Ieeiea?anueea iae., Oe?a?ia). Aeyaeaii iai?yiee no/anieo
i?ioean?a a?oioioai?aiiy. Anoaiiaeaii ia?aiao?e ci?i a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo ?
i?e?iee?iaoe/ieo iieaciee?a, aoi?eiiiai canieaiiy, inieiioethaaiiy,
iaacnieaiiy, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae /i?iicai?a, a
oaeiae ?o i?iaeoeoeaiino?. Aea/ai? caeiiii??iino? oeeo ci?i, ?o
oaeaeeino? ? oa?i?ie anoaiiaeaiiy eaac???aiiaaaeiiai noaio.
Aeine?aeaeaii ae?aaiinoe/i? iciaee aoi?eiii-canieaieo /i?iicai?a oa
?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee ?o ea?oia?aooaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeani?aoe?y, ?iiaeoia i?aeeoaeiaiiy, ?e?ia?ecaoe?y,
aeacaa?eaaoe?y, ii?an?eiee ai?eciio, eaac???aiiaaaa.

ANNOTATION

Svydnytski B.P. Modern Processes in Chernozem of Southern Irrigative
Temperate and Cold Facias. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for a scientific degree of candidate of geographical
sciences on the specialty 11.00.05 – Biogeography and Geography of Soils
– Lviv Ivan Franko State University, Lviv, 1999.

Dissertation is about the issues of soil formation condition changes
under the influence of irrigation and water — salt regime changes,
physical-chemical and physical characteristics of chernozem of southern
irrigative under conditions of temperate eastern European (IZS) and cold
western Siberian (AZS) soil-climatic facias. Irrigative chernozem
characteristic changes have been studied on AZS (Altai region, Russia),
where irrigation had place since 1940 and IZS (Mykolaivska oblast,
Ukraine), where irrigation had place since 1957. Trends of modern soil
formation processes development on AZS and IZS have been found.
Quantitative parameters of hydrological, hydrogeological and
microclimatic indexes changes, of secondary salinization,
desalinization, physical-chemical and physical characteristics of
chernozem as well their productivity have been defined. Regularities of
these changes, their speed and terms of guasi-eguilibrium state
establishing have been studied. Diagnostic features of secondary –
salinized chernozem have been investigated and methods of their drawing
a map have been worked out.

Key words: desorbtion, impact alkalization, ilimerization, deagregation,
oppressive horizon, quazi-equilibrium.

AIIOAOeEss

Naeaeieoeeee A.I. Nia?aiaiiua i?ioeannu a /a?iicaiao thaeiuo i?ioaaiuo
oia?aiiie e oieiaeiie oaoeee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.05 — aeiaaia?aoey e aaia?aoey ii/a. —
Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. Eaaia O?aiea, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth eciaiaiee oneiaee ii/aiia?aciaaiey
iiae aeeyieai i?ioaiey e eciaiaiee aiaeii-nieaaiai ?aaeeia,
oeceei-oeie/aneeo, a oaeaea oece/aneeo naienoa /a?iicaiia thaeiuo
i?ioaaiuo a oneiaeyo oia?aiiie ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneie e oieiaeiie
caiaaeiineae?neie ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oaoeee (IEO). Eciaiaiey naienoa
/a?iicaiia thaeiuo oia?aiiie oaoeee eco/aeenue a thaeiie /anoe
Aeiai?i-Aoaneiai iaaeaeo?a/uey (Oe?aeia), aaea a 1957 a. iino?iaia
Eiaoeaoeeay i?ineoaeueiay nenoaia (EIN), a /a?iicaiia thaeiuo oieiaeiie
oaoeee — a thai-caiaaeiie /anoe I?eianeiai ieaoi (?inney), aaea a 1940
a. iino?iaia Aeaeneay i?ineoaeueiay nenoaia (AIN).

Enneaaeoaiua /a?iicaiu oieiaeiie oaoeee ioee/athony io /a?iicaiia
oia?aiiie oaoeee iaiueoae iiuiinoueth ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey, ?aceei
oiaiueoaieai aoiona n aeoaeiie, aieaa aunieei caeaaaieai ea?aiiaoia,
eaaei ?anoai?eiuo nieae (EN) e ae?oc aeina.

Enneaaeiaaiey i?ioaaiuo /a?iicaiia i?iaiaeeeinue a ia?eiae 30-53-eaoiaai
i?ioaiey ia AIN e 15-30-eaoiaai i?ioaiey ia EIN n oeaeueth eco/eoue
caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiuo i?ioeannia ii/aiia?aciaaiey eo
?acee/ee, noiaenoa e oi?i i?iyaeaiey, a oaeaea onoaiiaeoue
aeaa?aaeaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu e ?ac?aaioaoue ia?ii?eyoey ii oeo/oaieth eo
iaeei?aoeaiiai ninoiyiey. A ?aaioa oaeaea, eniieueciaaiu e iaiauaiu
iaoa?eaeu ae?oaeo i?iaeoiuo e iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee,
eioi?ua i?iaiaeeee enneaaeiaaiey a aeii?ineoaeueiue ia?eiae e a ia?aua
aiaeu i?ioaiey.

Enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii, /oi eciaiaiey ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia e naienoa ii/a iiae aeeyieai i?ioaiey a aieueoae ia?a
iaoneiaeaii ia oaoeeaeueiuie oaeoi?aie, a ianoiuie oneiaeyie e a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue noaiaiueth ae?aie?iaaiiinoe oa??eoi?ee, ea/anoaii iieeaiie
aiaeu, oaoiieiaeyie i?ioaiey e au?aueaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo?. Oaoeeaeueiua oaeoi?u aeeytho, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea onoaiiaeaiey eaace?aaiiaaniiai ninoiyiey
anao ?aaeeiia e naienoa ii/a n iiauie oneiaeyie n?aaeu.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oaeiai ia?eiaea ia EIN – 15 eao, ia AIN – 30 eao e
aeaeueiaeoaa i?ioaiea ia aucuaaao nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee ii/a. Iaeiaei,
eaace?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea ia eneeth/aao aaaaoaoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee
?aaeeiia e naienoa i?ioaaiuo /a?iicaiia. Iiyoiio oeceei-oeie/aneea e
oece/aneea naienoaa ii?aaeaeyeenue a eiioea eaoa, aeoaeiu caeaaaiey
o?iaiy AA e eo oeieci — ii n?aaeiaaaaaoaoeeiiiui iieacaoaeyi, a
canieaiiinoue ii/a – ii n?aaeiaaaaaoaoeeiiiui e n?aaeiaacaaoaiiui
iieacaoaeyi a neiyo 0-30, 30-50, 50-100 e 100-150 ni.

Iai?iiuaiie oei aiaeiiai ?aaeeia /a?iicaiia thaeiuo eciaieeny, ia anae
oa??eoi?ee EIN e a oneiaeyo oi?ioae ae?aie?iaaiiinoe AIN, ia?eiaee/anee
i?iiuaiui n i?aiaeaaeaieai i?iiuaiie ninoaaiie, a a oneiaeyo oooaeoaiiie
ae?aie?iaaiiinoe ia AIN – ia?eiaee/anee i?iiuaiui n i?aiaeaaeaieai
auiioiie ninoaaiie. A ia?aii neo/aa ia?aciaaeenue iaannieaiiua i?ioaaiua
/a?iicaiu, ai aoi?ii – aoi?e/ii-canieaiiua. Aneaaenoaea aoi?e/iiai
canieaiey cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeeanue o?iaeaeiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo?. Oiaiueoaiea aa ia aoi?e/ii-neaainieii/aeiauo ninoaaeyea
47-49%, ia aoi?e/ii-aunieinieii/aeiaaouo – 25-27%, ia
aoi?e/ii-nieii/aeiaaouo – 10,2-10,4%.

I?ioaiea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iiaeeyei ia aoione?iaaiinoue /a?iicaiia
thaeiuo e eo oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa. Ca a?aiy onoaiiaeaiey
eaace?aaiiaaniiai ninoiyiey oaaee/eeanue iiuiinoue aoioniaiai ai?eciioa
anao enneaaeiaaiiuo /a?iicaiia thaeiuo. Niaea?aeaiea aoiona a /a?iicaiao
EIN oaaee/eeinue ii anaio i?ioeeth, a a /a?iicaiao AIN – oiaiueoeeinue a
aa?oiae /anoe e oaaee/eeinue a ieaeiae. A ninoaaa aoiona i?ioaaiuo
iaannieaiiuo /a?iicaiia oaaee/eeinue niaea?aeaiea aoieiiauo eeneio, a a
ninoaaa aoiona i?ioaaiuo aoi?e/ii-neaainieii/aeiauo – niaea?aeaiea
ooeueaieeneio. Eciaiaiea oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa /a?iicaiia thaeiuo
i?ioiaeeei a iai?aaeaiee iuaea/eaaiey, oiaiueoaiey aieinoe iiaeiuaiey,
iiaeiuaiiiai eaeueoeey, cia/eoaeueiiai iiauoaiey iiaeiuaiiiai iao?ey a
/a?iicaiao EIN e iaiaa cia/eoaeueiiai – a /a?iicaiao AIN,
aeaea?aiiaoecaoeee a iaannieaiiuo /a?iicaiao e iea?aiia/eaaiey o
aoi?e/ii-neaainieii/aeiauo. Eciaiaiey oece/aneeo naienoa /a?iicaiia
thaeiuo i?ioaaiuo i?iyaeeenue a ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee eeenoie o?aeoeee e
oi?ie?iaaiee i?ioeey yethaeaeueii-eeethaeaeueiiai oeia, ?aniueaiiinoe
iee?ino?oeoo?u, oiaiueoaiee niaea?aeaiey aa?iiiie/anee oeaiiuo e
aiaeii?i/iuo aa?aaaoia, oi?ie?iaaiee aeuaenoie no?oeoo?u e ii?anneiiiiai
neiy ia nouea iaoioiiai e iiaeiaoioiiai neiy, ei?ei- e
o?aueiiia?aciaaiee, oaaee/aiee ieioiinoe ii/a e iniaaiii iaoioiiai neiy,
oiaiueoaiee iauae e eaieeey?iie ii?enoinoe. Aieueoeinoai eco/aiiuo
eciaiaiee yaeythony io?eoeaoaeueiuie e iiyoiio ioaeaeathony a oeo/oaiee
oeie/aneeo, oeceei-oeie/aneeo e oece/aneeo naienoa ii/a aa?ioaoie/aneeie
e iaeei?aoeaiuie iaoiaeaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeani?aoeey, eiiaeoiia iuaea/eaaiea, eeeeia?ecaoeey,
aeacaa?aaaoeey, ii?anneiiiue ai?eciio, eaace?aaiiaanea.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 19.04.99?. Oi?iao 60o84/16.

Iai?? ionaoiee ? 1. Ae?oe ionao. Oiiai. Ae?oe. a?e. 1,2.

Iae.-aeae. a?e.1,2. Oiiai. oa?a. a?aea. 2. Oe?aae 100. Cai. 1021.

II “IIAA IA?EA”

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