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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?CEEI – I?AAI?*II? O?I?? OA AOAEAO?I??

?I. E.I.EEOAEIAIEA

OAIAe??E OAOssIA AAI?A??AIA

OAeE 552.576.1+662.7466.094.3:549

NO?OEOO?A, O?CEEI-O?I?*I? AEANOEAINO? OA IA?NIAEOEAE AIA?AIO?I?*IIAI
AEEI?ENOAIIss NIEIIIAI AOA?EEss

02.00.13 — iaooio?i?y ? aoaeao?i?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy

iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?i?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?ceei — i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa aoaeao?i?? ?i.
E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Na?ai/oe A?eoi? ?aaiiae/.

?inoeooo o?ceei-i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa aoaeao?i??

?i.E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo o?i?? aoa?eey.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ea?oaeue Ieeiea Oeiio?eiae/.

?inoeooo ni?aoe?? oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia?? IAI

Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?oia ?aaai Aieiaeeie?iae/.

?inoeooo o?ceei-i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa

aoaeao?i?? ?i. E.I. Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

aeieoi? .oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaoeianueeee Iao?i Naiaiiae/.

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo a??ie/i?yooaaeueii? ni?aae, ia?oee
canooiiee aee?aeoi?a

c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa iaooio?i?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e eaoae?oe/iiai neioaco, (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29”  aa?aniy  1999 ?ieo i_____ aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.216.01 a ?inoeooo? o?ceei-i?aai?/ii?
o?i?? oa aoaeao?i?? ?i. E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie (340114, i.
Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. ?ice Ethenaiao?a, 70).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?ceei —
i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa aoaeao?i?? ?i. E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie (340114,
i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. ?ice Ethenaiao?a, 70).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii _20_ na?iiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I.Oaiae?ee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O ca’yceo c iinooiiaei ciaioaiiyi caian?a
aenieiye?nieo aeae?a aoaeaaiaeiaai? i?aai?/ii? ne?iaeie (aac, iaooa,
eien?aia aoa?eey, aio?aoeeo) c?inoa? aeooaeuei?noue iiooeo aoaeoeaieo
iaoiae?a iaea?aeaiiy c iaeiiaeeoe?eiiai aoa?eey aeueoa?iaoeaieo
aia?aiiin??a ? o?i?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a.

A Oe?a?i? i?iaeaia aeao?oeeoo aia?aiiin??a noi?oue iniaeeai aino?i /a?ac
a?aenooi?noue cia/ieo iieeaae?a iaooe oa aaco. I?aeoe/ii o?eueee oaa?ae?
ai?th/? eiiaeeie (OAE) iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny ye iniiaia aeaea?aei
aia?a?? oa o?i?/ii? ne?iaeie ia aeiaaino?ieiao ia?niaeoeao. Aei ieo
a?aeiineoueny ? aoa?eey c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii niieoe iao??th oa oei?o
(oae caaia “nieiia aoa?eey”(NA), caiane yeiai a Oe?a?i? ia?aaeuothoue
20 ie?ae. o. Inoaii? ia iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia o o?aaeeoe?eieo
eioeiaa?aaaoao /a?ac eiai aenieo caeaoi?noue aei oeaeoaaiiy iiaa?oiiue
iaa??ao e ei?ic?eio aeoeai?noue. A aaaaoueio i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo
e?a?iao na?oo aeeiiothoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy ii ?ic?iaoe? aoaeoeaieo
niinia?a niaethaaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey, iaeia/a, aei oeueiai /ano aiie ia
ciaeoee i?iieneiaiai canoinoaaiiy. A?eueo ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee
aeei?enoaiiy NA iiaeooue aooe ca’ycai? c ?ic?iaeith aia?aio?i?/ieo
iaoiae?a eiai ia?a?iaee a a?eueo /eno? oa aeieia?/ii aacia/i? aeaee
iaeea, a oaeiae o?i?/i? i?iaeoeoe ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy.

O e?oa?aoo?? ? eeoa ?ic??ciai? a?aeiiino? i?i iiaaae?ieo niieoe iao??th
? oei?o a i?ioeanao eienoaaiiy, aaceo?eaoe?? oa niaethaaiiy nieiiiai
aoa?eey, aea aeai? i?i iiaiee neeaae i?e?iaeieo i?ia?ae?a, aoaeiao oa
iaaeiieaeoey?io i?aai?caoe?th i?aai?/ii? iane NA, a oaeiae i?i ?ieue
nieae a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aoa?eey oa i?e iaea?aeaii?
neioaoe/ieo iaeea ia iathoue iaeaaeiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a e?oa?aoo?? aai
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?. Caaaeai? aeua aeai? iaiao?aei? aeey ?ic?iaee
?aoe?iiaeueieo ? aeieia?/ii caaaeaieo iaoiae?a ooee?caoe?? NA.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieai?a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o a?aeae?eo o?i?? aoa?eey ?inoeoooo
o?ceei-i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa aoaeao?i?? ?i. E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie ca
oaiaie “O?ceei-o?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeo, aeanoeainoae oa
iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey Aeiiaano” (? aea?ae. ?a?no?.
01850013540), “?ic?iaea iiaeo niinia?a eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee ao?iai oa
nieiiiai aoa?eey” (? aea?ae. ?a?no?. 0100010158), a oaeiae ca?aeii c
eii?aeeiaoe?eiith i?ia?aiith AI O?N?, ui noinoaaeany i?iaeaie “Aea/aiiy
aoaeiae, no?oeoo?e oa ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa”,
i?ia?aiith AeEIO N?N? (i?iaeaia “Noai?aiiy aenieiaoaeoeaieo i?ioean?a
ia?a?iaee ? aeei?enoaiiy OAE, iaea?aeaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo iioi?ieo iaeea
oa iaooio?i?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a c aoa?eey”), i?ia?aiith AeEIO Oe?a?ie
(iai?yiie “Aeieia?/ii /eno? oaoiieia?? aeaeiaooeo, ia?a?iaee,
o?ainii?ooaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ?oaeieo oa ia?oaeieo eiiaeei”, i?iaeaia
“Aaieia?y, aeaeiaoaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy oaa?aeeo ai?th/eo eiiaeei”)
a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/ieo ieai?a ?inoeoooo o?ceei-i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa
aoaeao?i?? ?i. E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie (?? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
oai 01860013540, 01900010258, 01900048433).

Iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaiiy aeinoaiaiieo a?aeiiinoae
i?i neeaae oa iniiai? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae no?oeoo?ii? iaeeieoe? nieiiiai
aoa?eey aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee aeieia?/ii i?eeiyoieo oeyo?a
eiiaa?n?? nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie. C oe??th iaoith aoei aeioe?eueiei
ae??oeoe oae? caaea/? : anoaiiaeoe ?a/iaeiiee neeaae i?e?iaeieo
i?ia?ae?a nieiiiai aoa?eey, iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e ? iaaeiieaeoey?ii?
i?aai?caoe?? eiai i?aai?/ii? iane, aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a
aeeaiei? ia?a?iaee NA (i??ie?c, c??aeaeaiiy, aaceo?eaoe?y), c’ynoaaoe
?ieue oa iiaaae?ieo nieae eoaeieo iaoae?a oa i?e?iaeaiaio?a a oeeo
i?ioeanao, aecia/eoe aeanoeaino? i?iaeoeo?a iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii?
eiiaa?n?? nieiiiai aoa?eey (aoi?iiaeo eeneio (AE) oa caeeoeiaiai
aoa?eey), c’ynoaaoe aeoeai?noue nieiiiai aoa?eey ye i?e?iaeiiai
ni?aaioo, ioe?ieoe aeieia?/i? iane?aeee ??cieo oeyo?a ia?aoai?aiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiai aoa?eey.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia.

· Aia?oa iaea?aeaii o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa anoaiiaeaii
iniaeeaino? aoaeiae ? aeayeeo aeanoeainoae nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie, yea
ia a?aei?io a?ae ianieiiiai aoa?eey oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth, u?eueiith oiaeiaeith iie?a?aiiaeo oa??a a
i?aai?/i?e iao?eoe? aoa?eey (d002~3,5-3,6) i?e aenieiio aeoiae?
aoi?iiaeo eeneio (aei 35% a?ae i?aai?/ii? iane aoa?eey (IIA),
i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii aaaaoueio i?e?iaeaiaio?a.

· Anoaiiaeaii ?a/iaeiiee neeaae i?ia?ae?a NA Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano oa
o?i?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy i?ia?aeueieo niieoe a i?ioeanao icieaiiy, i??ie?co,
eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co oa i?e caa??aaii? nieiiiai aoa?eey.

· Noi?ioeueiaaii eiioeaioe?th aoaeiae NA ye i?e?iaeii? niieoee
aeeth/aiiy (INA) ci?oaiiai oeio, aea /anoeaie — “oacyyie” ?
iae?iiieaeoey?i? aii?yaeeiaai? no?oeoo?i? iaeeieoe? c ooieoe?eieie
a?oiaie, ye? iiaeooue aenooiaoe ye iie?aeaioaoi? e?aaiaee, a “ainoyie” ?
a?ae?aoiaai? ?iie iao??th oa oei?o, a oaeiae ?iie cae?ca. I?e oeueiio a
NA niinoa??aa?oueny niieo/aiiy aeanoeainoae, ui i?eoaiaii? ye ao?iio
aoa?eeth, oae ? aoa?eeth na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio.

· Aeyaeaii eaoae?oe/iee aieea iaoeaiiai oei?eaeo iao??th a i?ioeanao
aeeaiei? ia?a?iaee NA iaoiaeaie i??ieeco, aaceo?eaoe??, a?ae?oaaiiy.
C’yniaaii ?ieue oa iniiai? ia?o?ooe aca?iiae?? iaoeaiiai oei?eaeo
iao??th c i?aai?/iith ianith aoa?eey a i?ioeanao oa?iie?co.

· Onoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? aeeo/aiiy AE c aeine?aeaeaiiai aoa?eey,
ciaeaeaii ei?aeyoe?ei? caeaaeiino? aeoiaeo aoi?iiaeo eeneio a?ae
iao?ieiai — aaiaoe/ieo oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae ne?iaeie,
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo AE. Aecia/aii o?ceei-o?i?/i? ?
no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? aoiao?a nieiiiai aoa?eey, aoi?iiaeo eeneio oa
aioaoi?iiaaiiai aoa?eey (AAA), iieacaia aeniea o?c?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue
aeeo/aieo aoi?iiaeo eeneio.

· Iaea?aeaii aeai? i?i niieoee cae?ca a nieiiiio aoa?ee?, ?o ?ieue a
oi?ioaaii? no?oeoo?e oa i?i ?o ia?aoai?aiiy a i?ioeanao a?ae?iaai?caoe??
oa aeeo/aiiy AE.

· Oai?aoe/ii i?iaiae?ciaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy c nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie neioaoe/iiai
??aeeiai iaeeaa iaoiaeii a?ae?iaai?caoe?? i?e iaaenieeo oeneao aiaeith,
a oaeiae a?aeiiaieo aac?a ? aaeni?aaio?a c aenieei aeoiaeii oe?eueiaeo
i?iaeoeo?a.

· Noi?ioeueiaai? oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci ni?aoe?? n??aea c aiaeieo
?ic/ei?a i?e?iaeiei nieiiei aoa?eeyi oa oeaiaie eiai a?ae?iaai?caoe??.

· I?iaiae?ciaaii aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue NA
(ooai?aiiy aac?a, ui i?noyoue oei?, iiaeeea?noue iiyae oei?i?aai?/ieo
niieoe, i?aeaeuaiiy eaoth/ino? i?e?iaeaiaio?a). Cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe
cieaeaiiy aeoiaeo oiene/ieo niieoe i?e ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaii? NA
Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

· Ia iniia? noi?ioeueiaaieo a ?iaio? oyaeaiue i?i no?oeoo?o oa
iaaeiieaeoey?io i?aai?caoe?th aeine?aeaeaiiai aoa?eey cai?iiiiiaaii oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeuei?, i?ae eiai
niaethaaiiy, oeyoe aeei?enoaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie, ui
caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy ye?nieo aia?aiiin??a, ni?aaio?a oa cieaeaiiy
aeieia?/ii? iaaaciaee i?e eiai ooee?caoe??.

· ?ic?iaeaii i?eeiie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? cianieaiiy NA c
aeei?enoaiiyi iiaa?oiaai aeoeaieo ?a/iaei (IA?) oa neaaeeo ?ic/ei?a
eeneio, i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo AE, aeoiaeo ? yeino? neioaoe/iiai ??aeeiai
iaeeaa oa a?aeiiaieo aac?a c NA.

· ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaiee niin?a aeeo/aiiy n??aea c a?aei?aoeueiaaieo
?ic/ei?a e?ii-oioi i?iieneiaino? c canoinoaaiiyi nieiiiai aoa?eey, ui
caaacia/o? nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ni?aaioo o ii??aiyii? c aiaeiaii.

· Cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueithth/? noaie aia?ai- ? ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo
oaoiieia?e ia?a?iaee NA Oe?a?ie, ui aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe aei 35%
o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo AE, a?aeiiai? aace oa/ aai aeaoaa? ni?aaioe
(60-80% aaa.) aeey i/enoee i?iieneiaeo a?aeoiae?a oa aeey io?eiaiiy
?yaeo oe?iieo aeaiaio?a.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ?iaio? aeei?enoaii iaoiaee o?ceei-o?i?/iiai
aiae?co: ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee ? ?aioaaiioaciaee (?NA ? ?OA), AI?, ?* — oa
ssA?– niaeo?ineii??, oa?iia?aa?iao???, iioe/ii? ? neaioth/i? aeaeo?iiii?
i?e?ineii?? (NAI), iaoiaee iao?ia?ao??, aeaiaioiiai aiae?co, o?i?/iiai
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aiae?co, eiiaeoeoiiao???, iai?ae?euee?niiai
niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co, ?iiiiao???, a?aaioiiao???, aaciai?
o?iiaoia?ao??, oioieiei?eiao??? oiui.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aaoi?ii cae?eniaii iinoaiiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oa aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a, ocaaaeueiaii iaoai?cie eoaeiiai
a?ae?ie?co ? o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue i?ia?ae?a oa i?aai?/ii? iane NA a
??cieo i?ioeanao eiiaa?n??, iaa?oioiaaii i?eioeeie eaoae?oe/ii? ae??
iaoeaieo nieae i?e oa?iiia?a?iaoe? aoa?eey oa aea/aii iaoai?cie
aaeni?aoe?? aeayeeo ?a/iaei i?e?iaeiei nieiiei aoa?eeyi, noai?aii
eiioeaioe?th aoaeiae nieiiiai aoa?eey, aeeiiaii oai?aoe/ia i?iaiicoaaiiy
oa aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo aeueoa?iaoeaieo oeyo?a iaea?aeaiiy
neioaoe/ieo iaeea c aeine?aeaeaii? ne?iaeie, ?ic?iaeaii noaie
eiiieaenii? eiiaa?n?? nieiiiai aoa?eey a a?eueo oe?ii? aeieia?/ii
i?eeiyoi? i?iaeoeoe. Iniiaia /anoeia aeei?enoaieo a ?iaio?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iaea?aeaia aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii.
?acoeueoaoe ii aecia/aiith iao??th oa oei?o a NA, a i?iaeoeoao eiai
i??ie?co ? a?ae?iaai?caoe??, eeniaaeo ooieoe?eieo a?oi a ??cieo oiiaao,
ia?aiaai?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee NA ? i?iaeoeo?a ?o oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee oa
eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co aoa?eey iaea?aeai? ?acii c ani. A.A.Neiiiiaith oa
caeia. A.A.Caeeianueeei. Aeacai? ?acoeueoaoe aoee aeei?enoai? a
caoeuaieo A.A.Neiiiiaith oa A.A.Caeeianueeei eaiaeeaeaonueeeo
aeena?oaoe?yo, ui aeeiiai? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a. Aei??thaaiiy
ni?aoe?eii? caeaoiino? c?ace?a i?iaaaeaii ?acii c i?ia. ?iae.
E.E.Iioioeueeith, a aeine?aeao ii i??ie?co nieiiiai aoa?eey a?aea
o/anoue i.i.n. E.I.?na?aa. ?acoeueoaoe c aeoeaaoe?? NA iaea?aeaii ?acii
c n.i.n. E.ss.Aaeooei. Iao?ia?ao?/iee aiae?c aeeiiaii e.a.-i.i.
A.I.Iaoeaiei. Iaeaiaioai?/iee iien nieiiiai aoa?eey c?iaeaii e.a.i.
I.N.Ni?a??aanueeith. Ianeyia aaeiia?oaaiiy aoa?eey oa oioi aaeiia?ao?a
aeeiiaia ae.o.i. A.N.A?eaoeueeei. Aeeo?aeoia?aie nieiiiai aoa?eey
caienai? i.i.n. ss.A.Aeaiei, iannaaoa?ianuee? niaeo?e —
ae?-?ii E.Eii?aonii, ?*- niaeo?e — e.o.i. ?.A.Iaea?iaith. E.o.i. E.ss.
Aoaianaiei aeeiiaea aeine?aee c ai?n?? niieoe oei?o i?ae /an oa?iie?co
nieiiiai aoa?eey.

Aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a iaaiai?aii? ieai?a i?iaaaeaiiy ?iaioe ?
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?eeiaa iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — ae.o.i., i?io.
A.?.Na?ai/oe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoei
aeeeaaeaii ? iaaiai?aii ia: Anan. nai?ia?? “Oeceei-oeie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey e iooe eiiieaeniiai eniieueciaaiey ieia?aeueiie /anoe OAE”
(Aeiiaoeuee, Oe?a?ia, 1984?.); I?aeia?. eiio. e?a?i-/eai?a NAA
“I?iecaiaenoai aeeaeeeo i?iaeoeoia ec oaey e ia?a?aaioea oaieueiuo
aeenoeeeyoia a iioi?iia ai?th/aa e aeeaeeea i?iaeoeou” (Aeiiaoeuee,
Oe?a?ia, 1987?.); Ananithci?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nicaeaiea
aunieiyooaeoeaiuo i?ioeannia ia?a?aaioee e eniieueciaaiey OAE, iieo/aiea
iioi?iuo oiieea e iaooaoeie/aneeo i?iaeoeoia ec oaeae” (Aeiiaoeuee,
Oe?a?ia, 1989?.). III C’?cae? “Carbochemie” (?inoie, AAe?, 1990?.);
Niaauaieyo ii oeiee e oaoiieiaee oaa?aeiai oiieeaa (OOOO– Y, YI, YII,
Iineaa, ?in?y, 1988, 1992, 1996?.?.); I?aeia?iaeiiio iaooio?i?/iiio
neiiic?oi? (Ee?a, Oe?a?ia, 1990?.); I, II e III neiiic?oiao “I?iaeaiu
eaoaeeca a oaeaoeiee” (Aeiiaoeuee, Oe?a?ia, 1990?, E?aniiy?nuee, ?in?y,
1993?., Iiainea??nuee, ?in?y, 1997?.); I?e?i-neiiic?oi? “Enneaaeiaaiea a
iaeanoe ninoaaa, no?oeoo?u oaeae e eo aaceoeeaoeee” (Nio?y, Aieaa??y,
1990?.); Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu aaieiaee e
aaioeiee OAE” (Euea?a, Oe?a?ia, 1991?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Yeieiaey i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aaeiia” (Iae??aea, Oe?a?ia, 1993?.);
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ecologycal Aspects of Chemical Industry”
(Naaa?iaeiiaoeuee, Oe?a?ia, 1994?.); Ui??/ieo nai?ia?ao a ?aieao
i?aeia?iaeii? i?ia?aie PICS — 119 (O?aioe?y, Oe?a?ia, ?in?y, Iieueua)
(Ee?a, Oe?a?ia, 1993?.; Caeiiaia, Iieueua, 1994?.; Iineaa, ?in?y,
1995?.); YIII I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Coal Science-95” (Ia?aaei,
?niai?y, 1995?.); Aa?ieiia?an? “Carbon’ 96” (Iuetheanoe, Aaeeeia?eoai?y,
1996?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Catalysis and Adsorption in fuel
processing and environmental protection” (Oeey?nueea Ii?aaa, Iieueua,
1996?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Coal Structure-96”(Caeiiaia,
Iieueua, 1996?.); European Coal Conference (?ci??, Oo?a//eia, 1997?.);
23th Bienn. Conf. on Carbon (Iain?eueaai?y, NOA, 1997?.), IX
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Coal Science-97” (Annai, Aa?iai?y, 1997?.),
I?aeia?iaei?e aaieia?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (I?aaa, *ao?y, 1998?.),
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eurocarbon-98” (No?anao?a, O?aioe?y, 1998?.)
oa ?i.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a?eueo i?ae 100 iaoeiaeo
?ia?o, o oiio /ene? 65 noaoae, oace 45 aeiiia?aeae ia a?o/eciyieo oa
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo, iaea?aeaii 1 aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai N?N?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. ?oeiien aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii ia 324 noi?.,
aiia i?noeoue 69 oaaeeoeue, 65 iaethie?a. Neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 7
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa ia?ae?eo oeeoiaaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. O
anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie ?iaioe, aecia/aii ?? iaoo,
iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue. A ia?oiio ?icae?e?
nenoaiaoeciaaii e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i aaiacen oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a
na?o? aoa?eey c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii niieoe iao??th oa oei?o, aena?oeaii
caaaeuei? i?iaeaie aia?aaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy NA ??cieo ?iaeiaeu.
?icaeyiooi inoaii? aeinyaiaiiy a iaeano? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ?
o?i?/ii? aoaeiae OAE. A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaii i?aeoiaee oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy NA ? i?iaeoeo?a ?o ia?a?iaee.
Aeeeaaeaiith ? iaaiai?aiith ?acoeueoao?a icieaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey a
??cieo oiiaao, ocaaaeueiaiith iaea?aeaieo aeaieo uiaei neeaaeo
i?ia?aeueii? /anoeie ? ?iciiae?eo niieoe iao??th a nieiiiio aoa?ee?
i?enay/aii o?ao?e ?icae?e. A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ocaaaeueiaii iniiai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy iaeaiaioai?/ieo iniaeeainoae,
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae, aoaeiae ? iaaeiieaeoey?ii? i?aai?caoe??
NA, cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue aoaeiae aaciai? iaeeieoe?
i?aai?/ii? iao?eoe? nieiiiai aoa?eey. A i’yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?
iaaiai?aii aeai? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? ?aioaaiino?oeoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?ioeano eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co (EA) NA oa i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe??. Oinoee
?icae?e i?enay/aii aiae?co iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae oa?i?/ii?
aeano?oeoe?? i?e?iaeiiai ? cianieaiiai aoa?eey, c’ynoaaiith aoaeoeaiino?
??cieo iaoiae?a aeeaiei? o?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee NA a ??aeea iaeeai,
a?aeiiai? aace, aecia/aiith ?ie? oa iiaaae?iee oei?eaeo iao??th a
i?ioeanao i??ie?co, aaceo?eaoe?? ? a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA. A nueiiiio
?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi o?ceei-o?i?/i? aniaeoe ianeyii? aaeiia?aoe??
nieiiiai aoa?eey oa aeanoeaino? aaeiia?ao?a, NA iiaeaia, ye i?e?iaeiee
ni?aaio oa iiia?aaeiee ni?aaio?a, aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? ni?aoe??
aeayeeo ?a/iaei aeo?aeiei oa aioaoi?iiaaiei aoa?eeyi, aeeeaaeaii
ocaaaeueiai? aeai? uiaei eiiieaenii? iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ia?a?iaee
oeueiai a?o/eciyiiai iaeeaa.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Aieiaiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoei nieiia aoa?eey Iiaiiineianueeiai
?iaeiaeua Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano. Aeine?aeaeaii a?eueoa 20 ea?iiaeo i?ia c
10 ieano?a (a?ae n1 aei n10) c 6 naa?aeeiaei. sse aeo?aei? c?acee
aeei?enoaia iiae??aiaia aei aiae?oe/ii? o?aeoe?? aoa?eey. Iniiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee NA oae?: aieiaa aiae?oe/ia Wa – 59%, cieuei?noue (ia nooa
iaeeai(d) Ad – 728%, ai?no n??ee Sd – 0,96,5%, aeo?ae eaoth/eo (ia nooa
aaccieueia iaeeai (daf ) Vdaf – 4146%, ai?no aoaeaoeth Cdaf – 66,375,8%,
ai?no aiaeith Hdaf – 4,75,3%, ai?no acioo oa eenith N+Odaf – 19,029,0%,
iieaciee a?aeaeooy a?o?ei?oo R0 – 0,450,52%. Ai?no Na2O a cie? (ca?aeii
c AINO 10538-8-72) — 3,515,8% (i?ioe 2% o cie? cae/aeiiai aoa?eey), ui
a ia?a?aooieo ia aoa?eey neeaaea? 0,5 — 1,7 %. Ca c?acee ii??aiyiiy a
?iaio? aeei?enoaia ianieiia eai’yia aoa?eey aeecueeiai iaoaii?o?/iiai
oeio ? iioiaeaeaiiy (Iaaeia?aaenueea ?iaeiaeua), a oaeiae ao?a aoa?eey
Aeaenaiae??enueeiai ?iaeiaeua Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeaia nieiia aoa?eey, ia a?aei?io a?ae ianieiiiai, yea ?
ia?aaaaeii a?o?ei?oiaei, ia? neeaaeio iao?ia?ao?/io aoaeiao (a?o?ei?o V
– 3271%, ?ia?oei?o I – 945%, e?ioei?o L – 1130%). Uiaei oaieioe
niaethaaiiy (Qdaf=2630 iAeae/ea), aoiiiiai a?aeiioaiiy H/C, oi nieiia
aoa?eey aeecueea aei eai’yiiai aoa?eey ia?ee Ae, iaeia/a, ca iieacieeii
R0, a?aeiioaiiyi O/C, caaaa/ai?noth i?e?iaeaiaioaie aiii iiae?aia aei
ao?iai aoa?eey. A aeine?aeao, ui ieaioaaeeny, ia?aaeaa/aeiny c’ynoaaoe,
ye niieo/i?noue caaaeaieo iniaeeainoae aieeaa? ia iiaaae?ieo nieiiiai
aoa?eey a ??cieo i?ioeanao eiai eiiaa?n??.

Iniaeeaino? neeaaeo, aoaeiae ? iaaeiieaeoey?ii? i?aai?caoe?? (III)
nieiiiai aoa?eey.

