OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Oea/aiei Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 621.373.826

NOAI?E?IAO?IA? EACA?E C ?ACIIAOI?II

IA INIIA? E?OAEIAI IAOAEAAIAI OAEEAAIAeO

01.04.03 — ?aae?io?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Na?/
Aaneeue Aioiiiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, ?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie Ooeueaa Aaea??e Ieoaeeiae/,
?aae?iano?iiii?/iee ?inoeooo IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

— eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oanaiei Eaii?ae
Aeieo?iae/, Oe?a?inueea ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ia aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? oa caaaeueii? aeaeo?ioaoi?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee, eaoaae?a o?ce/ieo iniia aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_11” __a?oaeiy_ 1998 ?. i _12__ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.64.051.02 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 310077, i. Oa?e?a, i. Naiaiaee,
4, aoae. _3-9 .

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? OAeO ca aae?anith: 310077, i. Oa?e?a, i. Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_22 ” _aeiaoiy_ 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee *aaioa?ueia A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

Iieaeoey?i? eaca?e c iioe/iei iaea/oaaiiyi (EII) aei?ii?ithaaiiyi
NI2-eaca?a ? cai?iith ?iai/iai aaco ni?iiiaei? aeene?aoii
ia?ano?ithaaoeny a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? noai?e?iao?iaeo (NII) ? /anoeiai
?io?a/a?aiieo oa i?e?iao?iaeo oaeeue. Caaaeyee oeueiio, aiie
ia?niaeoeai? aeey oaeeo canoinoaaiue, ye niaeo?ineii?y,
iaai?oiiiey?eiao??y oa ?ioeo, aea iio??ai? oe?ieiae?aiaciii? aeaea?aea
aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Iaeiae aei oeueiai /ano i?e ia?a- no?ithaaii? aoea
iaiao?aeia cai?ia ?aciiaoi?a NII eii??ee aai ?? aeaiaio?a, ui
oneeaaeithaaei aeieoaoaoe?th eaca?a.

A eaca?ao c a?aee?eoei ?aciiaoi?ii ia aaea?oueny aeinyaoe aoaeoeaiiai
iioe/iiai iaea/oaaiiy ? noaeino? ao?ao aia?a?? ia ca’ycie a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue ((). Oea aeeeeeaii oei, ui c? ci?iith (
ci?ith?oueny ia’?i ?aciiaoi?ii? iiaee, a iaea/oaaiee ia’?i ? ?ici??
ioai?o ca’yceo aeey aeaiaeo NII aei?ii?ithaaiiy caeeoathoueny
iaci?iieie. Cacia/ai? iaaeie?ee aaea?oueny onoiooe, aeei?enoiaoth/e
?aciiaoi?e ia iniia? ii?iaeienoiai ae?aeaeo?e/iiai aai iaoaeaaiai
oe?ieeo oaeeaaiae?a, oai??th yeeo ?ic?iaeaii Ia?eao?e? ? Oiaeueooea?ii
(1964). A oaeeo ?aciiaoi?ao eiio?ao?aoe?y iiey iiaee caaea?oueny
ia?aaaaeii oaeeaaiaeii, ui ?ici?uo?oueny i?ae a?aeaeaa/aie ?aciiaoi?a, ?
neaai caeaaeeoue a?ae aeiaaeeie oaee?. A aeiaaioaeeueia?e /anoei? NII
ae?aiaciio ?aciiaoi?e ia iniia? ii?iaeienoiai ae?aeaeo?e/iiai
oaeeaaiaeo, oae naii ye ? a?aee?eo? ?aciiaoi?e, iathoue aaeee? iiia?a/i?
?ici??e. Aiane?aeie oeueiai eaca?e noathoue iac?o/ieie a ?iaio?,
cieaeothoueny eiao?oe??io i?aeneeaiiy ? iiooaei?noue aei?ii?ithaaiiy
eaca?a.

O ca’yceo c oeei, noai?aiiy iaeiaaaa?eoiiai eaca?a c ?aciiaoi?ii, ui
ia?ano?ith?oueny a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? NII oaeeue, ? aeooaeueiith
caaea/ath. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie aeey noai?aiiy oaeiai eaca?a iai
caeathoueny ?aciiaoi?e ia iniia? e?oaeiai iaoaeaaiai oaeeaaiaeo. Aiie
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aeuaiacaaieo i?i?iaeueieie ?ici??aie ? neaaeith
caeaaei?noth oaeeaaiaeieo ao?ao aia?a?? a?ae aeiaaeeie oaee?.
Aoaeoeai?noue iioe/iiai iaea/oaaiiy a ieo aeua caaaeyee oiio, ui
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui iaea/o?, ia caeeoa? ?aciiaoi?, a iiaeeiaiiy eiai a
no?ieao oaeeaaiaeo iaea. Oea ? iniaeeai aaaeeeaa o aeiaaeeo, eiee
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, oaiaeeoueny a ?aciiaoi? NII eii??ee acaeiaae eiai in?
e??cue ioa?? a aeca?eae? ? iaiaeii?aciai aca?iiae?? ?c no?ieaie
oaeeaaiaeo. Ua iaeia ia?aaaaa iaoaeaaiai oaeeaaiaeo — aoaeoeai?noue
ioieiaeaeaiiy aeoeaiiai aaco, yea iaiao?aeia o aeiaaeeo aeniei?
iiooaeiino? iaea/oaaiiy.

I?ioa iaoaeioaeeaaiaei? NII eaca?e iathoue aea? aaaee: aaaaoiiiaeia?noue
oa iecueeee nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, iniaeeai
ae?aaeai? o ei?ioeioaeeueia?e /anoei? ae?aiaciio. O a?aeiieo iai ?iaioao
caaea/a naeaeoe?? iiia?a/ieo iiae a iaoaeioaeeaaiaeieo eaca?ao
ae??oo?oueny a ii??aiyii aocuee?e aeiaaioaeeueia?e /anoei? ae?aiaciio ((
( 0,4 ii), ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy iiey?ecaoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy
i?aeoe/ii ia aena?oeaia.

Ciaioaiiy aaaa?eo?a NII eaca?a iiaea aooe aeinyaiaii canoinoaaiiyi
neeaaeaiiai ?aciiaoi?a, oaeeaa?ae yeiai ?icae?eaii ia aeae?eueea
naeoe?e, ?icoaoiaaieo ii?yae oa iioe/ii ca’ycaieo nenoaiith iiai?ioieo
aeca?eae (NIAe). Iienai? a e?oa?aoo?? NIAe ia cae?eniththoue ca’ycie c
iaeeie ao?aoaie aia?a?? o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? NII EII iaiao?aeia noai?aiiy iioeiaeueiiai
i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui iaea/o?, a NII eii??oe?.
NI2-eaca?, ai/aaeaeue, iiaeiai aooe iaeiaaaa?eoiei oa i?e oeueiio
caaeia?eueiyoe on?i aeiiaai, ye? aenoaathoueny aei aeaea?ae iaea/oaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo NII EII ? iaiao?aeiei eiiieaeniee
i?aeo?ae, ioiiethth/ee ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy iiae o eaca?iiio ?aciiaoi?? oa
aieeao ia aaia?aoe?th oa?aeoa?enoee aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui iaea/o?.

Iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe.

