AeI?I?IIAO?IANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

A??aeii Aaneeue Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 539.2: 669: 536.76

NO?OEOO?II-OACIA? CI?IE A E?ENOAE?*IEO OA AII?OIEO NIEAAAO IA INIIA?
IA?AO?AeIEO

IAOAE?A I?E OA?IIOeEEE?*IEO IA?IAEAO

01.04.07 – o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?aoa?y
A?eai??e Iaaeiae/, Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, ia?oee
i?i?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe Ianeia Aaea??e A?eoi?iae/ – caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo e?enoae?caoe?? ?inoeoooo iaoaeio?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ia?ooeueeee Aiaoie?e
Iaoa?eiae/ – i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaoaeio?ceee Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaa?o?i Aae?i Aieiaeeie?iae/ – i?ioani?
eaoaae?e o?ceee Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea ? o?ce/iiai iaoaeiciaanoaa, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. Aeiiaoeuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 13_ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae08.051.02
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (320052, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Iaoeiaee, 13, ei?i. 11, aoae. 300).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (320052, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Iaoeiaee, 13).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “06” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Nie?eaeiiiaa ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Nieaae ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a Fe, Ni oa Co (ye e?enoae?/i?, oae
? aii?oi?) a?aeiinyoueny aei iaea?eueo iioe?aieo iaoa??ae?a, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny a no/ani?e i?iieneiaino?. Iaeiei c aoaeoeaieo
iaoiae?a oa?i?/iiai aieeao ia no?oeoo?iee noai oeeo nieaa?a ?
oa?iioeeee?/ia ia?iaea (OOeI). I?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a
e?enoae?/ieo nieaaao oeueiai eeano i?ae /an OOeI, eiee oacia? ia?aoiaee
? ?iaeo iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoenue ye ca aeeooc?eiei, oae ? ca cnoaiei
(ia?oaineoiei) iaoai?ciii, cia/iith i??ith aecia/athoueny e?iaoe/ieie
oaeoi?aie oaieiai? ae??, cie?aia oaeaeeinoyie iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeaiiy.
A?aee?eoa a 30 — o ?ieao yaeua oaciaiai iaeeaio a iaaeaeaeiio ieioeiio
aoei a?aeiia o?eueee ye o?ce/iee oaeo, yeee i?aeoe/ii ia iaa i?eeeaaeieo
aniaeo?a aeei?enoaiiy. I?ioa a inoaii? 25 — 30 ?ie?a caaaeyee ?iaioai
a/aieo, a iniiaiiio, o?aeuenueei? oa ee?anueei? oeiee iaoaeio?cee?a
aeyaeeinue, ui ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e i?ae /an
oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee ca o/anoth i?yieo ? cai?ioieo ( ( ( — ia?aoiae?a
? aaaeeeaith ia o?eueee c oi/ee ci?o oai??? o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea, aea
e c oi/ee ci?o i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoaeaaeo iaoa??ae?a c iiaeie
aeanoeainoyie. Aea cian?i iacia/ia e?euee?noue aeine?aeiee?a caeiaeanue
aea/aiiyi aieeao aaaaoi?aciaeo oa?iioeeee?/ieo ae?e ia i?ioeane
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a eeane/ieo Fe-Ni — nieaaao, aaaaeath/e eiai
iaaeioe?eueiei, ine?eueee ci?ia iniiaieo o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
oaeeo nieaa?a, coiiaeaia oaciaei iaeeaiii, caaa?ooaaeanue, ia aeoieo
ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? aaoi??a, i?ney aeae?eueeio oa?iioeeee?a. I?ioa,
ye aeyaey?oueny, oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae nieaa?a, i?e
c?inoaii? e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoenue ca ?ioeie
iaoai?ciaie, ci?ia yeeo aecia/a?oueny o?i?/iei neeaaeii nieaa?a oa
oaeaeeinoyie eiai iaa??ao ? ioieiaeaeaiiy, ui a naith /a?ao i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ci?ie eiiieaeno ?o o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

Canoinoaaiiy aeaoieoniaaiiai ?iioeueniiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a
i?ioean? OOeI, ye aeaea?aea aeiciaaiiai iaa??ao (a?ae aeae?eueeio
aeanyoe?a a?aaeon?a aei oaiia?aoo? ieaaeaiiy), aeaei iiaeeea?noue cia/ii
?icoe?eoe ae?aiacii oaeaeeinoae oaieiai? ae?? ia iaoaee ? nieaae. Aei
oeueiai /ano aieea oaeiai aeaeo oa?iiia?iaee ia oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?iiai
noaio caeeoaany iaeiaea/aiei.

Iaea?eueoiai iioe?aiiy ia oeae /an OOeI iaaoea i?e ia?iaoe? iaoaeaaeo
nieaa?a ca o/anoth oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a ? ?iaeo, ine?eueee iaecia/i?o?
ci?ie a no?oeoo?? a?aeaoaathoueny naia i?e oaeiio aei?noeiio
oa?iioeeeeoaaii?. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aaaaoi?aciai?
oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee iaaeiei oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ?? ?iaeo ia
i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy aeanoeainoae a nieaaao i?aeoe/ii ia i?iaiaeeeenue,
oi/a ci?ia ciaeo iaai?oino?eeoe??, iai?eeeaae, a nieaaao nenoaie
Fe–Nd–B, i?e oaeeo oaciaeo ia?aoiaeao ca nai?ie ciai?oi?ie iciaeaie
i?aeoe/ii ?aeaioe/ia ci?i? ieoiiiai ia’?io oac i?e ia?aoai?aiiyo
ia?oaineoiiai oeio ? iiaeiia aeeeeeaoe iii?oi? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie, a
cia/eoue ? ci?io neoaeaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee nieaa?a.

I?aeoe/ii iaina?oeaiei o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ? ieoaiiy i?i aieea OOeI
(iniaeeai i?e aeei?enoaii? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy) ia i?ioeane
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a aii?oieo iaoaeaaeo nieaaao (AIN), io?eiaieo
aa?ooaaiiyi c ??aeeiai noaio. Aeei?enoaiiy oeeo nieaa?a o ae?iaieoeoa?
aeiaaa? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo
noaa?eueiino? AIN, a oaeiae no?oeoo?ieo ci?i, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny i?e
iaa??aaii? ?o c ??ciith oaeaee?noth ca iaaeaie iaeano? noaa?eueiino?.
Oiio, c oi/ee ci?o i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy (ine?eueee a i?ioean?
aenieoaoaoe?? aioia? ae?iae iiaeooue caciaaaoe ??cii? e?eueeino?
oaieici?i) aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy no?oeoo?iiai noaio AIN a i?ioean?
OOeI ? i/aaeaeiith. C oi/ee ci?o ?icaeoeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iiiyoue i?i
i?ioeane no?ooo?iooai?aiiy a AIN aea/aiiy oaeiai aeaeo ia?iaee, iniaeeai
c a?aooaaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a oaieiai? ae??, iiaea aeaoe a?eueo
iiaia oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?cie e?enoae?caoe?? oa ?o ci?ie a?ae oaeaeeinoae
iaa??ao i?e OOeI a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? iaaeiei oi/ee neeiooai?aiiy Og.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae on?o a?aeiieo iaoiae?a oa?iioeeee?/ii? ae??
ia??iaee/iee iecueeiaia?aaoe/iee eaca?iee iaa??a aea? ciiao aieeaaoe ia
no?oeoo?o eieaeueieo iaeanoae oiieeo aii?oieo no??/ie, ci?ithth/e ?o
aeanoeaino?. Aei oeueiai /ano iiae?ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia
aeeiioaaeenue.

Aeacaia noeoii?noue ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c i?ioeanaie oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae o nieaaao ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a i?ae
aieeaii oa?iioeeee?/ii? oaieiai? ae?? i?e aeei?enoaii? a i?ioean? ia?
iaaeoaeaeeeo eaca?ieo iaa??a?a oa ioieiaeaeaiue i?ecaaea aei ?icaeyaeo
i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai o?aeooaaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a iaaeao aea?aeathaeaeaoieo IAe?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie a ?aieao i??i?eoaoiiai iai?yieo ?icaeoeo
iaoee ? oaoi?ee ? 6 “Iia? ?a/iaeie oa iaoa??aee” (oaie ? 33/92 “?ic?iaea
o?ce/ieo iniia io?eiaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?c caaeaieie aeanoeainoyie”, ? 1/94
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia oi?ioaaiiy oa oa?i?/ii? no?eeino? iaoanoaa?eueieo
no?oeoo? a nieaaao aaoaeoe/iiai oeio ia iniia? II-?CI, II-?CI-A,
II-iaiaoae ? ?ic?iaea ia ?o iniia? aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo iino?eieo
iaai?o?a”, ? 76/95 “Aenia?eiaioaeuei? ? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a e?enoae?caoe?? a aii?oieo nieaaao ia iniia?
ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? oaieiaiai aieeao”, ?
2/96 “Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a aoaeaoeth oa ai?o a
e?enoae?/ieo oa aii?oieo nieaaao ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a a
i?ioean? iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeae?a oaieiai? ae?? oa ?o aieea ia
no?oeoo?ii-oaciaee neeaae nieaa?a”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

?iaioa i?enay/aia anoaiiaeaiith caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e a
e?enoae?/ieo ? aii?oieo nieaaao ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a i?ae
aieeaii oa?iioeeee?/ii? ae?? ca o/anoth oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a ? oa ??
?iaeo, aeyaeaiith caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e oaciooai?aiiy a i?ioean? OOeI
i?e ??cieo oaeaeeinoyo oa?i?/iiai aieeao.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c cacia/aiith iaoith aoee iinoaaeai? oa ?ica’ycai?
ianooii? caaea/?:

anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e nieaa?a ia Fe-Ni —
iniia? i?e aaaaoi?aciaiio oa?iioeeeeoaaii? ca o/anoth i?yieo ? cai?ioieo

( ( ( — ia?aoiae?a c a?aooaaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a oaieiaiai aieeao;

aea/aiiy aieeao oaciaiai iaeeaio ia ?aeaenaoe?ei? i?ioeane a
ia?oaineoieo oacao;

anoaiiaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy aenieieia?oeeoeaiiai noaio a
iaaeneeueieo iino?eieo iaai?oao i?e OOeI iaaeiei oi/ee oaciaiai
ia?aoiaeo ?? ?iaeo;

anoaiiaeaiiy o?ce/ieo caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy oa ?iciaaeo
iaoanoaa?eueieo oac a i?ioean? e?enoae?caoe?? AIN ia iniia? cae?ca oa
eiaaeueoo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? oa aeaeo oaieiaiai aieeao ia
ieo;

aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e e?enoae?/ieo nieaa?a
i?ae /an oa?iioeeee?/ii? ?iioeuenii? eaca?ii? ia?iaee ?o iiaa?oiiue.

Ca i?aenoieaie aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe io?eiai? iia? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaai? ?acoeueoaoe a aaeoc? o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea, ye? a
noeoiiino? ?ica’ycothoue aaaeeeao iaoeiao i?iaeaio – anoaiiaeaiiy
o?ce/ieo caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e a nieaaao ia Fe, Ni, Co —
iniia? i?ae /an OOeI ca o/anoth oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a ? oa ?? ?iaeo c
a?aooaaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a oaieiai? ae??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Aeiaaaeaii, ui iiaia ?ic/eiaiiy aoaeaoeth a ?aaa?niaaiiio aonoai?o?
na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo Fe-Ni-C nieaa?a ia? i?noea i?e oa?iioeeeeoaaii? ca
o/anoth ( ( ( — ia?aoiae?a o?eueee i?e oaeeo oaeaeeinoyo iaa??ao, ye?
caaacia/othoue cnoaiee iaoai?ci cai?ioiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy.
Cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa??ao i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiiaiiai ?ic/eiaiiy
aoaeaoeth a ( — oac? ca ?aooiie cae??ieaiiy eiai a aeaoaeoao
e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae a i?ioean? ?iciaaeo iaoanoaa?eueiiai ( — oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio (ia?oaineoo).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?iioeeee?/ia eaca?ia ia?iaea a ?aaeei? iieaaeaiiy
iiaa?oi? a?ia?iiai Fe-N? — nieaao aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy
ae??aiiaeenia?nii? eii??/anoi? no?oeoo?e oa i?aeaeuaiiy aonoeie
aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeiai i?e?inoo iaae?
ieeiiino? aonoai?oo a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao, yeee i?aeoe/ii a?aeiia?aea?
i?e?inoia? iaae? ieeiiino? ?aaa?niaaiiai oaciiaeeaiaiiai aonoai?oo i?e
ia’?ii?e OOeI ca o/anoth ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiue.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy oa ?ic/eiaiiy ae??aiiaeenia?nieo aeeth/aiue
ia?aiaai?oii? oace Fe4NdB4 a ca?i? iniiaii? oace Fe14Nd2B i?e OOeI
iaai?o?a nenoaie Fe-Nd-B iaaeiei oi/ee Eth?? aeeeeea?oueny aiiiaeueiith
aeeooc??th, i?e/eiith ?nioaaiiy yei? ? caeaaeia a?ae e?eueeino?
oa?iioeeee?a ciaeici?iia iiea i?oaeieo iai?oa, yea aeieea? aiane?aeie
aenieiai no?eeoe?eiiai aoaeoo i?e ia?aoiae? oa?iiaaiaoeea a
ia?aiaaiaoee.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui eaca?ia oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy a aeie?enoae?caoe?eieo
?aaeeiao i?aeaeuo? oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue aii?oieo iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a
nenoaie Fe-B, yea iieyaa? a ci?uaii? oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo
e?enoae?caoe?? a a?e a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. I?e oeueiio nooi?iue
aieeao eaca?ii? ia?iaee aecia/a?oueny oeiii e?enoae?caoe??: iaeneiaeueii
aoaeoeaiith eaca?ia ia?iaea aeyaey?oueny aeey aeiaaoaeoe/ieo nieaa?a, a
yeeo i?e ??aiiaaaeieo oiiaao e?enoae?caoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ia?aeiiei
iaoai?ciii.

Aia?oa iieacaii, ui aeiciaaiee eaca?iee iaa??a caaa?oiaaieo c ??aeeiai
noaio AIN ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a aeicaiey? aeinyaaoe
iaeiinoi?iiiuei? ?o e?enoae?caoe?? ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy
aeaioa?iai? “naiaea?/iai?” no?oeoo?e oeio “aii?oia — e?enoae?/ia”. Ci?ia
aonoeie iiooaeiino? eaca?iiai i?iiaiy ? nooi?iue eiai aeaoieonoaaiiy
aeathoue ciiao ieaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oiaueiith e?enoae?/iiai oa?o ?
/anoeiai eiai oaciaei neeaaeii.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui ?iioeueniee eaca?iee iaa??a i?e OOeI
neeaaeii-eaaiaaieo aii?oieo nieaa?a ia Fe-Co — iniia? aiane?aeie
iaiaaeaiino? /ano eiai ae??, ia i?ioyc? yei? ia anoeaathoue a aeinoaoi?e
i??? ?icaeiooenue aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie noaie
e?enoae?caoe?? ? o?enaoe?? aaaaoioaciaiai iaoanoaa?eueiiai noaio a
cae?enoae?ciaaieo iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao aii?oieo no??/ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeiinii ci?ie oa?aeoa?enoee
ia?oaineoieo ia?aoai?aiue i?e aaaaoi?aciaiio oa?iioeeeeoaaii? aeathoue
iiao o?ce/io ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oiiae ooai?aiiy ? ?iciaaeo ( — ? ( —
oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a a nieaaao ia Fe-Ni — iniia? ? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoaieie aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo aonoai?oieo iaiaai?oieo nieaa?a c
i?aeaeuaieie neoaeaiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

I?aeaeuaiiy iaai?oiaei?noeeo oa?aeoa?enoee iino?eieo iaai?o?a i?e OOeI
iaaeiei oi/ee Eth?? ?iaeoue oeae aeae oa?i?/iiai aieeao a?eueo
i?aaiaoe/iei i?e aeei?enoaii? ii??aiyii c ?ioeie aeaeaie oa?iiia?iaee,
ine?eueee iaeneiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a oeeeeo ? iaeaea a i?aoi?a ?ace
ieae/ith, i?ae i?e ?cioa?i?/ieo a?aeiaeao. Oeae aenia?eiaioaeueiee oaeo
? nooo?aei ye c oi/ee ci?o ?ic?iaee ?ano?nicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia??, oae
? c iaoith caiia?aaiiy ?icaeoeia? i?ioean?a ei?ic??, ine?eueee aei
neeaaeo aioiaeo ae?ia?a eaaoth/ei aeaiaioii aoiaeeoue o?i?/ii aeoeaiee
?CI iaiaeei.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iniaeeainoae e?enoae?caoe?? aii?oieo
iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a i?e OOeI c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeoaeaeeeo eaca?ieo
iaa??a?a iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee oai???
ia??aiiaaaeii? e?enoae?caoe??, ia iniia? yei? iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe o?ae
i?ioean?a no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy, ?, ye iane?aeie, aeanoeainoae
caaa?oiaaieo ?c ??aeeiai noaio iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a.