Iaeaiaioai?/ia aea/aiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey. Aeei?enoaiiy neaioth/i?
aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? (NAI) a aeine?aeaeaii? NA Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano
aeey onoaiiaeaiiy ?o iaeaiaioai?/ii? aoaeiae (?acii c eaai?aoi???th
iaeaiaioai?ee Aioai?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.E.Eiia?iaa, N.–Iaoa?ao?a)
aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe aeai? i?i oeueo?ai?e?ineii?/iee neeaae nieiiiai
aoa?eey, nenoaiaoe/io iaeaaei?noue ? caeiiii??iino? ?iciiae?eo a iueiio
aioai?/ieo neeaaeiaeo, a ia?oo /a?ao iaaa- ? i?inii?, nii?aia??a, oa
iie?eaieo oeaiei aoa?eeyooai?thth/eo ?ineei, ui ?inee a oiiaao oi?o’yieo
aie?o ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano a ?aiiueiio ea?aii?. Aoa?eey, ui
aea/aeiny, iaei aenieo u?euei?noue ? i?oei?noue, /i?iee eie?? c
?oaeoaaoei a?aeo?ieii. O ii??aiyii? c aoa?eeyi na?aaeiueiai ea?aiio NA
a?ae??ciy?oueny i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii iaieiiie i?i- ? iaaanii? (e?ioei?o)
oa ??ciiiai?oieo e?oiieo o?aaiaio?a ?ineeiieo oeaiei (othcei?o,
naieothcei?o). Iniiaia iana iaaanii? iaeaaeeoue aei aaoa?inii?iaeo
ieaoiiaeaeieo (a?aeae?e Lycopodiophyta), ui ?inee ia oi?o’yiiio aieio?,
oiaoi, aei o??? a?oie, ui aeii?ioaaea i?ae aoa?eeyooai?thth/eo ?ineei
?aiiueiai ea?aiio. Iii?ae othcai?ciaaieo ?ineeiieo oeaiei /anoi
cono??/athoueny caeeoee ieaoiiaeaeieo — aea?aaiaeaeieo ? o?aa’yienoeo, a
oaeiae n?i’yieo iaii?ioaaeo. O?aaiaioe othcaio i?aaenoaaeai?
aea?aaeiith, ui neeaaea?oueny c aocueeeo (ae?aiao?ii 30-60 iei)
e?aieiaeo o?aoa?ae. Ciaeaeaii oeaiee aea?aaeie noaieo aai ei??iiy, ui
iaeaaeaoue n?i’yi?e iaii?io? Calamopitys sp., — oiaoi ca??iiio ?iaeo,
yeee aoa oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiee o ?aiiueiio ea?aii? Cao?aeii? ?a?iie e
I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee. A neeaae? ?ineeiiino? oi?oiooai?thth/iai aieioa a
Oe?a?i? ? No?aei?e ?a?ii? oeae aeae ?ineei ciaeaeaii aia?oa.

I?enooi?noue eeanoa??a e?enoae?/ii? oace oei?eaeo iao??th (aae?oo) a
neeaae? nieiiiai aoa?eey anoaiiaeoe iaoiaeii NAI ia aaeaeiny, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i iieaeoey?iee aai ?iiiee ?iciiae?e nie? a i?aai?/i?e
iao?eoe?.

Aeaye? o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee NA. Aecia/aia ieoiia iiaa?oiy Sieo
na??? i?e?iaeieo NA. Aiia neeaaea? 3–6 i2/a, ui ? aeecueeei aei oaei? o
cae/aeiiai aeiaaiiieoi’yiiai aoa?eey. I?e aiaeiiio a?ae?ie?c? Sieo o?ioe
ca?eueoo?oueny, ? oei a?eueoa, /ei aeua ai?no niieoe iao??th a
aeo?aeiiio aoa?ee?.

Aaaeiith aeni?an — oa?aeoa?enoeeith OAE ? ?o aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue.
Aaee/eia ieoiiiai aeaeo?iiii?o aeey NO, aei??yia a ieineino?,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?i?e iaieanooaaiith i?e U=150 A, i?iy?oueny a iaaeao a?ae
1108 aei 53108 Iii. Aanue ianea aeaieo ?iciaaea?oueny ia aea? a?oie. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo aieiae o aoa?ee? aiii ia? neeueii ?ic??ciaio
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue. Oae, aeey c?ace?a c Wa  10 % aaee/eia
neeaaea?  1108 Iii, i?e Wa  10%, =16–50108 Iii. Aeey NA c aenieei
ciaeaeaia aeecueea aei i?iii?oe?eii? caeaaei?noue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?
a?ae ai?noo Na2O a cie?. Aeyaeaia oaeiae caeaaei?noue a?ae ai?noo
aae?o?eiaaiiai eiiiiiaioa – a?o?ei?oo – a i?iaao. C?acee c V  40%
iathoue   10108 Iii, a c V  40% oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aeaeuaiith
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth (  10108 Iii). O ii??aiyii? c ianieiiei aoa?eeyie
aeecueeiai aaiaceno e iaoaii?o?cio NA iathoue cia/ii e?auo
i?ia?aei?noue.

Iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e i?aai?/ii? iane nieiiiai aoa?eey. A ?iaio? aia?oa
iaea?aeai? oa ?ioa?i?aoiaai? aeeo?aeoia?aie i?e?iaeiiai nieiiiai
aoa?eey, oa aaaaoueio i?iaeoeo?a eiai eiiaa?n??

?aioaaiino?oeoo?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee c?ace?a aecia/aee caaaeueiii?eeiyoieie
iaoiaeaie, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ?ic?aooie?a no?oeoo?ii? iaeeieoe?
aoa?eey, iae?a, eien?a oa ?ioeo aoaeaoeaaeo iaoa??ae?a. Oaaeeoey 1
i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe ?NA aeine?aeaeaiiai aoa?eey. Aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui
nieiia aoa?eey ia? neeaaeio i?aai?caoe?th, ine?eueee a no?oeoo?? IIA
i?enooi? aeae?eueea oei?a aii?yaeeiaaiiai aoaeaoeth a ??cieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo.

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040000002d010700040000002d010800040000002d010400040000002701ffff03000000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?en.1 — Caeaaei?noue i?aeoa?iai? a?aenoai? a?ae ai?noo iao??th o
aoa?ee?.

Oea, ianaiia?aae, aii?yaeeiaaiee aoaeaoeue iie?a?aiiaeo iaeao?a
(iaeneioi c d 002~3,5-3,6) ? aii?yaeeiaai? a ??ci?e i??? (di a?ae 4,2
aei 8,8) iaa?iiaoe/i? (iie?iaooaiia?, ae?oaoe/i? oa eenaiueai?ni?)
no?oeoo?e, ui i?iyaeythoueny ia aeeo?aeoia?aiao ye oe?eee iaa?? oae
caaieo – nioa (a?ae 1 aei 3). Ca ?ici??aie iie?a?aiiaeo iaeao?a (La)
nieiia aoa?eey aeeae/a aei aoa?eey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio, ca
oi?iith iaeaoo (La/Lc), oa aii?yaeeiaai?noth (h/l) nieiia aoa?eey
i?aeoe/ii ia aeiaaea? c iaoaii?o?/iiai ?yaeo, oiaoi, a?aeiia?aea?
aoa?eeth ia?ee Ae. Iaea?eueo cia/iith a?aei?ii?noth NA ? iecueea
cia/aiiy d*002 – na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/ii? i?aeoa?iai? a?aenoai? a iaeao?,
ui aei??aith?  3,4–3,6, i?ioe 3,8–3,9 aeey ?ciiaoaii?oiiai ianieiiiai
aoa?eey.(?en.1.). Ca ia?aiao?ii d*002 no?oeoo?ia iaeeieoey nieiiiai
aoa?eey aeeae/a aei aoa?eey na?aaeiueiai ? iaa?oue aenieiai nooiaiy
iaoaii?o?cio.

Oaeo iecueeiai cia/aiiy d*002 oa a?aeiinii aenieiai cia/aiiy ae?aiao?o
iaeaoo La iiaea aooe aeoeoia/aii ia ei?enoue a?iioace i?i aeeth/aiiy
?ii?a Na oa Cl o aeaeyae? aeaa-?ii?a a i?aee?enoae?oiee i?ino?? IIA, ui
iaaea? iniaeeaeo aeanoeainoae nenoai?. Caeaaei?noue i?aeoa?iai?
a?aenoai? d 002 a?ae ai?noo iao??th a aoa?ee? (?en. 1), a oaeiae La ? Lc
a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? a NA cae?ca (?en. 2) na?ae/eoue, ia iao iiaeyae, ia
ei?enoue ?aiiueiae?aaaiaoe/ii? a?iioace canieaiiy iieeaae?a, a oaeiae
aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe iiaaae?ieo NA a i?ioeanao ?o oa?iio?i?/ii?
ia?a?iaee.

Aecia/ii, ui aeiey iao??th a neeaae? oaiieyo?a ? ea?aieneeao?a iiaea
aeinyaaoe a?ae 0 aei 20% a?ae noia?iiai ai?noo iao??th a aoa?ee?. Ai?no
ea?aieneeao?a i?e oeueiio – 0,1–0,4 ia-aea/a, a oaiieyo?a – a?ae 0 aei
1,5 ia-aea/a. Eiioeaio?aoe?y a?eueieo eeniaaeo ooieoe?eieo a?oi (EOA) a
NA ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao: oaiieuei? – 1,50–4,000,08 ia-aea/a,
ea?aieneeuei? – 0,10–0,300,04 ia-aea/a.

Ia?aiaai?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee NA a ?yaeo oae caaiiai “?aa?iiaeueiiai
iaoaii?o?cio” (H/C i?iy?oueny a?ae 0,80 aei 0,87) ? aeey ao?iai aoa?eey
(H/C=1,02) a –ae?aiacii? ? noia?iiceoe??th i?i?ioi aeaio oei?a neaiae?a,
ui ca’ycai? c iie?ni?yaeaieie no?oeoo?aie IIA (I~1,2–1,3 an), ? c
iaa?iiaoe/iith (iie?iaooaiiaith, ae?oaoe/iith) /anoeiaie IIA (neaiae c
H~4–6 an). Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue eiioeaio?aoe?? IIOe (N) NA a?ae
nooiaiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio (iieacieea H/C). Aiia aiaeia?/ia
iiae?ai?e aeey ?yaeo iaoaii?o?cio cae/aeiiai aoa?eey. Ciaeaeaii oaeiae
caeaaei?noue eiioeaio?aoe?? [IIOe] a?ae ai?noo ?ia?oei?oo
(I).Noeoii?noue ooieoe?e N = f(H/C)-1, e N= f(I), a oaeiae ii??aiyii
iecueea cia/aiiy g–oaeoi?a (ui aei??aith? 2,0034–2,0036 aeey aeo?aeiiai
NA), na?ae/aoue i?i ae??oaeueiee aeeaae a ia?aiaaiaoeci aoa?eey
iie?ni?yaeaieo nenoai.

?en.2 — Caeaaei?noue oiaueie oa ae?aiao?o INN a?ae ai?noo cae?ca o
aoa?ee?

Noaey/e c ?* — niaeo??a oa ooieoe?eiiai aiae?co, NA ca neeaaeii
ooieoe?eieo a?oi aeecueea aei ao?iai aoa?eey. Iniiaiith a?aeciaeith ?
iecueea eiioeaio?aoe?y a ieo no?oeoo? c 3-4 — ia iacai?uaieie aoiiaie
aiaeith a a?iiaoe/iiio yae??, ui na?ae/eoue i?i cia/i?oo
eiiaeainiaai?noue iie?a?aiiaeo o?aaiaio?a a neeaae? i?aai?/ii? iane NA.

Aia?oa iaea?aeaii a?aeiiino? i?i niieoee cae?ca o neeaae? NA (oaae. 2.)
oa ?o o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?e aeeo/aii? aoi?iiaeo eeneio oa a i?ioean?
a?ae?iaai?caoe??. sseui a neeaae? NA ciaoiaeeoueny aeae?eueea oei?a
niieoe cae?ca, oi a oeaiao a?ae?iaai?caoe?? oo?eiothoueny i???ioei ?
i??eo. Niieoee cae?ca c?a?aee aaaeeeao ?ieue a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e i?aai?/ii? iane NA (?en. 2). Aiie oaeiae nooo?ai aieeaathoue
ia aeanoeaino? e iiaaae?ieo NA a ??cieo i?ioeanao ia?aoai?aiiy.

Neeaae i?ia?aeueii? /anoeie NA oa o?i?/i? ci?ie i?e eiai iciethaaii?. C
iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ?noeiiiai (aai aeecueeiai aei ?noeiiiai) ai?noo ?
neeaaeo nieae oa aeey ioe?iee aeie? ao?ao iao??th ? oei?o a ??cieo
oa?iio?i?/ieo i?ioeanao i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaoiae?a
icieaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey: – aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai (AINO 11022-90:
t=850 0C, iia?o?y), (AOI); – na?aaeiueioaiia?aoo?iiai (iaoiaeeea
Oaieioaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo: t=500–600 0C, iia?o?y), (NOI);
 iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai (OEI, t= 1505 0C, eenaiue), (IOI).