O ?iaio? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue NII EII c ?aciiaoi?ii ia
iniia? e?oaeiai iaoaeaaiai oaeeaaiaeo, i?iaaaeaieo c iaoith noai?aiiy
oe?ieiae?aiaciiiiai iaeiaaaa?eoiiai eaca?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ae??ooaaeeny oae? caaea/?:

— aeine?aeaeaiiy iiae ?aciiaoi??a ia iniia? e?oaeiai iaoaeaaiai
oaeeaaiaeo oa ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oaeeaaiaeieo ?aciiaoi??a c
iaoeaio?aeueieie ioai?aie ca’yceo o a?aeaeaa/ao;

— naeaeoe?y iiia?a/ieo iiae aaia?aoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy
iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy NII EII;

— noai?aiiy iaeiaaaa?eoiiai NI2-eaca?a aeey aoaeoeaiiai iioe/iiai
iaea/oaaiiy;

— noai?aiiy ia iniia? neeaaeaiiai oaeeaaiaeiiai ?aciiaoi?a
iaeiaaaa?eoiiai EII, ui ia?ano?ith?oueny o anueiio NII ae?aiacii?;

— canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai EII aeey iaai?oiiiey?eiao???
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie.

?acoeueoaoe oe??? ?iaioe iaea?aeaii i?e aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? a ?aieao i?aeaoc?anueei?
i?ia?aie “Eaca?e-2”, i?ia?aie “Eaca?i? nenoaie” (Iaeac AeEII ?678 a?ae
21.08.89) oa eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie
“Aca?iiae?y aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa iioie?a ca?yaeaeaieo
/anoeiie c ?a/iaeiith”.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue ao?ao ieae/eo
iiae iaoaeioaeeaaiaeieo NII ?aciiaoi??a a?ae aca?iiiai ?icoaooaaiiy
oaeeaaiaeo oa iaeii??aeieo a?aeaeaa/?a.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiee ?aciiaoi? NII eaca?a ?c ci?uaiiei
a?ae in? aeo?aeiei ioai?ii ca’yceo, ?icaeiaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo eiai
iiae, oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii aoaeo ca?eueoaiiy
nooiaiy iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao eiino?oeoe?th neeaaeaiiai iaeiaaaa?eoiiai
?aciiaoi?a, ia aac? yeiai noai?aii iaeiaaaa?eoiee NII EII, i?aoethth/ee
o ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue a?ae 0,07 aei 1 ii.

4. Aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii ?aaeei aaia?aoe?? cono??/ieo
oaeeue oa caoyaoaaiiy /anoio o e?eueoeaaiio NI3II-eaca?? ?c
aeaini?yiiaaiei iioe/iei iaea/oaaiiyi.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?aae?ciaaii iiao eiino?oeoe?th u?eeiiiai
oaeeaaiaeiiai NI2-eaca?a c aeniei/anoioiei ?ic?yaeii.

6. Aia?oa noai?aii eaca?iee NII iaai?oiiiey?eiao? aeey aei??thaaiiy
ia?aiao??a iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa i?iaeaiiino?iaaii eiai i?aoeacaeaoi?noue
a ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue a?ae 0,07 aei 0,16 ii.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaiiy iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny
canoinoaaiiyi ai?iaiaaieo ?ai?oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo
iaoiae?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/, i?iaaaeaiiyi aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia ia?aa??ai?e aia?aoo?? c aiae?cii iioeaee aei??thaaiiy
oa ii??aiyiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo c ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooie?a,
aeeiiaieo iaie aai ?ioeie aaoi?aie.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe.

1. Noai?aii i?ecia/aiee aei canoinoaaiiy o iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
oe?ieiae?aiaciiiee iaeiaaaa?eoiee NII eaca?.

2. Iaeiaaaa?eoiee NI2-eaca? iiaea aooe aeei?enoiaaiee ye aeey iioe/iiai
iaea/oaaiiy, oae ? aeey ?ioeo oe?eae.

3. Noai?aii eaca?iee iaai?oiiiey?eiao?, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
aei??thaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eueieo iin??a ca?yaeo o iai?ai?ia?aeieeao.

?acoeueoaoe oe??? ?iaioe oa?eoee aei iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ca?o?a ii IAe? ?
aeei?enoai? a ?inoeooo? aoiiii? aia?a?? ?i. ?.A.Eo?/aoiaa (i.Iineaa) oa
Oa?e?anueeiio o?ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

— o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe? caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue;

— i?iaeooaaiiy ? o/anoue o neeaaeaii? oa iaeaaiaeaeaii?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo onoaiiaie, i?iaaaeaiiy aei??thaaiue;

— oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a aieeao ci?uaiiy
ioai?o ca’yceo ia oa?aeoa?enoeee iiae oaeeaaiaeiiai ?aciiaoi?a;

— aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue oa ?ic?aooie?a;

— iaienaiiy iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a oa ioae?eaoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
“Ieoaiiy noaa?e?caoe?? /anoioe” (i.Ai?ueeee, 1985), 6-e Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iao?ieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy aei??thaaiue /anoioieo oa
niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaca??a (i.Oa?e?a, 1990),
I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Physics and Engineering of Millimeter and
Submillimeter Waves” (i.Oa?e?a, 1994), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
CLEO/Europe — EQEC’96 (Hamburg, Germany, 1996).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o 7 ioae?eaoe?yo, na?aae yeeo
4 noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? 3 — o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

1. Iaeiaaaa?eoiee NII EII c ?aciiaoi?ii ia iniia? e?oaeiai iaoaeaaiai
oaeeaaiaea oa ieineeo aeca?eae c ioai?aie ca’yceo i?aoeth? o oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue (0,1-1 ii) aac ci?ie aeaiaio?a ?aciiaoi?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a oaeiio eaca??:

— iiaea TE01q ia? iaeneiaeueio iiooaei?noue aaia?aoe?? ? iaeno?ee?oa i?e
ci?iao aaiiao??? ?aciiaoi?a, ?? naeaeoe?y cae?enith?oueny
cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ae?eyiee a?eueiiai i?inoi?o i?ae a?aeaeaa/ai ?
oaeeaaiaeii;

— iaiao?aeiee nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aeinyaa?oueny ci?uaiiyi ioai?o ca’yceo a?ae in? ?aciiaoi?a;

— neeaaeaiee oaeeaaiaeiee ?aciiaoi? c cai?iiiiiaaiith nenoaiith
iiai?ioieo aeca?eae ? aoaeoeaiee o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue ?
aeicaiey? cia/ii ciaioeoe aaaa?eoi? ?ici??e NII eii??ee.

2. Eiaen?aeueiee oaeeaaiaeiee NI2-eaca? ia? iioeiaeueio oi?io aeo?aeiiai
io/ea aeey iioe/iiai iaea/oaaiiy iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiiai NII eaca?a i?e
iaeeo aaaa?eoieo ?ici??ao.

