IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE Oe?a?ie

?INOEOOO A?Ae?IA?IEIA??

Niieuenueeee Ieaenaiae? Na?a?eiae/

OAeE 577.41/46 + 597.554

NO?OEOO?II-OOIEOe?IIAEUeI? AAeAIOAOe?? E?IA? EI?IIA AeI
AENO?AIAEUeIEO OAEOI??A AIAeIIAI NA?AAeIAEUA

03.00.17 — a?ae?ia?ieia?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? a?io?i?? oaa?ei eaoaae?e o?i??
*a?i?a?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? O. A.
Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

A?oa?iei Aaneeue Aaneeueiae/,

Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea,

Ia?oee i?i?aeoi?, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith

caaaeueii? a?ieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

NIEIIAO?IA Aaeaioeia Aeieo??aia,

?inoeooo a?ae?ia?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo aeieia?/ii?
o?c?ieia?? aiaeyieo oaa?ei

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

Eo?aio Aieiaeeie? Caiia?eiae/,
Oa?iii?euenueeee

aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea,
aeioeaio

eaoaae?e o?i??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, a?ieia?/iee oaeoeueoao,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny » 2 » ethoiai 1999 ?. i 1000
aiae ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.213.01. i?e
?inoeooo? a?ae?ia?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254210, i. Ee?a-210,
i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?ae?ia?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a, i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 24 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
Ni??iiaa I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith i?iaeaie aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a
aio?iiiaaiii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? aiaeieo aeinenoai oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a
a?ieiio?ieth ?o ??aiy ? aeeiai?ee ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeoe??
iieaeoey?ieo oa iaoaaie?/ieo nenoai i?aai?ci?a ia ae?th e?i?ooth/eo
aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. A?aeiii, ui iaei??th c
iae/ooeea?oeo oa oaeaeei?aaaoth/eo ia ?o ci?io oeaiei i?aai?cio ? e?ia.
Inoaii?i /anii ia aaiaoieia?/iee aiae?c, yeee aeicaiey? ca
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieie oa a?io?i?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e?ia?
ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe oa ia?aaeaa/eoe iayai?noue /e ?icaeoie no?ano
caaeiaai aei i?iyao ee?i?/ieo iciae iaoieia??, caa?oa?oueny nooo?aa
oaaaa (Na?ioi?i, 1991). Iniaeeai oe?iiei ? oeae i?aeo?ae i?e ioe?ioe?
?ioieneeaoe?e (Eioia, 1991, Oae?o/aiei oa ?i., 1988). Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieaeoey?ieo iaoai?ci?a no?oeoo?ii? aaeaioaoe?? eiiiiiaio?a e?ia? i?e
?ioieneeaoe?yo, ye cacia/a? Naiai/aaa A.I. (1972), aeicaieeoue ?ice?eoe
iaoai?cie caaacia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aiiainoaco e?ia?. A ca’yceo c
oeei aea/aiiy aaeaioeaieo ?aaeoe?e nenoaie e?ia? a?ae?ia?iio?a oa iiooe
oeo ?ioaa?aeueieo iieaciee?a e?ia?, ye? aeacothoue ia eeth/ia? ci?ie
noaio ?o i?aai?cio ca aeno?aiaeueiiai aieeao na?aaeiaeua, ? aeooaeueiei
aeey ioe?iee oiene/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy aiaeieo aeinenoai oa a?iiii?oi?eiao
noaio ? ?iaeoeo ?ioieneeaoe?e a?ae?ia?iio?a.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei aea/aiiy
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?
aaiiaeia?iiai? nenoaie oa iniaeeainoae aia?aaoe/iiai iaoaaie?cio e?ia?
?ea a oiiaao no?ano, aeeeeeaiiai ae??th aa?ioe/ieo ? aio?iiiaaiieo
oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, oa ?ic?iaea ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ia oe?e
iniia? iaoiae?a iii?oi?eiao aiaeieo aeinenoai oa ?ioieneeaoe?e
i?aai?cio ?ea.

A caaaeaiiy aein?aeaeaiue aoiaeeei aea/aiiy neeaaeo oa
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?ia? ?ea a oiiaao ceiiaiai
aieiaeoaaiiy, i?e ci?i? ?I aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa ca ae?? oieneeaio?a.
Aeine?aeaeoaaee ai?no oi?iaieo aeaiaio?a e?ia?; eiioeaio?aoe?th oi?i
aaiiaeia?io; no?oeoo?i? iiaeeoeeaoe?? a?ee?a e?ia? oa aaoa?iaaii?noue
aaiiaeia?io; e?iaoeeo iane/aiiy aaiiaeia?io eeniai oa aeeiai?eo
eeneioii? ? eoaeii? aeaiaoo?aoe??; ??aaiue aeoeaiino? oa?iaioieo nenoai
neioaco oa iaoaaie?cio aaio ? aia?aaoe/iiai iai?io a a?eo?ioeeoao;
ai?no a e?ia? oinoao?a, aeeth/ii iae?ia?a?/ieo, ye iieaciee?a
aia?aaoe/iiai noaio e?ia? ? ?aaoeyoi??a ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?
aaiiaeia?iiai? nenoaie ca ae?? oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aaeoe?? e?ia? a oiiaao i?e?iaeiiai no?ano, aeeeeeaiiai ceiiaei
aieiaeoaaiiyi ca iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, oa ca ae?? aeno?aiaeueii? ci?ie
eeneioiino? na?aaeiaeua ? oieneeaio?a i?aai?/ii? (oaiie) ? iai?aai?/ii?
(?iie a?iaaiieo oa iaa?iaaiieo iaoae?a) i?e?iaee ca ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
oa ni?eueiiai (a noi?oao) aieeao. Anoaiiaeaii caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy eiiiainaoi?ii-aaeaioeaii? a?aeiia?ae? aaiiaeia?iiai?
nenoaie. Aia?oa iieacaii oi?aa?naeuei?noue iaoai?cio i?aeo?eiaiiy
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? oe?e?ni?no? aaiiaeia?io i?e no?aniaeo
aieeaao ??cii? i?e?iaee ca ?aooiie ai?aeoaaiiy oa ae?eoaaiiy eiai
iieaeoee. Aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci ?aaoeyoi?iiai aieeao ia
ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai aaiiaeia?io e?ia? ?ea iae?ia?a?/ieo oinoao?a oa
nenoai aia?aaoe/iiai iaoaaie?cio a?eo?ioeeo?a. Aeyaeaii iaai?
ei?aeyoe?ei? caeaaeiino? i?ae aeine?aeaeaieie ??aiaaeie iieacieeaie
e?ia?, ia iniia? /iai c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ?acenoaioi?noue oa
aaeaioeai?noue ?ea aei aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a aecia/a?oueny an?i
niaeo?ii iioaioe?eii ?nioth/eo eiiiainaoi?ii-aaeaioeaieo iaoai?ci?a
caoenoo ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?ia?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeyaeaii
eeth/ia? iieacieee e?ia?, ye? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey ioe?iee noaio oa
?icaeoeo ?ioieneeaoe?e a i?aai?ci? ?ea, a oaeiae aeey iii?oi?eiao
caa?oaeiaiue aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua: ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?aaiaeieo oi?i
aaiiaeia?io; ei?aeyoe?y e?iaoeee aeenioe?aoe?? ieneaaiiaeia?io c ??aiai
AOO a a?eo?ioeeoao e?ia?; ??aaiue noeueoa?ae?eeueiuo a?oi oa nooi?iue
ai?aeoaaiiy ? ae?eoaaiiy a?ee?a e?ia? (aaiiaeia?io oa a?ee?a ieacie) ye
oaeoi?a ae?aioaaiiy ai?iieeneioieo ?aaeeeae?a a?ae oieneeaio?a,
iniaeeai, ?ii?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a oa oieneeaio?a ieenithaaeueii? ae??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia:

1. I?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Oe?a?ia, *a?i?a?a,
*AeI? ?i. O.A. Oaa/aiea, 1995).

2. I?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Oe?a?ia, Ee?a, OAAI,
1996).

3. 7 Oe?a?inueeiio a?io?i?/iiio c’?cae? (Oe?a?ia, Ee?a, 1997).

4. 2 c’?cae? A?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie (Oe?a?ia, Ee?a,
1997).

5. 1 I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeieia?y e iieiaeue»
(?anioae?ea Aaea?onue, Aiiaeue, 1998).