Oaaeeoey 1 – Iniiai? ?aioaaiino?oeoo?i? ia?aiao?e nieiiiai aoa?eey

I?iaad(002)d(10)d4d3d2d1LaLcS002S1h/lmIeanoNaa?ae..A0.05A0,05A
1A0,5o.i.o.i.o.i.C04a3,532,22-6,81-4,873211,3—0,864C14a3,562,106,895,91
5,544,2-4,9166,0188.246,31,403C44a3,562,18-7,035,914,2-4,9196,1254,412,6
1,303C54a3,512,108,865-6,614,672012,7—1,194C64a3,562,228,40-5,16-229,91
07,010,61,303C74a3,532,08-7,37-4,722213,658,437,81,404C42-43,532,15-7,38
-4,772812,7515,534,81,814C62-43,432,18—5,914,44148,2152,06,81,203C62-43
,562,25—5,914,35224,855,640,61,302C72-43,482,318,857,385,544,274115,1—
0,964C43-33,562,14—5,5-6,64,52166,9—1,733C73-33,742,25-7,385,834,67219
,4—0,953

Oaaeeoey 2 – Niieoee cae?ca a c?aceao nieiiiai aoa?eey

I?iaaISQSAi?no Fe 0,5 (a?ae noia?iiai), %O?i?/ia niieoean1, (2-2)0,29

0,400,59

1,0886,7

13,3I??eo

ss?iceo–MeFe3(SO4)2(OH)6n4, (3-3)0,290,6174,4I??eo0,38
1,1612,2ss?iceo1,352,6812,4FeSO4 H2O1,142,601,0Fe2+, (?ee?o)n6 ,
(3-3)0,300,5879,8I??eo0,381,088,7ss?iceo1,172,9411,5FeSO4 H2On61,( 4a
)0,300,5845,1I??eo0,361,1246,9ss?iceo1,342,668,0Fe2SO4 H2O

Iieacaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? AOI ao?a/a?oueny aei 100% oei?o ? a?ae 10 aei
40% iao??th aeey ??cieo ieano?a, i?e oeueiio a cieueiiio caeeoeo iiaea
aooe ae?aaiinoiaaii o?eueee 5–7 ooaiieaaeeo i?ia?ae?a. NOI aeicaiey?
caa?aaoe aei 80% iao??th ? a?ey 40% oei?o, i?e oeueiio aeinoia??ii
aecia/a?oueny 6-8 i?ia?ae?a. IOI a oieiaei?e ieaci? eenith (OEI)
aeicaiey? eiioeaio?oaaoe oa ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe ia o?eueee aae?o (NaCl), aea
? a?ey 20 i?ia?ae?a, a oiio /ene? e?enoaeia?ae?aoe.

H2O
0,01i HCl
(H2SO4)

i c i e a i i y :

t=600i N

= 3 aiae

cieueiee caeeoie

(?OA)

aae?o NaClaeaoaa?eo Na2SO4 CaSO4aae?o 3%eaa?oeeaa?oe
SiO2eaa?oe aia?ae?eoeaeueoeeo CaCO3aia?ae?eo
CaSO4aaiaoeoi??eo FeS2aaiaoeo
Fe2O3n??eaia?eaceo FeS2a?ae?inethaeea?ae?inethaeeaannai?o
CaSO4 1/2 H2On??ea Siaoae?i NaAlSiO4a?ae?inethaee
K, Al, Fe3+(OH)2 AlSi3O10iieueia? oiaoe Ca, K, NaAlSi3O8 oeueo?aia?ei
Na4Al6Si8O23S4eaie?i?o Al4Si4O10(OH)8 y?iceo
KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6

Noaia 1 – Ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?ia?aeueii? oa
i?aaii-

i?ia?aeueii? /anoeie NA

I?e?iaei? (iaoeai?) i?ia?aee NA ai?uothoue, ye i?aaeei, i?ino? nie?:
NaCl, CaCO3, FeS2, ieneae e?aii?th oa eaie?i?o. I?ney NOI ? AOI nieiiiai
aoa?eey ca aeiiiiiaith ?aioaaiioaciaiai aiae?co a neeaae? ciee aeyaeaii
ooaiieaae? nie? eiiieaeniiai neeaaeo, ieneaee oa n??eo (noaia 1).

Oaeei /eiii, iaea?aeaii i?yi? aeieace ia?aa?ao oaeeo ?aaeoe?e a i?ioean?
icieaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey i?e 600 0N:

3Al4[Si4O10(OH)8]+4NaCl4Na[AlSi3O8]+4HCl+4Al2O3+10H2O (1)

eaie?i?o aae?o iieueiaee oiao

3Al4[Si4O10(OH)8]+2Na2SO4CaSO4 4Na[AlSi3O8] + 2CaSO4+4Al2O3 +
12H2O+2SO3; (2)

eaie?i?o aeaoaa?eo iieueiaee oiao
aia?ae?eo

2CaSO41/2H2O 2CaSO4 + H2O; (3)

aannai?o aia?ae?eo

4FeS2+3O2 2Fe2O3 +8S; CaCO3 CaO + CO2 (4)

i??eo, aaiaoeo eaeueoeeo

ia?eaceo

I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e icieaiiy aei 800 0N i?ecaiaeeei aei cieeiaiiy
aae?oo ? iiyae a cie? iao??eai?nieo ooaiieaaeeo i?ia?ae?a — iaoae?io oa
oeueo?aia?eio:

Al4[Si4O10(OH)8]+4NaCl 4Na[AlSiO4] + 4HCl + 2H2O; (5)

eaie?i?o aae?o iaoae?i

Al4[Si4O10(OH)8]+NaCl+Na2SO4CaSO4Na4Al6Si8O23S4+ HCl+CaSO4+SiO2+?i., (6)

eaie?i?o aae?o aeaoaa?eo oeueo?aia?ei

A i?ioean? aeiaaiai caa??aaiiy NA a iaaa?iaoe/i?e oa?? ( – 00,25 ii, ~7
?ie?a, t = 205 0N) oaeiae a?aeaoaathoueny o?i?/i? ?aaeoe?? i?ia?ae?a:
aae?oo c ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie IIA, c noeueoaoaie cae?ca, eaie?i?oii
oa ?i., i?e oeueiio ?aeaioeo?eiaaii oae? neeaaei? nie?, ye iao?iy?iceo
NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6; io??o (Mg,Zn)8SO4(OH)14H2O, iaoaaieueoei
(K,Na,Fe)5Fe3(SO4)6(OH)29H2O oa ?i.

Icieaiiy NA a OEI aeicaiey? a iaea?eueo?e i??? caa?aaoe i?e?iaei?
i?ia?aee ?, ianaiia?aae, oei?eae iao??th, ui aeicaiey? e?euee?nii
ioe?ieoe eiai ia?aoai?aiiy a ??cieo i?ioeanao aeei?enoaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiai aoa?eey. Aeey ?ooeiieo aiae?c?a iao??th a NA ?
i?iaeoeoao eiai aeeaiei? ia?a?iaee aeiionoeia aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaea
na?aaeiueioaiia?aoo?iiai icieaiiy.

Aeinoaiaiia aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?eaeo iao??th a neeaae? aeo?aeiiai
nieiiiai aoa?eey aeicaieeei ooi/ieoe aoaeoeai?noue cianieaiiy NA a
oiiaao ??cieo iaoiaeee. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeaye? i?eeiie i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy
aeeo/aiiy iao??th c nieiiiai aoa?eey (aeno?aaoaaiiy neaaeeie ?ic/eiaie
eeneio, canoinoaaiiy iiaa?oiaai aeoeaieo ?a/iaei oiui). Oae, a i?ioean?
aeno?aaoaaiiy aiaeith i?e t = 200C oa /an? = 1 aiaeeia, nooi?iue
aeeo/aiiy iao??th Na, ui ?ic?aoiaaia ye a?aeiioaiiy ai?noo iao??th o
i?iieoeo oa aeo?aeieo c?aceao, neeaaea? 56 80% a caeaaeiino? a?ae
iniaeeainoae aeo?aeiiai aoa?eey. I?e t ~ 1000C, = 1 aiae., aeno?aaaio —
H2O, = 58 83%. O aeiaaeeo canoinoaaiiy ?aaaaio?a i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo?? ( t = 200N, = 1 aiae., 0,01i ?-i HCl,) nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy
iao??th neeaaea? = 60 85%, a ca oeie ae oiiaaie aeey 5% ?ic/eio C2H5OH
— = 65 80%. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ii?a iao??th oa oei?o a ?ic/eiao aeecueea
aei noao?iiao?e/iiai. Na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy i?e aecia/aii?
?ii?a iao??th neeaaeaei  0,2 ia/a, aeey oei?o —  0,3 ia/a.
?aioaaiioaciaee aiae?c (?OA) nooeo aiaei?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei aeicaieea
onoaiiaeoe i?enooi?noue a ?o neeaae? aae?oo (?aoeaene 1,99, 2,81, 3,26)
— a ia?aaaaei?e e?eueeino?, aannai?oo CaSO41/2H2O; aaenaa?ae?eoo
MgSO46H2O — a /ooo?aeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo, aeaoaa?eoo Na2Ca(SO4)2 ?
aeaa?aaeiaaii? a?ae?inethaee — a iacia/i?e e?eueeino?.

I?e?iaeaiaioe o nieiiiio aoa?ee?. Iaoiaeii iai?ae?euee?niiai
niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co aecia/aii ai?no i?e?iaeaiaio?a (IA) a
aeine?aeaeaiiio aoa?ee?. A on?o c?aceao aeyaeaii 30–32 ??ciiaeaeiino?
IA, oiae? ye a aaiaoe/ii aeecueeiio eai’yiiio aoa?ee? – o?eueee 17.
A?aeiinii eea?eo a NA i?aeaeuaiee ai?no Ge, Ba, ??aeoa Be, Cu, Hg, W,
Pb. A iaaacia/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo c oiene/ieo IA a NA Oe?a?ie ia
i?noeoueny i? iaeei. Aecia/aii ai?no IA a cieao AOI ? oeaiao
a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue IA eiioeaio?o?oueny a cie?,
ca aeeeth/aiiyi Bi ? Be. A oeaiao a?ae?iaai?caoe?? eiioeaio?o?oueny
iaioa ??ciiaeaeiinoae IA. Oae, o oeaiao iiieaeaiee ai?no Bi, Ba, Sr (a
5-6 ?ac?a), Mg (a 4 ?ace), Mn (a 1,5 ?ace), Zn (a 2–3 ?ace), Sc (aei 5
?ac?a) ? Ag ii??aiyii c aeo?aeiei aoa?eeyi. Eiioeaio?aoe?y Be a oeaiao,
iai?ioe, aeua a 4–5 ?ac?a.

Eoaeiee a?ae?ie?c NA oa aeanoeaino? i?iaeoeo?a. sse iaoiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? ? aoaeiae i?aai?/ii? iane NA oa
caaeey iiooeo iao?aaeeoe?eieo iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo oeyo?a canoinoaaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiai aoa?eey aeei?enoaii iaoiae eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co.

A?aeiii, ui ia?iaea eoaaie (EI) aoaeaoeaaeo iaoa??ae?a ??ciiai
iioiaeaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?o aeoeaaoe??, ui ?ioaineo?eo? aaaaoi
i?ioean?a iaea?aeaiiy oe?eueiaeo i?iaeoeo?a oa iie?auo? ye?noue
inoaii?o. I?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?e eoaei?e ia?iaoe? aoa?eey,
iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye noeoii?noue aaoa?ie?oe/ieo ?aaeoe?e
eaa?eueieo o?i?/ieo ca’yce?a, no?oeoo?ii? ?ai?aai?caoe?? IIA,
ia?aoai?aiue i?ia?aeueieo eiiiiiaio?a oa ?i. Caeaa?eueoiai, aea/aeanue
yeanue iaeia noi?iia i?ioeano, ye i?aaeei, o?ainoi?iaoe?? a i?aai?/i?e
ian? aoa?eey.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaii nenoaiaoe/ia eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co (EA) nieiiiai aoa?eey ? aea/aii aeanoeaino?
i?iaeoeo?a, ui iaea?aeai?, ca noaiith 2:

Aoiao Na, K 5% ?-? HCl AE (aoi?iia? e-oe)

e NaOH, 1% ?-i , t =100 C, = 2
aiae

AAA a Na+-oi?i? 0,1i HCl AAA-I+

Noaia 2.– I?iaeoeoe eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co nieiiiai aoa?eey

Aeine?aeaeaia aoa?eey oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei aeoiaeii AE (a?ae 14 aei
35% ia IIA) ca?aeii c AINO 9517–76. Oea aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe NA ye
ne?iaeio aeey ae?iaieoeoaa AE. Inoaii? aeyaeeeny o?ceieia?/ii aeoeaieie
— aeei?enoaiiy 0,001% ?ic/ei?a aoiao?a NA i?aeaeuo? eiio?ieuei?
iieacieee (i?i?inoee oiiao?a oa ia??e?a) a 1,3–2,0 ( 18%) ?ace o
ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. Aeo?ae aoi?iiaeo eeneio caeaaeeoue a?ae
iao?ieiai – aaiaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee NA, a naia: a?ae ai?noo a?o?ei?oo,
nooiaiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio (iieacieea H/C), a oaeiae ai?noo
iao??th oa EOA a aoa?ee?. Uiaei iieaeoey?ieo ian (II), oi aoi?iia?
eeneioe iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia a?aeiinii aenieiiieaeoey?i? (II
=1000–1300 a.i.i.) ? iecueeiiieaeoey?i? (II = 600–850 a.i.i.), inoaii?
oa?aeoa?i? aeey aoa?eey c a?eueo iecueeei H/C.

Iaoaii-o?i?/ia ia?iaea nieiiiai aoa?eey a?ae?ieneaeii iao??th
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ceeo ci?i no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? IIA oa ?yaeo
o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ui i?iyaey?oueny, ianaiia?aae, a iineeaii?
ia?aiaai?oiiai iiaeeiaiiy c ia?aiao?aie neaiaeo I = 5–7 An, g–oaeoi?ii
2,0038 – (oae caaiee aocueeee neaiae (AN) ? iiya? iiooaeiiai oe?ieiai
neaiaeo (ON) c I = 70–150 An ? goaeoi?ii 2,00. Iaeneioi ?ioaineaiino?
oe?ieiai neaiaeo aeinyaa?oueny i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? eoaa:aoa?eey
= 15 iieue:ea /a?ac aeiao i?ney ia?iaee. ON ia i?iythoueny ia i?ioyc?
aeae?eueeio i?nyoe?a. Onoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue ?ioaineaiino? (Ion)
oe?ieiai neaiaeo aoa?eueii- eoaeieo c?ace?a a?ae caaaeueiiai ai?noo
cae?ca a aeo?aeiiio aoa?ee?:

Ion = (365,7 39,6) [Fe2O3]-(356,2 23,9) (7)

i?e R= 0,82 ? n =7, oa Fe2O3 a?ae 9 aei 46% a cie?.