Aeai? i?i aeea eaca?ii? ia?iaee ia no?oeoo?o e?enoae?/ieo nieaa?a,
cie?aia ia no?oeoo?o aenieieaaiaaieo /aaoi?a, iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? ye a?eueo aoaeoeaiee ?
oaoiieia?/ii i?ino?oee iaoiae i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iiaa?oiiue ?iciiae?eueieo aae?a, aieiaie oeee?iae??a oiui.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno

Oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy cae?ciii?eaeaaeo nieaa?a c aenieei ai?noii aoaeaoeth a
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? ? oaeaeeinoae, ye? caaacia/othoue i?ioiaeaeaiiy
i?yieo ? cai?ioieo ( ( (- ia?aoai?aiue, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei noaa?e?coth/i? aai aeoea?coth/i? ae?? ia
ianooiia ia?oaineoia ia?aoai?aiiy. Noaa?e?coth/a ae?y oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy
iia’ycaia c? no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie a aonoai?o?, a aeoea?coth/a — c
oa?i?/iith ianoaa?euei?noth ( — oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio a ?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai
( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy, yea aeeeeeaia ca?aeiaiiyi eiai aoaeaoeai.

Aaaaoi?aciaa oa?iioeeee?/ia ia?iaea ca o/anoth ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiue
aonoai?oieo nieaa?a ia Fe-Ni — iniia? aiane?aeie c?inoath/iai ??aiy
oaciaiai iaeeaio aeeeeea? iinooiiao ci?io aeeneieaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio
?aeaenaoe?? aioo??oi?o iai?oa ia iaoai?ci aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai
aea?eieeoaaiiy. I?e oeueiio o a?ia?ieo aacaoaeaoeaaeo aenieii?eaeaaeo
nieaaao i?ioean aea?eieeoaaiiy ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo ?icaeaa?oueny
?ioaineai?oa, i?ae o eaaiaaieo aoaeaoeai, aiane?aeie a?eueoi? iiaiioe
i?yiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo.

Oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy iaaeiei oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ?? ?iaeo nieaa?a
nenoaie Fe-Nd-B aiane?aeie ?nioaaiiy aiiiaeueii aenieiai no?eeoe?eiiai
aoaeoo i?e ia?aoiae? oa?iiaaiaoeea a ia?aiaaiaoee i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie
aeii?ioth/i? ?ie? iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy eia?oeeoeaii? neee oeyoii
cao?eiee ooai?aiiy ca?iaee?a ia?aiaai?/oaaiiy ia iaoai?ci aaeueioaaiiy
aeiiaiieo no?iie ia iaiaeii??aeiinoyo no?oeoo?e, iaeiie/aiiy oa
?aeaenaoe?y yeeo ?aaoeththoueny e?euee?noth oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a ?? ?iaeo,
aiane?aeie /iai i?aeaeuothoueny ?o iaai?oiaei?noe? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Iaaeaenie? oaeaeeino? iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeaiiy, ye? aeinyaathoueny i?ae
/an ?iioeuenii? eaca?ii? ia?iaee iiaa?oi? aii?oieo iaoaeaaeo
aeiaaoaeoe/ieo nieaa?a nenoaie Fe-B, io?eiaieo aa?ooaaiiyi c ??aeeiai
noaio, aiane?aeie oaeaeeiai aeinyaiaiiy e?i?? aaoaeoeee ia
ia??aiiaaaei?e ae?aa?ai? noaio a oiiaao, eiee oaeaee?noue aeeooc?? ia
anoeaa? c?inoe a aeinoaoi?e i???, aeeeeeathoue ci?io oeio
e?enoae?caoe?? a cii? eaca?iiai aieeao c ia?aeiiiai (a ??aiiaaaeieo
oiiaao) ia aaoaeoe/iee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aoee
aeeiiai? aaoi?ii, i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii aai i?e eiai aecia/aeuei?e
o/ano?. Caeiaoaa/ai noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue ?
aeniiaee, a?ae?a?aii iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue
?aeaenaoe?? iai?oa, ui aiinyoueny oaciaei iaeeaiii i?e aaaaoi?aciaiio
oeeeeoaaii? e?enoae?/ieo nieaa?a ia iniia? nenoaie Fe-Ni, cai?iiiiiaaia
iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue oa iiyniaia o?ce/ia ea?oeia oi?ioaaiiy
aenieieia?oeeoeaiiai noaio a iino?eieo iaai?oao ia iniia? nenoaie
Fe-Nd-B i?e OOeI “iaaeiei” oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ?? ?iaeo, aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaia aeei?enoaiiy aeaoieoniaaiiai eaca?iiai iaa??ao ye
aeaea?aea oaieiaiai aieeao c iaaeaenieeie oaeaeeinoyie iaa??ao oa
ioieiaeaeaiiy i?e OOeI AIN, iiyniai? ci?ie ?aaeoe?e e?enoae?caoe?? a AIN
i?e iaaeoaeaeeeo eaca?ieo iaa??aao, io?eiaia aeaioa?iaa no?oeoo?a oeio
“aii?oia-e?enoae?/ia” a oiieeo (~ 30 iei) AIN, aeeiiaiee oai?aoe/iee
?ic?aooiie oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a a cii? eaca?iiai aieeao c a?aooaaiiyi
?aaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aonoeie iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia o?eueee a
i?inoi??, aea e o /an?. Aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e ?
aeaioiaeaii? iiaeaeueieo c?ace?a aeey aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?eiaio?a, ?ic?aooie?a, iaaiai?aii? ?acoeueoao?a (eiie?aoiee aianie
aaoi?a aeacaiee o a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?eao aeena?oaoe??). A iniiaieo
i?aoeyo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??, ye? i?aeaioiaeaii o ni?aaaoi?noa? ?
ia?ae?e yeeo iaaaaeaii a e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo, iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a
iieyaa? a ianooiiiio. A?i iniaenoi aecia/ea caaaeaiiy a ?iaioao [1, 8,
11, 12, 15, 16, 19-23, 25-29,

oa i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe? caaea/ o ?iaioao [1,
9-13, 15, 17, 18, 24]. Aaoi? iniaenoi aiooaaa ia’?eoe aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue o ?iaioao [2 — 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 — 22, 24 — 26, 29],
aaciina?aaeiuei aeeiioaaa aei??thaaiiy oa ?ic?aooiee o ?iaioao [1-7, 9 —
17, 19 — 29]. Aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue a ia?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeue-ieo oa
?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? on?o ?acoeueoao?a, a oaeiae o
i?aeaioiaoe? ?o aei ae?oeo.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a oa iaa?oioiaai?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe caaacia/othoueny aeeiiaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo ?
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo no/anieo iaoiae?a (?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai,
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai, iaoaeia?ao?/iiai, iaai?oiiao?e/iiai,
ae?eaoiiao?e/iiai, aei??thaaiiy aeaeo?iiii?o), ye? aeaee ciiao aeeiiaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ??cieo ca eieaeuei?noth no?oeoo?ieo ??aiyo,
iaa?oioiaai?noth i?eiouaiue, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e iiaoaeia?
iiaeaeae, aenieith a?aeiia?aei?noth i?ae ?acoeueoaoaie, ye? aoee
io?eiai? ??cieie iaoiaeaie. Oe? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ianoia?a/eea?, a
oai?aoe/i? o?aeooaaiiy iiyniththoue ?acoeueoaoe ? ia noia?a/aoue
a?aeiiei caaaeueiii?eeiyoei oyaeaiiyi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee ii?aethaeiai? ia 26
iaoeiaeo oi?oiao, na?aae yeeo aieiaieie ?: V Ananithcia eiioa?aioeiy ii
oiceoei iioeiinoi i ieanoe/iinoi (Caeoia, 1990); i?aeia?iaeia
eiioa?aioe?y “XIII. Celostatne dni tepelneho spracovania” (Slovakia,
Bratislava, 1990); V Ananithcia ia?aaea “No?oeoo?a e naienoaa
iaiaaieoiuo noaeae” (Naa?aeeianuee, 1991); i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y
“Second European Powder Diffraction Conference” (EPDIC 2) (The
Netherlands, Enshede, 1992); i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “XV Conference on
Applied Crystallography” (Poland, Cieszyn, 1992); i?aeia?iaeia
eiioa?aioe?y “XVI Conference on Applied Crystallography” (Poland,
Cieszyn, 1994); i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “X-Ray powder diffraction
analysis of real structure of matter” (Slovakia, Liptovsky Mikulas,
1995); i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “Rapidly Quenched and Metastable
Materials” (RQ9) (Slovakia, Bratislava, 1996); European Microbeam
Analysys Society (EMAS ‘96) (2nd Regional Worcshop) “Electron Probe
Microanalysis of Materials Todey — Practical Aspects” (Hungary,
Balatonfured, 1996); Seventeenth European Crystallographic Meeting
(ECM-17) (Portugal, Lisboa, 1997); 2nd Yugoslav Conference on Advanced
Materials

(YUCOMAT ‘97) (Yugoslavia, Herceg Novi, 1997); i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y
“Eiino?oeoe?ei? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoa??aee (EOI’97)” (Oe?a?ia, Euea?a,
1997); i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “Achievements in Mechanical & Materials
Engineering” (Poland, Gliwice-Zakopane, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a iiiia?ao??, 28 noaooyo
o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao (?c ieo 23 — o oaoiaeo), a oaeiae o 5 ca??ieeao, 21
oacao eiioa?aioe?e, 6 iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e, 1 i?ai?eio?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 8 ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo
aeniiae?a, iaeiiai aeiaeaoeo oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 262
iaeiaioaaiue (ia 26 noi??ieao). Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 333
noi??iee, o oiio /ene? 77 ?enoie?a, ye? caeiathoue 76 noi??iie, 11
oaaeeoeue ia 9 noi??ieao, aeiaeaoie caeia? 32 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa
oa caaea/? ?iaioe, aeacaia ?? iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue,
eiie?aoi? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a oaeiae iaaaaeai?
aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a oa ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith
aeine?aeaeaiue.

?icae?e ?. E?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi no/aniee noai i?iaeaie, c?iaeaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y aeae?a ? oei?a oa?iioeeee?/ieo ia?iaie,
i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a caeaaeiino?
a?ae ?ioaineaiino?, aeae?a oa ?aaeei?a OOeI.

Aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooa yaeua oaciaiai iaeeaio oa no?oeoo?i? ci?ie, ui
aeeeeeathoueny iei, a (-oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? aoaeaoeth a nieaaao ia
Fe-Ni-iniia?. Aeacaii, ui iniiai? ci?ie eiiieaeno o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae aonoai?oo a ?acoeueoao? ( ( ( ( ( — ia?aoiae?a
aecia/athoueny no?oeoo?ith ( — oace, yea oi?io?oueny a ?acoeueoao?
iine?aeiaiiai oeeeeo i?yieo oa cai?ioieo ia?aoai?aiue ia?oaineoiiai
oeio. Cacia/aii, ui ieoaiiy i?i no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? (-oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio oa iaoai?cie eiai ci?oeiaiiy, ui aeeeeeathoueny oaciaei
iaeeaiii, iaa?oue i?ney iaeiiai oa?iioeeeeo ? ua aeineoue aeeneooeaiei ?
inoaoi/ii ia ae??oaiei. No?oeoo?a ae nieaa?a, yea oi?io?oueny i?e
aaaaoi?aciaeo oaciaeo ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeao, aieea oaeaeeinoae oaieiai?
ae?? ia i?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?ae /an oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy, iniaeeai
oaeaeeinoae iaa??ao a ?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy,
aeine?aeaeai? ua ia iiai?noth.

Ie?aii ?icaeyiooa ieoaiiy i?i aieea oaeaeeino? iaa??ao ia iaoai?cie

( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy i?e OOeI. I?aee?aneaii, ui cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino?
iaa??ao i?ae /an ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy aei iaaii? e?eoe/ii? aaee/eie
ci?ith? no?oeoo?io ea?oeio oi?ioaaiiy aonoai?oo: a?aeoai?aia i?e
oaeaeeiio iaa??a? ( — oaca c ?aeeiith i???ioaoe??th iiaea ci?ithaaoenue
aeenia?nieie e?enoaeaie aonoai?oo aeia?eueieo i???ioaoe?e.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aena?oeaiith ieoaiiy i?i aeei?enoaiiy
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ye aeaea?aea c iaaeaenieeie oaeaeeinoyie
iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeaiiy. I?aee?aneaii, ui eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeicaiey?
cia/ii i?aeaeueoe oaeaeeino? oa?i?/iiai aieeao ia iaoaee oa nieaae aei
104-106 E/n (i?e aeei?enoaii? iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieo ?iioeuenieo oa
iaia?a?aieo oaoiieia?/ieo eaca??a), a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao — aei 109 —
1010 E/n (aeneia?i? eaca?e). I?iaiae?ciaai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?iiai noaio nieaa?a i?ae aieeaii eaca?ii? ia?iaee.

Aeaoaeueii aena?oeaii ieoaiiy i?i no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a caaa?oiaaieo ?c
??aeeiai noaio aii?oieo iaoaeaaeo nieaaao i?ae aieeaii ??cieo oaieiaeo
/eiiee?a. ?icaeyioo? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeeo ??cieie iaoiaeaie aea/aeenue
?aeaenaoe?ei? i?ioeane a aii?oieo no??/eao, ?iciiae?e o?i?/ieo
aeaiaio?a ca ?o iiia?a/iei ia?a??cii oa eiai aieea ia ianooii? i?ioeane
e?enoae?caoe??, i?ioeane ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?inoo e?enoae?a, oi?ioaaiiy oa
?iciaaeo iaoanoaa?eueieo e?enoae?/ieo oac oa ?i. Iienai? iaoai?cie
e?enoae?caoe?? AIN, ?o eeaneo?eaoe?y oa caeaaei?noue a?ae aeae?a
oaieiai? ae??. I?iaiae?ciaaia ieoaiiy i?i aieea ??cieo aeae?a
oa?iiia?iaee ia aeanoeaino? AIN.

C i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo aeieeaa?, ui ia nueiaiaei?
ieoaiiy i?i caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e a e?enoae?/ieo ?
aii?oieo nieaaao ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a i?ae aieeaii
aaaaoi?aciaeo oa?iioeeee?/ieo ia?iaie ca o/anoth oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a ? oa
?? ?iaeo c a?aooaaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a oaieiaiai aieeao
iaeiicia/iiai o?aeooaaiiy ua ia ia? ? iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy.

?icae?e 2. Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue e?enoae?/i? (iiaeaeuei? ? i?iieneia?) oa
aii?oi? nieaae ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a, a iniiaiiio cae?ca,
i?eaeth oa eiaaeueoo. E?euee?noue eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a o nieaaao
aecia/aeinue ca aeiiiiiaith o?i?/iiai oa ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai
iaoiae?a.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao aaaaoi?aciai? oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee ca
o/anoth ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiue ia no?oeoo?o e?enoae?/ieo Fe-Ni nieaa?a
eaaoaaiiy ?ioeie aeaiaioaie cae?enithaaeinue oaeei /eiii, uia i?ney
aa?ooaaiiy a oieiaeio aiaeo c ( — iaeano? c?acee ciaoiaeeeenue a
aonoai?oiiio noai?. Nieaae aeieaaeyeenue a ia/? NA* a caoeniiio
na?aaeiaeu? a?aiio a aeoiaeiaeo oeaeyo. Iiiie?enoae?/i? c?acee
ae??caeenue ?c e?oiiica?ienoeo ceeae?a, io?eiaieo iia?eueiei
ioieiaeaeaiiyi ?icieaao aei 1373 E ? ianooiiei aa?ooaaiiyi o oieiaeio
aiaeo.

C?acee aenieieia?oeeoeaieo iaai?o?a nenoaie Fe-Nd-B io?eioaaeenue
iaoiaeii ii?ioeiai? iaoaeo?a??. A?aoiaoth/e o?i?/io aeoeai?noue
??aee?nii-caiaeueiiai aeaiaioo iaiaeeio, nieaaeaiiy eiiiaeo?a
aeeiioaaeinue o aaeooi? a aeoiaeiaeo oeaeyo.

Aii?oi? iaoaeaa? nieaae io?eioaaeenue aa?ooaaiiyi ?c ??aeeiai noaio ?
iaee aeaeyae iaia?a?aii? i?oaeii? no??/ee oiaueiith ~ 25 — 40 iei oa
oe?eiith a?ae 6 aei 20 ii. Aa?ooaaiiy c ??aeeiai noaio cae?enithaaeinue
iaoiaeii ni?i?iaoaaiiy ia i?aeiee /e noaeueiee aeenee. I?ney ieaaeaiiy a
?iaeoeoe?ei?e ia/? a aoiinoa?? i/euaiiai aae?th, ?icieaa aeaeoaaany ia
aeene, ui oaeaeei iaa?oaany, ca aeiiiiiaith aae??aiai no?oiaith.

Iniiaieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee,
aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iee, iaai?oiiao?e/iee, iaoaeia?ao?/iee,
ae?eaoi-iao?e/iee oa iaoiae aei??thaaiiy aeaeo?iiii?o, ye? aeaaaee ciiao
aeeiiaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ia ??cieo ca eieaeuei?noth no?oeoo?ieo ??aiyo.

Aeei?enoaiiy iiiie?enoae?a i?e ?aioaaiino?oeoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
aeicaieeei oieeiooe iaeeaaeaiiy neeaaeiaeo aeeo?aeoe?eieo aeoaeao?a
oao?aaiiaeueieo oa i?oi?iia?/ieo a?aoie ia?oaineoo, a cia/ia
?ioaineai?noue a?aeia?aaeaiue a?ae iiiie?enoae?a ii??aiyii c
iie?e?enoaeaie aeaea iiaeeea?noue o?enoaaoe iacia/i? e?euee?ni? ci?ie a
no?oeoo??, yea aeine?aeaeoaaeanue. Aenia?eiaioe aeeiioaaeenue ia
onoaiiaeao oeio O?N-60 o aei?ii?ithaaii? eiaaeueoiaiai oa cae?ciiai
aiiae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi eaia?e ?EA86-I1.

Aeeo?aeoiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a AIN i?iaiaeeeenue ia
aeeo?aeoi?iao?ao Ae?II-3 oa Ae?II-3I a Ii-E( oa Ni-E( aei?ii?ithaaiiyo.

Aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i?, iaoaeia?ao?/i? oa iaai?oiiao?e/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue ca noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie.

Aeey io?eiaiiy aeinoia??ieo aeaieo i?e iiaoaeiaao a?ao?e?a, a?noia?ai
oiui, aeeiioaaeanue noaoenoe/ia iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a.

?icae?e ???. Iniaeeaino? ia?oaineoieo ia?aoai?aiue a nieaaao nenoaie

Fe — Ni — C i?e aaaaoi?aciaiio oa?iioeeeeoaaii?

O oeueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao oaciaiai
iaeeaio i?e aaaaoi?aciaiio oa?iioeeeeoaaii? ca o/anoth ( ( ( —
ia?aoai?aiue ia no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a ?aaa?niaaiiio aonoai?o?, ia e?iaoeeo
ia?oaineoieo ia?aoai?aiue a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo nieaa?a
ia Fe-Ni iniia?, oaeaeeinoae iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeaiiy, iayaiino?
aeiaeaoeiaeo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

Ca?aeii iaai?oiiao?e/ieo aeaieo, o?enoth/eo e?euee?noue oa?iiaai?oii?
(ia?oaineoii?) oace i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao, an? aeine?aeaeai? nieaae ca
?o o?i?/iei neeaaeii aoee iiae?eai? ia aeae?eueea a?oi. Aenieii?eaeaa?
nieaae (> 23 ian. % Ni) ia?oi? a?oie oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue noaa?e?caoe??th
i?yiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy i?e OOeI i?ae /an ?o ioieiaeaeaiiy a
??aeeiio acio? i?ney iaa??ao aei oi/ee e?ioey cai?ioiiai ( ( ( —
ia?aoiaeo. O aenieiaoaeaoeaaeo nieaaao ae?oai? a?oie, ai?no i?eaeth a
yeeo ia ia?aaeuoaaa 12 ian. % , o?enoaaeanue aeoea?caoe?y

( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo c? c?inoaiiyi /enea oa?iioeeee?a. Nieaae ae o?aouei?
a?oie c aenieei ai?noii aoaeaoeth oa i?eaeth, ia caciaaaee i?yiiai
ia?oaineoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy i?ney ioieiaeaeaiiy aeo?aeieo c?ace?a o
??aeeiio acio?, oi/a i?e iiaeaeueo?e OOeI a?aecia/aeiny aeineoue aeoeaia
i?ioiaeaeaiiy ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy.

O an?o aeine?aeaeaieo nieaaao noaa?e?caoe?y ( — oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio i?ae
/an OOeI aeeeeeaeanue no?oeoo?ieie oaeoi?aie — c?inoaiiyi aonoeie
aeeneieaoe?e, iiae??aiaiiyi ca?ia ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo, eiai
anaa?/iei noeniaiiyi oa ieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th. Aeayeee aeeaae aei
cieaeaiiy iiaiioe i?yiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy aiineei oaeiae caaaa/aiiy
aonoai?oo i?eaeai, ia ui aeacoaaea iacia/ia iaiaai?/ai?noue nieaa?a
i?ney ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo ca a?aenooiino? ia ?aioaaiia?aiao
a?aeia?aaeaiue a?ae a?aoee ( — oace. I?e oeueiio aeeaae ci?ie
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo a noaa?e?caoe?th aonoai?oo nieaa?a ia?oi? a?oie aoa
iacia/iei, ine?eueee ia?aiao? a?aoee aonoai?oo a( a ?ioa?aae? ( ( ( —
ia?aoai?aiiy aoa i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiei. Oa?i?/ia ianoaa?euei?noue
aonoai?oo oaeeo nieaa?a iaea i?noea i?e a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao ?
aoea iia’ycaia c aeae?eaiiyi aoaeaoeth ?c ( — oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeinue ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueieie oa i?e?ino?oeoo?ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie. Oaiia?aoo?a e?ioey cai?ioiiai ia?aoiaeo Ae, aei yei?
iaa??aaeenue c?acee i?e oa?iioeeeeoaaii?, aoea ieae/ith a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e, i?e ye?e aoee cao?eniaai? ia?o? ci?ie ia?aiao?a a?aoee
aonoai?oo, oiaoi eaaeaea iica ?ioa?aaeii ianoaa?eueiino? eiai o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo. Aiane?aeie oeueiai iiaiioa ianooiiiai i?yiiai ( ( ( —
ia?aoai?aiiy ia caeaaeaea a?ae oe??? ianoaa?eueiino?.

O aeiaaeeo ia?ae?eooy oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo cai?ioiiai ( ( ( —
ia?aoai?aiiy i?e OOeI c oaiia?aoo?iei ?ioa?aaeii ianoaa?eueiino?
aonoai?oo (nieaae ae?oai? a?oie), yeee oaeiae aecia/aany ca ciaioaiiyi
ia?aiao?a a?aoee a(, ( — oaa?aeee ?ic/ei cia/ii ca?aeithaaany
aoaeaoeai (~ 0,5 ian. %), ui i?ecaiaeeei aei i?aeaeuaiiy ia?oaineoii?
oi/ee (i?e ?aae?caoe?? ianooiiiai i?yiiai ( ( ( -ia?aoai?aiiy) a
iaeanoue oaiia?aoo?, aeueo a?ae e?iiaoii?. Aeoea?caoe?y i?yiiai ( ( ( —
ia?aoai?aiiy i?e OOeI a cacia/aieo nieaaao aeacoaaea ia oa, ui na?aae
aeaio aeueoa?iaoeaieo oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaaee ia iiaiioo oeueiai
ia?aoai?aiiy – ca?aeiaiiy aoaeaoeai aonoai?oo oa no?oeoo?i? ci?ie
(c?inoaiiy aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e, iiae??aiaiiy ca?ia ?aaa?niaaiiai
aonoai?oo oiui) – aeii?ioth/o ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaa ia?oee.

I?aeaeuaiiy o neeaae? nieaa?a aoaeaoeth oa i?eaeth (o?aoy a?oia)
i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui oaiia?aoo?a Ii aoea aaea iano?eueee iecueeith, ui
ioieiaeaeaiiy a ??aeeiio acio? ia i?ecaiaeeei aei ?aae?caoe?? ( ( ( —
ia?aoiaeo. I?ioa i?ney iaa??aaiiy nieaa?a o iaeanoue ianoaa?eueiino? ( —
oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio oa ca?aeiaiiy aoaeaoeai aonoai?oo i?e oeueiio
i?ecaiaeeei i?e iiaeaeueo?e OOeI aei aeoea?caoe?? c ?inoii /enea
oa?iioeeee?a ?ioaineaiino? i?yiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy. Iaiao?aeii
cacia/eoe, ui ca?aeiaiiy aonoai?oo oe??? a?oie nieaa?a aoaeaoeai
aeoea?coaaeinue eeoa oa?i?/ieie iai?oaaie, aeeeeeaieie oeeee?/ieie
ioieiaeaeaiiyie oa iaa??aaie, oiaoi i?yia ia?oaineoia ia?aoai?aiiy iiaei
ii/aoe ?aae?ciaoaaoenue eeoa i?ney aeae?eueeio oa?iioeeee?a aac o/ano?
oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a.

Eaaoaaiiy Fe-Ni-C cieaa?a aieueo?aiii aai iie?aaeaiii i?ecaiaeeei aei
aeineoue neeaaeii? caeaaeiino? iiaiioe (?ioaineaiino?) ia?oaineoieo
ia?aoai?aiue i?e OOeI. Ia ia?oeo aoaiao oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy aeii?ioth/o
?ieue a?ae?a?aaaa no?oeoo?iee oaeoi?, yeee i?ecaiaeea aei aeayei?
noaa?e?caoe?? aonoai?oo. I?ioa i?e c?inoaii? e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a
c?inoaea e oa?i?/ia ianoaa?euei?noue aonoai?oo, iia’ycaia c ooai?aiiyi
ea?a?aeii? oace ? a?ao?oo, oa ci?ithaaeenue iaae? oaiia?aoo?iiai
?ioa?aaeo ianoaa?eueiino? ( — oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. Oea i?ecaaei aei oiai,
ui aeii?ioth/o ?ieue ii/aa a?ae?a?aaaoe oaeoi? ianoaa?eueiino? o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo. ? ye iane?aeie – o?enoaaeanue aeayea aeoea?caoe?y i?yiiai ( ( (
— ia?aoai?aiiy i?e iiaeaeueo?e OOeI. Oae, i?e iaa??a? nieaao 50I21I3 c?
oaeaee?noth 60 E/n a ?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ia?aoai?aiiy i?ney ia?oiai

( ( ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo a?aeaoeanue aeineoue cia/ia noaa?e?caoe?y
aonoai?oo. I?ioa iiaeaeueoa oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy aeeeeeaei aeoea?caoe?th
i?yiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy (?en. 1).

A ?iaio? aoee aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aieeao oaeaeeino? iaa??ao a
?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo ia i?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a
nieaaao ia Fe-Ni — iniia?. OOeI iiiie?enoae?a na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo
nieaa?a (oeio 50I25) i?e oaeaeeino? iaa??ao 60 E/n i?ecaiaeeei aei
i?ia?anoth/iai ?icieooy an?o ?aoeaen?a aonoai?oo ?, aiane?aeie oeueiai,
aei iinooiiaiai caiiaiaiiy aeaaa?anueeeo e?eaoeue ia ?aioaaiia?aiao.
I?ney 150 — 200 oeeee?a

( ( ( — ia?aoiae?a o?enoaaee aeeo?aeoe?eio ea?oeio ?aaa?niaaiiai
aonoai?oo o aeaeyae? nooe?eueieo aeaaa?anueeeo e?eaoeue c ??aiith ca
aceiooii ?ioaineai?noth, ui na?ae/eei i?i iiaio ia?ae?enoae?caoe?th
aonoai?oo i?ae ae??th oaciaiai iaeeaio. Oiaoi aeei?enoaia oaeaee?noue
iaa??ao aeyaeeanue aeuith a?ae e?eoe/ii?, yea caaacia/oaaea ?aae?caoe?th
cai?ioiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy ca cnoaiei iaoai?ciii.

?en. 1. Oa?iiiaai?oi? e?ea? nieaao 50I21I3: 1 — aeo?aeiee noai; 2 —
i?ney o?ueio; 3 — i?ney aeanyoe; 4 — i?ney o?eaeoeyoe ( ( ( —
ia?aoiae?a. Oaeaee?noue iaa??ao a ?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( ia?aoiaeo —
60 E/n

Ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa??ao (aei 30 E/n) i?ecaiaeeei aei
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano ia?ae?enoae?caoe??, ia ci?ithth/e oa?aeoa?o.
Aea iiaeaeueoa cieaeaiiy vi aei 20 E/n aeeeeeaei ci?io oa?aeoa?o
i?ioeano: ia ?aioaaiia?aiao e??i a?aeia?aaeaiue a?ae a?aoee
iiiie?enoae?a ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo niinoa??aaeenue oaeiae nooe?euei?
e?i?? a?aeia?aaeaiue a?ae iie?e?enoae?/ii? neeaaeiai? (IN) aonoai?oo,
ye? iaee oie aea a?aaa?anueeee eoo, ? ye? ia o?enoaaeenue i?e a?eueo
aenieeo oaeaeeinoyo vi. Iiaeaeueoa cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa??ao
i?ecaiaeeei aei iii?oiiai c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? IN ( — oace. ?acii c
oei i?aeneethaaeanue ? noaa?e?coth/a ae?y cai?ioieo ( ( ( —
ia?aoiae?a ia aonoai?o.

Aeieeiaiiy IN iiaei aooe aeeeeeaia aeaiia i?e/eiaie: ii-ia?oa,
?iciiiaeaiiyi i???ioaoe?e ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo, aeicaieaieo
i???ioaoe?eieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie i?ae a?aoeaie ( — oa ( — oac, ?,
ii-ae?oaa, oaioe/iei ca?iaeaeaiiyi iiaeo ca?ai aonoai?oo. Oi?ioaaiiy
iiethn?a ia iiethni?e o?ao?? a caai?iiaieo i?noeyo na?ae/eei a
aeine?aeaeaiiio aeiaaeeo i?i a?aenooi?noue i???ioaoe?eiiai ca’yceo i?ae
( — oa ( — oacaie i?ney ( ( ( — ia?aoiae?a. Oea aeacoaaei ia
iiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? iaoai?cio oaioe/iiai (aeeooc?eiiai)
ca?iaeaeaiiy e?enoae?a aonoai?oo. Ni?aaaaeeea?noue oaeiai oyaeaiiy
aeiaiaeeoue aeieeiaiiy IN aaea i?ney ia?oiai ( ( ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo.

I?aeaeuaiiy aeaoaeoiino? no?oeoo?e oaciiaeeaiaiiai aonoai?oo i?e OOeI
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo oeaio??a ca?iaeaeaiiy ca?ai
i?ae /an iaa??ao aei oaiia?aoo?e Ae ? aeua. Aeei?enoaiiy
iiiie?enoae?/ieo c?ace?a i?e ?aioaaiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeaei
iiaeeea?noue ?ica’ycaoe caaea/o i?i aieea ?ioaineaiino? OOeI ia
oaiia?aoo?o ii/aoeo ?ae?enoae?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Aoei iieacaii, ui
oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo ?ae?enoae?caoe?? a?ae
e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a iaeiicia/ii iiynith?oueny /enoi no?oeoo?ieie
ci?iaie: ??ceei i?aeaeuaiiyi aonoeie aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae i?ae
ae??th oaciaiai iaeeaio, c?inoaiiyi ??aiy aioo??oi?o iai?oa, a oaeiae
oi?ioaaiiyi ae??aiiaeenia?nieo ea?a?ae?a oa aeieeiaiiyi iie?e?enoae?/ii?
neeaaeiai? (i?e eaaoaaii? Fe-Ni — nieaa?a aoaeaoeai).

?icae?e ?V. E?enoae?/ia no?oeoo?a oaciiaeeaiaiiai

Fe-Ni — ia?oaineoo

Aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e ia?oaineoo i?ae
aieeaii OOeI ca o/anoth ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiue iae?aeenue na?aaeiuei-
(~0,5 % N), aenieiaoaeaoeaa? nieaae (~ 1,4 ( 1,5 % N), a oaeiae nieaae,
eaaiaai? ea?a?aeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie (150I8A2, iai?eeeaae).