6. 1 Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? « Aeieia?/iee no?an ?
aaeaioaoe?y a a?ieia?/ieo nenoaiao» (Oe?a?ia, Oa?iii?eue, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii iaoa??aeao aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a e ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e (1 ?icae?e), aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie (3 ?icae?ee),
i?aenoie?a ? aeniiae?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 168 noi??ieao, i?noeoue
25 ?enoie?a, 9 oaaeeoeue, 220 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, c yeeo 102 –
ia ?iicaiieo iiaao.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai aianeo. An? iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a,
?o iaaiai?aiiy ? aeniiaee aeeiiai? aeena?oaioii iniaenoi.

IAEssAe E?OA?AOO?E

I?iaiae?ciaai? o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? ci?ie a e?ia? ?ea ca ae??
??cieo oaeoi??a aeno?aiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, a oaeiae ca ??cieo oiia
?nioaaiiy. Ia iniia? oeeo aeaieo c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue
eiieaeniiai aea/aiiy a?aeiieo oa anoaiiaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo ca aeaieo oiia
?nioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?eii? a?aeiia?ae? aaiiaeia?iiai?
nenoaie e?ia? ?ea oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a a?ieiio?ieth oiene/ieo
noai?a a i?aai?ci? a?ae?ia?iio?a.

2. Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ei?iiia? ?eae (Cyprinus carpio L.) ??/iiai
a?eo ianith 120-150 a, yeeo aeo?eioaaee a i?e?iaeieo noaaeao ca
ii?iaeueiiai aaciaiai oa a?ae?io?i?/iiai ?aaeei?a. Aeine?aee i?iaaaeaii
a aeaa??oiao ia’?iii 200 e, a ye? ?ici?uoaaee ii 6 iniaei ?ea. Ia??iae
aee?iaoe?? noaiiaea 14 ae?a. Ai?no eenith eieeaaany a iaaeao 5,0-7,0
ia/e. Aiaeo a aeaa??oiao ci?ithaaee ?ac a /ioe?e aeiae. Iaoe??ieo
caoaeiee?a ia?aceoa?ieo oai?ia oa no??/eiaeo ia?aceo?a a ?ea ia
aeyaeaii.

Aea/aee ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai e?ia? ei?iia ca ae?? oaiieo, ?ii?a
iaoae?a (iaai?th, i?ae?, ia?aaioeth oa naeioeth) ie?aii oa a noi?oao c
ai?aeii. ?iie a?ae?a?aii ca i?eioeeiii a?ieia?/ii? ae?? (a?iaaii? oa
iaa?iaaii?). Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ai?aeo i?iaiaeeee a ca’yceo c oei, ui
a?i, aoaeo/e iaoaaie?oii oaa?ei, o aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aeyaey?
oiene/io ae?th. Ine?eueee iniiaiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue ? aaiiaeia?i,
ooieoe?iiaeueia aeoeai?noue yeiai cia/ii caeaaeeoue a?ae aioo??oiuei-
oa ciai?oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai ?I, aea/aii oaeiae aieea ci?ie eeneioiino?
na?aaeiaeua (?I 6,4 + 0,1 oa 8,1 + 0,1).

Oiene/i? ??ai? (2 ?eaiainiiaea?nueeeo AAeE) ?a/iaei o aiae? aeaa??oi?a
noai?thaaee aianaiiyi ?o ?ic?aooieiaeo e?eueeinoae. Oiene/io
eiioeaio?aoe?th ai?aeo a aiae? (0,1 ia/e — ii?iaiaee ??aaiue)
i?aeo?eioaaee aianaiiyi ai?aeiai? aooa?ii? noi?o? NH4OH: NH4Cl c ?I
7,2; Pb2+ (0,2 ia/e) — aoeaoaoo naeioeth; Cu2+ (0,2 ia/e) —
noeueoaoo i?ae?; Zn2+ (2,0 ia/e) — noeueoaoo oeeieo; Mg2+ (100,0 ia/e)
— oei?eaeo iaai?th c a?aooaaiiyi i?e?iaeii? oaa?aeino? aiaee; Mn2+ (2,41
a/e) — noeueoaoo ia?aaioeth; oaiieo (0,002 ia/e) — ?ic/eiaiiai
na?aeiia?aaiaiiai oaiieo. Eeneioiee oa eoaeiee no?an noai?thaaee
aianaiiyi o aiaeo HCl /e NaOH. Cia/aiiy ?I uiaeiaiai eiio?iethaaee ?
ei?aaoaaee.

E?ia a?aeae?aee ?c neiona cya?iai? aaie c aeei?enoaiiyi ye
aioeeiaaoeyioo aaia?eio c ?ic?aooieo 10 iae/ie e?ia?. E?euee?noue
oi?iaieo aeaiaio?a e?ia? aecia/aee a eaia?? Ai?y?aa (Aoieinueeee ?
?i., 1990); aaiaoie?eo — oeaio?eooaoaaiiyi a aaiaoie?eoi?e oeaio?eooc?
IOeA-8; caaaeueiee ai?no aaiiaeia?io ? eiai oi?i ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieie niaeo?aie iiaeeiaiiy (E?eeeeaee ? ?i., 1979).
?ic?aooiie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iene-, aeaciene- oa iao- oi?i aaiiaeiaeio
cae?enithaaee ca oi?ioeaie Ymai K. et al. (1970), Benesh R. E. et al.
(1973). Aeoeai?noue i?oioiiae??eii? d — ai?iieaaoeeiaoneioaoace ia/?iee
aecia/aee ca Granick S. (1966), a aeoeai?noue IAAeH — caeaaeii?
iaoaaiiaeia?i?aaeoeoace e?ia? — ca Aea?a?c A. A. (1975). E?iaoeeo
eoaeii? oa eeneioii? aeaiaoo?aoe?? aaiiaeia?io aea/aee ca Noa?iaeoa I.
O. (1979). Nii??aeiai?noue aaiiaeiaeio aei eenith ioe?ithaaee ca
e?eaeie aeenioe?aoe?? ieneaaiiaeia?io (Eeyooi??i ? ?i., 1980). Ai?no
oinoao?a (caaaeueiiai, iai?aai?/iiai, ca’ycaiiai a
2,3-aeeoinoiae?oea?ao ? ioeeaioeaeiiai) aecia/aee iaoa?iaioiei iaoiaeii
ca Aeiia?aaeiaith ?.E. ? ?i. (1990). Aeey aecia/aiiy ai?noo AOO, AAeO
? AIO aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae ?acae?eaiiy a oiieiio oa?? nee?eaaaeth ia
ieanoeieao ‘‘Silufol’’ UV-254 (*ao?y). Aeey ioe?iee o/ano? ATO, AAeO,
AMO a iaoaaie?/i?e ?aaoeyoe?? ?ic?aoiaaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy AOO/AAeO,
AOO/AIO oa aaeai?eaoiee aia?aaoe/iee ca?yae (Co?ae??, 1984).

Ai?no aetheice aecia/aee oioiiao?e/ii ca Anao?ai? A. N. (1957). ??aaiue
i??oaaoo oa eaeoaoo aecia/aee oa?iaioaoeaii ca I?ioi?iaith I. ?. (1982).
Ai?no a?eueieo IAAe-ia? a a?eo?ioeeoao ?ic?aoiaoaaee ia iniia? cia/aiue
eiioeaio?aoe?e noano?ao?a eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiacii? nenoaie (*aaiaaoeue ?
?i., 1974).

Aeoeai?noue aetheici-6-oinoaoace a e?ia? aecia/aee ca I?aoiae/ai A. I.
(1968). ??aaiue iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o ioe?ithaaee ca O?nea-Noaaa?io
(1925). Aeoeai?noue eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace a e?ia? aecia/aee ye
?aeiiaiaeiaaii a Biochemica Information (1975), a
aetheici-6-oinoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace — ca Bergmeyer H. U.(1963).

No?oeoo?i? iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ee?a e?ia? ioe?ithaaee ca ci?iith a?aenioea
ae?eiaaieo a?ee?a aaiie?caoo a?eo?ioeeo?a oa ieacie ca?aeii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e Aeaieeiai? E. A. ? ?i. (1991). Nooi?iue ai?aeoaaiiy
a?ee?a e?ia? ioe?ithaaee ca Iooe?iith I. A. (1979). E?euee?noue
iaca’ycaieo noeueoa?ae?eeueieo a?oi e?ia? aecia/aee ca Oieiia?aei A. O.
(1981). Aaoa?iaaii?noue aaiiaeia?io ioe?ithaaee oeyoii eiai
aeaeo?ioi?aco a IAAA (Nooiieeiia ? ?i., 1972).