?en.3 – Aeeo?aeoia?aie aeo?aeiiai nieiiiai aoa?eey oa i?iaeoeo?a eiai
eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co

Iiia?aaeiy aeai?ia?ae?caoe?y aeo?aeiiai aoa?eey (1i HCl, t = 90 0N),
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy Ion i?aeoe/ii aei ioey. Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae,
ui Ion ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ai?noo i??eoo a i?ia?. Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiee
ON a?aeiineoueny aei c?acea, yeee caaaa/aiee eiiieaenii-ca’ycaiei
cae?cii (a aeaeyae? y?iceoo KFe[(SO4)2(OH)6] oa ?ee?oo (Fe+2). Aecia/aii
ia?aiaai?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeoeo?a eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co NA :
aoi?iiaeo eeneio, aioaoi?iiaaiiai aoa?eey (AAA) a Na+– oa H+– oi?iao.

Iaoiaeii iane/aiiy AI? iieacaia i?e-nooi?noue ye i?i?ioi aeaio oei?a
IIOe a i?iaeoeoao eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co NA. Ioe?iaii /an ?o ni?i-ni?iiai?
(O2) oa ni?i — a?aoeiai? (O1) ?aeaenaoe??.

?en.4 – ?*– niaeo?e aoiao?a ao?iai (1) oa

nieiiiai aoa?eey: 2–ie.n1, 3– ie.n4, 4–ie.n74

Aea/aii oa?aeoa? ci?i no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? IIA, neeaaeo i?ia?ae?a ?
o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae NA a i?ioean? eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co. Ia ?en.3
iieacai? oeiia? aeeo?aeoia?aie NA ? i?iaeoeo?a EA, ui ooai?ththoueny a
i?ioean? iaea?aeaiiy AE. Iaea?eueo nooo?a? a?aeciaee a no?oeoo??
oa?aeoa?i? aeey aoiao?a NA, ye? ? ia?aeiieie i?iaeoeoaie a?ae?ie?co. A
?iaio? ?ic?aoiaaii ?aioaaiino?oeoo?i? aeai? aeey iniiaieo i?iaeoeo?a
?icaeyiooiai i?ioeano (aeea. noaio 2). ?ioaa?aeueia ?ioaineai?noue
iaeneioi?a 002 ? –nioa, ui i?iii?oe?eia ai?noo a?aiiaeo oa iaa?iiaoe/ieo
o?aaiaio?a, iicia/aia ?iaeaenaie S002 e S13 –a?aeiia?aeii. S002
iaeneiaeueia aeey AE, oaeiae, ye ? ia?aiao? h/l002, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
aii?yaeeiaai?noue iie?a?aiiaeo iaeao?a

Aeey AAA–Na+ i?eoaiaiia iecueea cia/aiiy h/l ? i?aeaeuaia aeiey
iaa?iiaoe/ieo no?oeoo?. Oe? aeai? aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c
?acoeueoaoaie aeaiaioiiai aiae?co aea/aieo i?iaeoeo?a. Onoaiiaeaii i?yio
caeaaei?noue aaee/eie S2 a?ae ai?noo EOA a c?aceao, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
nooo?ao ?ieue I– ca’yce?a a oi?ioaaii? iaaeiieaeoey?ii? i?aai?caoe??
i?aai?/ii? iane NA, aoi?iiaeo eeneio ? aioaoi?iiaaiiai aoa?eey.

Iaoeiia?noue aeey aoaeaoeaaeo ia’?eo?a aeeo?aeoia?ai aoiao?a (iaeneioi
aeeo?aeoe?? a iaeano? 2  32–340) iiynith?oueny cia/iith
aeaci?aai?caoe??th iniiaieo no?oeoo?ieo o?aaiaio?a nieiiiai aoa?eey o
eoaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? ? i?iyaii ia oeueiio oii? aii?yaeeiaaiino?
iaoaeioaeaoieo eiiieaen?a.

Aiae?c aeinyaiaiue o?i?? iie?oe?ee?/ieo iaoaeioaeao?a
(ssoeei??nueeee E.A., Eaiiaea ss.?, Iiiiaaeei A.Ae., Ooeyiae ?.?.) ?
aeanieo ?acoeueoao?a, ui iaea?aeai? iaoiaeaie ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai
aiae?co oa ?*-niaeo?ineii?? (?en. 4), aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a
neeaae? aeine?aeaeaiiai aoa?eey i?enooi? iie?oeeee?/i? iaoaeioaeaoe,
iaea?eueo ?iia??ii, cae?ca. Aiie oi?iothoueny caaaeyee eii?aeeiaoe?eiei
ca’yceai caaaeaiiai ?iia c –II ? N=I – a?oiaie IIA, aiane?aeie /iai a ?*
niaeo?ao aoiao?a c’yaeythoueny /?oe? nioae c = 2500, 1640, 1460 ni-1, a
iaoiaeii AI? ?a?no?o?oueny oe?ieee neaiae, ui iia’ycaiee c i?enooi?noth
?ii?a cae?ca oa c ae?aiao?ii a?aoaiiaiai iaeaoo.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?OA aecia/aii iniiai? i?ia?aeuei? eiiiiiaioe aoiao?a, AE
e aioaoi?iiaaiiai aoa?eey. Aeai? ?* niaeo?ineii?? aeia?a ni?aiaaeathoue
c ?acoeueoaoaie oaciaiai aiae?co aoiao?a (ia i?eeeaae? o?iie —
ea?aiiaoo-a?ea?aiiaoo iao??th, ui ooai?th?oueny a i?ioean? EA NA oa
/?oei aecia/a?oueny iaiia iaoiaeaie a aoiaoao). ?icaeyiooi ia?a?iciiae?e
IA oa aaoa?iaoii?a a i?ioean? aeeo/aiiy aoi?iiaeo eeneio c NA Oe?a?ie,
ai ?o eiioeaio?aoe?y a i?iaeoeoao i?ioeano iiaea ??cei ci?ieoe
oe?ii?noue oa i?iieneiaa cia/aiiy ne?iaeie.

Ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? ?aaeoe?? no?oeoo?ieo o?aaiaio?a oa a?oi a i?ioean?
eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co NA, ui aeeth/athoue :

· Cai?uaiiy i?ioii?a eeniaaeo a?oi (ooai?aiiy oaiieyo?a oa ea?aieneeao?a
iao??th). sse ne?aenoai, ?oeio?oueny aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?iee eiiieaen
IIA.

· ?icuaieaiiy neeaaeieo-ao??ieo a?oi :

R1-C ==O MOH R1COH + ROH (8)

OR (ca aeaieie ooieoe?eiiai aiae?co oa ?*- niaeo?ineii??)
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· Ooai?aiiy naieo?iiiieo ?ii- ?aaeeeae?a (9)

Aiie i?iyaeythoueny ye i?e??no eiioeaio?aoe?? ia?aiaai?oieo oeaio??a c
aocueeei neaiaeii (H~ 4-7 An, g–oaeoi? ~2,0040).

· I?iya iae?ioeeee?/ieo iaoaeioaeao?a (oeaio?aeueiee ?ii – Fe): iiyaa
oe?ieiai neaiaeo AI? (I ~ 70-150An, g oaeoi? ~2,01; ION = [Fe]; ION
~La), ??cea ci?ia ia?aiao??a iaaeiieaeoey?ii? i?aai?caoe?? IIA, iiyaa
nioa a ?*- niaeo?ao c  = 2500, 1640, 1460 ni–1.

· Ia?a?iciiae?e aii?yaeeiaaiiai aoaeaoeth ? aaoa?iaoiiieo niieoe:

A AE cina?aaeaeai? ia?aaaaeii iie?ni?yaeai? nenoaie, acioai?ni?
o?aaiaioe, oaiieuei? a?ae?ieneee, a AAA — i?aeaeuaia eiioeaio?aoe?y
n??eiai?nieo no?oeoo?, iaa?iiaoe/iiai aoaeaoeth ? ea?aieneeueieo a?oi.
(ca aeaieie ?NA, AI?, ?*N, ooieoe?iiaeueiiai oa aeaiaioiiai aiae?c?a).

?en.5 — No?oeoo?ia iiaeaeue nieiiiai aoa?eey:

1- iie?a?aiia? iaeaoe

2- iaeao iie?iaooaiiaeo no?oeoo?

3- iaoae-ii?o??eiia? oeeeee

4- no?oeoo?e, ui i?noyoue n??eo

5- ie?aiee iie?a?aiiaee oa?

6- ae?oaoe/i? eaioethaeee

7- ?iie Na+ oa Cl- o i?aeiaeaoiiio i?noi??

8- ea?aieneeaoe e oaiieyoe iao??th

9- Fe — i?aai?/i? no?oeoo?e

· Ia?a?iciiae?e i?e?iaeaiaio?a:

A AE eiioeaio?othoueny Ge, Mo, Hg, W, Zr, Zn, Cr, Nb, Cu, La, Ga, a
aioaoi?iiaaiiio aoa?ee? – Pb, Cr, Ni, Ba, Be ? iniaeeai Yb, Mn, Ag. (Ca
?acoeueoaoaie niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co).

· Ia?aoai?aiiy i?ia?ae?a:

A neeaae? i?ia?ae?a aoiao?a ? AAA aeyaeaii o?iio Na2CO3NaHCO3H2O –
iniiaia e?euee?noue, oaieneo Na22KCl(CO3)2(SO4)9 (ne?aee) ? aia?ae?eo
CaSO4 – i?aeii?yaeeiaaia. A i?ia?aeuei?e /anoei? AE i?enooi? ne?aee
i??eoo (ca aeaieie ?OA, ?*- oa ssA?- niaeo?ineii??).

Iaea?aeaiee ianea o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? ?aioaaiino?oeoo?ieo aeaieo oa
no?oeoo?ia iiaeaeue Iaa?e?i — Aea?a?o??a iineoaeeee iniiaith eiioeaioe??
noai?aiiy iiaeae? aoaeiae NA ye i?e?iaeieo (oiaoi oaeeo, ui noi?ioaaeeny
a “i?e?iaei?e eaai?aoi???“ ca i?eueeiie ?ie?a) niieoe aeeth/aiiy (INA)
ci?oaiiai oeio (?en. 5). Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue aeicaiey? ia?aaeaa/eoe
aeaye? ?aoe?iiaeuei? oeyoe eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey, ui aea/aeiny.

IA?NIAEOEAE AIA?AIO?I?*II? EIIAA?N?? NIEIIIAI AOA?EEss.

I?ioeane oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee nieiiiai aoa?eey c iaea?aeaiiyi
aia?aiiin??a e o?i?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a.

Caeiiii??iino? oa?i?/ii? aeano?oeoe?? (OAe) NA. Aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo oeyo?a aeei?enoaiiy NA iaiao?aeia eiie?aoia
?ioi?iaoe?y i?i aieea nieae eoaeieo iaoae?a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a neeaae?
aoa?eey, ia ia?aa?a i?ioean?a eiai oa?i?/ii? eiiaa?n??. sseui i?e
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio niaethaaii? aieea NaCl /a?ac caeaoi?noue aei
oeaeiooai?aiiy oa ei?ic?eio aeoeai?noue ioe?ith?oueny oao?aoeyie
iaeiicia/ii iaaaoeaii, oi ?ieue oe??? niieoee a ?ioeo niiniaao
oa?iio?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee ia oae iaeiicia/ia.

?ieue iaoeaieo eoaeieo i?ia?ae?a o i?ioeanao oa?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue
ai?th/eo eiiaeei aea/aia iaaeinoaoiuei. A aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaii
nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo i?ioean?a oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? nieiiiai
aoa?eey. Ca ia?oei aoaiii iaoiaeii aea?eaaoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co (AeOA)
onoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? i?e?iaeiiai, i?iieoiai
aiaeith NA oa ianieiiiai aiaeiaa. Aeaeaeaiiy nie? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iacia/iiai cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo (Oi) iniiaiiai oa?i?/iiai
?iceeaaeo IIA, i?e oeueiio cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny aoaeoeaia aia?a?y
aeoeaaoe?? (Aaeo) i?ioeano. Cianieaiiy ci?ith? oi?io iaeneioio iniiaiiai
oa?i?/iiai ?iceeaaeo IIA, ?icoe?thth/e eiai (O c?inoa?). Aaee/eia O
nooo?ai ieae/a a aeiaaeeo aeo?aeiiai NA ? iaioa 1000 (oea y iaeiei c
oanoiaeo ia?aiao??a uiaei noeeueiino? aoa?eey aei c??aeaeaiiy), ui
aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe NA ia?niaeoeaiith ne?iaeiith aeey iaea?aeaiiy N?I.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui Aaeo oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? i?e?iaeieo NA caeaaeeoue a?ae
ai?noo a iueiio aiaei?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei. Aiia oei ieae/a, /ei aeua ?o
ai?no.

?ic?aooiie e?eueeino? iieaeoe aiaee, ui oaea?aeothoueny a?ey ?iio
iao??th a neeaae? nieiiiai aoa?eey, i?iaaaeaii ca aeaieie AeOA oa ai?noo
iao??th a eiaei?e eiie?aoi?e i?ia? aoa?eey. Aeyaeaii, ui ia eiaeai ?ii
i?eoiaeeoueny 3-4 iieaeoee aiaee. Oe? aeai? i?aeoe/ii ni?aiaaeathoue c
e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie uiaei i?e?iaeieo o?ainii?oieo oi?i eoaeieo
a?iiaoae?a. O aeiaaeeo iao??th iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ia oi?ia — oea aeaa —
?ii Na(H2O)4+. Oei?eae -?ii aenooia?, nei??o ca ana, ye i?ioe?ii.