3. A e?eueoeaaiio NII eaca?? c aeaini?yiiaaiei iioe/iei iaea/oaaiiyi
??cieoey /anoio cono??/ieo oaeeue aaia?aoe?? i?iii?oe?eia a?aeaeae?
/anoioe iaea/oaaiiy a?ae oeaio?a eiioo?a iiaeeiaiiy ? c?inoa? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ??cieoe? iiooaeiinoae io/e?a iaea/oaaiiy. A?aeaoaa?oueny
ieaaiee ia?a?iciiae?e iiooaeiino? aaia?aoe?? i?ae cono??/ieie oaeeyie
i?e ia?ano?ithaaii? /anoioe ?aciiaoi?a iiaeeco oeaio?a eiioo?a
i?aeneeaiiy ia a?aei?io a?ae no?eaeiiiae?aiiai i?e iaeiini?yiiaaiiio
iaea/oaaii?.

4. Iaai?oiiiey?eiao? ia iniia? oe?ieiae?aiaciiiiai iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiiai
NII EII aeicaiey? aei??thaaoe eiioeaio?aoe?th a?eueieo iin??a ca?yaeo a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeao o iaaeao a?ae 1012 aei 1016 ni-3.

No?oeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c ia?aaeiiae, 3 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 153
noi??iee. Aiia i?noeoue 37 ?enoie?a (ia 31 noi?.), 9 oaaeeoeue (a
oaeno?), 138 iaeiaioaaiue a nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (ia 13 noi?.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?aaeiia? iaaaaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, ui ?ice?eaa? noai
iaoeiai? i?iaeaie NII EII c ?aciiaoi?ii ia iniia? e?oaeiai iaoaeaaiai
oaeeaaiaeo. Iinoaaeaii caaea/?, ye? iaiao?aeii ?ica’ycaoe aeey noai?aiiy
oe?ieiae?aiaciiiiai ? iaeiaaaa?eoiiai eaca?a. Iiaeaii caaaeueio oa?ae-
oa?enoeeo aeena?oaoe??.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e aea?aii iaoiaee
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai oa oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiue ?aciiaoi??a c e?oaeei
iaoaeaaei oaeeaaiaeii, oaaaeaii iniiai? iiiyooy, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny
i?e ?icaeyaeaii? ?aciiaoi?ieo iiae, iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
ianeaieo ?aciiaoi??a, i?iaaaeaieo c iaoith naeaeoe?? iiaee TE01q ?
i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy iiey?ecaoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeoiaeeoue c
?aciiaoi?a.

Iienaia aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea aeey aeine?aeaeaiue iiae
iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiiai ?aciiaoi?a c iaeii??aeieie a?aeaeaa/aie, ui aoa
aeeth/aiee “ia i?io?ae” ? caoaeaeaiee aei?ii?ithaaiiyi c ( = 0,4326 ii.
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th iiae i?iaaaeaii oeyoii ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aei??thaaiue c ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooieo iiia?a/iiai ?iciiae?eo
?ioaineaiino? ? nooiaiy iiey?ecaoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeoiaeeei c
?aciiaoi?a, a oaeiae i?aeiiaeiaeo /anoioieo ?ioa?aae?a. Ia iniia?
?ic?aooieo aea?aii ia?aiao?e oaeeaaiae?a ?aciiaoi??a, ui
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, i?e yeeo iiaeeeaa iaae?eia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y iiae: aeey
i?aeieo oaeeaaiae?a — aioo??oi?e ae?aiao? 2a = 19,80; 9,86 ii, aeey
noaeaaiai — 2a = 4,93 ii i?e aeiaaeei? 465 ii. Iiaee, ui caoaeaeoaaeeny
a ?aciiaoi??, ?aeaioeo?eiaaii ye TEmnq, ui oi?iothoueny aeanieie oaeeyie
e?oaeiai iaoaeaaiai oaeeaaiaeo oeio TEmn. Ao?aoe aia?a?? iiae ca
e?oaiaee iao?ae ?aciiaoi?a aecia/aeeny oeyoii aei??thaaiiy oe?eie
?aciiainii? e?eai?. C ieo aeae?eyeeny oaeeaaiaei? ao?aoe ? aeiaeaoeia?
ao?aoe, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae aca?iiiai ?icoaooaaiiy aeaiaio?a ?aciiaoi?a.

Oaeeaaiaei? ao?aoe iiae TE1nq e TE01q ia?aaeuothoue ?o oai?aoe/i?
cia/aiiy, a?aeiia?aeii, a 1,1 ( 1,3 e 2 ?ace. Aeiaeaoeia? ao?aoe, ui
ii?iaeaeothoueny iaeei ia?aeinii a?aeaeaa/a (aei 4 i?aae) ?
aeeo?aeoe??th ia a?aee?eo?e ae?eyioe? aeiaaeeiith h i?ae
a?aeaeaa/ai ? oaeeaaiaeii (i?e h > a), iathoue iaeiaioo aaee/eio aeey
iiaee TE01q ii??aiyii c ?ioeie iiaeaie. Caeaaei?noue ao?ao aia?a?? a?ae
h aeei?enoiaaia aeey naeaeoe?? iiaee TE01q.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia
iiae? TE01q iaie cai?iiiiiaaii ci?uaoe ioa?? ca’yceo a?ae in?
?aciiaoi?a. Ae??oaii caaea/o i?i ciaoiaeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iiae
?aciiaoi?a c? ci?uaiiei ioai?ii ca’yceo iao?e/iei iaoiaeii, a yeiio iiea
iiaee ooea?oueny o aeaeyae? noia?iiceoe?? iie?a aeanieo oaeeue
oaeeaaiaeo eeano TEon. *enaeueiei iaoiaeii ciaeaeaii ?iciiae?e iiey iiae
ia aeo?aeiiio aeca?eae?, noia?i? ao?aoe aia?a?? ? oacia? cnoae ca
e?oaiaee iao?ae ?aciiaoi?a, ao?aoe ia ca’ycie ? nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe??
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeoiaeeoue a ioa?? ca’yceo.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?aooieo iieacaii, ui oaciaee cnoa iiaee, yea
noi?iiaaia ia?aaaaeii oaeeath TE01, neaai caeaaeeoue a?ae ae?aiao?a ?
ci?uaiiy ioai?o, ui ci?iththoueny a iaaeao a?ae 0 aei a, iaa?oue yeui
aianie a aia?a?th iiaee oaee? TE01 ciaioo?oueny aei 78 %. Ioa?? neaai
cao?th? ?iciiae?e ?ioaineaiino? iiaee oae, ui iio?e aia?a?? ia ioai??
ciaioo?oueny. Nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ca?eueoo?oueny c? c?inoaiiyi a?aeiioaiiy aaee/eie ci?uaiiy aei aaee/eie
?aae?ona ioai?o, i?yioth/e aei 100 %.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiae aaia?aoe??
iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiiai EII a ei?ioeioaeeueia?e /anoei? NII ae?aiaciio,
iaeiaaaa?eoiiai eiaen?aeueiiai u?eeiiiai NI2-eaca?a, a oaeiae
iniaeeainoae aaia?aoe?? NII eaca?a a oiiaao iaea/oaaiiy aeaiia
cono??/ieie io/eaie.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiae aaia?aoe?? i?iaaaeaii a eaca??, ui
i?aoeth? ia e?i?? aaia?aoe?? iieaeoee NI3II c ( = 0,1188 ii i?e
iaea/oaaii? aei?ii?ithaaiiyi NI2-eaca?a ia ia?aoiae? 9?36 (( = 9,69
iei). Iaaaaeaii io?eiai? caeaaeiino? aeo?aeii? iiooaeiino? ia ??cieo
iiaeao aaia?aoe?? a?ae a?aenoai? h i?ae aeo?aeiei aeca?eaeii ?
oaeeaaiaeii. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi h aei 9a i?e 2a = 19,92 ii iiooaei?noue
iiaee TE01q cieaeo?oueny ia 15 %, oei/anii ye iiooaei?noue iiae TE0nq e
TE1nq — a 2 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aoaeoeai?noue naeaeoe??
iiae aeai?ii aaee/eie h.