A i?eaeaaeo na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo nieaaao i?ney a?ae?a??aaiiy
caaa?oiaaieo o ??aeeiio acio? c?ace?a ?acii c aeaioaciei iiaeeeaa
iaeii/ania i?ioiaeaeaiiy ? iaeiioaciiai ?iciaaeo ia?oaineoo, yea ia aea?
iiaeeeaino? oi/ii aei??yoe ia?aiao? n a?aoee ?, ciath/e eiai, ioe?ieoe
ai?no aoaeaoeth a ia?oaineo?. Uia oieeiooe i?ioean?a ?iciaaeo,
?aioaai?anueea ceiiea na?aeiooai?aiiai ia?oaineoo aeeiioaaeanue o
iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e eaia?? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 88 E aac a?ae?a??aaiiy
c?ace?a aei a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. Aeyaeeiny, ui i?e oaeaeeino?
iaa??ao 60 E/n a ?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy cia/aiiy
ia?aiao?a n a?aoee ia?oaineoo, ooai?aiiai a ?aaa?niaaiiio aonoai?o?,
i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae aeo?aeiiai, ui aeacoaaei ia iiaia
?ic/eiaiiy aoaeaoeth a ( — oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? a i?ioean?
oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy. C? c?inoaiiyi /enea ( ( ( — ia?aoiae?a ?ioaineai?noue
aeeo?aeoe?eieo ieyi ciaiooaaeanue, ?o ?icieooy iineethaaeinue, a
oi/i?noue aei??thaaiiy a?aaa?anueeiai eooa niaaeaea. Aieea oaciaiai
iaeeaio a oaeeo nieaaao caiaeeany aei i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? ?iciaaeo
ia?oaineoo, ui ooai?thaaany a ?aaa?niaaiiio aonoai?o?. Iaoai?ci ?iciaaeo
i?e oeueiio ia ci?ithaaany.

Cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa??ao c?ace?a aei 0,08 E/n i?ecaaei aei ciaioaiiy
ia?aiao?a n a?aoee oaciiaeeaiaiiai ia?oaineoo c? c?inoaiiyi /enea
oa?iioeeee?a. I?e/iio, i?ney /aoaa?oiai ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo ieyia aoea
aaea iano?eueee ?icieoith ? neaaei?ioaineaiith, ui iaae?eii aei??yoe ??
a?aaa?anueeee eoo aoei iaiiaeeeai. Ciaioaiiy nooiaiy oao?aaiiaeueiino?
oa ia’?io aeaiaioa?ii? eii??ee ia?oaineoo aeacoaaei ia caieaeaiee ai?no
aoaeaoeth a ( — oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? i?ney ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo.

Aeey na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo nieaa?a ? ia?aiao? n a?aoee, ? nooi?iue
oao?aaiiaeueiino? n/a aeyaeeenue aiiiaeueii aenieeie. Aeei?enoiaoth/e
a?aeiio caeaaei?noue a?aeiioaiiy n/a a?ae ai?noo aoaeaoeth oa i?eaeth
a nieaa?, aoei ciaeaeaii, ui o na?aeiooai?aiiio c ?aaa?niaaiiai
aonoai?oo ia?oaineo? i?ney ia?oiai oa?iioeeeeo aoei ?ic/eiaii 0,35 ian.
% N, oiaoi ia 0,15 ian. % iaioa, i?ae o aeo?aeiiio. Aiae?coth/e i?e/eie
iaiiaiiai ?ic/eiaiiy aoaeaoeth a ( — oac? a i?ioean? cai?ioiiai ( ( (
— ia?aoiaeo, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe iiaeeea?noue ?iciaaeo ia?oaineoo i?e
iaa??a? ? iaiaa?iaiiai cae??ieaiiy aoii?a aoaeaoeth, ye? aeeoee c
oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. Ine?eueee eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aoaeaoeth a ( — oac?
a?eueo aenieee, i?ae o ( — oac?, a eiai ?ic/eii?noue o i?e cia/ii iaioa,
oi i?e ( ( ( — ia?aoiae? aeaye? iaeano? ( — oace caaaa/othoueny
aoaeaoeai. Ua aeayea e?euee?noue aoaeaoeth i?a?o? a aeaoaeoe
e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae ? cae??ieth?oueny ia ieo. Aoaeaoeue, yeee ia aa?a
o/ano? o iiaoi?iiio ?ic/eiaii? a ( — oac?, iiaea iaeiie/oaaoenue iiaeeco
a?aieoeue ca?ai o aeaeyae? aoiinoa? Eioo?aeea ? cae??iethaaoenue o ieo
aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy naiai eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? a oaeeo iaeanoyo.

Ia?oaineoia ia?aoai?aiiy o aenieiaoaeaoeaaeo Fe-Ni nieaaao ?icaeaaeinue
?c aeinoaoiueith aeey io?eiaiiy aoaeoo oaciaiai iaeeaio iiaiioith i?e
ioieiaeaeaii? aonoai?oo a ??aeeiio acio?. Ia ?aioaaiia?aiao eieeaaiiy
caaa?oiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a o?enoaaeenue aeeo?aeoe?ei? ieyie, eoo
a?aeia?aaeaiiy yeeo oa iai?aoe?eia aeacoaaee ia a?aenooi?noue iciae
?iciaaeo ia?oaineoo. A iiaeaeueoiio niinoa??aaee ci?ie aeeo?aeoe?eii?
ea?oeie ia?oaineoo i?ney aeo?eiee na?aeicaaa?oiaaiiai c?acea i?e 373 E
(c iaoith ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a ?iciaaeo) ia i?ioyc? ??ciiai /ano —
a?ae aeae?eueeio nioaiue aei aeae?eueeio oeny/ naeoiae. I?e oeueiio
aeyaeeinue, ui ?iciaae ia?oaineoo iinea o?eoaciee oa?aeoa?: ii?yae c
ieyiaie aeo?aeiiai ia?oaineoo aoee cao?eniaai? aeaa ca?aeiaieo aoaeaoeai
( — oaa?aeeo ?ic/eie ((1 — oa ( — ia?oaineoe). E??i oiai, aoei aeyaeaii,
ui ia ia?oiio aoai? a?aeioneo (ia a?aei?io a?ae iaeaaiaaieo
aenieiaoaeaoeaaeo Fe-C nieaa?a) ?acii ?c o?eoaciei ?iciaaeii,
niinoa??aaany iaeiioaciee ?iciaae, a ?acoeueoao? yeiai ciaiooaaany
ia?aiao? n a?aoee aeo?aeiiai ia?oaineoo, ui iiynith?oueny a?eueo
aenieith oa?iiaeeiai?/iith aeoeai?noth aoii?a aoaeaoeth o Fe-Ni-C
nieaaao.

?iciaae oaciiaeeaiaiiai ia?oaineoo aea/aany ca ci?iith iieiaeaiiy oeo
aea aeeo?aeoe?eieo ieyi, ca yeeie eiai aea/aee i?ney ia?oiai ( ( ( —
ia?aoai?aiiy o aeo?aeiiio aonoai?o?. Ci?ie aeeo?aeoe?eii? ea?oeie i?e
?iciaae? oaciiaeeaiaiiai ia?oaineoo ye?nii a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae oeo, ui
aoee aeey ia?oaineoo, ooai?aiiai o aeo?aeiiio aonoai?o?. Ii-ia?oa, ieyi
a?ae a?aoee i?ii?aeiiai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ((1 — ia?oaineoo) ia
o?enoaaeinue, ui icia/aei ci?io iaoai?cio ?iciaaeo c o?eoaciiai ia
aeaioaciee (o?enoaaany o?eueee iaeei ca?aeiaiee aoaeaoeai ( — oaa?aeee
?ic/ei — ( — oaca). Ii — ae?oaa, ie?ai? aoaie ?iciaaeo
oaciiaeeaiaiiai ia?oaineoo a?aeaoaaeenue a?eueo ?ioaineaii, a ia?oa
noaae?y caaa?oeeanue i?eaeecii a aeaa ?ace oaeaeoa.

Oaeei /eiii, ??ciiio ai?noo aoaeaoeth a iaoanoaa?eueiiio ( — oaa?aeiio
?ic/ei? a?aeiia?aeaa ??ciee oa?aeoa? iaoai?cio ?iciaaeo — o?eoaciee aai
aeaioaciee. E??i oiai, ua iaei??th iniaeea?noth aieeao oaciaiai iaeeaio
ia ?iciaae ia?oaineoo aeyaeeinue oa, ui oaciiaeeaiaiee ia?oaineo
ca?aeithaaany a iaeanoyo ( — oace cia/ii neeuei?oa — aei 0,03 ( 0,05
ian. % N (ii??aiyii c 0,18 ( 0,21 ian. % aeey ia?oaineoo, ooai?aiiai o
aeo?aeiiio aonoai?o?).

Eaaoaaiiy Fe-Ni-C nieaa?a ea?a?aeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie (iai?eeeaae
aieueo?aiii, nieaa 150I8A2) iieacaei, ui nooo?aeo ci?i a i?ioean?
?iciaaeo ia?oaineoo, ooai?aiiai a ?aaa?niaaiiio aonoai?o?, ia
a?aeaoeiny: ia ia?o?e noaae?? ?iciaaeo (oiaoi i?ney iaa??a?a aei oaeeo
oaiia?aoo?, eiee ia ?aioaaiia?aiao o?enoaaeenue eeoa a?aeia?aaeaiiy a?ae
a?aoee ( — oace) a?i iaa o?eoaciee oa?aeoa?, oi/a ?acii c oei
aeyaeyeenue, aea iaio /?oei, iciaee iaeiioaciiai ?iciaaeo.

Ine?eueee i?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?ae /an OOeI a cia/i?e i???
aecia/athoueny oaeaee?noth iaa??ao a ?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( —
ia?aoai?aiiy, oi aeei?enoaiiy ?iioeueniiai eaca?a, ye aeaea?aea
iaa??ao, aeicaieeei i?aeiyoe ?? ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a. ?iciaae
ia?oaineoo i?ae ae??th ?iioeueniiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aea/aany
ia iiiie?enoae?/ieo c?aceao na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo nieaa?a. Aoei
iieacaii, ui iecueeiaia?aaoe/iee eaca?iee iaa??a aea? ciiao aeineoue
oi/ii oa ieaaii aeeiioaaoe iaa??a iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a, ?aaoethth/e oae?
i?ioeane, ye ia?oa noaae?y ?iciaaeo ia?oaineoo. I?aeaeuaiiy aonoeie
iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy i?ecaiaeeei aei ?aae?caoe?? cai?ioiiai ( ( (
— ia?aoiaeo. I?e oeueiio iaeneiaeueiee eoo aeaci???ioaoe?? o?aaiaio?a
aonoai?oo aoa iaioei, i?ae i?e iaa??a? c?ace?a o nieyi?e eoiae?. Oea
icia/a?, ui ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa??ao aei 104 — 105 E/n
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaeaeueoiai ciaioaiiy aeaci???ioaoe?? ae?eyiie
?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo, oiaoi aei a?eueo oi/iiai a?aeoai?aiiy
i???ioaoe?? aeo?aeiiai iiiie?enoaeo. E??i oiai, i?ney ?iioeueniiai
eaca?iiai iaa??ao ia ?aioaaiia?aiao ia o?enoaaeenue e?i?? oaioe/ii
i???ioiaaieo ae??aiiaeenia?nieo ca?ai ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo. Oeae
aenia?eiaioaeueiee oaeo na?ae/ea i?i oa, ui cai?ioiee ( ( ( — ia?ao?ae
a ii?ii?iaieo ae?eyieao a?aeaoaaany /enoi ca cnoaiei iaoai?ciii, ? ua
?ac aeacoaaa ia aeii?ioth/ee aieea oaeaeeino? iaa??ao ia oa?aeoa?
cai?ioiiai ia?aoai?aiiy.

?icae?e V. I?e?ino?oeoo?a oaciiaeeaiaieo nieaa?a

O oeueiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aaciina?aaeiueiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy (ca aeiiiiiaith na?oeiai? oa aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??)
caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e nieaa?a nenoai Fe-Ni oa Fe-Ni-C i?e
aaaaoi?aciaiio oa?ii-oeeeeoaaii? c ??cieie oaeaeeinoyie iaa??ao a
?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy.

Ca?aeii aeaieo iaoaeia?ao?/iiai aiae?co o aeo?aeiiio noai? aonoai?o ye
aacaoaeaoeaaeo, oae ? na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo nieaa?a yaeya niaith e?oii?
??aiia?ni? ca?ia c /?oeeie a?aieoeyie. Ooai?aiiy oa?aeoa?ii?
e?oiiiieanoei/anoi? no?oeoo?e ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo i?ney iaeiiai
oa?iioeeeeo i?e oaeaeeino? iaa??ao 60 E/n na?ae/eei i?i ia?oaineoiee
oa?aeoa? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy.

C? c?inoaiiyi e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a no?oeoo?a ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo
na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaiai nieaao iii?oii iiae??aithaaeanue. Ia ie?aieo
ae?eyieao a?aieoeue niinoa??aaeinue ooai?aiiy ae??aieo ca?ai, ye? aoee
aeoyaiai? acaeiaae a?aieoeue. ?ici?? ciia ooai?aieo ca?ai aoa i?eaeecii
ia aeaa ii?yaeee ieae/ei a?ae ?ici??o aeo?aeieo ca?ai. Nooe?euei?noue
a?aieoeue ii?oooaaeanue ? a ?yae? aeiaaee?a a?aieoey yaeyea niaith n?oeo
ae??aieo ca?ai. Aaaaoi?aciaa oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy (200 oeeee?a) i?ecaaei aei
ooai?aiiy niaoeeo?/ii? aieieienoi? no?oeoo?e aac ?icae?eaiiy a?aieoeue
ca?ai. Aieieia ooai?thaaeenue acaeiaae iai?yieo oa/?? nieaao, yea iaea
i?noea i?e cia/i?e ci?i? oi?ie oa?iioeeeeiaaieo c?ace?a.

Ia?oaineo na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaiai nieaao 50I25, ooai?aiee o aeo?aeiiio
aonoai?o?, niinoa??aaany o aeaeyae? e?oiieo e?iciiiae?aieo ieanoei c
/?oei ae?aaeaiei i?ae??aii. I?ney ia?oiai ( ( ( ( ( — ia?aoiaeo a
no?oeoo?? c?acea e?oiieo e?iciiiae?aieo ieanoei, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey
no?oeoo?e aeaooiaiai ia?oaineoo, aeyaeaii aaea ia aoei. Ca?eueoaiiy
/enea oa?iioeeee?a aei 50 aeeeeeaei iiaeaeueoa iiae??aiaiiy e?enoae?a
ia?oaineoo c? cieaeaiiyi ?icae?eueiino? ie?aieo noano?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a. I?e?ino?oeoo?a aaaaoi?aciai oa?iioeeeeiaaiiai c?acea (200
oa?iioeeee?a) aaea iaeaea ia iaea ciai?oi?o iciae ia?oaineoo ? aoea
i?aeoe/ii ?aeaioe/iith c? no?oeoo?ith aonoai?oo i?ney oaei? ae
e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo nieaa?a, o a?ia?iiio nieaa? I31
aoee aeyaeai? aeaye? iniaeeaino?. Iai?eeeaae, i?ney oanoe oa?iioeeee?a
aoee cao?eniaai? ia?o? iciaee oi?ioaaiiy iie?aiiaeueii? no?oeoo?e
?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo, a i?ney 50 ( ( ( — ia?aoiae?a niinoa??aaeanue
/?oei ae?aaeaia iie?aiiaeueia no?oeoo?a. Aaaaoi?aciaa OOeI (400 oeeee?a)
i?ecaaea aei ooai?aiiy a c?aceao o??uei, ye? ia aoee aeyaeai? i?ae /an
oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy na?aaeiuei-aoaeaoeaaeo nieaa?a, ? iinooiiaiai (c?
c?inoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? OOeI) ?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a.

Aeyaeai? iaoaeia?ao?/ii oa ?aioaaiia?ao?/ii no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?
oaciiaeeaiaieo nieaa?a aoee iiyniai? ca aeiiiiiaith
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai iaoiaeo, yeee iieacaa, ui cia/ia c?inoaiiy
aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e a i?ioean? oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy a?aeaoaaeinue ia
o?eueee ca ?aooiie /anoeiaiai oniaaeeoaaiiy noano?oeoo?e ia?oaineoo, aea
e aiane?aeie oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo aeaoaeo?a, ye? aeieeathoue a i?ioean?
cai?ioiiai ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiy. I?e/iio, a nieaaao iaio oei?a iniiaia
c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a a?aeaoaaeinue ia ia?oeo
aoaiao oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy.

Aieiaiith iniaeea?noth i?ioeano no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy o ?aaa?niaaiiio
aonoai?o? i?e aaaaoi?acia?e OOeI aoa ?icaeoie aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai
aea?eieeoaaiiy, ia?o? iciaee yeiai nii/aoeo aoee cao?eniaai? o
aacaoaeaoeaaeo nieaaao. Aaaaoi?aciaa oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy (100 oeeee?a)
i?ecaiaeeei aei oiai, ui aea?eieeiaa no?oeoo?a oaciiaeeaiaiiai aonoai?oo
ia?aaaaeaea a nieaaao iaio oei?a.

Ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy oaciaee iaeeai cae?enithaaany, a
iniiaiiio, a ?acoeueoao? aeeneieaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ci?oeiaiiy.
Aeieeiaiiy aea?eiee?a o iaio oeiao nieaa?a iia’ycaia c? c?inoaiiyi
aioo??oi?o iai?oa, ye? a?eueoith i??ith iaeiie/oaaeenue o aacaoaeaoeaaeo
nieaaao aiane?aeie a?eueo cia/ii? ia’?iii? /anoee c?aceo, yea a?aea
o/anoue o ( ( ( — ia?aoai?aiiyo. A oiiaao aeieoaaiiy aoaeaoeai aeaoaeo?a
e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae oaciiaeeaiaiiai aonoai?oo (o aoaeaoeaaeo nieaaao)
c?inoaa ??aaiue eiai noaa?e?caoe?? a?aeiinii ianooiiiai ia?oaineoiiai
ia?aoai?aiiy (ia’?iia /anoea ( — oace ciaiooaaeanue), aiane?aeie /iai
eiia??i?noue oi?ioaaiiy aea?eiee?a aeaoi?iaoe?? cieaeoaaeanue. Aea i?e
ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a ??aaiue iai?oa ? nooi?iue ?o
aeaeaeiae?? i?aeaeuoaaeenue. O oeeo oiiaao aoaeoeaiei iaoai?ciii
?aeaenaoe?? aioo??oi?o iai?oa noaei aeaoi?iaoe?eia aea?eieeoaaiiy, yea
aoei aia?aaoe/ii a?eueo aea?aeiei ii??aiyii c iaeeie/ieie aeoaie
aeeneieaoe?eiiai eiacaiiy.

I?e iia?eueieo (0,02 E/n) iaa??aao o no?oeoo?? c?ace?a
na?aaeiuei-aoaeaoeaaeo nieaa?a, iaa??oeo o aeaioaciiio (( ( () — noai?
aei oaiia?aoo?, ieae/eo a?ae Ai, niinoa??aaeanue cia/ia e?euee?noue
oeaiaioeoieo /anoie. Iiaeaeueoee iaa??a ia aeeeeeaa nooo?aeo ci?i o
oaciaiio neeaae? ? ia i?ecaiaeea aei ci?ie noaio no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo,
ui eiio?iethaaeinue ca aeiiiiiaith ?aioaai?anueei? oa aeaeo?iiii?
aeeo?aeoe??. Iaa??a aei 723 E i?ecaiaeea aei cieaeaiiy aonoeie
aeeneieaoe?e ? ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? oeaiaioeoo (ii??aiyii c eiai
e?euee?noth a no?oeoo?? nieaao i?ney iaa??ao aei 573 – 673 E). I?e
oeueiio oeaiaioeo cina?aaeaeoaaany a iaeanoyo i?ae??a?a oa a?aieoeue
e?enoae?a ia?oaineoo. A iaea?eueo e?oiieo e?enoaeao ia?oaineoo ae?eyiee
oeaiaioeoo caa??aaeenue i?e iaa??a? aaciina?aaeiuei aei 748 E. Ia oea
aeacoaaee oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia?oaineoo a ?aoeaenao
oeaiaioeoo. I?e iaa??a? aei oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo cai?ioiiai ( ( ( —
ia?aoiaeo (783 E) ia ?aioaaiia?aiao a?ae ia?ooiieo c?ace?a
niinoa??aaeenue eeoa aeaui ?icieo? aceiooaeueii a?aeia?aaeaiiy a?ae
iiiie?enoae?a a?aeiouaiiai ia?oaineoo ? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo. Aea i?ney
iaa??ao caaa?oiaaieo c?ace?a aei 793 – 823 E ?aioaaiia?ao?/ii
o?enoaaeenue e?i?? a?ae IN aonoai?oo. Aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? aeai?
aeacoaaee ia cia/ia c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? iiaeo ae??aieo aonoai?oieo
ca?ai. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue o oaiiiio iie? na?ae/eee i?i oa, ui
ia?o? ca?iaeee oaeeo ?ae?enoae?ciaaieo ca?ai o ?aaa?niaaiiio aonoai?o?
c’yaeyeenue a iaeanoyo c i?aeaeuaiith aonoeiith aeeneieaoe?e ?
?icoaoiaoaaeenue aaciina?aaeiuei a?ey /anoie oeaiaioeoo.

Aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? oa ?aioaaiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeacothoue
ia cia/io ?ieue aoaeaoeth a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy IN. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
iieacaee, ui i?e iecueeeo oaeaeeinoyo iaa??ao i?e OOeI ( ( ( —
ia?aoai?aiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao ca?aeiaiiy ( — oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
aoaeaoeai, yea ? iane?aeeii ooai?aiiy oeaiaioeoo. Oi?ioaaiiy
oeaiaioeoieo /anoie ni?ey? ?icaeoeia? i?ioean?a ?ae?enoae?caoe?? o
aoaeaoeaaeo nieaaao (ia a?aei?io a?ae a?ia?ieo nieaa?a oeio I31, aea
iie?e?enoae?/ia neeaaeiaa ia aoea aeyaeaia). I?e/eiith oeueiai ? ia
o?eueee caieaeaia ?ooeea?noue aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e, yea
iaoiiaeaia iayai?noth /anoie oeaiaioeoo, aea e i?aeaeuaia ?o aonoeia
iiaeeco oeeo /anoie.

?icae?e VI. No?oeoo?i? ci?ie a nieaaao nenoaie Fe-Nd-B i?e

OOeI iaaeiei oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ?? ?iaeo

?icae?e i?enay/aiee aea/aiith no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a nieaaao nenoaie

Fe-Nd-B i?e iao?aaeeoe?eiiio aeae? oa?i?/iiai aieeao – OOeI iaaeiei
oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ae?oaiai ?iaeo.

A?aeiii, ui a iino?eieo iaai?oao nenoaie Fe-Nd-B o iiiie?enoae? iniiaii?
iaai?oii? oace Fe14Nd2B ?nio? a?aaionueea iai?iia iaai?oino?eeoe?y

(> 2 %), yea iaoiiaeaia eeoa cae?ciith i?aea?aoeith. Oeae aeniiaie noaa
i?e/eiith aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao OOeI iaaeiei oi/ee oaciaiai
ia?aoiaeo ?? ?iaeo ia no?oeoo?iee noai aeacaieo iaai?o?a ?, ye
iane?aeie, ia oi?ioaaiiy aenieieia?oeeoeaiiai noaio a ieo.

Oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy iaai?o?a neeaaeo Fe76Nd16B8 aeeiioaaeinue o aaeooi? a
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 563 ( 623 E “iaaeiei” oi/ee Eth?? (On = 589 E).

Aiae?c aeeo?aeoia?ai, ye? aoee io?eiai? a?ae iiaa?oi? aeo?aeieo oa
oa?iioeeeeiaaieo c?ace?a iieacaa, ui aeecueei 90 % iaeneioi?a
?aeaioeo?eoaaeenue, ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy a?ae a?aoee iniiaii? oace
Fe14Nd2B. Iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ?ioaineaiinoae a?aeia?aaeaiue oaaee/iei
cia/aiiyi aeacoaaea ia aeineoue cia/io oaenoo?iaai?noue c?ace?a, i?e/iio
iai?yiie oaenoo?e ni?aiaaeaa c iai?yieii a?n? n oao?aaiiaeueii? oace
Fe14Nd2B. C?inoaiiy e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a ia i?ecaaei aei ci?ie
oaciaiai neeaaeo. I?ioa niinoa??aaany aeayeee ia?a?iciiae?e
?ioaineaiinoae e?i?e, yeee aoa iia’ycaiee ye c ?icaeoeii oa?i?/ieo
iai?oa, ui aeieeaee a i?ioean? OOeI, oae ? c? ci?iith i?oaeieo iai?oa,
ye? aeieeaee aiane?aeie /anoeiaiai ?ic/eiaiiy aeenia?nieo aeeth/aiue o
oac? Fe14Nd2B, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeinue iaoaeia?ao?/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie.

Aeey aeo?aeieo nieaa?a aeaii? nenoaie iniiaiei iaoai?ciii oi?ioaaiiy
eia?oeeoeaii? neee ? iaoai?ci cao?eiee ooai?aiiy ca?iaee?a
ia?aiaai?/oaaiiy. I?ioa, aiae?coth/e iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?iiai noaio
iaai?o?a i?ney ??cii? e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
e ?ioee iaoai?ci – aaeueioaaiiy aeiiaiieo a?aieoeue ia ??ciiai oeio
iaiaeii??aeiinoyo no?oeoo?e – oaeiae aeaaaa nooo?aee aianie o oi?ioaaiiy
aenieieia?oeeoeaiiai noaio.

Oeueiai aeniiaeo aeicaieea ae?eoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c caeaaeiino?
aaee/ei In ? Ar, a oaeiae na?aaeiueiai ?ici??o ca?ia ? i?e?ioaa?aeino?
iniiaii? oace a?ae e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a. Ci?ie In ? Ar iineee
iaiiiioiiiee oa?aeoa?: ia e?ea?e In(N) i?e N = 100 niinoa??aaany
iaeneioi, ei?aethth/ee c i?i?iaeueiei cia/aiiyi Ar i?e oaeiio ae
cia/aii? N (?en. 2).

Iaiiiioiiia caeaaei?noue i?e?ioaa?aeino? a?ae e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a
I((N) (c iaeneioiii i?e N = 100) iaoiiaethaaeanue aieeaii eiiieaeno
oaeoi??a: aeieeiaiiyi oa ?aeaenaoe??th i?oaeieo iai?oa a ca?i?
aiane?aeie iaeiie/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a i?ae /an OOeI, oi?ioaaiiyi
oa ianooiiei ?ic/eiaiiyi ae??aiiaeenia?nieo aeeth/aiue ia?aiaai?oiiai
ai?eaeo oeio Fe4NdB4 oiui. Ooai?aiiy oa ianooiia ?ic/eiaiiy
iae?ineii?/ieo aeeth/aiue na?ae/eei i?i ?nioaaiiy aeineoue aenieeo
cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc??, ye? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai noaio a nieaa? iiaee iaa?oue ci?ithaaoe ciae. E??i
c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? ?ooeeaino? aoii?a aeeooiaeoth/eo aeaiaio?a, o
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaea oaeiae ci?ia aonoeie
aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae, yea e aoea iaei??th c i?e/ei ci?ie
oaeaeeino? aeeooc??. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui i?e iaai?e e?eueeino?
oa?iioeeee?a a?aeaoaaany no?e iaaeeeoeiaeo aeeneieaoe?e ia ciia ooai?ai?
a?aieoe?, ine?eueee, ii/eiath/e c 50 oa?iioeeee?a e?euee?noue aeeth/aiue
ii/eiaea iinooiiai ciaiooaaoenue.

?en.2. Caeaaei?noue eia?oeeoeaii? neee In (e?eaa 1) ? caeeoeiai?
?iaeoeoe?? Br (e?eaa 2) a?ae e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a

E??i cacia/aieo ?acoeueoao?a ia ei?enoue oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i aeineoue
cia/io ?ieue iaoai?cio aaeueioaaiiy aeiiaiieo no?iie o oi?ioaaii?
iaai?oiaei?noeeo oa?aeoa?enoee nieaao na?ae/ea ua e oie oaeo, ui a
i?ioean? oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy a i?e?ino?oeoo?? ia i?aeca?aiieo a?aieoeyo
iniiaii? oace nieaao niinoa??aaeinue ooai?aiiy i?ioyaeieo ae?eyiie
ia?aiaai?oii? oace Fe4NdB4. Oea iiaeiii aoei a i?ecaiaeeoe aei ooai?aiiy
iane??cii? aeiiaiii? no?oeoo?e ? nooo?aiai ciaioaiiy In. I?ioa
aenia?eiaioaeueii, iaaiaee, aoei cao?eniaaii c?inoaiiy eia?oeeoeaii?
neee, ui ye?ac ? na?ae/eei i?i ia?aaaaei?noue oeueiai iaoai?cio ??
oi?ioaaiiy.

?icae?e VII. Aieea eaca?iiai oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy ia no?oeoo?iee

noai aii?oieo nieaa?a ia (Fe, Co) — iniia?

A ?icae?e? ina?oeai? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy i?aeoe/ii cian?i iiaiai aeaeo
oa?i?/iiai aieeao ia AIN ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a cae?ca oa
eiaaeueoo – iecueeiaia?aaoe/ii? eaca?ii? oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee c
aeiciaaiith aonoeiith iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Aeey aea/aiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?e oaeiio
aeae? OOeI ia?aeaeueii aeeiioaaeenue aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?iiai noaio
i?ney ?cioa?i?/ieo a?aeiae?a i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao.

I?ioeane no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a AIN i?e OOeI a aeie?enoae?caoe?eieo ?aaeeiao
aea/aeenue ?aioaaiia?ao?/ii, a iniiaiiio, ia eeane/ieo nieaaao nenoaie
Fe-B. I?ney ia/eneaiiy no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ? io?eiaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ia?ieo ooieoe?e ?iciiae?eo aoii?a cae?enithaaeanue
iiaeaeueia ?aeiino?oeoe?y nieaao o aeo?aeiiio noai? oa i?ney eaca?ii?
ia?iaee (EI). Aoei iieacaii, ui eaca?ia OOeI a aeie?enoae?/ieo ?aaeeiao
i?ecaaea aei ci?ie ?ici???a eeanoa??a a ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee. Na?aaei?e
ia’?i ia iaeio ii?o aeey aeo?aeiiai noaio iaoaeaai? i?aenenoaie Fe75B25
neeaaeaa 0,00433 ii3, a aeey ia?iaeaiiai — 0,00422 ii3. A ?aieao
eeanoa?iiai i?aeoiaeo oeae ?acoeueoao iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ye ca?eueoaiiy
?ici???a u?eueii oiaeiaaieo eeanoa??a ? ciaioaiiy ia’?io i?aeeeanoa?ieo
iaeanoae.

Aenie? oaeaeeino? iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeaiiy, ui aeinyaathoueny i?e
eaca?i?e OOeI aeicaieeee aeyaeoe ?yae caeiiii??iinoae a i?ioiaeaeaii?
i?ioean?a e?enoae?caoe?? a AIN ii??aiyii c e?enoae?caoe??th i?ae /an
?cioa?i?/ieo a?aeiae?a. I?e EI, aiane?aeie ei?ioei/aniino? oaieiai?
ae??, aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane aeinoaoiuei ?icaeiooenue ia anoeaaee. Oea
i?ecaiaeeei aei oiai, ui oaiia?aoo?a ii/aoeo e?enoae?caoe?? cnoaaeanue a
a?e a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. Ca?aeii oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a
?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey a cii? eaca?iiai aieeao (iaaaaeaieo o
aeiaeaoeo) oeae ia?aa??a iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe 150 — 250 E.

I?e iecueeeo aonoeiao iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy q i?e EI, ca?aeii
aeeo?aeoiiao?e/ieo aeaieo, an? c?acee AIN nenoaie Fe-B caeeoaeenue
?aioaaiiaii?oieie ye c aieo eiioaeoii?, oae ? c aieo a?eueii?
iiaa?oiiue. Iinooiiaa i?aeaeuaiiy q i?ecaiaeeei aei oiai, ui ia
aeeo?aeoia?aiao a?ae ia?iaeaii? eiioaeoii? iiaa?oi? ia oii? aii?oiiai
aaei oi?ioaaeenue aeeo?aeoe?ei? iaeneioie a?ae e?enoae?/ieo oac oeio ( —
Fe oa oao?aaiiaeueiiai ai?eaeo Fe3B. I?e iiaeaeueoiio c?inoaii? q ia
aeeo?aeoia?aiao a?ae c?ace?a aeiaaoaeoe/ieo nieaa?a niinoa??aaeenue
oaeiae a?aeia?aaeaiiy a?ae a?aoee noaa?eueiiai ai?eaeo Fe2B.

E?enoae?caoe?y i?aeoe/ii an?o aeine?aeaeaieo AIN nenoaie Fe-B i?e
?iioeueni?e eaca?i?e OOeI a?aeaoaaeanue, a iniiaiiio, oae, ye ? i?e
?cioa?i?/ieo a?aeiaeao, oiaoi e?euee?noue ai?o aecia/aea
oaiia?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae ?iciaaeo oao?aaiiaeueiiai ai?eaeo Fe3B. I?ioa
i?ney eaca?iiai oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy aeeo?aeoiiao?e/ii niinoa??aaeenue ?
aeaye? aeineoue nooo?a? a?aei?iiino?. Oae, a aeiaaoaeoe/iiio nieaa?
Fe85.9B14.1 aoea cao?eniaaia ci?ia oeio e?enoae?caoe?? c ia?aeiii? ia
aaoaeoe/io. Oiaoi, ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao e?enoae?caoe?? a aii?oi?e
iao?eoe? ooai?thaaeenue ia o?eueee e?enoaee ( — oace ia iniia? cae?ca,
aea e noi?o ?? c oao?aaiiaeueiei ai?eaeii Fe3B. Aiaeia?/iee aoaeo
niinoa??aaany oaeiae ? aeey nieaao Fe85B15.