E?euee?noue a?eeo aecia/aee ii Lowry O. H. at al. (1951). Iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe ia?iaeaii noaoenoe/ii c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a aa??aoe?eii?
noaoenoeee oa ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co (Eae?i, 1990).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe ? ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

3. Neeaae ? ooieoe?iiaeueia aeoeai?noue e?ia? ?ea

a ia??iae ceiiaiai aieiaeoaaiiy

A oiiaao ceiiaiai aieiaeoaaiiy a i?aai?ci? ?ea ?icaeaa?oueny
oaiia?aoo?iee oa ?ano?niaeao?oeeoiee no?an (Ni?aa/ia, 1982).
A?aeiia?aeaeth ia iueiai ? ca?eueoaiiy i?ioyaii cei?ae? a 1,5 ?ace
ai?noo a?eo?ioeeo?a oa aaee/eie aaiaoie?eoo. Caaaeueiee ai?no
aaiiaeia?io cieaeo?ony a 2 ?ace, ui ei?aeth? c aeaieie i?i i?yio
caeaaei?noue ai?noo aaiiaeia?io a ei?iia a?ae oaiia?aoo?e aiaee
(Na?ioi?i, 1979). Oea iiynith?oueny cieaeaiiyi a 4 ?ace aeoeaiino?
i?oioiiae??aeueii? d-AEN, yea e?i?oo? oaeaee?noue a?ineioaco aaia.
Caaaeii, aeai? ci?ie iia??oothoue a ia??iae cei?ae? caaacia/aiiy oeaiei
eeniai.

A e?ioe? aa?aciy ia ii/aoeo ea?oiy ii?yae c cieaeaiiyi a 4 ?ace ai?noo
ieneoi?ie aaiiaeia?io ??aaiue aeacieneoi?ie a?aeiinii ethoiai a 3 ?ace
c?inoa?. Ai?no iaoaaiiaeia?io i?e oeueiio ca?eueoo?oueny a 2 ?ace, ui
ni?aa?aeiineoueny c ??ceei cieaeaiiyi nii??aeiaiino? aaiiaeia?io aei
eenith. C aeaieie ci?iaie ei?aeth? oaeaee?noue aeenioe?aoe??
ieneaaiiaeia?io. Iaeneiaeueia oaeaee?noue aeenioe?aoe?? aeyaeaia a
aeiaoi?, eiee nii??aeiai?noue ? i?i?iaeueiith, a i?i?iaeueia — a
/a?ai?, eiee nii??aeiai?noue ? iaeneiaeueiith. Naciiia aeeiai?ea
aeenioe?aoe?? ieneaaiiaeia?io i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aeaeuaiiy
nii??aeiaiino? aaiiaeia?io aei eenith a ia??iae cei?ae?.

Ioaea, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe aca?iica’ycie i?ae i?aeaeuaiiyi nii??aeiaiino?
aaiiaeia?io aei eenith, cieaeaiiyi ??aiy iaooi?ie oa c?inoaiiyi
ai?noo eiai ieneoi?ie. Cia/ia cieaeaiiy ai?noo iene- oa i?aeaeuaiiy
e?eueeino? iaooi?ie aaiiaeia?io, a oaeiae ci?uaiiy e?eai? aeenioeaoe??
ieneaaiiaeia?io ai?aai a e?ioe? cei?ae? na?ae/eoue i?i ?icaaeainoaaiiy
nenoaie o?ainii?oo eenith a oeae ia??iae.

Ine?eueee a?io?i?/ia aaeaioaoe?y cae?enith?oueny ye oeyoii
iiaeeo?eaoe?? iae?iiieaeoe, oae ? ia ??ai? ?aaoeyoi?ieo oaeoi??a
ee?oeie (Oi/a/ea, Niia?i, 1988), iaie aeine?aeaeaii ?aaoeyoe?th
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? aaiiaeia?io ca aeiiiiiaith AOO, yeee ?
iniiaiei iiaeoeyoi?ii nii??aeiaiino? aaiiaeia?io ?ea aei eenith (Bunn,
1971). I?ioyaii cei?ae? ??aaiue inoaiiueiai cieaeoaaany a 2 ?ace, ui
ni?anoaaey?oueny n a?aei?/aiei iaie oaeoii ca?eueoaiiy nii??aeiaiino?
aaiiaeia?io ei?iia aei eenith. Oea ocaiaeaeo?oueny c cieaeaiiyi a ?ea ca
iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? iai?io ?a/iaei, ?ooeeaino?, ciaioaiiyi niiaeeaaiiy
ieie eenith oa aeoeaaoe??th ae?eie?co.

Iaie aeyaeaii, ui c eenoiiaaea aei ethoiai a 1,3 ?ace ciaioo?oueny
??aaiue aetheice. I?e oeueiio aeoeai?noue ae?eie?co caaaeii c?inoa?,
e??i n?/iy, eiee a ?ea, ye a?aeiii (AEeaeaiei, 1992), aeoeao?oueny
aetheiiaiaaiac. Aiaeia?/ii ci?ith?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy IAAe+/IAAeI,
yea ? ?aaoeyoi?iei oaeoi?ii ae?eie?co, aetheiiaiaaiaco oa aoaeaaiaeiiai
iai?io a oe?eiio. Oea ei?aeth? c aeoeaaoe??th a?ineioaoe/ieo i?ioean?a
a n?/i? oa ieenithaaeueii? caeaoiino? e?ia? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? cei?ae?.
Cieaeaiiy aeaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a na?aaeei? cei?ae? a?aei?/aii ia
o?eueee a e?ia?, aea e o i’ycao, ia/?ioe? oa iiceo ?ea (Eaeeie/aaa,
1974) ? nnaaoe?a (Aaeeeee ? ?i., 1982). Aeacai? caeiiii??iino?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny oaeiae a?aeiia?aeieie ci?iaie aeoeaiinoae
eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace ? aetheici-6-oinoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace oa aeeiai?eith
AOO, AAeO ? AIO a e?ia? ?ea. Noia aaeai?eiaeo ioeeaioeae?a oa
aaeai?eaoiee aia?aaoe/iee ca?yae i?ioyaii cei?ae? ciaioothoueny.
Cacia/aia ni?aa?aeiineoueny c a?aeiiei oaeoii aia?aicaaacia/aiiy
i?aai?cio ?ea a i?ioean? cei?ae? ca ?aooiie aiaeiaaiieo ?ano?n?a
(Ni?aa/ia, 1982).

Ia?aaoaeiae aia?aaoe/iiai iaoaaie?cio a?aeia?aaeathoueny ia
ooieoe?iioaaii? nenoaie o?ainii?oo eenith oeyoii aieeao ia
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai aaiiaeia?io. Iaei??th c nooo?aeo
oa?aeoa?enoee inoaiiueiai ? e?iaoeea eiai eoaeii? aeaiaoo?aoe??.

Iaeno?ee?oei aaiiaeia?i ? a /a?ai? (ia??iae aeoeaiiai aeeaeaiiy).
Iaecia/i?oith eiai aeaiaoo?aoe?y ? a aeiaoi? oa ethoiio, ui ?
iieacieeii iecueei? caoeuaiino? iieaeoe a?ae aeaiaoo?oth/eo aaaio?a.

A oi?ioaaii? aeueo ??ai?a no?oeoo?e a?ee?a aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue
ai?aei? a?oie (Aa?oaiiae/ ? ?i., 1966). I?ioyaii cei?ae? ai?aeiaai?noue
aaiiaeia?io i?aeaeuo?oueny a 2 ?ace. Ai?aeiaai?noue a?ee?a ieacie e?ia?
cieaeo?oueny a na?aaeei? cei?ae?, aea c?inoa? c ethoiai ii ea?oaiue.
A?aeiii (Eaeeie/aaa, 1974), ui c ae?oai? iieiaeie cei?ae? ye
aiaeiaaiia aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy a ?ea aeei?enoiaothoueny naia a?eee, a
ca’yceo c /ei ai?aeoaaiiy aaiiaeia?io oa a?ee?a ieacie i?ioyaii
cei?ae? iiaeia aaaaeaoe caniaii ?o aaeaioeaiiai caoenoo a?ae
i?ioaie?co. Aeiaeaoeiaei iaoai?ciii oaeiai caoenoo ? ae?eoaaiiy
(Aeaieeiaa, 1991). Iaie aeyaeaii, ui a na?aaeei? cei?ae? ae?eoaaiiy
aaiiaeia?io cieaeo?oueny, a a aa?aci? c?inoa? iaeaea a 3 ?ace. A?eee
ieacie a /ania?e aeeiai?oe? ae?eothoueny iaaiaee. Aaaaaea?ii, ui
nooi?iue ae?eoaaiiy iiaea aooe oaeoi?ii, yeee c iaeiiai aieo ca
iani?eyoeeaeo oiia noaa?e?co? a?eeia? iieaeoee, a c ?ioiai — ?aaoeth?
?ioaineai?noue aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io oeyoii aeeo/aiiy iiiinaoa?eae?a c
ieenithaaeueiiai ioeo. Ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy ai?aeoaaiiy a?ee?a
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cieaeaiiyi a?aenioea ?o ae?eoaaiiy ? iaaiaee.
Eiia??ii, ui ca ?aooiie oeueiai iaeneiaeueii aoaeoeaii cae?enith?oueny
noaa?e?caoe?y aaiiaeia?io. Iaeii/anii c oeei iaaio ?ieue a caoeno?
aaiiaeia?io i?ae /an cei?ae? ?ea a?ae?a?athoue ? noeueoa?ae?eeuei?
a?oie. I?ioa ?o ?ieue, ii??aiyii c iienaieie iaoai?ciaie, ieae/a,
ine?eueee ai?no –SH a?oi i?ioyaii cei?ae? ci?ith?oueny iaei. Iacia/io
?ieue a aeaiiio i?ioean? a?ae?a?a? oaeiae ? iaoaaiiaeia?i?aaeoeoaca
a?eo?ioeeo?a, aeoeai?noue yei? ceiith cieaeo?oueny a 2 ?ace, ui ei?aeth?
c c?inoaiiyi ai?noo iaoaaiiaeia?io.