Aei??yii caeaaeiino? iiooaeiino? ? nooiaiy iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia iiae? aaia?aoe?? TE01q a?ae ia?aiao??a ioai?o
ca’yceo. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ci?uaiiy ioai?o a?ae in? ?aciiaoi?a nooi?iue
iiey?ecaoe?? c?inoa?, a aeo?aeia iiooaei?noue, ye i?aaeei, i?ioiaeeoue
/a?ac iaeneioi. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? ii??aithoueny c
?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooieo. Nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe?? ?ic?aoiaaii ca
iaoiaeeeith, ui ?icaeiooa a ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeey ii?iaeiueiai
?aciiaoi?a. O ?ic?aooieo aeo?aeii? iiooaeiino? aeei?enoaii ciaeaeai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iiae ii?iaeiueiai ?aciiaoi?a, ?ic?aoiaaia aaee/eia
iane/oaaeueii? ?ioaineaiino? oa aei??yia — iaiane/aiiai eiao?oe??ioa
i?aeneeaiiy aeoeaiiai na?aaeiaeua NII eaca?a. ?ic?aoiaai? caeaaeiino?
ca?aathoueny c aei??yieie ca aeiyoeii aeiaaee?a iaeeo ci?uaiue oa
ae?aiao??a ioai?o. Oea iiynith?oueny aeaoi?iaoe??th iiey iiaee
ii?iaeaeaiith ia?aeaaeuei?noth ?aciiaoi?a (iniaeeai ia?aeinii aeca?eae)
? o/anoth a oi?ioaaii? iiaee oaeeue c iaioeaaei iieai ia in? ?aciiaoi?a.
Ioaea, ?icaeiooa iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iiaea aooe ei?eniith i?e aeai??
iioeiaeueieo aeey aoaeue-yeiai eiie?aoiiai eaca?a ia?aiao??a ioai?o
ca’yceo, a?aeiia?aeieo aei iaeneiaeueii? aeo?aeii? iiooaeiino? i?e
caaeaiiio nooiai? iiey?ecaoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Aeey canoiniaaiiai a
aenia?eiaioao eaca?a iioeiaeueiei aoa ioa?? ae?aiao?ii 5 ii, ci?uaiee
a?ae in? ?aciiaoi?a ia 2 ii.

Iaaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c a?aeiieo eiino?oeoe?e aacia?a?aieo
aeaeo?i?ic?yaeieo NI2-eaca??a c aeeooc?eiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi aeoeaiiai
na?aaeiaeua c oi/ee ci?o ?o a?aeiia?aeiino? aeiiaai, ui noaaeyoueny aei
aeaea?aea iaea/oaaiiy iaeiaaaa?eoiiai NII eaca?a. Aea?aii u?eeiio
eiino?oeoe?th c aeniei/anoioiei ?ic?yaeii. C iaoith ciaioaiiy aaaa?eo?a
? oi?ioaaiiy aeo?aeiiai io/ea, o yeiai ?iciiae?e ?ioaineaiino? iiae?aiee
?iciiae?eo iiaee iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiiai NII eaca?a, iaie cai?iiiiiaaii
eiaen?aeueiee u?eeiiee NI2-eaca?. A?aenoaiue i?ae no?ieaie ?ic?yaeii?
eaia?e ? oa?aeoa?iith aeey eai?ey?ieo eaca??a, oiio no?iee ooai?ththoue
eiaen?aeueiee iaoaeiiioe/iee oaeeaa?ae, aia?oa aeine?aeaeaiee
A.A.I?oaeaiianueeei (1970). Iiaee eaca?a oi?iothoueny aeanieie oaeeyie
eiaen?aeueiiai oaeeaaiaeo oeio HEmn.

Aioo??oi?e oeee?iae? eiaen?aeueiiai oaeeaaiaeo NI2-eaca?a cae??ieaii ia
aeaio noa?aeiyo, ui ?ici?uothoueny a oi?oeyo oaeeaaiaeo ii ae?aiao?o
eiai iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co. Iaea?eueoo aeo?aeio iiooaei?noue eaca? ia? ia
iiae? HE11q, aeey yei? noa?aei? iieiythoueny o aoceao iiey. Iiia?a/iee
?iciiae?e ?ioaineaiino? io/ea aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia a?aenoai?
a?ae eaca?a aei 2 i iiae?aiee ?iciiae?eo iiaee TE01q iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiiai
NII eaca?a (iaaaaeaii oa?iia?aeaeoee io/ea NI2-eaca?a).

Ia ?iai/?e noi?o? aac?a He : CO2 : N2 : Xe, acyoeo o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 4 :
1 : 1 : 0,25 i?e noia?iiio oeneo 40 ii. ?o.no., io?eiaii aeo?aeio
iiooaei?noue eaca?a 14 Ao i?e aeiaaeei? ?ic?yaeo 35 ni ? iiooaeiino?, ui
iaaeaia a ?ic?yae, 420 Ao. *anoioa caoaeaeaiiy ?ic?yaeo aei??aith? 30
IAoe. Caeaaei?noue aeo?aeii? iiooaeiino? a?ae iaaeaii? a ?ic?yae ia
aeinyaa? iane/aiiy, ine?eueee aonoeia iiooaeiino? iaea/oaaiiy cia/ii
iaioa, i?ae a?aie/ia aeey eai?ey?iiai eaca?a, aea?aaeaioiiai aeaiiio ii
oaieiaiio ?aaeeio ?ic?yaeo. A?aie/io aeo?aeio iiooaei?noue, ui
io?eio?oueny c iaeeieoe? aeiaaeeie ?ic?yaeo, iiaeia cia/ii i?aeaeueoe
oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy ?aae?on?a eiaen?aeueiino? ?ic?yaeii? eaia?e, iaei
ci?ithth/e i?e oeueiio aaaa?eoe eaca?a.

Nioaa aacia?a?aiiai ia?ano?ithaaiiy /anoioe eiaen?aeueiiai NI2-eaca?a a
iaaeao iaeiiai eieeaaeueii-iaa?oaeueiiai ia?aoiaeo neeaaea? 270 IAoe ii
ioeueiaiio ??aith aeo?aeii? iiooaeiino?, ui a 3-4 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae o
eaca??a c a?aee?eoei ?aciiaoi?ii. Aiia iiaea aooe ca?eueoaia oeyoii
ciaioaiiy a?aenoai? i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie. Oea aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe
e?euee?noue ?iai/eo e?i?e aaia?aoe?? NII eaca?a ca ?aooiie oeo, ui
iaeaaeaoue iieaeoeai, o yeeo e?i?? iiaeeiaiiy ? aeaeaei a?aeaeaeai? a?ae
oeaio??a ia?aoiae?a NI2-eaca?a.