Uia c’ynoaaoe o?i?/io ae?th oeueiai eiiieaeno ia ia?oiio aoai? oa?iie?co
NA, aea/eee ci?ie a neeaae? aoa?eey eiiieaenii iaoiae?a. Oae, a i?ioean?
ia?cioa?i?/iiai iaa??ao NA a?ae 20 aei 400 0N niinoa??aaee ci?ithaaiiy
ai?noo aiaei?ic/eiiiai iao??th, neiaaoia ci?ithaaiith eiioeaio?aoe??
–NIII–a?oi. I?e oeueiio a?aeaoaaeiny ooai?aiiy ea?aieneeao?a iao??th, ui
aaei aei ?oeioaaiiy I- ca’yce?a oa noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny aeaeaeaiiyi oei?o
o aeaeyae? HCl, a iiaeaeueoee ?iciaae ea?aieneeao?a i?ecaiaeea aei
a?eueo aeeaiei? aeano?oeoe?? IIA (c?inoaiiy IIOe). Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
ia?aeiiiai oeyoo aeoeaaoe?? IIA aea/aii e?iaoeeo ci?ithaaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? [Na+] ? –COONa i?e 200 ? 300 0N a i?ioean? ?cioa?i?/iiai
i??ie?co NA. Ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaei?ic/eiiiai iao??th oaeiae
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny i?aeoe/ii aea?aaeaioiei i?e?inoii eiioeaio?aoe??
ea?aieneeao?a. ?oeioaaiiy ea?aieneeao?a oa aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieo
ca’yce?a i?ecaiaeeei aei ooai?aiiy iiaeo IIOe, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aeoeaaoe?th IIA i?e aeaea?aieneethaaii?, ?ic?eao ?ioeo eaa?eueieo
ca’yce?a oa a?aeuaieaiiy ae?oaoe/ieo o?aaiaio?a. E??i oiai, a?aeiii, ui
iaaaeeeee ca ?ici??ii ?ii iao??th (d = 1,96) ni?ey? aeano?oeoe??
a?iiaoe/iiai e?eueoey (?ici??e yeiai a?eueoa — 2,42 — 2,78) oa
iiaeaeueo?e eiiaeainaoe??.a?ai?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?NA na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
i?e i??ie?c? i?e?iaeiiai NA (500 0N,  10 oa.) a?aeaoaa?oueny ooai?aiiy
a?eueo u?eueii? oiaeiaee iie?a?aiiaeo oa??a (d002 – 3,56 i?ioe 3,60
aeey cianieaiiai aoa?eey), oiaueia yeeo oaeiae cia/ii a?eueoa (Ln – 16,3
i?ioe 13,6) aeey ea?aii?cao?a aeo?aeiiai aoa?eey i?e iaeaea ??aiiio
ae?aiao?? iaeao?a (La  27–29). U?euei?noue oiaeiaee iaa?iiaoe/ii?
/anoeie ea?aii?cao?a aeua oaeiae o aeiaaeeo aeo?aeiiai aoa?eey (d – 4,44
? 5,91 i?ioe 4,80 oa 6,81 aeey ea?aii?cao?a cianieaiiai aoa?eey).

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo oa aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e ocaaaeueiaii (noaia 3)
iniiai? ia?o?ooe ?aaeoe?e, ye? iathoue i?noea i?e oa?i?/i?e aeano?oeoe??
NA:

RCOOH + Na(I 2 I)4+ + Cl(I2I)n- RCOONa + HCl + (n+4) I2I (10)

RCOONa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 R1
CH3 +NaOH +CO2+CO+CH4+ ?i. (11)

NI3

RCOONa CO2 + R + NaOH + ?i. (12)

Iiaeeeaa /anoeiaa ?aaaia?aoe?y oei?eaeo iao??th:

NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O; (13)

I?e a?eueo aenie?e oaiia?aoo?? ( 400 0N) niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy
ia?aiaaiaoecio nenoaie ca ?aooiie aeano?oeoe?? ao??ieo i?noe?a oa
iiey?eciaaieo ca’yce?a:

R1-C =O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 R1-C=O +
R2O (14)

O-R2

RCH2-R3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 R-CH2 +R3
(15)

I?e a?eueo aenie?e oaiia?aoo?? — eiiaeainaoe?y, oe?oiiaiiy INN:

R1CO+ R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 R1COR
(16)

RO + R ROR, ? o.ae. (17)

Ca e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie a i?ioean? i??ie?co nieiiiai aoa?eey i?e
aenie?e oaiia?aoo?? ciaeaeaii iao??e a aoiia?iiio noai?:

NaCl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 Na + Cl
(18)

Aaaaea?ii ca aeineoue ?iia??ia iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy oei?i?aai?/ieo
niieoe:

R-CH2 + Cl R-CH2-Cl (19)

R-CO+ Cl R-COCl (20)

Ca?aeii c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie a i?ioean? i??ie?co nieiiiai aoa?eey a
aoiinoa?? ae?ieneaeo aoaeaoeth noai?th?oueny iieaeoey?iee oei?:

Nl + Cl Cl2 — (a aoiinoa?? CO2). (21)

Noaia 3 – Iniiai? ia?o?ooe oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? NA

Iaea?aeaiiy neioaoe/iiai ??aeeiai iaeeaa. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiai iaie
aiae?co aeine?aeaeaieo ia’?eo?a ca aeayeeie oanoiaeie iieacieeaie
(R0=0,4–0,6; H/C=0,800,87; aaio?i?/iee ioeueoeie?eaoeaiee iieaciee
(AII)=CoNi/GaV0,5; Tmax=6090 0N) a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
aeicaieeee ioe?ieoe aoa?eey Iiaiiineianueeiai ?iaeiaeua Cao?aeiiai
Aeiiaano ye noeeueia aei c??aeaeaiiy, iacaaaeath/e ia aenieee ai?no
eoaeieo nieae, ui aaaaeathoueny io?oeieeaie iie?aaeaiiaeo eaoae?caoi??a.

C iaoith aeai?o ia?niaeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaea?aeaiiy N?I aoee aea/ai?
i?ioeane a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA ?yaeo ieano?a a aeae?eueeio aa??aioao: (1)
– c Fe–Mo eaoae?caoi?ii, iaianaiei iaoiaeii i?ini/aiiy (?ii?aaioaaiiy)
(?EO), (2) – c oei naiei, aea aioeueaiaaiei eaoae?caoi?ii (AEO) ca
iaoiaeii ?inoeoooo ai?th/eo eiiaeei (?AE), (3) – aac eaoae?caoi?a: (a) –
c iaooiaei ianoiooai?thaa/ai, (a) – c “aeaniei” ianoiooai?thaa/ai, (a) –
c oao?ae?iii), a oaeiae i?ioean ia?cioa?i?/iiai ?ic/eiaiiy nieiiiai
aoa?eey a oao?ae?i? aac aiaeith.

A oaae. 3 iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy i?ioeano eaoae?oe/ii?
aeano?oeoeaii? a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ca iaoiaeii ?AE c ??ciei niiniaii
aaaaeaiiy eaoae?caoi?a. Ianoiooai?thaa/ai aoea, ye i?aaeei, o?aeoe?y
iaooe c teei 260 0N Iineianueeiai IIC. Onoaiiaeaii, ui iieacieee
a?ae?oaaiiy NA (nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? IIA e aeo?ae ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a) a
oe?eiio a?aeiia?aeathoue oaeei aeey ianieiiiai aoa?eey aeecueeiai
nooiaith iaoaii?o?cio, i?e/iio IIO aeua i?e aeei?enoaii? ?ii?aaiiaaiiai
eaoae?caoi?a (?EO). Aeo?ae iaea?eueo oe?iieo eaaei eeiey/eo o?aeoe?e
aeua o aeiaaeeo a?ae?oaaiiy aoa?eey c AEO (27–38% i?ioe 14–34% a?ae
i?aai?/ii? iane ianoe (III) i?e ?EO).

Aea/aii oaeiae ?iciiae?e aiaei?ic/eiieo niieoe iao??th oa oei?o a
i?iaeoeoao i??ie?co e a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA. Ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe
i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 5. Aeai? ?enoiea a?aeia?aaeathoue neooaoe?th a
aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy i?e a?ae?iaai?caoe?? AEO. Aeaeii, ui c oi/ee ci?o
yeino? oe?eueiaeo i?iaeoeo?a e?auei ? i?ioean a?ae?iaai?caoe?eiiai
ia?aoai?aiiy NA. Ciaeaeaii i?iii?oe?eio caeaaei?noue i?ae ai?noii oei?o
a oeai? a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA e aeoiaeii ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a, a oaeiae
cai?ioith — aeey noia?iiai aeoiaeo aac?a oa aiaee e ai?noo oei?o a
oeai?.

Oaeei /eiii, /ei e?au? iieacieee i?ioeano a?ae?iaai?caoe?? (aeua aeo?ae
??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a (A?I), oei a?eueoa e?euee?noue oei?eae – ?ii?a
eiioeaio?o?oueny a oeai?. Inoaii? aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe iiaee
iai?yiie ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

?en.5 – ?iciiae?e iao??th oa oei?o a i?ioeanao i??ie?co oa
a?ae?iaai?caoe??

Aeaeaeaiiy nieae aiaeiith aeno?aeoe??th iia??oo? a oe?eiio iieacieee
i?ioeano a?ae?iaai?caoe??, cieaeoth/e aeo?ae ??aeeeo o?aeoe?e ?
i?aeaeuoth/e aaciooai?aiiy. I?ioeaaeo?e iaianaiiy eaoae?caoi?a ?
a?ae?ie?co aoa?eey aieeaathoue oaeiae ia neeaae ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a
a?ae?iaai?caoe??.

?icaeyiooi aieea i?e?iaee ianoiooai?thaa/a ia iniiai? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano
a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA. Ii??aithaaee o?aeoe?th iaooe IIC oa “aeaniee”
ianoiooai?thaa/ (AI) – o?aeoe?th c teei260 0N “aoa?eueii? iaooe”, ui
aoea iaea?aeaia a aeine?aeao a?ae?o-aaiiy NA ia i?ioi/i?e onoaiiaoe?
?AE. Aeei?enoaiiy AI a aeine?aeao aac eaoae?caoi?a aeaei i/?eoaaiee
aoaeo: IIO c?inoaei c 50 aei 68%, a A?I — a?ae 69 aei 81%.

?c canoinoaaiiyi noaiaea?oieo iaoiaeee aecia/aii ai?no ia?ao?iiaeo
aoaeaaiaei?a (IAA) ? oaiie?a o ??aeeeo i?iaeoeoao a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA.
Eiioeaio?aoe?y IAA neeaaea? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e eei?iiy
o?aeoe?? a?ae 80 aei 60%, oaiiee i?enooi? a on?o aeenoeeyoieo o?aeoe?yo
(a?ae 5 aei 0,5%). Ca?aeii c aeaieie ?*- oa II?- niaeo?ineii??, iecueei
eeiey/? o?aeoe?? iathoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue ??ciiiai?oieo ae?oaoe/ieo
cai?niee?a ? EOA. C oaiia?aoo?ith eei?iiy o?aeoe?e /anoea a?iiaoe/iiai
aiaeith c?inoa?, a ae?oaoe/iiai — cieaeo?oueny. Iniiaia a?aeciaea
a?ae?iaai?cao?a NA a?ae iaooiaiai ianoiooai?thaa/a — cieaeaiee ai?no EOA
? a?eueo aeniea “a?iiaoe/i?noue” o?aeoe?e c o??th ae oaiia?aoo?ith
eei?iiy. Inoaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici???a iie?ni?yaeaieo nenoai (La)
aeo?aeiiai aoa?eey. Iieacaii, ui iniiaia /anoea oaiie?a (a?ae 70 aei
100%) eieae?co?oueny o o?aeoe?yo c teei 300 0N. Ai?no oaiie?a a ??aeeeo
i?iaeoeoao caeaaeeoue

a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? EOA a aeo?aeiiio aoa?ee?, aeei?enoaiiai
ianoiooai?thaa/a (a aeiaaeeo aeaniiai ianoiooai?thaa/a ?o eiioeaio?aoe?y
a ??aeeeo i?iaeoeoao i?eaeecii a 3 ?ace ieae/a), canoinoaaiiy
eaoae?caoi?a (aac inoaiiueiai ai?no oaiie?a a 2–4 ?ace aeua). A ??aeeeo
i?iaeoeoao i?iieoiai nieiiiai aoa?eey eiioeaio?aoe?y oaiie?a cia/ii
aeua, i?ae a oeo aea aeenoeeyoieo o?aeoe?yo i?e?iaeiiai nieiiiai
aoa?eey.

?acii c eaai?aoi???th a?ae?iaai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?inoeoooo o?i??
i?e?iaeieo i?aai?/ieo niieoe (?OIIN) Nea??nueeiai A?aeae?eaiiy ?AI
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aee c a?ae?iaai?caoe?? nieiiiai aoa?eey a oao?ae?i?
i?e PH2 = 5 IIa, = 1 aiae, t = 430 0C. Iaeneiaeueiee nooi?iue eiiaa?n??
a aeine?aeao aac eaoae?caoi?a iaea?aeaii aeey ie. n6 – (73%). Aeo?ae
aaciiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a aa??thaaany a iaaeao 16–19%. Aeo?ae ??aeeeo
i?iaeoeo?a ia IIA neeaa 49–59%. Ciaeaeaii i?iii?oe?eio caeaaei?noue
aeoiaeo ??aeeeo ? cai?ioith — aeey aeoiaeo aac?a a?ae ai?noo iao??th a
aoa?ee?. Anoaiiaeaia oaeiae ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae eiiaa?n??th
i?aai?/ii? iane aoa?eey (IIA) oa ai?noii e?ioei?oo (L) o aoa?ee?:

IIA = (2,1 0,21)L + (21,1 0,61), (22)

i?e n=7, R=0,94, oa i?e L a?ae 5 aei 24 %.