Aeai? aeene-aeaeo?ioi?aco aaiiaeia?io a IAAA aeacothoue ia oa, ui
aeyaeai? iaoai?cie caoenoo caaacia/othoue i?aeo?eiaiiy oe?e?niino? eiai
iieaeoe, ine?eueee e?euee?noue o?aeoe?e a?eea noaiiaeoue 3, ye ? a
ii?i?.

Oaeei /eiii, a ia??iae ceiiaiai aieiaeoaaiiy iieaeoea aaiiaeia?io oa
iaoaaie?ci a a?eo?ioeeoao ci?iththoueny a iai?yieo caaacia/aiiy
i?aeo?eiaiiy no?oeoo?ii? oe?e?niino? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? aeey
caaacia/aiiy aeinoaoiuei? aaeaioiaaiino? aei aeno?aiaeueieo oiia
cei?ae?.

4. NEEAAe OA OOIEOe?iiaeueia AEOEAI?NOUe E?IA? ?EA CA ?IOIENEEAOe?E

4.1 Ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea e?ia? ei?iia i?e ?ioieneeaoe?yo

Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? a?eo?ioeeo?a oa aaiaoie?eoo ia? i?noea ca ae??
?ii?a naeioeth ie?aii oa ni?eueii c ai?aeii, ?ii?a ia?aaioeth, i?ae? oa
oaiieo, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi ai?noo a ieo aaiiaeia?io. Ca
ae?? ai?aeo ie?aii oa ni?eueii c ?iiaie iaai?th, ia?aaioeth, ?ii?a
oeeieo a?aei?/aii cai?ioith aeeiai?eo. I/aaeaeii, ui ca ae??
oieneeaio?a, iniaeeai ai?aeo, ?ii?a iaoae?a oa oaiieo ia? i?noea
ii?ooaiiy neioaco aaiiaeia?io. I?i oea na?ae/eoue ciaioaiiy ca ae??
ai?aeo, ?ii?a naeioeth oa oaiieo aeoeaiino? i?oioiiae??eii? d-AEN. A
?ioeo aeiaaeeao noai aaiiaeia?io aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi eiai
e?aaiaeieo oi?i. Cieaeaiiy ??aiy ieneaaiiaeia?io ia niinoa??aaee ca
ae?? ?ii?a naeioeth ie?aii oa ni?eueii c ai?aeii, ia?aaioeth, a oaeiae
oaiieo. Cai?ioi?e aoaeo iaa i?noea o?eueee ca aieeao ia?aaioeth ?
ai?aeo. Ai?no iaoaaiiaeia?io a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ci?ith?oueny ia
iacia/ii (3-5%). I?e oeueiio i?ae ??aiyie iene- e aeacieneoi?i
a?aei?/aii cai?ioith caeaaei?noue. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ae?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?a/iaei, iaeiae, ni?eueiith ?
oaiaeaioe?y aei i?aeo?eiaiiy ooieoe?eii aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy iniiaieo
eiiiiiaio?a aaiiaeia?iiai? nenoaie.

Eiiiainaoi?ii-aaeaioeaieie ?aaeoe?yie ia oiene/io ae?th iiaeia aaaaeaoe
ca?eueoaiiy /enea a?eo?ioeeo?a, aeoeaaoe?th a?eo?iiiaoe/ii? aeoeaiino?
oeaiei, c?inoaiiy aeoeaiino? iaoaaiiaeia?ia?aeiiaethth/i?
IAAeH-caeaaeii? iaoaaiiaeia?i?aaeoeoace, iaeiiai c iniiaieo oa?iaio?a
aeieoaaiiy ieeneaiiy aaiiaiai cae?ca.

Aiae?c e?eaeo aeenioe?aoe?? ieneaaiiaeia?io na?ae/eoue i?i cieaeaiiy
nii??aeiaiino? aaiiaeia?io aei eenith ca ae?? ai?aeo ie?aii oa ni?eueii
c ?iiaie iaai?th, ?ii?a ia?aaioeth ? i?ae?, a oaeiae noi?o? ?ii?a
ia?aaioeth ? ai?aeo. A oiiaao ae?? ?ii?a naeioeth, naeioeth c ai?aeii,
oeeieo, oaiieo, a oaeiae i?e ci?i? eeneioiino? na?aaeiaeua e?ea?
aeenioe?aoe?? ci?uai? ae?ai. A aeiaaeeo ci?uaiiy e?eaeo ai?aai ca
iecueei? nii??aeiaiino? aeacieneaaiiaeia?io aei eenith a e?ia?
ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaca’ycaiiai iieaeoey?iiai eenith (?50 c?inoa?),
aiane?aeie /iai ?icaeaa?oueny ?? iaaeeeoeiaa ieneaaiaoe?y, ui a oiiaao
aeoeaaoe?? ae?eie?co iiaea i?eaanoe aei iaeiio?ieueiaaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy eenith ia ia ieeniaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo noano?ao?a, a ia
ooai?aiiy ia?ieneaeieo iio?aeieo e?i?ae?a (Aeaaeeie?ia, 1972).
Iaea?aeai? aeai? ei?aeththoue c oaeaee?noth aeenioe?aoe??
ieneaaiiaeia?io, yea, a aeiaaeeo c?inoaiiy ?50, ca?eueoo?oueny. C
?ioiai aieo, c?inoaiiy nii??aeiaiino? aaiiaeia?io aei eenith ca ae??
naeioeth ie?aii oa ni?eueii c ai?aeii, oeeieo, oaiieo, i?aeeeneaiiy oa
caeoaeaiiy aiaee ?icaeyaea?ii ye caoeni? ci?ie, ni?yiiaai? ia
iaeo?eiaiiy iaiao?aeii? e?eueeino? ooieoe?iiaeueii aeoeaiiai
aaiiaeia?io, ine?eueee iaaeeeoeiaa ieneaaiaoe?y, e??i IIE, iiaea oaeiae
ni?eyoe ieeniaiith aaiiaiai cae?ca.

Oaeei /eiii, ca?eueoaiiy nii??aeiaiino? aaiiaeia?io aei eenith iiaea
aooe oaeoi?ii i?aeo?eiaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy a?eueiiai
eenith (ae?y ?ii?a naeioeth ie?aii oa ni?eueii c ai?aeii, ?ii?a oeeieo,
caeeneaiiy ? caeoaeaiiy aiaee, aieea oaiieo) oa caniaii caiia?aaiiy
iaeiio?ieueiaaieo ia?aeenieo i?ioean?a.

Ni?anoaaeaiiy ci?uaiiy e?eaeo aeenioe?aoe?? ieneaaiiaeia?io oa ??aiy AOO
a a?eo?ioeeoao i?aeoaa?aeaeo? eiai ?ieue ye iniiaiiai iiaeoeyoi?a
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? aaiiaeia?io ?ea. Ine?eueee a?eo?ioeeoa?iee
AOO ooai?th?oueny aeeeie?oe/ii (Aeoaea??a, 1979), oi ci?ia oaeaeeino?
ae?eie?co iiaea aieeaaoe ia eeniaaio?ainii?oi? iiaeeeaino? e?ia?.