Aeey noaa?e?caoe?? /anoioe NI2-eaca?a a aoaeue-ye?e oi/oe? nioae
aacia?a?aiiai ia?ano?ithaaiiy canoiniaaia nenoaia aaoiiaoe/iiai
i?aeno?ithaaiiy /anoioe (AI*) ii iii?iiio ?aciiaoi?o. Oa?iinoaooaaiiy
iii?iiai ?aciiaoi?a o ??aeeiio acio? aeicaieeei iaeneiaeueii iaaeeceoe
ioieiaeaeoaaiee aeaoaeoi? ia iniia? e?enoaeo Ge/Au aei aeo?aeiiai
aeca?eaea ?aciiaoi?a ? ca ?aooiie oeueiai ciaioeoe ao?aoe
aei?ii?ithaaiiy a nenoai?. Ia?ano?ithaaiiy ? iiaeoeyoe?y /anoioe
?aciiaoi?a cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith i’?ciea?ai?ee. Nenoaia AI*
aeicaiey? noaa?e?coaaoe /anoioo eaca?a a nioc?, yea ia 15 IAoe aoae/a
nioae aacia?a?aiiai ia?ano?ithaaiiy ii ioeueiaiio ??aith aeo?aeii?
iiooaeiino?. A ?aaeei? noaa?e?caoe?? iaea?eueoee a?aeoee aeo?aeii?
iiooaeiino? eaca?a a?ae na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 5 %.

Iioe/ia iaea/oaaiiy NII eaca?a aeaiia cono??/ieie io/eaie
aei?ii?ithaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui eiaeiee c eiioo??a i?aeneeaiiy
oaeeue aaia?aoe??, ui iioe?ththoueny a ?aciiaoi?? o i?ioeeaaeieo
iai?yieao, neeaaea?oueny c aeaio iaeii??aeii ?icoe?aieo e?i?e.
Aiane?aeie aoaeoa Aeiiea?a /anoioiee ?ioa?aae i?ae e?i?yie iieno?oueny
oi?ioeith:

(( = 2((i / (a) ((i, (1)

aea (i, (a — aeiaaeeie oaeeue iaea/oaaiiy ? aaia?aoe??, a?aeiia?aeii;

((i — a?aeaeaeue /anoioe iaea/oaaiiy a?ae oeaio?o iiaeeiaeueiiai
ia?aoiaeo.

A caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo eiao?oe??ioe i?aeneeaiiy ia oeaio?ao iaeii??aeii
?icoe?aieo e?i?e ??ci? aiane?aeie iaiaeiaeiaino? iiooaeiinoae cono??/ieo
io/e?a iaea/oaaiiy ? ia?aaeuaiiy i?aeneeaiiy i?yii? oaee? (ui a?aeeoue a
oiio ae iai?yieo, ui e oaeey iaea/oaaiiy) iaae i?aeneeaiiyi cai?ioii?.
Iiooaei?noue aaia?aoe?? eaca?a, ?aciiaoi? yeiai iano?i?ii ia caaeaio
oi/eo eiioo?a, aecia- /a?oueny noia?iei i?aeneeaiiyi e?i?e, a /anoioa —
?o noia?iei caoyaoaaiiyi.

A e?i?eiiio eaca?? cono??/i? oaee? aaia?aoe?? ? neeaaeia? ?aeeii?
noiy/i? oaee? ? eiioo? i?aeneeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio e?i?e. Iaie
aenia?eiaioaeueii niinoa??aaeeny aeaa iaeneioie eiioo?a i?aeneeaiiy
e?i?eiiai NI3II-eaca?a, io?eiaii caaeia?eueiee ca?a ?acoeueoao?a
aei??thaaiue ? ?ic?aooieo ca oi?ioeith (1). Ia iniia? oeeo ?acoeueoao?a
iioei?ciaaii a?aeaeaeue /anoioe iaea/oaaiiy o aaoa?iaeeiiiio eaca?iiio
?ioa?oa?iiao??, ui i?aoeth? ia aeiaaeei? oaee? 0,1188 ii. Aeey io?eiaiiy
i?ii?aeii? /anoioe 1 IAoe aei??thaaeueiee ? aaoa?iaeeiiee NII eaca?e
?ioa?oa?iiao?a iano?iththoueny ia ??ci? iaeneioie eiioo?a i?aeneeaiiy.
I?e ((i = 6,5 IAoe aeinyaiooi ca?eueoaiiy noia?ii? iiooaeiino? eaca??a
ia 20 % ? c?inoaiiy noaa?eueiino? iiooaeiino? ii??aiyii c aeiaaeeii
((i = 0.

A e?eueoeaaiio eaca?? c aeaini?yiiaaiei iaea/oaaiiyi aia?oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii caeaaeiino? ??cieoe? /anoio cono??/ieo
oaeeue aaia?aoe?? a?ae ia?aiao??a iaea/oaaiiy ? iano?ithaaiiy
?aciiaoi?a. Aeaii iiyniaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia iniia? aoaeoa
caoyaoaaiiy /anoio eiioo?aie i?aeneeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ??cieoeaaa
/anoioa iaaeeaeo?oueny aei ioey i?e ??aieo iiooaeiinoyo cono??/ieo
oaeeue iaea/oaaiiy ?i1, ?i2 oa ((i = 0 ? ca?eueoo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi
(?i1 — ?i2) oa ((i. Io?eiaii ??cieoeaao /anoioo 200 eAoe aac
canoinoaaiiy iaaca?iieo aeaiaio?a a ?aciiaoi??. Aeine?aeaeaii
eiieo?aioe?th cono??/ieo oaeeue aaia?aoe?? iiaeeco oeaio?a eiioo?a
i?aeneeaiiy. Aeyaeaii ieaaiee ia?a?iciiae?e iiooaeiino? aaia?aoe?? i?ae
cono??/ieie oaeeyie i?e ia?ano?ithaaii? ?aciiaoi?a ia a?aei?io a?ae
no?eaeiiiae?aiiai o aeiaaeeo iaeiini?yiiaaiiai iaea/oaaiiy.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa?aeoa?enoee
iaoa- eioaeeaaiaeiiai NII EII a ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue a?ae 0,07 aei
0,93 ii. C iaoith ciaioaiiy aaaa?eo?a eaca?a cai?iiiiiaaii iiao
eiino?oeoe?th neeaaeaiiai oaeeaaiaeiiai ?aciiaoi?a. Iienaii noai?aiee
iaie iaeiaaaa?eoiee oe?ieiae?aiaciiiee NII EII ? aeiaaaeaii
aeioe?euei?noue eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeey aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a iaai?oiiiey?eiao?e/iei iaoiaeii.