Canoinoaaiiy aeaoaaeo cae?ci?oaeieo eaoae?caoi??a (i??eoo oa aaiaoeoo)
i?aeaeuoaaei nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? IIA ia 4–6%, A?I – ia 6-10%.
Aeine?aeaeaii aieea i?e?iaeieo niieoe cae?ca, ui a neeaae? nieiiiai
aoa?eey, ia ia?aiao?e i?ioeano eiai a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ca iaoiaeii
?inoeoooo ai?th/eo eiiaeei. Onoaiiaeaii, ui IIO ? aeo?ae ??aeeeo
i?iaeoeo?a ca’ycai? i?iii?oe?eiith, a aeo?ae aac?a — cai?ioiuei
i?iii?oe?eiith caeaaei?noth c ai?noii y?iceoo MeFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 a
aoa?ee?.

Iaea?aeaiiy aaciiiae?aieo iaeea c nieiiiai aoa?eey. Iaeiei c iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?a oa?iio?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee aoa?eey a aeieia?/ii
/eno? iaeeaa ? eiai aaceo?eaoe?y.

I?e aaccaeeoeia?e aaceo?eaoe?? i?ioean i?iaiaeeoueny ca oiia, ui
ni?eythoue iaeneiaeuei?e eiiaa?n?? IIA a aaciiiae?ai? i?iaeoeoe. Aeey
iaea?aeaiiy ni?aaio?a canoiniaothoue /anoeiao aaceo?eaoe?th
(aeoeaaoe?th) aoa?eey, aeae?ath/e oiiae aeey io?eiaiiy iaoa??aeo c
?icaeiaiith iiaa?oiath ? ii?enoith no?oeoo?ith. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aee
i?ioeano aaceo?eaoe?? NA a oe?oiiaieo onoaiiaeao c ?aaeoi?ii eeiey/iai
oa?o i?ae oeneii (?AE, i. Iineaa) ? a ?aaeoi?? c eeiey/ei oa?ii
eaoae?caoi?o i?e aoiinoa?iiio oeneo (ia aeine?aei?e aac? ?OIIN NA ?AI,
i. E?aniiy?nuee). A?aeiii, ui canoinoaaiiy eoaeieo eaoae?caoi??a a
i?ioean? ia?i — eeniaai? aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey i?ecaiaeeoue aei
i?aeaeuaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy I2/NI a aeo?aeiiio aac? a?ae 2 aei 6, ui
a?aeiia?aea? neioac–aaco aeniei? yeino?. Aiaeia?/iee aoaeo i/?eoaaee ? a
aeiaaeeo aaceo?eaoe?? i?e?iaeiiai nieiiiai aoa?eey. A oaae. 4. iaaaaeaii
aeai? c aaceo?eaoe?? NA a ??cieo oiiaao, ye? na?ae/aoue, ui nieiia
aoa?eey ia? aenieo ?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue, i?eaeaoia aeey ia?iiia?o?yii?
aaceo?eaoe?? a eeiey/iio oa?? i?ae oeneii c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy
aia?aaoe/ieo aac?a (oaieioa niaethaaiiy a?ae 4,4 aei 4,6 IAeae/i3), a
oaeiae aeey iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ia?i — eeniaai? aaceo?eaoe?? a
eeiey/iio eaoae?oe/iiio

Oaaeeoey 3 – ?acoeueoaoe a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ca iaoiaeii ?AE nieiiiai
aoa?eey c ??ciei iaianaiiyi eaoae?caoi?a (Ianoiooai?thaa/ — iaooa IIC
c teei >2600N, ?H2 = 5IIa, t =425 50N, Kt- 1% Fe+3 e 0,2% Mo+6)

C?acie (ieano, naa?aeeiaeia)Oiiae iaianaiiy eaoae?caoi?aAeo?aoe aiaeith,
% a?ae IIINooi?iue eiiaa?n?? IIA, % (0,5%)

Aeo?ae i?iaeoeo?a, % ia III ( 0,5%)??aee? (A?I)AacAiaeaIa
ia?aoai?aiateei < 300 0Cteei > 300 0CIIAC1 (3-3)
I?ini/aiiy1,778,473,617,456,210,22,615,2C5 (7IIb)
(?ii?aaioaai1,279,680,026,953,111,41,97,9C41 (3-3)iy —
?EO)2,381,177,434,143,311,94,28,8C41 (3-3) + H2O— “
—2,175,373,823,147,015,24,312,5C6 (3-3)— “
—2,076,483,329,853,56,41,910,4C6 (3-3) + H2O— “
—1,481,372,914,358,610,54,313,7C6
(3-3)Aioeueaoaai-1,469,981,138,143,07,62,010,7C4 (3-3)iy
(AEO)1,771,283,438,844,66,62,09,7C6 (2-4)— “
—1,667,880,935,645,33,21,311,3C6 (4a)— “
—1,173,668,430,837,614,10,817,8C1 (2-2)— “
—1,673,583,526,557,05,92,69,6C1 (2-2) + I2I— “
—1,767,676,830,346,510,13,811,0C1 (2-2) – AAA— “
—1,760,675,3—12,20,513,7A6, Eocaan,
?ii?aaioaai-1,377,378,6—7,83,811,1A, Ai?iaeeinueea
iy2,479,675,428,447,0—

Oaaeeoey 4 – ?acoeueoaoe aaceo?eaoe?? nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie a ??cieo
oiiaao

Aeo?aeia Aaceo?eoth/ee aaaioOiiae Aeenia?ni?noue Neeaae aac?a, %
ia.aoa?eeyi?ioeano/anoie, iiH2COCH4N2O2CO2H2/CO1. n42, (3-3)iia?o?y +
I2I (12–16% ia)900-950 0N0,63 – 1,08,021,51,660,50,28,20,42. n42,
(2-4)eeiey/ee oa?1,1IIa0,63 – 1,013,018,31,755,10,68,20,73. n17 + n74
(4AE)inaaaeic??aeaeaiee .oa? — ia?a : eenaiue = 4,96700N, 0,1IIa0,2 –
0,6344,065,450,66—44,828,14. n17 + n74 (4AE)ia?a : eenaiue = 4,97200N,
0,1IIa0,2 – 0,6348,286,380,82—44,517,65. n17 + n74 (4AE)ia?a :eenaiue =
“–“7600N, 0,1IIa0,2 – 0,6351,3410,560,67—37,404,96. n17 + n74 (4AE)ia?a
:eenaiue =30,97950N, 0,1IIa0,2 – 0,6364,626,410,69—28,2710,1oa??. A
inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo aeinyaa?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy I2/NI a?ae 5 aei 10,
ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?aaeueio iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy c NA neioac-aaco
aeniei? yeino?.

Iaeiith c aaaeeeaeo aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, ui caaaaeathoue aeei?enoaiith
nieiiiai aoa?eey ye ne?iaeie aeey iaea?aeaiiy a?aeiiaieo aac?a, ?
i?enooi?noue a ieo eaoth/eo niieoe, ui i?noyoue oei?. Iiaaae?iea oei?o a
i?ioeanao oa?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue oe?a?inueeeo NA aoea aea/aia
E.ss.Aoaianaiei c? ni?aaaoi?aie. A oeeo ?iaioao ia?aaaaa aoea iaaeaia
aaceo?eaoe?? NA a aia?aoao eeiey/iai oa?o. A ni?eueieo ?iaioao iaie
iieacaii, ui a i?ioeanao oa?iiia?iaee NA i?e 2009000N a aoiinoa?ao
aae?th, aiaeyii? ia?e, iia?o?y aai a noi?o? oeeo aaaio?a a aaciiiae?aieo
i?iaeoeoao ?aaeoe?e ciaeaeaii HCl, ? o?eueee a na?aaeiaeu? NI2 —
iieaeoey?iee oei?. Aeey ?ioa?aaeo oaiia?aoo? 400–900 0N ai?no Cl2 a
neeaae? aac?a oei ieae/a, /ei aeua oaiia?aoo?a i?ioeano. Oai?aoe/iee
aiae?c iiaeeeaino? ooai?aiiy oei?i?aai?/ieo niieoe a i?ioeanao oa?iie?co
NA a aoiinoa?? NI2 iieacaa, ui ?iia??i?noue ooai?aiiy oiene/ieo niieoe
(aeea. Noaio 3) ?nio?, aea aei oeueiai /ano aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
i?i oaeo ?o ooai?aiiy a caaaeaieo i?ioeanao iaia?. Iaaiai?aii iaoiaee
ciaioaiiy ?eceeo ooai?aiiy oei?ieo oiene/ieo ?a/iaei, ui aacothoueny ia
aeaeaeaii? nie? c NA a i?ioeanao eiai aiaeii? aeno?aeoe??,
aaeiia?oaaiiy, eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co oiui.

Aecia/aia ?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue aioaoi?iiaaiiai aoa?eey a i?ioean?
aaceo?eaoe?? ae?ieneaeii aoaeaoeth a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 900–1100 0N.
Oaeaee?noue aaceo?eaoe?? AAA a 2–6 ?ac?a aeua, i?ae aeo?aeiiai aoa?eey,
i?e/iio, i?aeaeuaia ?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue AAA ca’yco?oueny c eiai
no?oeoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie (?icaii?yaeeoaaiiyi iaeao?a, i?aeaeuaiei
ai?noii iaa?iiaoe/iiai aoaeaoeth, ea?aieneeueieo a?oi), a ia c
i?enooi?noth oei?eaeo iao??th. Inoaii?e aeaeaey?oueny c i?iaeoeo?a
?aaeoe?? a i?ioean? aeeo/aiiy AE. Aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
caeeoeiaiai (i?ney aeeo/aiiy AE) aoa?eey aeey iaea?aeaiiy a?aeiiaieo aai
aia?aaoe/ieo aac?a aeiaaaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Aaeni?aaioe ia iniia? nieiiiai aoa?eey.

I?iaeaia caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey ??cieie oaoiiaaiieie aeeeaeaie noi?oue
ca?ac iaaecae/aeii aino?i a onueiio na?o? ? iniaeeai a e?a?iao NIAe c ?o
iaaeineiiaeeie oaoiieia?yie ia?a?iaee OAE, ?oaeii? ne?iaeie oa aenieei
iioaioe?aeii ??ciiiai?oieo o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa. A ca’yceo c oeei
aeooaeueiei ? iiooe aeaoaai? a?o/eciyii? ne?iaeie aeey io?eiaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo ni?aaio?a, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo aeicaieeoue cieceoe ??aaiue
caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua. Aea/aii iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy aaeni?aaio?a
ia iniia? NA Iiaiiineianueeiai ?iaeiaeua.

Nieiia aoa?eey ye i?e?iaeiee ni?aaio. A?aeii? aeiaaeee aeei?enoaiiy
i?e?iaeii? iaea?aii?ciaaii? aoaeaoeaai? ne?iaeie (oi?o, ao?a aoa?eey oa
?i.) ye aaeni?aaio?a ??cieo caa?oaeithaa/?a, eiee ?aoe?iiaeueii
aeei?enoiaothoueny o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oaa?aeeo eiiaeei aac
iiia?aaeiuei? ia?iaee. Iaea?aeai? a ?iaio? aeai? i?i neeaae i?ia?ae?a,
iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e ? III nieiiiai aoa?eey aeicaieyee ia?aaeaa/eoe
eiai aenieo aeoeai?noue a i?ioeanao ni?aoe?? aeayeeo oe?iieo aeaiaio?a
(cie?aia, n??aea) c aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a. I?e oeueiio iaeiny ia oaac?, ui
o?i?/io aeoeaaoe?th i?aai?/ii? iane aoa?eey aeeiiaea naia I?e?iaea, eiee
iane/eea ?? ??cieie aeaiaioaie, ianaiia?aae, ?iiaie iao??th oa oei?o.

?en.6 – Aeeo?aeoia?aie aeo?aeiiai nieiiiai aoa?eey (1), aoa?eey i?ney
aaeni?aoe?? n??aea (2), oeaio i?ney aaeni?aoe?? (3)

Caaaea?ii, ui aii?yaeeiaaia /anoeia IIA aeinoaoiuei cia/ia: ae?aiao?
iaeaoo iie?a?aiiaeo oa??a 20–30, oiaueia – 15?, na?aaei? /enei oa??a
3–4, a i?aeoa?iaa a?aenoaiue d002 3,56. ?iie iao??th oa oei?o
caiiaiththoue, a iniiaiiio, i?aeiaeaoiee i?ino??, i???iooth/enue,
nei??oa ca ana, a?aeiia?aeii a?ey aeaeo?iii-aeiii?ieo oa
aeaeo?iii-aeoeaioi?ieo o?aaiaio?a no?oeoo?e, noai?thth/e aeiaeaoeia?
ni?aoe?ei? oeaio??. ?acii c ?inoeoooii o?ce/ii? o?i??
?i. E.A.Iena?aeaanueeiai anoaiiaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aeeo/aiiy
n??aea nieiiei aoa?eeyi c no?/ieo aiae e?iioioi-i?iieneiaino?.

Aoaeoeai?noue aeine?aeaeaieo c?ace?a NA ia?aaeuo? a?aeii? aiaeiae a 4
?ace i?e iaeiaeiaiio nooiai? aeeo/aiiy n??aea, ui aei??aith? 99,2%. Oey
aaee/eia aeinyaa?oueny i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? aaeni?aaio : ?ic/ei = 1:100
aai 1:150 i?e eiioeaio?aoe?yo Ag a ?ic/eiao a?ae 8 aei 36 ia/e.