4.2 Noai aoaeaaiaeiiai oa aia?aaoe/iiai iai?io a e?ia? ei?iia i?e
?ioieneeaoe?yo

Ocaaaeueithth/e caaaeueio aeeiai?eo ??aiy aetheice, i??oaaoo, eaeoaoo, a
oaeiae ieeniaieo oa a?aeiiaeaieo oi?i i?eioeiai?aeieo eioa?iaio?a,
iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea iai?yie?a ci?i aoaeaaiaeiiai oa
aia?aaoe/iiai iaoaaie?cio a e?ia? ei?iia i?e ?ioieneeaoe?yo. Ca?eueoaiiy
??aiy i??oaaoo c iaeii/aniei cieaeaiiyi ai?noo eaeoaoo i?e ae?? ?ii?a
i?ae?, noi?o? ai?aeo c ?iiaie naeioeth, c?inoaiiy i?e oeueiio ai?noo
ieeniaieo oi?i i?eioeiai?aeieo eioa?iaio?a na?ae/eoue i?i i?eai?/aiiy
ae?eie?co oa iaeii/ania iineeaiiy ?ioeo oeyo?a ieeniaiiy aetheice,
o/anoue i??oaaoo a aetheici-aeai?iiaiio oeeee?, ?ieue yeiai iieyaa? a
i?aeo?eiaii? aiiainoaoe/iiai ??aiy ai?aeo oa aetheice. ??aaiue
inoaiiuei? ca aeacaieo ?ioieneeaoe?e a??ia?aeii c?inoa?.

Iaeii/ania ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo i??oaaoo oa eaeoaoo aeyaeaii i?e ae??
ai?aeo oa ?ii?a oeeieo. Oea na?ae/eoue ye i?i aeoeaaoe?th ae?eie?co, oae
? i?i aeei?enoaiiy i??oaaoo a iaoaaie?ci?. Iaeiie/aiiy iiei/ii?
eeneioe i?e ?ioieneeaoe?? ai?aeii ? iaiao?aeiei aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy
eeneioii-iniiaiiai aaeaino e?ia? i?e iaaaciaoe? ?? caeoaeaiiy.

Cieaeaiiy ??ai?a ye i??oaaoo, oae ? eaeoaoo i?e ae?? ?ii?a
naeioeth, oaiieo oa ia?aaioeth ie?aii ? ni?eueii c ai?aeii iiaea aooe
?acoeueoaoii ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ae?eie?co. Ca ae?? ?ii?a
naeioeth ? oaiieo cieaeo?oueny a?aeiioaiiy IAAe+/IAAeI, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i i?eai?/aiiy ieenithaaeueieo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae i?i ci?uaiiy
??aiiaaae eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiacii? ?aaeoe?? aa?e eaeoaoo, ui ei?aeth? c
c?inoaiiyi ??aiy aetheice ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeoieo i?i ciaioaiiy ??
ae?eie?oe/iiai ?icuaieaiiy.

Aiae?c aeoeaiino? eeth/iaeo oa?iaio?a aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io — EAeA,
A-6-O-ace e A-6-O-Ae-ace a e?ia? ?ea aeicaiey? a?aei?oeoe aeae?eueea
iniiaieo iai?yie?a ci?i a nenoai? ae?eie?c — aetheiiaiaaiac –
iaioicioinoaoiee ooio (IOO):

— aeoeaaoe?th an?o oeyo?a a?aei?/aii ca ae?? ai?aeo ? caeoaeaiiy
aiaee. I?e ae?? ai?aeo i?aeo?eiaiiy aenieiai ??aiy aetheice ?
ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ieeniaieo oi?i IAAe i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaie A?oa?iei
A. A. (1995) i?i iineeaiiy ?ioieneeaoe?? ?ea ai?aeii
aetheici-aeai?iiaiai oeeeeo. Iane?aeeii c?inoaiiy a?aeiioaiiy
IAAe(O)+/IAAe(O)I ? oaeiae aeoeaaoe?y IOO;

— aeoeaaoe?y ae?eie?co ? aetheiiaiaaiaco oa i?eai?/aiiy
iaioicioinoaoiiai ooioa aeyaeaii ca ni?eueii? ae?? ai?aeo c ?iiaie
iaai?th. C oeei iiaea aooe iia’ycaii cieaeaiiy ??aiy aetheice;

— aeoeaaoe?th ae?eie?co ? iaioicioinoaoiiai ooioa aeyaeaii ca ae??
noi?oae ai?aeo c ?iiaie naeioeth oa ia?aaioeth, a oaeiae ?ii?a i?ae? ?
oeeieo. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i iacia/io ?ieue aetheiiaiaaiaco
ca ni?eueii? ae?? ai?aeo oa ?ii?a naeioeth, a oaeiae ?ii?a i?ae?;

— i?eai?/aiiy ae?eie?co ? aeoeaaoe?th aeaio ?ioeo oeyo?a a?aei?/aii ca
ae?? ?ii?a ia?aaioeth ? caeeneaii? aiaee. Ca ae?? ?ii?a ia?aaioeth
aeaia iaoaaie?/ia ci?ia iiynith? a?aeiiee oaeo cieaeaiiy ??aiy aetheice
a e?ia? (Neciiaiei ? ?i., 1980);

— i?eai?/aiiy ae?eie?co ? iaioicioinoaoiiai oeyoo oa aeoeaaoe?y
aetheiiaiaaiaco i?iyaeythoueny o?eueee ca ae?? ?ii?a naeioeth;

— aeoeaaoe?th aeeeie?co oa i?eai?/aiiy ?ioeo i?ioean?a anoaiiaeaii
i?e ae?? oaiieo. Oiane?aeie oeueiai a e?ia? iaeiie/o?oueny eaeoao,
cieaeo?oueny a?aeiioaiiy a?eueieo IAAe-ia?, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy
aetheice.

Ci?ie oaeaeeino? ? ni?yiiaaiino? ?aaeoe?e aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io
aieeaathoue ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ?aneioaco iae?ia?a?/ieo niieoe,
iniaeeai, aaeai?eiaeo ioeeaioeae?a.

Aeyaeaii cieaeaiiy ??aiy an?o aaeai?eao?a a e?ia? ca ae?? ?ii?a
naeioeth ? oaiieo, ui na?ae/eoue i?i i?eai?/aiiy i?ioean?a
aia?aicaaacia/aiiy oa, eiia??ii, ?icaeoie iaoieia?? a i?aai?ci? a
oe?eiio. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy AOO ? AIO i?e iaeii/aniiio cieaeaii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? AAeO ia? i?noea ca ae?? ?ii?a ia?aaioeth. I?e oeueiio,
ye ? ca ae?? ?ii?a naeioeth oa oaiieo, cieaeo?oueny ??aaiue caaaeueiiai
oa i?ia?aeueiiai oinoi?o. Oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy AOO ? AAeO
oa cieaeaiiy ai?noo AIO a?aei?/aia ca ae?? ai?aeo ?acii c ?iiaie
iaai?th. I?e oeueiio ciaioo?oueny ??aaiue an?o oinoao?a. Cieaeaiiy
ai?noo AOO c iaeii/aniei c?inoaiiyi ??ai?a AAeO oa AIO niinoa??aa?oueny
ca ae?? ?ii?a naeioeth ni?eueii c ai?aeii, a oaeiae ?ii?a i?ae? ?
oeeieo. Aeai? ci?ie na?ae/aoue i?i ?ioaineaia aeei?enoaiiy AOO aeey
i?aeo?eiaiiy aaeaioeaieo iaoai?ciia aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy. A??ia?aeia
ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo AAeO ? AIO i?e aeoeaaoe?? ae?eie?co oaeiae ?
na?ae/aiiyi ?ic’?aeiaiiy ieeniaiiy oa noano?aoiiai oinoi?eethaaiiy.
Oea ei?aeth? c aeaieie Aa?auaa?ia A. I. ? ?i. (1980) i?i aeoeaoth/o
?ieue AAeO oa, iniaeeai, AIO (??aaiue inoaiiueiai ca ?ioieneeaoe?e
aeoaea aenieee) ia oaeaee?noue ae?eie?co. Aeeiai?ea aaeai?eao?a oaeiae
ni?aa?aeiineoueny c ?aaoeyoi?iith ?ieeth AOO uiaei ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? aaiiaeia?io.