A neeaaeaiiio ?aciiaoi?? canoiniaaii oe?ieiae?aiaciiio NIAe, ui i?noeoue
aeaa noa?e/ieo ? iaeii ieinea aeca?eaei. Caaaeyee inoaiiueiio
aeinyaa?oueny iaiao?aeiee aeey ciaioaiiy aaa?aoe?e iaeee eoo iaae?iiy
oaeeueiaiai io/ea ia noa?e/i? aeca?eaea i?e ia?aeaeueiiio ?ici?uaii?
oaeeaaiae?a, ui ca’ycothoueny. Aeaia NIAe cae?enith? ianiioai?aio
ia?aaea/o iiia?a/iiai ?iciiae?eo iiey oaeeueiaiai io/ea a?ae iaeiiai
oaeeaaiaea aei ?ioiai c oi/i?noth aei ianooaaiiai iiiaeieea E = (3/(4,
aea (3, (4 — oieoni? a?aenoai? noa?e/ieo aeca?eae. Iaaaaeaii iaiao?aei?
aeey oeueiai oiiae, ui ca’ycothoue ia?aiao?e aeaiaio?a nenoaie ?
a?aenoai? i?ae ieie c iaaeaie ?iai/iai ae?aiaciio aeiaaeei oaeeue.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoiaeyoue c ?ica’yceo caaea/? i iioe?aii? oaeeueiaiai
io/ea o iaaeeaeaii? oaeeueiai? iioeee.

NIAe c (3 = (4 = 80 ii aei?iaiaaii a na?aaei?e /anoei? NII
ae?aiaciia ia ( = 0,5706 ii. Aia?aaoe/i? ao?aoe, ui aiinyoueny NIAe o
oaeeaaiaeiee o?aeo c aeaio i?aeieo oaeeaaiae?a (2a = 19,8 ii),
neeaaeathoue 4,5 %, ui aei??aith? oaieiaei ao?aoai a iiai?ioieo
aeca?eaeao. Aeey ii??aiyiiy, NIAe ia iniia? aeaio ieineeo aeca?eae a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo aiineoue o?eueee aeeo?aeoe?ei? ao?aoe 26 %.

NII EII ?c neeaaeaiei ?aciiaoi?ii ia iniia? aeaio oaeeaaiae?a
aeiaaeeiith ii 0,5 i ia iinooia?oueny ii aeo?aei?e iiooaeiino? ia?aae
eaca?ii c ?aciiaoi?ii oaei? ae noia?ii? aeiaaeeie ia iniia? iaeiiai
oaeeaaiaea. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaaaeaii ia oinoe e?i?yo aaia?aoe??, o yeeo
aeiaaeeie oaeeue i?eaeecii ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eai? a ae?aiacii? a?ae 0,1
aei 1 ii. Aeiaaaeaii, ui i?e iiooaeiino? iaea/oaaiiy 10 Ao ca?eueoaiiy
aeiaaeeie NII eii??ee c aeaiei oaeeaaiaeii a?eueoa, i?ae 1 i, ?
iaaeioe?eueiei.

Nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaca?a ?c ci?uaiei
ioai?ii ca’yceo ca?eueoo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi (, ui iiynith?oueny
ca?eueoaiiyi a?aeiiniiai aianeo oaeeue TE0n a iiaeo aaia?aoe??.
Iieiaeaiiy ieiueie ia?aaaaeieo eieeaaiue aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaeiaeiaa aeey
an?o e?i?e aaia?aoe?? ? caaea?oueny iai?yieii ci?uaiiy ioai?o, ui ia
aeinyaa?oueny a eaca?ao c a?aee?eoei aai ae?aeaeo?e/iei ?aciiaoi?ii.

?ic?iaeaiee ia iniia? aeeeaaeaieo aeua ?acoeueoao?a iaeiaaaa?eoiee
oe?ieiae?aiaciiiee NII EII neeaaea?oueny c NI2-eaca?a, neeaaeaii? NII
eii??ee, iioe/ii? nenoaie aaaaeaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui iaea/o?, a
eii??eo, iai?aaaoiiaoe/ii? nenoaie cai?ie ? eiio?ieth ?iai/eo aac?a ?
aeaio nenoai aaoiiaoe/iiai i?aeno?ithaaiiy iiooaeiino? (AII) NI2-eaca?a
? NII eii??ee. Eaca? ia? aeo?aeio iiooaei?noue a?eueoa 1 iAo ia 15
e?i?yo aaia?aoe?? iieaeoe NI3II, INIII oa INIID c aeiaaeeiith oaeeue
a?ae 0,07 aei 0,93 ii ? nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ia iaioa a?ae 80 %. Ia?ano?ithaaiiy ii e?i?yi aaia?aoe?? cae?enith?oueny
oeyoii ia?ano?ithaaiiy NI2-eaca?a ii eieeaaeueii-iaa?oaeueieo ia?aoiaeao
? cai?ie ?iai/iai aaco a NII eii??oe?, eiee oea o?aaa. Cai?ia aeaiaio?a
?aciiaoi?a ia ? iio??aiith.

Cai?ia ?iai/eo aac?a aeeiio?oueny iai?aaaoiiaoe/iith nenoaiith ca
aeiiiiiaith ianina oa aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aaeooiieo eeaiai?a, a
i?aeo?eioaaiiy iioeiaeueiiai oeneo aaca a eii??oe? — ca aeiiiiiaith
aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy oaeaeeino? aeia?iaoaaiiy ?iai/eo ?a/iaei.
Nenoaie AII i?aoeththoue ca i?eioeeiii ii??aiyiiy neaiae?a aeo?aeii?
iiooaeiino? eaca??a c iii?ieie iai?oaaie ? i?aeno?ithaaiiy aeiaaeeie
?aciiaoi??a ca neaiaeaie iiieeee.

Aeie aei?ii?ithaa/a NII EII, ui i?noeoue NI2-eaca?, NII eii??eo, nenoaio
aaaaeaiiy iaea/oaaiiy, aeao/eee oa aeeiiaa/? aeaiaioe aaoiiaoe/ieo
nenoai, ia? ?ici??e 700o400o250 ii3. *an ?iaioe aeiea o a?aeiayiiio
?aaeei? ia iaioa a?ae 48 aiaeei i?e cieaeaii? aeo?aeii? iiooaeiino? ia
20 %.

O i?aoeyo Aaeaiiaa (1989) a?aecia/aii, ui iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
ae?aaiinoeee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a iaai?oiiiey?eiao?e/ieie iaoiaeaie
ca’ycaiee ?c canoinoaaiiyi NII eaca??a, ui aeicaieyoue aei??thaaoe
ia?aiao?e aocueeiciiieo iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? ?icoe?eoe iaae? ae?aiaciio
aei??thaaieo aaee/ei. Iaie ia iniia? oe?ieiae?aiaciiiiai NII EII
noai?aii iaai?oiiiey?eiao?, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aei??thaaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? N a?eueieo iin??a ca?yaeo (AIC) a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao.

Aei??thaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? a?oioo?oueny ia aei??thaaii? eooa (
iaai?oiiioe/iiai iaa?oaiiy ieiueie iiey?ecaoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeo a?aeiia?aeii aei aoaeoa Oa?aaeay. Noaia c iiaea?eiith
iiaeoeyoe??th ciiaeoth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaoai?/iei iiaeoeyoi?ii ?
ci?iiei iaai?oiei iieai aeicaiey? iineaaeoe aieea ianoaa?eueiino?
iiooaeiino? eaca?a ia oi/i?noue aei??thaaiiy eooa (. Eiioeaio?aoe?y AIC
ca’ycaia c eooii ( a?aeiiith oi?ioeith, yeui aeeiio?oueny oiiaa
ei?ioeioaeeueiaiai iaaeeaeaiiy:

(( ()2 >> 1, (2)

aea ( — eieiaa /anoioa aei?ii?ithaaiiy;

( — /an ?icn?yiiy AIC a iai?ai?ia?aeieeo.