Aeoiaey/e c ?nioaaiiy iaoanoaa?eueii? ??aiiaaae i?ae oaa?aeei ?ic/eiii
ai?o a ( — cae?c? ? ia??aiiaaaeiith oacith Fe3B, ci?ia oeio
e?enoae?caoe?? iiaea aooe iiyniaiith c ianooiieo i??eoaaiue. Ine?eueee a
oiiaao eaca?iiai iaa??ao iaeneiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a, ui aeinyaa?oueny ia
iiaa?oi?, ia?aaeuo? oaiia?aoo?o ?cioa?i?/iiai a?aeiaeo ia i?ioyc?
aiaeeie, i?e ye?e ii/eia?oueny e?enoae?caoe?y, ia 200 — 240 E (aeey
aeaiiai nieaao), oi oaea ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aeicaiey? aeinyaoe
e?i?? aaoaeoeee ia ia??aiiaaaei?e ae?aa?ai? noaio ? iaa?oiooaaoe
aaoaeoe/io e?enoae?caoe?th ca aeiiiiiaith e?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a oaieiai?
ae??. A?aeiii, ui eiee ai?no ai?o ia ia?aaeuo? 17 ao. % (oi/ea aaoaeoeee
ia ??aiiaaaei?e ae?aa?ai? noaio), oi ??aiiaaaeia e?enoae?caoe?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ia?aeiiei iaoai?ciii. Aea ca?eueooth/e oaeaee?noue
iaa??ao aeiaaoaeoe/ieo nieaa?a (? aeaui ia?aa??aath/e ?o aeua
e?i?? iaoanoaa?eueii? aaoaeoeee) oa i?eai?/oth/e oei naiei aeeooc?ei?
i?ioeane, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei oi?ioaaiiy ca?iaee?a e?enoae?a ( — oace,
iiaeia ia?aeoe aei ?aae?caoe?? aaoaeoe/ii? e?enoae?caoe??. Oiaoi, iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?nio? aeayea e?eoe/ia oaeaee?noue iaa??ao ?
oaiia?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae, yeee iaeiicia/ii aecia/a?oueny oe??th
oaeaee?noth, iaiao?aei? aeey ci?ie oeio e?enoae?caoe?? c ia?aeiiiai ia
aaoaeoe/iee. Oaea oaeaee?noue aoaea oei a?eueoith, /ei neeuei?oa
noao?iiao??y nieaao a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aaoaeoe/ii? c aieo iaioeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e ai?o. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui aeey an?o aeine?aeaeaieo a
?iaio? aeiaaoaeoe/ieo nieaa?a i?ae /an eaca?ii? OOeI o?enoaaeanue
aaoaeoe/ia e?enoae?caoe?y, i?e?iaeii c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui oaeaeeino?
iaa??ao i?e oaeiio aeae? oaieiai? ae??, ye EI, ia?aaeuoaaee e?eoe/io,
yea caaacia/oaaea ci?io oeio e?enoae?caoe?? c ia?aeiiiai ia aaoaeoe/iee.

Ca?aeii aeaieo ?acenoiiao?e/iiai aiae?co oaiia?aoo?a ii/aoeo ? e?ioey
e?enoae?caoe?? (i?e ianooiiiio iia?eueiiio iaa??a?) i?aeaeuoaaeanue c?
ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? eaca?ieo ia?iaie a aeie?enoae?caoe?eieo
?aaeeiao, oiaoi a?aeaoaaeinue ci?uaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo
e?enoae?caoe?? a a?e a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo? (?en. 3).

?en. 3. Ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo (1) oa caaa?oaiiy (2) ia?oi? noaae??
e?enoae?caoe?? AIN Fe85B15 ? Fe75B25 oa oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo ae?oai?
noaae?? (3) e?enoae?caoe?? AIN Fe85B15 i?e iaa??a? c? oaeaee?noth 0,20
E/n a caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? eaca?ieo ia?iaie

OOeI c iecueeeie oaeaeeinoyie iaa??ao, i?e yeeo ia aoaeo
oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy iaeeaaeaany aoaeo a?aeiaeo, i?ecaaea aei oiai, ui
i?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a?aeaoaaeenue ?iaeoa: i?ney iaeiiai
oa?iioeeeeo (N = 1) c?acie caeeoaany ?aioaaiiaii?oiei. Aeieeiaiiy
aeineoue ?ioaineaieo aeeo?aeoe?eieo iaeneioi?a a?ae a?aoee ( — oace ia
oii? aii?oiiai aaei niinoa??aaeinue i?ney o?ueio oa?iioeeee?a.
Iiaeaeueoa oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy (N = 5) i?ecaiaeeei, e??i oiai, aei
oi?ioaaiiy ia oii? neaaei ae?aaeaiiai aii?oiiai aaei iaeneioi?a a?ae
a?aoee oao?aaiiaeueiiai ai?eaeo Fe3B. I?ney aeanyoe oa?iioeeee?a
c?acie iiai?noth e?enoae?coaaany ? ia ?aioaaiia?aiao o?enoaaeenue
iaeneioie o?eueee a?ae e?enoae?/ieo a?aoie aeaio aeacaieo oac.

I?aoeec?ei? ia/eneaiiy ia?aiao?a a?aoee ( — oace a nieaa? Fe85B15
iieacaee, ui aei aeanyoe oa?iioeeee?a a?i iaa iaioa cia/aiiy, i?ae aeey
/enoiai cae?ca. Aeei?enoiaoth/e i?aaeei Aaaa?aea ? aaaaeath/e, ui
ciaioaiiy ia?aiao?a a a?aoee aeeeeeaia cai?uaiiyi aoii?a cae?ca
aoiiaie ai?o, aoea ia/eneaia eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ic/eiaiiai a cae?c? ai?o.
Aiia aeyaeeanue aiiiaeueii aenieith (0,8 ao. %) i?ney o?ueio
oa?iioeeee?a. I?ney aeanyoe oa?iioeeee?a eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ic/eiaiiai ai?o
cieceeanue, a iaaeao iioeaee ia/eneaiue, aei ioey. Iaaaaeaiee ?acoeueoao
aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c oyaeaiiyie i?i e?enoae?caoe?th i?e aenieeo
oaeaeeinoyo ioieiaeaeaiiy ?icieaao. Ae?enii, yeui i?eionoeoe
?nioaaiiy aiaeia?? i?ae e?enoae?caoe??th c ?icieaao ? e?enoae?caoe??th
?c aii?oiiai noaio, oi o a?aeiia?aeiino? c caeiiaie ia??aiiaaaeii?
oa?iiaeeiai?ee aeieeiaiiy iaoanoaa?eueii? oace iiaeiii i?ecaanoe
aei ooai?aiiy ?ioi? oace c? neeaaeii, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
??aiiaaaeiiai, yeei o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ? ia?ane/aiee ?ic/ei ai?o a ( —
cae?c?, oiaoi i?ae oacith Fe3B ? ( — oaa?aeei ?ic/eiii ?nio?
iaoanoaa?eueia ??aiiaaaa, yea iiaea aooe iienaia ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoanoaa?eueii? ae?aa?aie noaio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eaca?ii? OOeI ia i?ioeane e?enoae?caoe?? a
neeaaeiieaaiaaieo AIN aeicaieeee aeyaeoe ?yae iiaeo caeiiii??iinoae.
Oae, o nieaa? Fe61Co20Si5B14 aoea aeyaeaia ci?ia noaie e?enoae?caoe??:
yeui i?e ?cioa?i?/ieo a?aeiaeao e?enoae?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiai aii?oiiai
nieaao a?aeaoaaeanue ca noaiith

oi aenie? oaeaeeino? iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeaiiy, ui aeinyaathoueny i?ae
/an ?iioeuenii? EI, nooo?ai ci?ieee noaio e?enoae?caoe??:

aea oeeo?aie iaae no??eeaie iicia/aia aonoeia iiooaeiino? eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, IAo/i2;

— oao?aaiiaeueiee oa i?oi?iia?/iee ai?eaee, a?aeiia?aeii.

I?e aonoeiao iiooaeiino? i?iiaiy, ye? ia ia?aaeuoaaee 29 IAo/i2, noaia
e?enoae?caoe?? aoea aiaeia?/iith aei o???, yea ?aae?ciaoaaeanue i?ae /an
ia’?iieo a?aeiae?a. Aea i?e ca?eueoaii? q aei 32 IAo/i2 ia
?aioaaiia?aiao niinoa??aaeenue iaeneioie a?ae a?aoee i?oi?iia?/iiai
ai?eaeo Fe3Bo. Iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy q aei 35 IAo/i2 i?ecaiaeeei aei
iiaii? e?enoae?caoe?? iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a aii?oii? no??/ee, ye? a?aee
o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? aeeo?aeoe?eii? ea?oeie. I?e oeueiio iaeii/anii
o?enoaaeenue a?aeia?aaeaiiy a?ae e?enoae?/ieo a?aoie /ioe?ueio oac: ( —
(Fe,Co), Fe3Bo, Fe3Bo, (Fe,Co)2B. Ni?a?nioaaiiy /ioe?ueio oac o
iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? aeeeeeaeinue iaeei (4 in) /anii oa?i?/ii? ae?? ia
c?acie i?ae /an EI, aiane?aeie /iai ?iciaae iaoanoaa?eueieo oac Fe3Bo ?
Fe3Bo ia anoeaaa a?aeaoaaoenue.

Aiae?c ?aioaaiia?ao?/ieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui i?e an?o aeei?enoaieo aeaeao
oa ?aaeeiao oa?i?/ii? ae??, ia?oith oacith, yea e?enoae?coaaeanue, a
neeaaeiieaaiaaiiio AIN Co68Fe4Cr4Si13B11? eiaaeueo (oaae. 1). I?e/iio
aecia/ai? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aiao?e a?aoee oe??? oace aeyaeeenue aeaui
iaioeie a?ae oaaee/ieo, ui iiynith?oueny ?ic/eii?noth eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a o eiaaeueo? ca?aeii ??aiiaaaeieo ae?aa?ai noaio.
E?enoae?caoe?y nieaao i?e ia’?iieo a?aeiaeao iaea aaaaoinooiaiaaee
neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?. Aea caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oie oaeo, ui na?aae ia?oeo
oac, ye? e?enoae?cothoueny, aoee aeyaeai? oace (Ni,Si)3B oa Ni2Si,
no?oeoo?i? oeie yeeo (Fe3C oa neeaaeia aeania a?aoea Ni2Si,
a?aeiia?aeii) ni?eythoue oi?ioaaiith aii?oiiai noaio i?e C?N ?, ye
a?aeiii, iiaeii? oi?ioaaoenue ia?oeie a i?ioean? e?enoae?caoe??.
Oa?i?/iee ?ioa?aae no?eeino? oeeo oac i?e aeai?e noao?iiao??? neeaaeo
aeineoue iaiaaeaiee. Oiio i?e iiaeaeueoiio i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e, ye ?
i/?eoaaeinue, niinoa??aaany ?yae oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue, yeee i?ecaiaeea
aei ooai?aiiy noaa?eueiiai noaio

(Ni + (Ni,Si)2B). Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?cioa?i?/ieo a?aeiae?a, i?e an?o
?aaeeiao EI o?enoaaeinue oi?ioaaiiy aeeo?aeoe?eieo iaeneioi?a a?ae
e?enoae?/ieo a?aoie Ni oa (Ni,Si)2B ia oii? aii?oiiai aaei ia ii/aoeiaeo
aoaiao e?enoae?caoe??, ui eaaei iiynith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaaaaeaii?
aeua iiaeae? ci?ie ?aaeoe?? e?enoae?caoe?? c ia?aeiii? ia aaoaeoe/io.

Oaeei /eiii, cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? oaieiaiai aieeao ia AIN,
yea aeinyaa?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii? EI, iiaea (a caeaaeiino? a?ae
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo) nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia o?eueee ia noaio e?enoae?caoe??
(ii?yaeie oaciooai?aiiy), aea e ci?ithaaoe oei ?aaeoe?? e?enoae?caoe??
(c ia?aeiii? ia aaoaeoe/io, iai?eeeaae).

A i?ioean? eaca?ii? OOeI i?aeoe/ii an?o AIN a ?aaeeiao, ui i?ecaiaeeee
aei e?enoae?caoe??, caaaeyee iaaeaenieei oaeaeeinoyi iaa??a?a oa
ioieiaeaeaiue ?aioaaiia?ao?/ii aoa onoaiiaeaiee oaeo iaeiinoi?iiiuei?
e?enoae?caoe?? aii?oieo no??/ie. No?oeoo?o, ui noi?ioaaeanue a
?acoeueoao? oeueiai, iiaeia oyaeoe ye aeaioa?iao aai “naiaea?/iao”: c
aieo ii?ii?iaii? iiaa?oi? no??/ea aoea e?enoae?/iith, a c aieo
iaia?iaeaii? eaca?ii iiaa?oi? – ?aioaaiiaii?oiith. I?e/iio, aeei?enoaiiy
eaca?iiai i?iiaiy, ye aeaea?aea aeiciaaiiai iaa??ao, aeaei ciiao
aeineoue eaaeiai oi?aae?iiy oiaueiith e?enoae?/iiai oa?o oa /anoeiai
eiai oaciaei neeaaeii oeyoii aa??thaaiiy ia?aiao?aie aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 1

Oaciaee neeaae C?N no??/ee nieaao No68Fe4Cr4Si13B11 a i?ioean?

e?enoae?caoe?? i?e ??cieo aeaeao oa ?aaeeiao iaa??ao

Aeaee oa ?aaeeie iaa??ao Oaciaee neeaae

<773 A* 778 A+Co ?cioa?i?/iee 793 A+Co+(Ni,Si)3B+Ni2Si a?aeiae, 808 Co+(Ni,Si)3B+Ni2Si+ne.X** O, E 943 Co+Ni2Si+Ni23B6+(Ni,Si)B+(Ni,Si)2B+ne.X 988 Co+Ni2Si+Ni23B6+(Ni,Si)B+(Ni,Si)2B >1113 Co+(Ni,Si)2B

?iioeuenia <20 A eaca?ia ia?iaea 25 A+Co+(Ni,Si)2B q, IAo/i2 >35 Co+(Ni,Si)2B+(Ni,Si)3B