Cieaeaiiy ??ai?a AOO oa AAeO i?e iaeii/aniiio i?aeaeuaii? ai?noo AIO
a?aei?/aii o?eueee ca ae?? ai?aeo. A?aoiaoth/e eiai niaoeeo?/io ae?th
ia e?ia (Emerson et al., 1975; Wlasow at al., 1990; A?oa?iei, 1995),
iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe AOO-acia ?icuaieaiiy AOO aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy
eeneioii-iniiaiiai aiiainoaco i?e aeoeaaoe?? ae?eie?co (Iaeueie/oe,
1989). Aiaeia?/? ci?ie iathoue i?noea oaeiae i?e caeeneaii? aiaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua. I?e caeoaeaii? aiaee aeoeaaoe?y ae?eie?co caaacia/o? ye
iineeaia ooai?aiiy eaeoaoo, iaiao?aeiiai aeey aeo?eioaaiiy
aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai ?I, oae ? iineeth? ?aneioac AOO oeei
oeyoii.

Oaeei /eiii, ca ae?? noi?o? ?ii?a naeioeth oa ai?aeo, ai?aeo ie?aii,
?ii?a i?ae?, oeeieo, i?e i?aeeeneaii? aiaee ia? i?noea aeeaiea
?icuaieaiiy aaeai?eao?a, ui i?eaiaeeoue ia o?eueee aei iia??oaiiy
aia?aicaaacia/aiiy, a oaeiae aieeaa? ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaiiaeia?io. Aeai? ci?ie iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaoieia?th. I?eai?/aiiy
aeoeaiino? aaeai?eaoii? nenoaie niinoa??aa?oueny ca ae?? ?ii?a
naeioeth ? oaiieo. O aeiaaeeao ae?? noi?oae ai?aeo c ?iiaie ia?aaioeth
oa iaai?th, a oaeiae i?e caeoaeaii? aiaee eiia??iei ? aioaaii?ci
oieneeaio?a, ai ??aaiue AOO nooo?ai ia ci?ith?oueny. ?iie ia?aaioeth
aeoeaothoue i?ioeane aia?aiooai?aiiy a a?eo?ioeeoao.

4.3 No?oeoo?i? iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ee?a e?ia? ei?iia a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao

Ia iniia? aiae?co iaea?aeaieo aeaieo iiaeia cai?iiiioaaoe
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeae?eueeio iaoai?ci?a caoenoo
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? oe?e?niino? a?ee?a e?ia? ca ae??
no?an-oaeoi??a. I?e oeueiio ??aaiue iiaeeo?eoth/i? ae?? oaeoi?o oa oei
aaeaioaoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae oieneeaioo oa
aeeaeie eiai a?ieia?/ii? ae??. Ca oeei i?eioeeiii aeine?aeaeai? oaeoi?e
iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe ia 3 a?oie:

1. Ca ae?? ?ii?a naeioeth iniiaia ?ieue a caoeno? a?ee?a iaeaaeeoue
SH-a?oiai, ye? ca,ycothoue ?o oa cieaeothoue aeinooi aei
ooieoe?iiaeueii aeoeaieo oeaio??a. Aiaeia?/i? ci?ie aeeeeeathoueny ca
ae?? ai?aeo, ?ii?a iaai?th oa oaiieo. I?e ae?? ai?aeo
noeueoa?ae?eeuei? a?oie iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye aeiii?e i?ioii?a
aeey eiai ia?aaiaeo a iaio oiene/io ?ii?ciaaio oi?io.

2. Ca ae?? ?ii?a i?ae?, oeeieo oa caeeneaiiy aiaee ooieoe?iio?
iaoai?ci, yeee iieyaa? o eiioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aaoaeiaao a?eeiaeo
iieaeoe. Aiie ae?aaeathoueny a ca?eueoaii? ai?noo noeueoa?ae?eeueieo
a?oi c iaeii/aniei cieaeaiiyi ai?aeoaaiiy oiane?aeie ao?aoe
eaaeia?ae?ie?ciaaieo a?oi ania?aa?io oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a
ae?eoaaiiy ai?iieeneioieo caeeoe?a. A oeeo aeiaaeeao iniiaiee caoeniee
yoaeo caaacia/o?oueny ca ?aooiie ae?eoaaiiy.

?iie ia?aaioeth aeoeaothoue ?icaeoie an?o o?ueio cacia/aieo i?ioean?a.

Ooieoe?iiaeueiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith iiaeeo?eaoe?? iieaeoe aaiiaeia?io ca
ae?? oieneeaio?a ? e?iaoeea eiai eoaeii? aeaiaoo?aoe??. O nnaaoe?a
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo eoaeii?acenoaioiiai aaiiaeia?io aeyaeaii i?e
aiai?/i?e a?iien??, aeeeeeaii? ?ioieneeaoe??th naeioeai oa niieoeaie
?ooo? (Naiai/aaa, 1972). Eiia??ii, ui caeaoi?noue aei aeaiaoo?aoe??
aaiiaeia?io caeaaeeoue naia a?ae eiai no?oeoo?ieo ia?aaoaeia. Ai?ae
cieaeo? no?ee?noue aaiiaeia?io aei ae?? 0,1 i eoao. Eiai noi?o c
?iiaie iaai?th i?aeaeuothoue oeth caeaoi?noue ia a?aei?io a?ae
aeiaaee?a ae?? ?ii?a naeioeth ie?aii oa a noi?o? c ai?aeii, a oaeiae
?ii?a i?ae? ? oeeieo. Aieea ?ii?a ia?aaioeth ie?aii ? a noi?o? c
ai?aeii, oaiieo, i?aeeeneaiiy oa caeoaeaiiy na?aaeiaeua i?eaiaeeoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy no?eeino? aaiiaeia?io aei ae?? eoao. I/aaeaeii, ui
no?ee?noue aaiiaeia?io aei iacai?ioiueiai ii?ooaiiy iaoeaii? no?oeoo?e
eoaii aecia/a? nooi?iue iiaeeo?eiaaiino? eiai iieaeoe. Iaeiaioith
no?ee?noth aaiiaeia?i ?ea aieiae?? ca ae?? ?ii?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a ?
ai?aeo, ui iiaea aooe iia’ycaii c eiaaeaioiith iiaeeo?eaoe??th iieaeoe
a?eeia ca ?aooiie ai?aeoaaiiy, ooai?aiiyi iaei?ic/eiieo
iaoaeii?ioa?iiaeo eiiieaen?a oa caeoaeaiiyi aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai
na?aaeiaeua. Inoaii? ci?ith? ca?yae iieaeoee a?eeo oa eiai
ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue. I?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? aaiiaeia?io aei eoao
na?ae/eoue i?i caeaaei?noue aeaiaoo?aoe?? a?eeo a?ae oa?aeoa?o
oieneeaioa oa oi?ie eiai ciaoiaeaeaiiy a i?aai?ci?, a oaeiae i?i caoenia
cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaieo no?oeoo?ieo iiaeeoeeaoe?e. Na?ae/aiiyi
inoaiiueiai ? oa, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia aeinoaoiuei oe?ieee niaeo?
oieneeaio?a, aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie a IAAA iaie ia
aeyaeaii ci?ie o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo aaiiaeia?i?a ?ea ca ?ioieneeaoe??
?o i?aai?cio. Iiaeia cacia/eoe, ui aaiiaeia?i ?ea aieiae?? cia/iith
no?oeoo?iith oa ooieoe?iiaeueiith no?ee?noth aei ae?? aeno?aiaeueieo
oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

5. Aca?iica’ycie no?oeoo?ieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e oa ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? aaiiaeia?iiai? nenoaie ei?iia