Oey oiiaa i?aeoe/ii caaaeaee aeeiio?oueny a ?io?a/a?aii?e /anoei?
niaeo?o, iaeiae a NII ae?aiacii? aiia iio?aao? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
ia?aa??ee. I?i i?aaeeuei?noue ei?ioeioaeeueiaiai iaaeeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue
e?i?eia caeaaei?noue eooa ( a?ae eaaae?aoa aeiaaeeie oaee?. Iaie
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui oea ia? i?noea aeey c?acea GaAs a
ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue a?ae 0,07 aei 0,16 ii, ? aei??yii
eiioeaio?aoe?th AIC, ui noaiiaeea 6,4·1014 ni-3.

Aeey ciaioaiiy iioeaee aei??thaaiue, ui ni?e/eiy?oueny ?ioa?oa?aioe??th
aei?ii?ithaaiiy o c?aceo, ? iaiao?aeiei aeeiiaiiy oiiae:

( d > 1, (3)

aea ( — eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy iai?ai?ia?aeieea;

d — oiaueia c?aceo, ui aeinyaa?oueny i?aeai?ii oiaueie c?aceo aai
aeiaaeeie oaee? ciiaeoth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Aieiaiith ia?aaaaith aeaiiai iaai?oiiiey?eiao?a ? iiaeeea?noue
aei??thaaiiy iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e AIC (aei 1012 ni-3), ui a 100 ?ac?a
iaioa a?ae ieaeiuei? a?aieoe? aeey iaai?oiiiey?eiao??a ?io?a/a?aiiiai
ae?aiaciio.

O aeniiaeao ?ice?eoi iaoiaee ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe??
caaea/, iaaaaeaii iniiai? io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? aeeeaaeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

AENIIAEE

Io?eiaii oae? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe:

1. A ianeaiiio iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiiio ?aciiaoi??, ui caoaeaeo?oueny ia
aeiaaeei? oaee? 0,4326 ii:

a) aeiaeaoeia? aia?aaoe/i? ao?aoe, ui aiinyoueny ae?eyieith a?eueiiai
i?inoi?o i?ae oaeeaaiaeii ? a?aeaeaa/ai, a oaeiae ia?aeinii a?aeaeaa/a ?
iaeiaio? aeey iiaee TE01q;

a) nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeoiaeeoue c ?aciiaoi?a,
caoaeaeaiiai ia iiae? TE01q, ca?eueoo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi a?aeiioaiiy
ci?uaiiy ioai?o ca’yceo aei aaee/eie ?aae?ona ioai?o.

2. A NII EII c iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiei ?aciiaoi?ii:

a) iaea?eueoa aeo?aeia iiooaei?noue aeinyaa?oueny ia iiae? aaia?aoe??
TE01q;

a) naeaeoe?y iiaee TE01q cae?enith?oueny aeai?ii a?aenoai? i?ae
oaeeaaiaeii ? aeca?eaeii;

a) iaeii/ania ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy iiey?ecaoe?? ? iiooaeiino? aeo?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aeai?o ia?aiao??a ioai?o
ca’yceo ia iniia? /enaeueiiai ?ic?aooieo ii ?icaeioo?e a ?iaio?
iaoiaeeoe?.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaii eiaen?aeueiee oaeeaaiaeiee NI2-eaca? c
aeniei/anoioiei ?ic?yaeii, ui ? ia?niaeoeaiei aeaea?aeii iaea/oaaiiy
iaoaeioaeeaaiaeiiai NII eaca?a caaaeyee oiio, ui ia?:

a) iiia?a/iee ?iciiae?e ?ioaineaiino? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
iiae?aiee aei ?iciiae?eo iiaee aaia?aoe?? TE01q NII eaca?a;

a) oe?eio nioae aacia?a?aiiai ia?ano?ithaaiiy /anoioe a e?eueea ?ac?a
a?eueoo, i?ae o eaca??a c a?aee?eoei ?aciiaoi?ii;

a) i?i?iaeuei? aaaa?eoe caaaeyee iiaeeeaino? ca?eueoaiiy aeo?aeii?
iiooaeiino?, ui io?eio?oueny c iaeeieoe? aeiaaeeie ?ic?yaeo.

4. Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue noaa?e?caoe?? /anoioe NI2-eaca?a a oe?ie?e
nioc? aacia?a?aiiai ia?ano?ithaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaie AI* ii
iii?iiio ?aciiaoi?o.

5. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie aieeao aeaini?yiiaaiiai iioe/iiai iaea/oaaiiy ia
aaia?aoe?th NII EII iieacaii, ui:

a) a e?i?eiiio eaca?? eiioo? i?aeneeaiiy ia? aeaa iaeneioie, a?aenoaiue
i?ae yeeie i?iii?oe?eia a?aeaeae? /anoioe iaea/oaaiiy a?ae oeaio?a e?i??
iiaeeiaiiy;

a) a e?eueoeaaiio NII eaca?? c aeaini?yiiaaiei iioe/iei iaea/oaaiiyi
??cieoey /anoio cono??/ieo oaeeue aaia?aoe?? i?iii?oe?eia a?aeaeae?
/anoioe iaea/oaaiiy a?ae oeaio?a eiioo?a iiaeeiaiiy ? c?inoa? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ??cieoe? iiooaeiinoae io/e?a iaea/oaaiiy, a?aeaoaa?oueny
ieaaiee ia?a?iciiae?e iiooaeiino? aaia?aoe?? i?ae cono??/ieie oaeeyie
iiaeeco oeaio?a eiioo?a i?aeneeaiiy ia a?aei?io a?ae no?eaeiiiae?aiiai
i?e iaeiini?yiiaaiiio iaea/oaaii?.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaii neeaaeaiee oaeeaaiaeiee ?aciiaoi? aeey
NII EII, ui ia? iae? aia?aaoe/i? ao?aoe ia eiai a?aee?eoeo ae?eyieao a
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue.

7. Noai?aii iaeiaaaa?eoiee NII EII, ui i?aoeth? a ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei
oaeeue a?ae 0,07 aei 0,93 ii aac cai?ie aeaiaio?a ?aciiaoi?a.

8. Noai?aii eaca?iee NII iaai?oiiiey?eiao? aeey aei??thaaiiy iaeeo (1012
ni-3 ? a?eueoa) eiioeaio?aoe?e AIC a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao ? aeiaaaeaii
i?aaeeuei?noue ei?ioeioaeeueiaiai iaaeeaeaiiy aeey iienoaaiiy
iaai?oiiioe/iiai iaa?oaiiy ieiueie iiey?ecaoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy c
aeiaaeeiith oaee? a?ae 0,07 aei 0,16 ii a a?naieae? aae?y.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe, UI A?AeAEAATHOUe

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe??

1. Nae/ A.A., Oea/aiei A.I., Oiieia A.I. Aieiiaiaeiue eiaeneaeueiue
NI2-eaca?, aicaoaeaeaaiue A* ?ac?yaeii //Eaaioiaay yeaeo?iieea.- 1990.-
O. 17, ?6.- N. 690-693.