Ia?iaea NI2 eaca?ii >0,30 A

P = 200 Ao 0,25 A+Co+(Ni,Si)B+ne.(Ni,Si)2B

v , i/n <0,20 Co+(Ni,Si)2B+(Ni,Si)B I?ei?oee: *) A - aii?oiee noai; **) ne. - ne?aee oace. ?icae?e VIII. No?oeoo?a e?enoae?/ieo nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca i?ney eaca?iiai oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aea/aiith aieeao eaca?ii? ia?iaee, cie?aia ?iioeuenii? eaca?ii? OOeI, ia iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao e?enoae?/ieo o aeo?aeiiio noai? nieaa?a. Aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe iathoue cia/iee i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee a?eueo?noue ?o iiaea ciaeoe aaciina?aaei? aeei?enoaiiy. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao ??cieo ?aaeei?a ?iioeuenii? EI ia ?ic/eii?noue aoaeaoeth a ( - oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? Fe-Ni nieaa?a, ye? ai?uoaaee ??cio eiai e?euee?noue ca oeooith, aoei iieacaii, ui eaca?ia iieaaeaiiy aenieiaoaeaoeaaeo Fe-Ni-C nieaa?a, ui ai?uothoue a?eueoa 1,8 ian. % N, aeeeeeaei c?inoaiiy ia?aiao?o a(, oiaoi a?aeiia?aeaei ?ic/eiaiith aoaeaoeth o (-oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? a e?eueeino?, yea ia?aaeuoaaea a?aie/ia cia/aiiy aeey nieaa?a o aeo?aeiiio noai? (ia 0,3 - 0,5 ian. %). C?inoaiiy aonoeie iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaaei ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?ic/eiiino? aoaeaoeth. Aiiiaeueii aenieiai ?ic/eiaiiy aoaeaoeth a aonoai?o?, yea (ca?aeii aeayeeo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo) ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey /aaoi?a i?e iiae?aiiio aeae? oa?i?/iiai aieeao, ia aoei cao?eniaaii. I/aaeaeii, ui oeyoe aiiiaeueiiai i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth o?aaa ooeaoe a e?iaoe/ieo oaeoi?ao oaieiai? ae??: ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy ?icieaao oa ciaioaii? o?eaaeino? ae?? ?iioeueno aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Aiane?aeie aeieeiaiiy cia/ieo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i i?ney eaca?iiai oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy (iniaeeai a ?aaeei? iieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi?) iii?oieo ci?i caciaaaee ? iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a, cie?aia iaaea ieeiiino? (0,2 aonoai?oo, yea ?ic?aoiaoaaeanue i?e aeei?enoaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ciie eaca?iiai aieeao (CEA) – ?ici???a ca?ai oa aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e. O aea?aieo ca ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy aacaoaeaoeaaeo Fe-Ni nieaaao, cie?aia o nieaa? I31, iaaea ieeiiino? (0,2 c?inea c 170 IIa (o aeo?aeiiio noai?) aei 470 IIa (i?ney ia?iaee). Oiaoi EI i?ecaaea aei oiai, ui i?e??no iaae? ieeiiino? aonoai?oo iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o a?eueoa, i?ae o 2,5 ?ace ia?aaeuoaaa iaaeo ieeiiino? aonoai?oo o aeo?aeiiio noai?. Oaeee i?e??no cae?cii-i?eaeaaiai aonoai?oo i?ney EI aeyaeany i?aeoe/ii ??aiei i?e?inoia? (0,2 a ?acoeueoao? oaciaiai iaeeaio. I?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao ??cieo aeae?a oa?i?/ii? ae??, cie?aia ?cioa?i?/ieo a?aeiae?a oa aenioaiia?aoo?ii? OOeI a naeioeaaeo eoiaeyo a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 1073 ( 1323 E ia no?oeoo?iee noai ciie eaca?iiai c’?aeiaiiy nieaa?a c ??cieie oeiaie e?enoae?/ieo a?aoie - 49EO2 oa O18I10O, ye? i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? iaee IOeE - oa AOeE - a?aoee a?aeiia?aeii. Aoei iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?o eaca?iiai c’?aeiaiiy oeeo nieaa?a iiaeia aaaaeaoe “iaoai?/iith noi?ooth” aeo?aeieo eiiiiiaio?a ?c ?icieoeie a?aieoeyie nieaaeaiiy, ui aeeeeeaeinue aca?iiith aeeooc??th aeaiaio?a, ye? aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo nieaa?a, ui c’?aeioaaeenue. Iaa??a ciie eaca?iiai aieeao aei oaiia?aoo? 1273 – 1353 E c ianooiiei aa?ooaaiiyi i?ecaiaeea aei ooai?aiiy iaeii??aeiiai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. I?ney cacia/aii? OOeI, yea caaacia/oaaea ?aae?caoe?th ( ( ( - ia?aoai?aiue o nieaa? 49EO2 (t((( ( 1273 ( 1293 E), c? c?inoaiiyi e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a, oi?ioaaeenue aaeeeieooia? a?aieoe? a iae?iiaeanoyo nieaao 49EO2, ye? i?ecaiaeeee aei ?o iinooiiaiai iiae??aiaiiy, i?ioa “iaoai?/ia noi?o” aeo?aeieo eiiiiiaio?a, yea niinoa??aaeanue a CEA aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney eaca?iiai c’?aeiaiiy nieaa?a, caa??aaeanue. Iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee CEA (cie?aia i?e?ioaa?ae?noue) i?ney oaeiai aeaeo ia?iaee aeyaeeenue iioeiaeueieie, ui aeaco? ia iiaeeea?noue ?? aeei?enoaiiy aeey iie?auaiiy neoaeaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ciie eaca?iiai c’?aeiaiiy iaoa??ae?a iiae?aiiai eeano. I?e aea/aii? aieeao ?iioeuenii? eaca?ii? OOeI ia no?oeoo?o iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a neeaaeii-eaaiaaiiai /aaoio, o?i?/iee neeaae yeiai aoa i?aeoe/ii ?aeaioe/iei aei oiai, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ?iciiae?eueieo aae?a o aaoiiia?e? CAC-1102 ("Oaa??y"), aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ??ce? oaiia?aoo?i? ia?aiaaee, a oaeiae oacia? ia?aoiaee, ye? a?aeaoaaeenue a i?ioean? EI, aeeeeeaee ci?io caeeoeiaeo iai?oa ia ia?iaeai?e iiaa?oi?. I?ney ?o aei??thaaiiy ?aioaai?anueeei iaoiaeii aeyaeeinue, ui o aeo?aeiiio noai? caeeoeia? iai?oae aoee noeneoth/eie (- 210 IIa), ui iia’ycaia, i/aaeaeii, c oaoiieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie aeaioiaeaiiy c?ace?a iaoiaeii a?aeeeaaiiy. Eaca?ia OOeI a ?aaeei? ia?aaeiieaaeaiiy aeeeeeaea ci?io ciaea caeeoeiaeo iai?oa ia iiaa?oi? (+140 IIa), a ca?eueoaiiy aonoeie iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yea i?ecaiaeeei aei iieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi?, aeeeeeaei iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy ?icoyaoth/eo iai?oa (+190 IIa). Iaoaeia?ao?/ii aoei iieacaii, ui a i?ioean? EI ?aae?coaaeinue ?ic/eiaiiy a?ao?oo a ?icieaa? ? i?ney aaoiaa?ooaaiiy a cii? iieaaeaiiy oi?ioaaeanue no?oeoo?a a?eiai /aaoio. A oea icia/aei, ui i?ae /an oaa?ae?iiy ?icieaao a?ao?o ia aeae?eyany ? oaa?ae?iiy a?aeaoaaeinue ca iaoanoaa?eueiith ae?aa?aiith Fe - Fe3C, ui e niinoa??aaeinue ?aioaaiia?ao?/ii. Aeiaeaoie A. ?ic?aooiie oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey a cii? eaca?ii? ae?? c a?aooaaiiyi ?iciiae?eo iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy ca /anii Aeey iai?ane?i/aiiai o?ea oa o?ea ne?i/aii? oiaueie ?ica’ycai? caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino?, a yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny oaiia?aoo?ia iiea, ui aeieea? a CEA aiane?aeie ?iioeuenii? EI iiaa?oi? ie?aiei ?iioeuenii c a?aooaaiiyi ?aaeueii? caeaaeiino? aonoeie iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae /ano ia i?ioyc? ae?? ?iioeueno. Iieacaii, ui ?aeaae?caoe?y caeaaeiino? aonoeie iiooaeiino? ?iioeueniiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae /ano oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy e?i?eii? eiia?iaoe?? ooieoe?e Oaa?naeaea i?e ?ic?aooieao oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey, i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaeuaieo cia/aiue iaeneiaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e oa iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy, ye? aeinyaathoueny ia ii?ii?iai?e iiaa?oi?. Io?eiai? a?ao?/i? cia?aaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey a CEA (?en. 4). a a ?en. 4. Oaiia?aoo?ia iiea, ui aeieea? a iai?aiane?i/aiiiio o?e? (a) oa a o?e? ne?i/aii? oiaueie (a) i?ae /an ae?? ia eiai iiaa?oith eaca?iiai ?iioeueno c oaioe/iith i?/eiaith no?oeoo?ith CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE Anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?ioean? oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy iiiie?enoae?a na?aaeiuei-aoaeaoeaaeo cae?cii-i?eaeaaeo nieaa?a ?aaa?niaaiee aonoai?o noaa?e?co?oueny ca ?aooiie ae?? a iniiaiiio o?ueio oaeoi??a, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae oaeaeeino? iaa??ao: aeaci???ioaoe?? non?aei?o ae?eyiie aeo?aeiiai iiiie?enoaeo, ooai?aiiy iie?e?enoae?/ii? neeaaeiai? ( - oace a iiiie?enoae?/i?e aonoai?oi?e iao?eoe? oa caaaa/aiiy i?eaeai ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo a i?ioean? cai?ioieo ( ( ( - ia?aoiae?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy ca o/anoth ( ( ( - ia?aoai?aiue eaaiaaieo aoaeaoeai cae?cii-i?eaeaaeo nieaa?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o o?i?/iiai neeaaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei noaa?e?caoe?? aai aeoea?caoe?? ianooiiiai i?yiiai ia?oaineoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy. Noaa?e?coth/a ae?y OOeI iia’ycaia c? no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie a aonoai?o? – i?aeaeuaiiyi aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e, o?aaiaioaoe??th no?oeoo?e oiui, a aeoea?coth/a - c oa?i?/iith ianoaa?euei?noth ( - oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio a ?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( - ia?aoai?aiiy, aeeeeeaiith ca?aeiaiiyi eiai aoaeaoeai. Oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy aonoai?oo aac o/ano? ( ( ( - ia?aoiae?a iiaea ?i?oe?thaaoe oa?i?/io ianoaa?euei?noue ( - oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ca ?aooiie iaeiie/aiiy oa?i?/ieo iai?oa ? aiane?aeie oeueiai aeeeeeaoe i?yia ia?oaineoia ia?aoai?aiiy a aonoai?o?. Iieacaii, ui iiaia ?ic/eiaiiy aoaeaoeth a ?aaa?niaaiiio aonoai?o? na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaaeo cae?cii-i?eaeaaeo nieaa?a ia? i?noea i?e oa?iioeeee?/i?e ia?iaoe? eeoa i?e oaeeo oaeaeeinoyo iaa??ao, ye? caaacia/othoue cae?eniaiiy cai?ioiiai ( ( ( - ia?aoai?aiiy ca cnoaiei iaoai?ciii. Cieaeaiiy oaeaeeinoae iaa??ao i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiiaiiai ?ic/eiaiiy aoaeaoeth a ( - oac? ca ?aooiie iaiaa?iaiiai cae??ieaiiy eiai a aeaoaeoao e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae a i?ioean? ?iciaaeo ia?oaineoo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaiiaia ?ic/eiaiiy aoaeaoeth a ?aaa?niaaiiio aonoai?o? aenieiaoaeaoeaaeo cae?cii-i?eaeaaeo nieaa?a i?e ( ( ( - ia?aoiae? aecia/a? ci?io o?eoaciiai iaoai?cio ia ia?o?e noaae?? ?iciaaeo ia?oaineoo, ooai?aiiai a iueiio, ia aeaioaciee, a ?acoeueoao? yeiai oi?io?oueny cai?noue aeaio eeoa iaeei ca?aeiaiee aoaeaoeai ( - oaa?aeee ?ic/ei. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae /an ?ioaineaiiai oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy (aeanyoee oa?iioeeee?a) Fe-Ni - nieaa?a ca o/anoth ( ( (- ia?aoai?aiue a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa ci?ia aeeneieaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ?aeaenaoe?? aioo??oi?o iai?oa ia iaoai?ci aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai aea?eieeoaaiiy, ui iaoiiaeaii c?inoath/ei ??aiai aioo??oi?o iai?oa oa aca?iica’yceii i?ae caeiiii??iinoyie oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? aonoai?oo ? ia?oaineoo. Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui o?aaiaioaoe?y iiiie?enoae?a ?aaa?niaaiiai aonoai?oo, aeieeath/a i?ae aieeaii oaciaiai iaeeaio i?ae /an oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee o/anoth ( ( ( - ia?aoai?aiue, aeeeeea? iiaio ia?ae?enoae?caoe?th ye aacaoaeaoeaaeo, oae ? na?aaeiuei-aoaeaoeaaeo cae?cii?eaeaaeo nieaa?a eeoa i?e oaeaeeinoyo iaa??ao, ye? caaacia/othoue cnoaiee oa?aeoa? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( - ia?aoai?aiiy. Cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa??ao a ?ioa?aae? cai?ioiiai ( ( ( - ia?aoiaeo i?e aeei?enoaii? ?iioeueniiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ye aeaea?aea iaa??ao, i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ?ie? aeeooc?eii? neeaaeiai? o oi?ioaaii? e?enoae?a ( - oace, ine?eueee ia?aoai?aiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeeth/ii ca ia?oaineoiei oeiii. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaoi?aciaa oa?iioeeee?/ia ia?iaea nieaao Fe76Nd16B8 i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie aeii?ioth/iai iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy eia?oeeoeaii? neee a iueiio c iaoai?cio cao?eiee ooai?aiiy ca?iaee?a ia?aiaai?/oaaiiy ia iaoai?ci aaeueioaaiiy aeiiaiieo no?iie ia iaiaeii??aeiinoyo no?oeoo?e, iaeiie/aiiy oa ?aeaenaoe?y yeeo ?aaoeththoueny e?euee?noth oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a ?? ?iaeo. No?oeoo?i? ci?ie, aeieeath/? a Fe76Nd16B8 iaai?oao aiane?aeie oaei? oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee i?ecaiaeyoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy iaai?oiaei?noeeo oa?aeoa?enoee aioiaeo ae?ia?a. Iai?aaii??e/iei iaoiaeii aeiaaaeaii, ui i?e??no iaae? ieeiiino? aonoai?oo, yeee aeieea? aiane?aeie eaca?ii? oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee c iieaaeaiiyi iiaa?oi?, i?aeoe/ii ni?aiaaea? c i?e?inoii (0,2 a ?acoeueoao? oaciaiai iaeeaio. Iieacaii, ui eaca?ia oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy a aeie?enoae?caoe?eieo ?aaeeiao i?aeaeuo? oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue aii?oieo nieaa?a nenoaie Fe-B, yea iieyaa? a ci?uaii? oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo e?enoae?caoe?? a a?e a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. I?e oeueiio nooi?iue aieeao eaca?ii? ia?iaee aecia/a?oueny oeiii e?enoae?caoe??: iaeneiaeueii aoaeoeaiith eaca?ia ia?iaea ? aeey aeiaaoaeoe/ieo nieaa?a, o yeeo i?e ??aiiaaaeieo oiiaao e?enoae?caoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ia?aeiiei iaoai?ciii. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui aiane?aeie iaaeaenieeo oaeaeeinoae iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeaiiy i?e ?iioeueni?e eaca?i?e oa?iioeeee?/i?e ia?iaoe? iiaa?oiiue aii?oieo no??/ie a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia iaoai?cio e?enoae?caoeaoe?? a cii? eaca?ii? ae?? c ia?aeiiiai ia aaoaeoe/iee. Ciaeaeaii niin?a io?eiaiiy aeaioa?iai? “naiaea?/iai?” no?oeoo?e oeio “aii?oia - e?enoae?/ia” ca aeiiiiiaith eaca?ii? oa?iiia?iaee iiaa?oiiue o aecia/aieo aia?aaoe/ieo ?aaeeiao. Iieacaii, ui ci?ia aonoeie iiooaeiino? eaca?iiai i?iiaiy ? nooi?iue eiai aeaoieonoaaiiy aeathoue ciiao ieaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oiaueiith e?enoae?/iiai oa?o ? /anoeiai eiai oaciaei neeaaeii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iecueeiaia?aaoe/ia ?iioeuenia eaca?ia oa?iiia?iaea a aeie?enoae?caoe?eieo ?aaeeiao i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie eeanoa?ii? aoaeiae caaa?oiaaieo c ??aeeiai noaio aii?oieo nieaa?a nenoaie Fe-B: ca?eueoaiith ?ici???a eeanoa??a oa ciaioaiith ia’?io i?aeeeanoa?ieo ii?iaeiei, ui aeeeeea? i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?/ii? noaa?eueiino? nieaa?a oe??? nenoaie. Iieacaii, ui iecueeiaia?aaoe/ia eaca?ia oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy neeaaeii-eaaiaaieo aii?oieo nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca oa eiaaeueoo aiane?aeie iaiaaeaiino? /ano eiai ae??, ia i?ioyc? yei? ia anoeaathoue a aeinoaoi?e i??? ?icaeiooenue aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane, aeeeeea? ci?io noaie e?enoae?caoe?? ? o?enaoe?th aaaaoioaciiai iaoanoaa?eueiiai noaio a cae?enoae?ciaaieo iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao aii?oieo no??/ie. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aea/aii? o?ceee oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a ? oa ?? ?iaeo c a?aooaaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a oaieiai? ae??, i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo aieeao e?eueeino? i?yieo oa cai?ioieo ia?aoai?aiue ia i?