A aeine?aeaeaieo aa??aioao ?ioieneeaoe?e ia aeyaeaii iaeiioeiii?
?aaeoe?? iinoo?aineyoe?eieo ci?i a?ee?a e?ia? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? aaiiaeia?io. I?e oeueiio a?aei?/a?ii, ui a aeine?aeieo oa
eiio?ieueieo aa??aioao e?euee?noue iiceoeaieo oa iaaaoeaieo ei?aeyoe?e
a?aei?iia ( +0,5 < E <- 0,5). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oi?ioaaiiy ??cieo iaoai?ci?a eiiiainaoi?ii-aaeaioeaii? a?aeiia?ae? a ii?i? ? i?e ?ioieneeaoe?yo. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui iaea?eueoa iiceoeaieo ei?aeyoe?e (4) aeyaeaii ca ae?? ai?aeo. Iaeii/anii aeey noi?o? ai?aeo c ?iiaie naeioeth oa ia?aaioeth aeyaeaii a?aeiia?aeii 3 oa 4 iaaaoeai? ei?aeyoe??. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo, i/aaeaeii, ?nio? neio?iiia aca?iicaeaaei?noue aeyaeaieo ci?i oa oi?ioaaiiy aaeaioeaii? nenoaie aeaoieneeaoe?? ai?aeo (A?oa?iei, 1995), aei neeaaeo yei? ne?ae a?aeianoe ? ?aaeoe?th aaiiaeia?iiai? nenoaie. Ni?eueia ae?y ai?aeo oa ?ii?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a aeeeeea? ?icaaeainoaaiiy no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? eaiee aaeaioaoe?? aaiiaeia?iiai? nenoaie, eiia??ii, ye ?acoeueoao ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ae?? oieneeaio?a ia ??ci? iieaeoey?i? i?oai? a ee?oei?. O aeiaaeeo ae?? ?ii?a oeeieo, a oaeiae i?e i?aeeeneaii? na?aaeiaeua noia ei?aeyoeaieo ciae?a aei??aith? ioeth, ui na?ae/eoue ia ei?enoue ia?aaeaa/aiiy i?i a?aenooi?noue neio?ii?caoe?? ci?i aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a i?e oeeo ?ioieneeaoe?yo. A ?ioeo aeine?aeaeaieo aeiaaeeao ia?aaaaea? iiceoeaia ei?aeyoe?y, ui ? na?ae/aiiyi aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iicaeaaeiino? no?oeoo?ieo ? ooieoe?eieo ci?i i?e aaeaioeai?e a?aeiia?ae? i?aai?cio ?ea ia ae?th oieneeaioo. AENIIaEE Ca ae?? aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ii?ooothoueny ii?oi-ooieoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?eo?ioeeo?a, a ieo cieaeo?oueny caaaeueiee ai?no aaiiaeia?io, ci?ith?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiai oi?i c c?inoaiiyi /anoee iao-aaiiaeia?io i?e iaeii/aniiio ?ia?aoaaii? iaoaaiiaeia?i?aaeoeoacii? nenoaie eiai a?aeiiaeaiiy. Aeyaeaii a?aei?ii? iaoai?cie i?aeo?eiaiiy aiiainoaoe/iiai ??aiy eenith a e?ia? ?ea a oiiaao aieiaeoaaiiy i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao oa ca ae?? oieneeaio?a. I?e ae?? i?e?iaei?o aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ieneaaiiaeia?io noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cieaeaiiyi ?50 oa i?aeaeuaiiyi nii??aeiaiino? aaiiaeia?io aei eenith. I?e ?ioieneeaoe?yo cieaeo?oueny nii??aeiai?noue aaiiaeia?io aei eenith, c?inoa? cia/aiiy ?50, i?aeo?eiaiiy ??aiy eeniacaaacia/aiiy cae?enith?oueny ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ieneaaiiaeia?io. 3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ??cieo oi?iao ?ioieneeaoe?e a a?eo?ioeeoao e?ia? ei?iia ci?ith?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae ie?aieo eaiie aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io a nenoai? ae?eie?c - aetheiiaiaaiac - IOO. Aeoeaaoe?y an?o oeyo?a ia? i?noea ca ae?? ai?aeo oa caeoaeaiiy aiaee. Iniaeea?noth iaoaaie?cio i?e ?ioieneeaoe?? ai?aeii ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aetheici-aeai?iiaiai oeeeeo. Aeoeaaoe?y ae?eie?co ? aetheiiaiaaiaco i?e iaeii/aniiio i?eai?/aii? iaioicioinoaoiiai ooioo aeyaeaia ca ni?eueii? ae?? ai?aeo oa ?ii?a iaai?th. Aeoeaaoe?y ae?eie?co oa iaioicioinoaoiiai ooioa c iaeii/aniei cieaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? aetheiiaiaaiaco noi?iaiaeaeo? ae?th noi?oae ai?aeo c ?iiaie naeioeth ? ia?aaioeth, a oaeiae ?ii?a i?ae? ? oeeieo. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i iacia/io ?ieue aetheiiaiaaiaco i?e ae?? noi?oae ai?aeo c ?iiaie naeioeth, a oaeiae ?iiaie i?ae?. I?eai?/aiiy ae?eie?co oa iaioicioinoaoiiai oeyoo ? aeoeaaoe?y aetheiiaiaaiaco a?aei?/aia o?eueee i?e ae?? ?ii?a naeioeth. Iineeaiiy ae?eie?co ? i?eai?/aiiy ?ioeo i?ioean?a anoaiiaeaii i?e ae?? oaiieo. Ci?ia oaeaeeino? ? ni?yiiaaiino? ?aaeoe?e aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io iani?eyoeeai aieeaa? ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ?aneioaco iae?ia?a?/ieo niieoe, iniaeeai, aaeai?eiaeo ioeeaioeae?a. 4. Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie ?aaoeyoe?? nii??aeiaiino? aaiiaeia?io aei eenith ca ?ioieneeaoe?e ? ??aaiue i?aai?/ieo oinoao?a, a ia?oo /a?ao AOO, ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ?aaeoe?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ee?a e?ia?. Aeii?ioth/eie iaoai?ciaie iiaeeo?eaoe?eii? ?aaoeyoe?? ? i?aeo?eiee no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? oe?e?niino? aaiiaeia?io ?ea a?ae oiene/iiai iioeiaeaeaiiy ?: ae?aioaaiiy ai?iieeneioieo ?aaeeeae?a oeyoii ai?aeoaaiiy; caoeno ai?aeieo a?oi ca ?aooiie ae?eoaaiiy; ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ca’ycoth/eo ?iie aaaeeeo iaoae?a noeueoa?ae?eeueieo a?oi. 5. ?aaeoe?y e?ia? ?ea ia ?ioieneeaoe?th aecia/a?oueny o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie oieneeaioo. ?iie naeioeth ? oaiieo aeeeeeathoue a a?eo?ioeeoao iacai?ioi? no?oeoo?i? ? iaoaaie?/i? ci?ie; ?iie ia?aaioeth, i?ae? ? oeeieo aeoeaothoue a?eueo?noue i?ioean?a aaeaioeaiiai caoenoo; ai?ae aeeeeea? a?aeoeeaiiy ia ??ai? aaeaioeaii? a?aeiia?ae?; ni?eueia ae?y ai?aeo oa ?ii?a iaoae?a iae/ano?oa ? aioaaii?noe/iith ? aenooia? oaeoi?ii cieaeaiiy iioeiaeaeoth/i? ae?? eiaeiiai oieneeaioa ie?aii. 6. Ae?y aeine?aeaeaieo oieneeaio?a a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ? aiaeia?/iith aieeao ceiiaiai aieiaeoaaiiy, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a?iioaco i?i oi?aa?naeuei?noue iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy aaeaioeaii? a?aeiia?ae? ia ae?th no?an-oaeoi??a i?e?iaeiiai ? oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy ca ?aooiie iaeieo ? oeo aea iae?iiieaeoe oa iaoaaie?/ieo nenoai. 7. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaea?aeaii eiiieaenia oyaeaiiy i?i ?aaeoe?th e?ia? ?ea ia ae?th aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ui aeicaieeei aeyaeoe eeth/ia? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiiiiaio?a e?ia? ? cai?iiiioaaoe ?o ye iieacieee a?i?iaeeeaoe?? caa?oaeiaiiy aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo: 1. AEeaeaiei A.A., A?oaeiei A.A., Niieueneee A.N., ssaiiaiei A.O. Aeeyiea aaeioe/aneeo oaeoi?ia n?aaeu ia ia?aciaaiea eaoiiiauo oae o ?ua // Aeae?iaeie. aeo?i. - 1994. - 30, ? 2. - N. 87-92. 2. AEeaeaiei A.I., A?oa?iei A.A., Niieuenueeee I.N., ssaiiaiei I.O. ??ai? a?io?i?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? o noaaeiaeo ?ea a iioiaaiac? // I?iaeaie ?noi?e/iiai ? aaia?ao?/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa *a?i?a?au?ie: Oac. aeii., *a?i?a?a, 1995 ?. - *a?i?a?a: *a?i?a?anueea iae. a?aeae?e. Aaia?ao. oia.-aa O?N?, 1995. - Aei. 3. - N. 71. 3. Niieuenueeee I.N., AEeaeaiei A.I., ssaiiaiei I.O. ??ai? a?io?i?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? noaaeiaeo ?ea aei aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua // I?aeaoc?anueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y: Oac. aeii., *a?i?a?a, 1995 ?. - *a?i?a?a: *AeI?, 1995. - N. 266-268. 4. A?oa?iei A.A., AEeaeaiei A.I., Niieuenueeee I.N., Eaon TH.A., Eiiiaaoeue ?.I., ssaiiaiei I.O. O?