2. Eieueoeaaie NI3II-eaca? n aeaoiai?aaeaiiie iioe/aneie iaea/eie
/A.I.Aeeaeaiei, A.A.Nae/, A.I.Oea/aiei, A.I.Oiieia //Eaaioiaay
yeaeo?iieea.- 1991.- O. 18, ?7.- N. 809-812.

3. Iaeiaaaa?eoiay eaca?iay nenoaia a aeeaiaciia aeeei aiei 0,07-1 ii
/A.A.Aieoei, A.A.Nae/, A.I.Oea/aiei, A.I.Oiieia, Ae.I.THiaeaa //Iao/iia
i?eai?ino?iaiea a ieeeeiao?iaii e noaieeeeiao?iaii aeeaiaciiao
?aaeeiaiei: Na. iao/i. o?. E?Y AI Oe?aeiu.- Oa?ueeia.- 1992.- N. 5-12.

4. Iaoaeee/aneea aieiiaiaeiua ?aciiaoi?u noaieeeeiao?iauo eaca?ia n
iaeii?iaeiuie io?aaeaoaeyie /A.A.Aeaaoy?aa, A.A.Nae/, A.I.Oea/aiei,
A.I.Oiieia //Eniieueciaaiea ieeeeiao?iaiai e noaieeeeiao?iaiai
aeeaiaciiia: Na. iao/i. o?. E?Y AI Oe?aeiu.- Oa?ueeia.- 1993.- N.
105-111.

5. Eiiiaeoiue oe?ieiaeeaiaciiiue noaieeeeiao?iaue eaca? /A.A.Ianeia,
A.A.Nae/, A.I.Oea/aiei, A.I.Oiieia, Ae.I.THiaeaa // Oeceea ieaciu.-
1994.- O. 20, ?1. — N. 30-32.

6. Eaca?iue noaieeeeiao?iaue iaaieoiiiey?eiao? /I.A.Ao?ei, A.A.Nae/,
A.I.Oea/aiei, A.I.Oiieia //I?eiaiaiea ?aaeeiaiei ieeeeiao?iaiai e
noaieeeeiao?iaiai aeeaiaciiia: Na. iao/i. o?. E?Y IAI Oe?aeiu.-
Oa?ueeia.- 1994.- N. 142-147.

7. Iioeiecaoeey iaoaeee/aneiai aieiiaiaeiiai ?aciiaoi?a noaieeee-
iao?iaiai eaca?a /I.A.Ao?ei, A.A.Aeaaoy?aa, A.A.Nae/, A.I.Oea/aiei,
A.I.Oiieia //Eaaioiaay yeaeo?iieea.- 1997.- O. 24, ?1.- N. 33-36.

AIIOAOe??

Oea/aiei A.I. Noai?e?iao?ia? eaca?e c ?aciiaoi?ii ia iniia? e?oaeiai
iaoaeaaiai oaeeaaiaeo.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.03 — ?aae?io?ceea.-
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue noai?e?iao?iaeo
eaca??a, ui iioe/ii iaea/othoueny, c ?aciiaoi?ii ia iniia? e?oaeiai
iaoaeaaiai oaeeaaiaeo ? a?aeaeaa/?a c ioai?aie ca’yceo. Ae??oaii caaea/?
naeaeoe?? iiia?a/ieo iiae, i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy iiey?ecaoe?? ?
iiooaeiino? aeo?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, a oaeiae ciaioaiiy aaaa?eo?a
eaca?a. Iioei?ciaaii NI2-eaca? aeey iioe/iiai iaea/oaaiiy oa
aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? aaia?aoe?? noai?e?iao?iaiai eaca?a o aeiaaeeo
iaea/oaaiiy aeaiia cono??/ieie oaeeyie. Noai?aii iaeiaaaa?eoiee eaca?,
ui aoaeoeaii i?aoeth? a ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue a?ae 0,07 aei 1 ii
aac cai?ie aeaiaio?a ?aciiaoi?a. I?iaeaiiino?iaaii iiaeeea?noue eiai
aeei?enoaiiy aeey aei??thaaiiy iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e a?eueieo iin??a
ca?yaeo a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao iaoiaeii iaai?oiiiey?eiao???.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noai?e?iao?iaee eaca?, iaoaeaaee oaeeaaiae, naeaeoe?y
iiae, iiey?ecaoe?y aei?ii?ithaaiiy, iioe/ia iaea/oaaiiy, ciaioaiiy
aaaa?eo?a, iaai?oiiiey?eiao??y.

Oea/aiei A.I. Noaieeeeiao?iaua eaca?u n ?aciiaoi?ii ia iniiaa e?oaeiai
iaoaeee/aneiai aieiiaiaea.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.03 — ?aaeeioeceea.-
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iioe/anee
iaea/eaaaiuo noaieeeeiao?iauo eaca?ia n ?aciiaoi?ii ia iniiaa e?oaeiai
iaoaeee/aneiai aieiiaiaea e io?aaeaoaeae n ioaa?noeyie nayce. ?aoaiu
caaea/e naeaeoeee iiia?a/iuo iiae, iiauoaiey noaiaie iiey?ecaoeee e
iiuiinoe auoiaeiiai eceo/aiey, a oaeaea oiaiueoaiey aaaa?eoia eaca?a.
Iioeiece?iaai NI2-eaca? aeey iioe/aneie iaea/ee e enneaaeiaaiu
iniaaiiinoe aaia?aoeee noaieeeeiao?iaiai eaca?a a neo/aa iaea/ee aeaoiy
ano?a/iuie aieiaie. Nicaeai iaeiaaaa?eoiue eaca?, yooaeoeaii ?aaioathuee
a aeeaiaciia aeeei aiei io 0,07 aei1 ii aac caiaiu yeaiaioia ?aciiaoi?a.
I?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia aiciiaeiinoue aai eniieueciaaiey aeey ecia?aiey
iaeuo eiioeaio?aoeee naiaiaeiuo iineoaeae ca?yaea a iieoi?iaiaeieeao
iaoiaeii iaaieoiiiey?eiao?ee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noaieeeeiao?iaue eaca?, iaoaeee/aneee aieiiaiae,
naeaeoeey iiae, iiey?ecaoeey eceo/aiey, iioe/aneay iaea/ea, oiaiueoaiea
aaaa?eoia, iaaieoiiiey?eiao?ey.

Tkachenko V.M. Submillimeter lasers with the resonator on the base of a
circular metallic waveguide.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of candidate in physics and mathematics
by speciality 01.04.03 — radiophysics.- Kharkiv State University,
Kharkiv, 1998.

The thesis contains the results of research of optically pumped
submillimeter lasers with the resonator on the base of a circular
metallic waveguide and reflectors with an outcoupling aperture. The
problems are resolved of the transverse modes selection, of the increase
in the output radiation polarization degree and power, as well as of the
laser dimensions decrease. The CO2-laser was optimized for optical
pumping and the characteristic properties were investigated of a
submillimeter laser oscillation in the case of pumping by two
counterrunning waves. The compact laser was developed to be operating
efficiently in the wavelength range from 0,07 to 1 mm without the
resonator elements replacement. A scope was demonstrated for application
of the laser for measurement of small concentrations of free charge
carriers in semiconductors by the method of magnetopolarimetry.

Key words: submillimeter laser, metallic waveguide, mode selection,
radiation polarization, optical pumping, dimensions decrease,
magnetopolarimetry.

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