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy oa o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a. Aeei?enoaiiy aeiciaaiiai eaca?iiai iaa??ao, cai?iiiiiaaiiai a ?iaio?, a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeao aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a e?enoae?caoe?? a aii?oieo iaoaeaaeo nieaaao o ia??aiiaaaeieo oiiaao, aeecueeeo aei oi?ioaaiiy aii?oiiai noaio a i?ioean? io?eiaiiy AIN. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo ?iaioao: A?aoa?y A.I., A??aeii A.A. Io?eiaiiy oa e?enoae?caoe?y aii?oieo iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a. – Caii??aeaey: 1998, I?ina?oa. – 160 n. Ae?aeii A.A. E?enoaeeecaoeey iiaa?oiinoe aii?oiie eaiou Y63Co37 iiae aeaenoaeai eaca?iiai eceo/aiey // Oeceea e oeiey ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia. - 1992. - ? 6. - N. 140 -142. Girzhon V.V. The investigation of the amorphous Y63Co37 ribbons crystallization under laser treatment dy X-ray diffraction. – Mater. Sci. For. – 1993. – V. 133 – 136. – P. 485 – 490. Ae?aeii A.A. No?oeoo?a eiaa?iiai nieaaa I36 iinea ecioa?ie/aneeo ioaeeaia e eaca?iie ia?aaioee // Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee. – 1998. – o. 20. - ? 10. – N. 38 – 42. Girzhon V.V. Relaxation processes in Fe-B metallic glasses under low energy laser treatment. - Mater. Sci. For. – 1998. – V. 282 – 283. – P. 37 – 40. V.V.Girzhon Peculiarities of the low magnetostrictive amorphous ribbons crystallization under laser heating. - Mater. Sci. For. – 1998. – V. 282 – 283. - P. 27 – 32. A??aeii A.A. Iniaeeaino? ia?oaineoieo ia?aoai?aiue a eaaiaaieo ea?a?aeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie Fe-Ni-C nieaaao // A?niee Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1999. - ? 1. – N. 122 – 125. Aieinaae/ I.TH., Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. Aeeyiea iiiaie?aoiuo ( ( ( ia?aoiaeia ia no?oeoo?o aeaeaciieeaeaauo nieaaia // IeOII. - 1990. - ? 11. - N. 5 - 7. Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. ?aniaae oaciiaeeaiaiiiai ia?oaineoa a noaee 150I10 // OII. - 1990. - ? 7. - N. 191 – 194. Aiiaea?ue A.E., Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. Aeeyiea oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey ia ia?oaineoiia i?aa?auaiea a aeaeaciieeaeaauo nieaaao // OII. - 1991. - ? 1. - N. 159 - 164. A?aoa?y A.I., Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. Iniaaiiinoe no?oeoo?u eaca?iiai oaa ?acii?iaeiuo iaoaeeia // Oeceea e oeiey ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia. - 1991. - ? 3. - N. 116 - 120. Aieinaae/ I.TH., Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. Caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?u oaciiaeeaiaiiie noaee 50I25 i?e iaaeeaiiii iaa?aaa // IeOII. - 1992. - ? 3. - N. 6 – 8. Effect of austenite thermal instability on characteristics of martensitic transformations in Fe-Ni alloys/ V.I. Bondar’, V.E. Danil’chenko, V.V. Girzhon, A.V. Nedolya // Applied Crystallography. - 1992. - V. 2. - P. 224 - 228. Aeeyiea oa?iioeeeee/aneie ia?aaioee ia no?oeoo?o e naienoaa iinoiyiiuo iaaieoia Fe-Nd-B / A?aoa?y A.I., Aaneeueaaa A.A., Ae?aeii A.A. e ae?. // OII. – 1993. – o. 76. – aui. 2. – N.129 – 133. Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. Iee?ino?oeoo?a oaciiaeeaiaiiuo aeaeaciieeaeaauo nieaaia // IeOII. - 1994. - ? 9. - N. 28 - 30. Ae?aeii A.A., ?oaeiaa TH.A. Iniaaiiinoe eienoaeeecaoeee aii?oiiai nieaaa Fe61Co20Si5B14 iiae aeaenoaeai ecioa?ie/aneeo e eaca?iuo ioaeeaia // OII. - 1994. - o. 77. - aui. 1. - N. 142 - 145. Girzhon V.V., Danil’chenko V.E. Decomposition of phase - hardened martensite in Fe-Ni-C alloy // Scripta metallurgica.- 1995. - V. 32.- No. 1.- P. 83 - 86. Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. Ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeey oaciiaeeaiaiiiai aeaeaciieeaeaaiai aonoaieoa // IeOII. - 1996. - ? 3. - N. 2 - 4. E?enoaeeecaoeey aii?oiie eaiou Co68Fe4Cr4Si13B11 a oneiaeyo ecioa?ie/aneeo ioaeeaia e eaca?iuo iaa?aaia/Ae.E. Aiieeiaia, A.A. Ae?aeii, TH.A. ?oaeiaa, A.A. Niieyeia // OII. - 1996. - o. 82. - aui. 3. - N. 110 - 116. Aeeyiea oa?iioeeeee/aneie ia?aaioee ia no?oeoo?iia ninoiyiea aii?oiuo nieaaia nenoaiu Fe – B / A.I.A?aoa?y, A.A.Ae?aeii, A.A.Niieyeia, A.A.Iaiioeaeaiei // Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee. - 1997. - o. 19. - ? 12. - N. 69 - 73. Aiieeiaia Ae.E., Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. Aeeyiea eaca?iie ia?aaioee ia ia?oaineoiia i?aa?auaiea e i?i/iinoue nieaaa I30 // Iaoaeeu. - 1997. - ? 5. - N. 97 - 100. Ae?aeii A.A., Aiieeiaia Ae.E. Aeeyiea eiioeueniie eaca?iie ia?aaioee ia no?oeoo?o eaae?iaaiiiai /oaoia // IeOII. - 1997. - ? 4. - N. 11 - 13. Aii?eiaia Ae.?., A??aeii A.A. Aieea oaeoi?a /ano ?iioeueniiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia oaiia?aoo?ia iiea a cii? oaieiai? ae?? // OOAE. - 1997. - O. 42. - ?3. - N. 301 - 304. Volosevitch P.Yu., Girzhon V.V., Danil’chenko V.E. Formation of the structure of Fe-Ni alloys at the result of multiple martensite transformations// Scripta materialia. – 1997. – Vol. 37. – N 7. – P. 977 – 981. Aieea iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieo eaca?ieo iaa??aaiue ia i?ioeane ?aeaenaoe?? o aii?oieo iaoaeaaeo nieaaao / A.I.A?aoa?y, A.A.A??aeii, I.A.Niieyeia ? ?i.//A?niee Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.– 1998.- ? 1. – N. 90 – 93. Crystallization of metal-metaloid glasses under laser heating/ V.V.Girzhon, Yu.V.Rudnev, D.I.Anpilogov, A.V.Smolyakov // Scripta materialia. – 1998. – Vol. 39. – N 6. – P. 815 – 823. Aii?eiaia Ae.?., A??aeii A.A., A?aoa?y A.I. Oa?aeoa?enoeee oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey o cii? aieeao eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia iaoaee // A?niee Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1998. - ? 1. – N. 84 – 86. Iniaeeaino? e?enoae?caoe?? aii?oii? no??/ee Fe76Si13B11 i?ae aieeaii eaca?iiai iaa??ao /A.I.A?aoa?y, A.A.A??aeii, I.A.Niieyeia, O.N.ssno?aaiaa // A?niee Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1998. - ? 2. – N. 161 – 166. A?aoa?y A.I., Ae?aeii A.A., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A. Eaca?iay naa?ea ?acii?iaeiuo nieaaia // Oaoiieiaey e i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa. - 1991. - ? 2. - N. 12 - 14. A??aeii A.A. No?oeoo?ii-oacia? ci?ie a e?enoae?/ieo oa aii?oieo nieaaao ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a i?e oa?iioeeee?/ieo ia?iaeao. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.07 – o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea. – Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioean?a no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a iaoaeaaeo nieaaao ia iniia? ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a i?e ??cieo aeaeao oa?iioeeee?/ii? ae?? ia ieo: aei?noeiai oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy ca o/anoth oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ui a?aeaoaathoueny ca cnoaiei iaoai?ciii, oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy iaaeiei oi/ee Eth??, eaca?iiai oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy c iaaeaenieeie oaeaeeinoyie iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeaiiy. Io?eiai? iia? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? a noeoiiino? ?ica’ycothoue aaaeeeao iaoeiao i?iaeaio – anoaiiaeaiiy o?ce/ieo caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e a e?enoae?/ieo oa aii?oieo nieaaao ia iniia? Fe, Ni, Co i?ae /an oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy ca o/anoth oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a ? oa ?? ?iaeo c a?aooaaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a oaieiai? ae??. Anoaiiaeai? iaoai?cie ?aeaenaoe?? i?oaeieo iai?oa i?e aaaaoi?acia?e ia?iaoe? a Fe-Ni nieaaao, aeine?aeaeaiee aieea eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ia iiaiioo ia?oaineoieo ia?aoai?aiue i?e OOeI, iiyniaia ci?ia ?aaeoe?? e?enoae?caoe?? a aii?oieo nieaaao i?e eaca?iiio oa?iioeeeeoaaii?, anoaiiaeai? iaoai?cie i?aeaeuaiiy eia?oeeoeaii? neee a nieaaao nenoaie Fe-Nd-B i?e oa?iioeeeeoaaii? iaaeiei oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ?? ?iaeo. ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoa??ae?a aeey e??iaaiii? oaoi?ee, ui caciathoue aaaaoi?aciaeo oaieici?i a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??, i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy iaaeneeueieo iino?eieo iaai?o?a oiui. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oa?iioeeee?/ia ia?iaea, (-, ( - oaa?ae? ?ic/eie, i?e?ino?oeoo?a, aeaoaeoe e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae, aii?oi? iaoaeaa? nieaae, e?enoae?caoe?y, eaca?ia oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy, aonoai?o, ia?oaineo. Ae?aeii A.A. No?oeoo?ii-oaciaua eciaiaiey a e?enoaeee/aneeo e aii?oiuo nieaaao ia iniiaa ia?aoiaeiuo iaoaeeia i?e oa?iioeeeee/aneeo ia?aaioeao. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 – oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea. – Aeiai?iiao?ianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?ioeannia oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?u a iaoaeee/aneeo nieaaao ia iniiaa ia?aoiaeiuo iaoaeeia i?e ?acee/iuo aeaeao oa?ie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia ieo: aeanoeiai oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey n o/anoeai oaciauo ia?aoiaeia, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo ii naeaeaiaiio iaoaiecio, oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey aie?oa oi/ee Eth?e, eaca?iiai oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey ni naa?oaunieeie nei?inoyie iaa?aaa e ioeaaeaeaiey. Iieo/aiu iiaua ?acoeueoaou, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe ?aoatho aaaeioth iao/ioth i?iaeaio a iaeanoe oeceee oaa?aeiai oaea - onoaiiaeaiea oece/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?u a e?enoaeee/aneeo e aii?oiuo nieaaao ia iniiaa Fe, Ni, Co i?e oa?iioeeeee?iaaiee n o/anoeai oaciauo ia?aoiaeia ? e ?? ?iaea n o/aoii eeiaoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia oaieiaiai aicaeaenoaey. Aeieacaii, /oi iieiia ?anoai?aiea oaea?iaea a ?aaa?ne?iaaiiii aonoaieoa n?aaeiaoaea?iaeenouo Fe-Ni-C nieaaia eiaao ianoi i?e oa?iioeeeee?iaaiee n o/anoeai ( ( ( - ia?aoiaeia oieueei i?e oaeeo nei?inoyo iaa?aaa, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho naeaeaiaue iaoaieci ia?aoiiai ( ( ( - i?aa?auaiey. Nieaeaiea nei?inoe iaa?aaa i?eaiaeeo e iaiieiiio ?anoai?aieth oaea?iaea a ( - oaca ca n/ao cae?aieaiey aai a aeaoaeoao e?enoaeee/aneiai no?iaiey a i?ioeanna ?aniaaea iaoanoaaeeueiiai ( - oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a (ia?oaineoa). Onoaiiaeaiu iaoaieciu ?aeaenaoeee oi?oaeo iai?yaeaiee i?e iiiaie?aoiie oa?iioeeeee/aneie ia?aaioea Fe-Ni nieaaia, enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea eaae?othueo yeaiaioia ia iieiioo ia?oaineoiuo i?aa?auaiee i?e OOeI. Iieoyiie?e/aneei iaoiaeii iieacaii, /oi oa?iioeeeee/aneay eaca?iay ia?aaioea a ?aaeeia iieaaeaiey iiaa?oiinoe aeia?iiai Fe-N?-nieaaa aneaaenoaea ia?aciaaiey iaeeiaeenia?niie y/aenoie no?oeoo?u e iiauoaiey ieioiinoe aeaoaeoia e?enoaeee/aneiai no?iaiey i?eaiaeeo e oaeiio i?e?inoo i?aaeaea oaeo/anoe aonoaieoa a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo, eioi?ue i?aeoe/anee niioaaonoaoao i?e?inoo i?aaeaea oaeo/anoe ?aaa?niaaiiiai oaciiaeeaiaiiiai aonoaieoa i?e iauaiiie OOeI n o/anoeai ( ( ( - i?aa?auaiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea e ?anoai?aiea iaeeiaeenia?niuo aeeth/aiee ia?aiaaieoiie oacu Fe4NdB4 a ca?ia iniiaiie oacu Fe14Nd2B i?e oa?iioeeeee/aneie ia?aaioea iaaieoia nenoaiu Fe-Nd-B aucuaaaony aiiiaeueiie aeeoooceae, i?e/eiie nouanoaiaaiey eioi?ie yaeyaony caaenyuaa io eiee/anoaa oa?iioeeeeia ciaeiia?aiaiiia iiea oi?oaeo iai?yaeaiee, aicieeathuaa aneaaenoaea aiiiaeueii aunieiai no?eeoeeiiiiai yooaeoa i?e ia?aoiaea oa??iiaaiaoeea a ia?aiaaiaoee. I?eaaaeaiu iaoaieciu oi?ie?iaaiey eiy?oeeoeaiie neeu a nieaaao nenoaiu Fe-Nd-B i?e oa?iioeeeee?iaaiee aie?oa oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaea ?? ?iaea. Iieacaii, /oi eaca?iia oa?iioeeeee?iaaiea a aeie?enoaeeecaoeeiiiuo ?aaeeiao iiauoaao oa?ie/aneoth noaaeeueiinoue aii?oiuo iaoaeee/aneeo nieaaia nenoaiu Fe-B, /oi i?iyaeyaony a niauaiee oaiia?aoo?iiai eioa?aaea e?enoaeeecaoeee a noi?iio aieaa aunieeo oaiia?aoo?. Auyaeaii, /oi aeice?iaaiiue eaca?iue iaa?aa caeaeaiiuo ec aeeaeeiai ninoiyiey AIN ia iniiaa ia?aoiaeiuo iaoaeeia iicaieyao aeinoeaaoue iaeiinoi?iiiae eo e?enoaeeecaoeee e i?eaiaeeoue e ia?aciaaieth aeaooneieiie “naiaeae/aaie” no?oeoo?u oeia “aii?oiia - e?enoaeee/aneia”. Yenia?eiaioaeueii onoaiiaeaii, /oi eiioeueniue eaca?iue iaa?aa i?e OOeI neiaeiieaae?iaaiiuo aii?oiuo nieaaia ia Fe-Co - iniiaa aneaaenoaea ia?aie/aiiinoe a?aiaie aai aeaenoaey, ia i?ioyaeaiee eioi?ie ia oniaaatho a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a ?acaeoueny aeeooociua i?ioeannu, i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth noaiu e?enoaeeecaoeee e oeenaoeee iiiaioaciiai iaoanoaaeeueiiai ninoiyiey a cae?enoaeeeciaaiiuo iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo aii?oiuo eaio. Eceiaeaia oece/aneay iiaeaeue, iauyniythuay eciaiaiea ?aaeoeee e?enoaeeecaoeee a aii?oiuo nieaaao i?e eaca?iii oa?iioeeeee?iaaiee. ?acoeueoaou iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e ?ac?aaioea iaoa?eaeia aeey e?eiaaiiie oaoieee, eioi?ua eniuoatho iiiaie?aoiua oaieiniaiu a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee, i?e ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey naa?oneeueieo iinoiyiiuo iaaieoia e o.i. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oa?iioeeeee/aneay ia?aaioea, (-, ( - oaa?aeua ?anoai?u, iee?ino?oeoo?a, aeaoaeou e?enoaeee/aneiai no?iaiey, aii?oiua iaoaeee/aneea nieaau, e?enoaeeecaoeey, eaca?iia oa?iioeeeee?iaaiea, aonoaieo, ia?oaineo. Girzhon V. Phase-structure changes during the thermocycle treatment in crystalline and amorphous alloys based on transition metals. – Manuscript. Thesis for a doctor’s degree by a speciality 01.04.07 – Solid State Physics. – Dnepropetrovsk State University, Dnepropetrovsk, 1999. Dissertation is devoted to investigation of structure formation processes in metal alloys based on transition metals after different types of thermocycle influence: hard thermocycling with phase transitions which are going on by shear mechanism, thermocycling near the Curie point, laser thermocycling with the super high heating and cooling rates. The obtained new results in their totality solve an important scientific problem - establishment of physical regularities of structure formation in crystalline and amorphous alloys on Fe, Ni, Co basis during thermocycling with I and II type phase transitions taking in account the kinetic factors of thermal influence. Relaxation mechanisms of elastic stresses after repeating treatment in Fe-Ni alloys are established, the influence of alloying elements on the completness of martensite transformation during TCT is studied, the change of crystallization reaction in amorphous alloys during laser thermocycling is explained, the encreasing mechanism of coercitivity in Fe-Nd-B system alloys during thermocycling near the point of II type phase transition. The results may be used while developing crio-materials, which undergo numerous thermal changes during operation time, in production technology of super powerful permanent magnets and so on. Key words: thermocycle treatment, (-, ( - solid solutions, microstructure, crystallographic defects, amorphous metal alloys, crystallization, laser thermocycling, austenite, martensite. PAGE 1

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