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aaeaioaoe?? noaaeiaeo ?ea aei aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua ? ?o ei?aeoe?y // Aeieia?y, ioi?iia i?e?iaee, aeieia?/ia ina?oa ? aeoiaaiiy. Ca??iee noaoae, i?enay/aiee 80-??//th *a?i?a?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea: Ca. noao., *a?i?a?a, 1996 ?. – *a?i?a?a: *a?i?a?anueea a?aeae?e. oe?. a?io?i. oia.-aa, 1996. - N. 10-28. 5. Yu. Leus, A. Smolsky, V. Grubinko The role of haemoglobin patology in the induction of lipid peroxidation in fish under intoxication // 4th IUBMB Conference «The life and death of the cell».- Edinburg (UK). - 1996. -P. 542 (c80). 6. A?oa?iei A.A., Niieuenueeee I.N., Eiiiaaoe ?.I., A?nai I.I. Aaiiaeia?i ?ea i?e ae?? ai?aeo oa nieae aaaeeeo iaoae?a // A?ae?ia?ie. aeo?i. - 1995. - 31, ? 4. - N. 82-87. 7. A?oa?iei A.A., Niieuenueeee I.N., ssaiiaiei I.O. Ci?ie ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?ia? ei?iiiaeo ?ea ca ?ioieneeaoe?? ai?aeii // O?c?ie. aeo?i. - 1996. - 42, ? 1-2. - N. 40-46. 8. A?oa?iei A.A., Niieuenueeee I.N., Eaon TH.A., ssaiiaiei I.O.., A?nai I.I. Aca?iica'ycie ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aaiiaeia?io oa ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a o e?ia? ei?iia i?e ?ioieneeaoe?? // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. - 1997. - 2. - N. 146-150. 9. A?oa?iei A. A., Niieuenueeee I.N., Eaon TH.A. Ia?aeeniee noaoon oa noai aaiiaeia?io e?ia? ?ea ca ?ioieneeaoe?? // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?eueneiai iaae. oi-oo., Na??y "A?ieia?y". - 1997. - ? 1. - N. 50 - 53. 10. Niieuenueeee I.N. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?ei? ci?ie aaiiaeia?io e?ia? ei?iia ca oiene/ii? ae?? // 7 Oe?a?inueeee a?io?i. c'?cae: Oac. aeii., aa?. 1997 ?. - E.: Oe?. a?io?i. oia.-ai, 1997. - *. 3. - N. 130-131. 11. Niieuenueeee I.N. No?oeoo?i? iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ee?a e?ia? ?ea ca ae?? ?ii?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a // 2 c'?cae A?ae?iae. oia.-aa Oe?a?ie: Oac. aeii., 27-31 aeiao. 1997 ?. - E.: A?ae?iae. oia.-ai Oe?a?ie, 1997. - O. 2. - N. 148-149. 12. Niieueneee A.N. Iiin?aaeiaaiiia ooieoeeiiaeueiia aeeyiea aaeeia ieaciu e?iae ?ua ia n?iaenoai aaiiaeiaeia e eenei?iaeo i?e aeaenoaee yeno?aiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu // Yeieiaey e iieiaeaaeue: Iaoa?eaeu 1 iaaeae.-iie iao/.-i?aeo. eiio., 17-19 ia?oa 1998 a. - Aiiaeue: AaeAOO, 1998. - O. 1, *. 2. - N. 135-136. 13. Niieuenueeee I.N., ssaiiaiei I.O. Nenoaia aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io a?eo?ioeeo?a ye iieaciee ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaiiaeia?io e?ia? ei?iia ca ae?? aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua // Aeieia?/iee no?an ? aaeaioaoe?y a a?ieia?/ieo nenoaiao: Iaoa??aee 1 Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoe. eiio., 27-29 aeiaoiy 1998?. – Oa?iii?eue: OAeIO, 1998. – N. 63-64. Niieuenueeee I.N. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? aaeaioaoe?? e?ia? ei?iia aei aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.17 – a?ae?ia?ieia?y. ?inoeooo a?ae?ia?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a. – 1998. Aeine?aeaeaii eiiieaenio ?aaeoeeth e?ia? ei?iia (ai?no oi?i aaiiaeia?io, eiai e?iaoe/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iieacieee oa ?o ?aaoeyoe?th, noai nenoai aia?aicaaacia/aiiy a a?eo?ioeeoao ? ?i.) ia ae?th aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa ca ?ioieneeaoe?e. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aaeoe?y e?ia? ?ea ia ?ioieneeaoe?th aecia/a?oueny o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie oieneeaioo: ?iie naeioeth ? oaiieo aeeeeeathoue a a?eo?ioeeoao iacai?ioi? no?oeoo?i? ? iaoaaie?/i? ci?ie; ?iie ia?aaioeth, i?ae? ? oeeieo aeoeaothoue a?eueo?noue i?ioean?a aaeaioeaiiai caoenoo; ai?ae aeeeeea? a?aeoeeaiiy ia ??ai? aaeaioeaii? a?aeiia?ae?; ni?eueia ae?y ai?aeo oa ?ii?a iaoae?a ? aioaaii?noe/iith ? aenooia? oaeoi?ii cieaeaiiy iioeiaeaeoth/i? ae?? eiaeiiai oieneeaioa ie?aii. Aeyaeaii eeth/ia? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaeaioeaii? a?aeiia?ae? eiiiiiaio?a e?ia? ?ea ia ae?th aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a ? cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o ye iieacieee a?i?iaeeeaoe?? caa?oaeiaiiy aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeno?aiaeuei? oaeoi?e; aaiiaeia?i; nii??aeiai?noue aaiiaeia?io aei eenith; no?oeoo?i? iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ee?a e?ia?; aaeaioaoe?y; oieneeic. Niieueneee A.N. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua aaeaioaoeee e?iae ea?ia e yeno?aiaeueiui oaeoi?ai aiaeiie n?aaeu. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.17 – aeae?iaeieiaey. Einoeooo aeae?iaeieiaee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa. – 1998. Enneaaeiaaia eiiieaeniay ?aaeoeey e?iae ea?ia (niaea?aeaiea oi?i aaiiaeiaeia, aai eeiaoe/aneea e ooieoeeiiaeueiua iieacaoaee e eo ?aaoeyoeey, ninoiyiea nenoai yia?aiiaania/aiey e ae?.) ia aeaenoaea aaeioe/aneeo oaeoi?ia aiaeiie n?aaeu e i?e eioieneeaoeeyo. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aaeoeey e?iae ?ua ia eioieneeaoeeth ii?aaeaeyaony oeceei-oeie/aneeie naienoaaie oieneeaioa: eiiu naeioea e oaiiea aucuaatho a y?eo?ioeeoao iaia?aoeiua no?oeoo?iua e iaoaaiee/aneea eciaiaiey; eiiu ia?aaioea, iaaee e oeeiea aeoeaece?otho aieueoeinoai i?ioeannia aaeaioeaiie caueou; aiieae aucuaaao ioeeiiaiey ia o?iaia aaeaioeaiiai ioaaoa; niaianoiia aeaenoaea aiieaea e eiiia iaoaeeia yaeyaony aioaaiienoe/iui e aunooiaao oaeoi?ii nieaeaiey iia?aaeaeathuaai aeaenoaey eaaeaeiai oieneeaioa ioaeaeueii. Auyaeaiu eeth/aaua oa?aeoa?enoeee aaeaioeaiiai ioaaoa eiiiiiaioia e?iae ?ua ia aeaenoaea yeno?aiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia e i?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaoue eo eae iieacaoaee aeieiaeeeaoeee caa?yciaiey aiaeiie n?aaeu. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeno?aiaeueiua oaeoi?u; aaiiaeiaei; n?iaenoai aaiiaeiaeia e eenei?iaeo; no?oeoo?iua iiaeeoeeaoeee aaeeia e?iae; aaeaioaoeey; oieneeic. Smolsky A.S. The structure-functional adaptation of carp blood to extremal influences of the water environment. - Manuscript. Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 03.00.17. - hydrobiology. The Institute of hydrobiology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv. - 1998. The integrative reactions of carp blood (concentration of ligand hemoglobin forms, his kinetics and functional indicators and others) influenced by water extremal factors and by intoxications has been investigated. The fish blood reactions to the toxicity effect is defined by physico-chemical properties of toxicants: the phenol and lead ions cause irriversible structure-metabolic chahges; activate the majority of adaptation processes of manganese, copper and zinc ions; ammonium causes changes on the level of adaptation response; the joint effect of ammonium and heavy metals ions is characterised as antagonises and it is factor of decreases of damages effects of every toxicants. The key characteristics of adaptation response of fish blood elements under extremal influences were detected. They have been proposed to be used as indicators of biomonitoring pollution of environment water. Key words: extremal factors; hemoglobin; affinity of hemoglobin to oxygen; structure modification of blood proteins; adaptation; toxicity. PAGE 10 PAGE 1

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