A?aoiaoth/e oae? oaeoe, ye i?ioyaei?noue INN, no?eea
“aeaeo?iiaaaoeai?noue” NA, a oaeiae aenieee iioaioe?ae ?aaeoe??
Ag+L–/Ag0 (+0,80 A) i?iaiae?ci-aaii iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ii?a
n??aea ia iiaa?oi? NA. C iaoith c’ynoaaiiy ieoaiiy i?i iaoai?ci ni?aoe??
n??aea nieiiei aoa?eeyi i?iaaaeai? aeine?aee c aeei?enoaiiyi
iiae??aiaieo ( 0,25 ii) aoa?eey ? oeaio a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA. Oeai yaeya
niaith aeniei cieueiee caeeoie c eiioeaio?aoe??th Cl– ?ii?a 20–40 ia/a.
Ca aeiiiiiaith aeeo?aeoia?ai c?ace?a NA ? oeaio i?ney aeeo/aiiy n??aea c
?ic/ei?a ye?nii aecia/ai? iia? e?enoae?/i? oace (?en.6), ui ooai?eeeny a
?acoeueoao? ni?aoe??. ?aoeaene c d = 3,20; 2,76; 1,95 ? a?aeiia?aeathoue
e?enoae?/i?e oac? AgCl, a c d = 2,36; 2,04 ? iaeaaeaoue oac? Ag0. A
aeiaaeeo aaeni?aoe?? ia oeai? a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ?aoeaene AgCl iinyoue
ia?aaaaeiee oa?aeoa?, a Ag0 — i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee, ooo i?enooi? oaeiae
iaaaeee? ?aoeaene c d = 2,84 oa 2,65 ?, ui a?aeianai? aei Ag2SO4 O
aeiaaeeo i?e?iaeieo NA iniiaia niieoea n??aea i?ney aaeni?aoe?? c
?ic/eio – Ag0. Iaea?aeaii oaeiae aeai? a?aeiinii aoaeoeaii? ni?aoe??
Nu2+ nieiiei aoa?eeyi ca o/anoth (e??i ?ioeo) a?aeiiaiiai iaoai?cio.
Aeyaeaia iaie caeaoi?noue NA aei a?aeiiaethaaii? ni?aoe?? aeayeeo
iaoae?a a?aee?eaa? iia? ia?niaeoea uiaei aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai
oi?eaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiai ooai?aiiy.

Nieiia aoa?eey ye iiia?aaeiee aaeni?aaio?a. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea
oaiia?aoo?e a ?ioa?aae? 500–900 0N a 2-o-noaae?eiiio i?ioean? aeoeaaoe??
(=6 aiae.), oa /ano aeoeaaoe?? (i?e t = 700 0N) ae?ieneaeii aoaeaoeth
aeo?aeiiai oa i?iieoiai aiaeith NA, a oaeiae ?ciiaoaii?oiiai ianieiiiai
aoa?eey ia?ee Ae ia oi?ioaaiiy iiaa?oi? aeoeaiaaiiai aoa?eey (AA).

Iiceoeaia ae?y oei?eaeo iao??th a neeaae? NA i?iyaey?oueny o
aeiaeaoeiaiio ?icaeoeo iiaa?oi? AA a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? aei 800 0N
(oaae. 5). I?e oeueiio oaeaee?noue aeoeaaoe?? aeo?aeiiai aoa?eey aeua,
i?ae i?iieoeo, i?e oaiia?aoo?ao i?ioeano aei t = 600 0C. I?e a?eueo
aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao oaeaeeino? aeoeaaoe?? aeo?aeieo e i?iieoeo NA
caeeaeothoueny, ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaaeeaea?oueny aei iaeeieoe?, a iio?i
ci?ith?oueny ia i?ioeeaaeia. Oeae aoaeo iia’ycaiee c aeaeaeaiiyi iao??th
oa oei?o i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 600 0N ? o?eaaeino? i?ioeano a?eueoa 3
aiaeei. Ieoiia iiaa?oiy (Sieo), ia caaaeath/e ia oea, iaa?oue i?e 700 0N
aeua o aeiaaeeo aeoeaaoe?? i?e?iaeiiai, a ia i?iieoiai nieiiiai aoa?eey.
Aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeii? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano 2-o noaae?eii?
aeoeaaoe?? NA ae?ieneaeii aoaeaoeth: oaiia?aoo?a 700 0N, o?eaae?noue
56 aiaeei. Aeinyaiooa i?e oeueiio Sieo aeey ??cieo c?ace?a NA neeaaea?
600-800 i2/a. Aiaeia?/i? aeai? iaea?aeai? a oe?oiiai?e onoaiiaoe? ia
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e aac? ?OIIN NA ?AI a i?ioean? aeoeaaoe?? nieiiiai
aoa?eey aiaeyiith ia?ith.

sse ne?iaeia aeey iaea?aeaiiy AA aoei aei?iaoaaia oaeiae aioaoi?iiaaia
aoa?eey a Na+- oa H+-oi?iao. ?iciooai?noue no?oeoo?e i?aai?/ii? iane
AAA, iniaeeaino? eiai ia?aiaai?oieo aeanoeainoae, ooieoe?iiaeueiee
neeaae, a oaeiae aeniea ?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue a i?ioean? aaceo?eaoe??
aeicaieyea ?icaeyiooe ?o ye ia?niaeoeaio ne?iaeio aeey iaea?aeaiiy
aenieiye?nieo ni?aaio?a. Aia?oa aea/ai? ni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? AAA a
aeo?aeiiio noai?, oiaoi aac oa?iiia?iaee. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaaeeeo
ieoiio iiaa?oith, ui aecia/aia iaoiaeii AAO (Sieo 1-4 i2/a), aaeni?aoe?y
iaoeeaiiaiai aeaeeoiiai (IA) aioaoi?iiaaiei aoa?eeyi Na+- oi?ie aoea
aeecueea aei oaei? aeey aeoeaiaaiiai aoa?eey (AA) c aaeeeith
AAOiiaa?oiath, ui iaea?aeaia i?ae /an aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? aeoeaaoe??
nieiiiai aoa?eey I?ia//eie (oaae. 6). Ni?aoe?eia caeaoi?noue ii
iaoeeaiiaiio aeaeeoiiio (IA) AAA-H+-oi?ie aoea cia/ii ieae/a, i?ae AAA-
Na+-oi?ie. Caaaeyee no?oeoo?i?e a?aooe?, ui eaaei ?icoe?th?oueny, AAA-
Na+ iiae?aii aei i?e?iaeieo aeeienoeo i?ia?ae?a eaaei ni?ao? iiey?io
iieaeoeo IA. Iaaiai?aii iaoai?ci ni?aoe?? IA aioaoi?iiaaiei aoa?eeyi,
iaaaaeai? a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue ni?aoe?? IA aeaiia oeyoaie: ii
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oiao oa iie?a?aiiaeie o?aaiaioaie ?icaii?yaeeiaaii?
i?aai?/ii? iane AAA. I?e oeueiio aoea aeei?enoaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo
ni?aoe?eii? iiaa?oi? ni?aaioo (Oa?anaae/ TH.?.), aeoiaey/e c aaee/eie
aaeni?aoe?? IA i?e a?aooaaii? ieiueie iieaeoee IA (wIA 75 A2-i?e
aa?oeeaeuei?e iinaaeoe?, ? wIA135 ?2 — i?e iinaaeoe? ieiueiith). O
aeiaaeeo aaeni?aoe?? 120 ia/a IA aeoeaia ni?aoe?eia iiaa?oiy neeaaea?
a?ey 170 i2/a (i?e aa?oeeaeuei?e iinaaeoe?) ? 310 i2/a (i?e aaeni?aoe??
ieiueiith).

Aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae aenieioaiia?aoo?io aeoeaaoe?th ea?aii?cao?a AAA a
iioioe? NI2 ? aiaeyii? ia?e. Aoaeoeaiei aaceo?eoth/ei ?aaaaioii aeey
aeaii? ne?iaeie ? aiaeyia ia?a, ui aeicaiey? aeinyaoe ieoiii? iiaa?oi?
ni?aaioo 300 i2 (oaae.6). I?e oeueiio aaee/eia aaeni?aoe?? AIA
aenieioaiia?aoo?ieie AA aeyaeeanue aeecueeith aei oaei? aeey aeo?aeieo
AAA — Na+.

Oaaeeoey 5 – Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeano aaceo?eaoe?? iecueeini?oiiai
aoa?eey ae?ieneaeii aoaeaoeth.

Aoa?eey, ieano,

naa?aeeiaeia, ia?iaea[Nl-] a aeo?aeiiio aoa?ee?,

ia/aAeo?ae ea?ai-i?caoo

%[Nl-] a ea?ai

i?cao?,

ia/aSieo

ea?aii?caoo

i2/aE oaeae. Aaceo?eaoe??

E 10-2, i3/eanSieo

aeoeaiaai

aoa?eey

i2/aSieo

i?e?i

ii?

i2/aNieiia aoa?eeyn6 (3-3), aeo?aeia5,4367,92,061,51,7964210,4n6 (3-3),
i?iieoa–70,1–0,81,6055018,0n5 (1A), aeo?aeia6,0368,12,842,51,9484315,0n5
(1A), i?iieoa–77,2–1,61,7279044,1n5 (3-3),
aeo?aeia3,6065,12,751,52,2348010,2n5 (3-3),
i?iieoa–67,4–1,22,0735519,8Aoa?eey ia?ee
Aeie.m3–73,8–2,31,5453027,5Oaaeeoey 6 – Aaeni?aoe?eia caeaoi?noue
c?ace?a, ui iaea?aeai? c nieiiiai aoa?eey.

C?aceeOiiae ia?iaeeSieo, i2/aAaeni?aoe?y iiIA,
ia/a%ie. n1AAA–Na+Aeo?aeia0.8221,891,2AAA–Na+800 0N,
NI217,655.537,0AAA–Na+800 0N.
I2I329,6127,585,0AAA–I+Aeo?aeia1,333,022,0AAA–I+800 0N,
NI2–37,525,0AAA–I+800 0N. I2I306,1––ie. n74 +
n17AAA–Na+Aeo?aeia3,6120,080,0E?ai?oAAA–Na+Aeo?aeia5,0135,090,0AAA–Na+80
0 0N, NI2147,837,525,0Aeoeaiaaia aoa?eey c NA I?ia//eie ?1700 0N.
I2I630,043,529,0700 0N. I2I,NI2, I2I1030177,095,0Oaeei /eiii, aeo?aeia
aioaoi?iiaaia aoa?eey, ye iia?/iee i?iaeoeo i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa AE,
aac iniaeeai? i?aeaioiaee (e??i a?aeieaee aei pH  7 ? i?aenooee) ?
aeoeaiei ni?aaioii aeayeeo aa?aiee?a (IA) oa ?ioeo ?a/iaei (iai?eeeaae,
oaiieo). Ni?aoe?eia caeaoi?noue AAA ia iniia? NA iiaea aeinyaoe 300 ia/a
ii IA. Oaeiae onoaiiaeaii, ui aeniea ?ii?noue ii IA i?eoaiaiia ? aeey
AAA ia iniia? aeaenaiae??enueeiai ao?iai aoa?eey (AIA280 ia/a), ?
caea?iaonueeiai e?ai?oo (o. ?eueieoeueea) (AIA130-140 ia/a).

Cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueithth/? noaie eiiieaeniiai aeieia?/ii i?eeiyoiiai
aeei?enoaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie aeey iaea?aeaiiy oe?iieo
ainiiaea?/eo i?iaeoeo?a (aoi?iiaeo eeneio, aaeni?aaio?a, a?aeiiaieo aai
aia?aaoe/ieo aac?a) (noaie 4 ? 5).

0,1i HCl

1% ?-i NaOH
250C

1000C, KOH

Noaia 5– Ocaaaeueiaia noaia eiiieaenii? iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? eiiaa?n??

nieiiiai aoa?eey

AENIIAEE

1. Ia iniia? nenoaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae,
no?oeoo?e oa o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue aoa?eey c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii nieae a
i?ioeanao aeeaiei? o?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee noai?aii iaoeia? canaaee oa
?ica’ycaii aaaeeeao aoaeao?i?/io oa caaaeueii iaoeiao i?iaeaio, ui
noino?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueieo oeyo?a eiiaa?n?? oe??? i?e?iaeii? aoaeaoeaai?
ne?iaeie, a naia, nieiiiai aoa?eey, yea aaaaea?oueny iaeiiaeeoe?eiei
iaeeaii. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeiia? iai?yiee eiiieaeniiai iaiaeeaiiai
aeieia?/ii i?eeiyoiiai aeei?enoaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie.

2. Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?o, iaaeiieaeoey?io i?aai?caoe?th oa
o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? aoa?eey c aenieei ai?noii nieae. Ca
aeiiiiiaith neaioth/i? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? iaea?aeaii oi?eaeuei?
aeai? i?i oeueo?ai?e?ineii?/io aoaeiao nieiiiai aoa?eey, a neeaae?
othcai?ciaaieo ?ineeiieo oeaiei aia?oa ia oa?eoi??? No?aeii? ?a?iie
ciaeaeai? caeeoee n?i’yii? iaii?io? Calamopitys sp., ui na?ae/eoue i?i
a?eueo ??ciiiai?oio ?ineeiio aaco ia??iaeo ?aiiueiai ea?aiio, ia iniia?
yeiai ooai?eeiny no/ania ?iaeiaeua nieiiiai aoa?eey. I?enooi?noue
eeanoa??a e?enoae?/ii? oace oei?eaeo iao??th (aae?oo) a neeaae? nieiiiai
aoa?eey anoaiiaeoe iaoiaeii aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? ia aaeaeiny, ui
icia/a? a?eueo oiieee ?iciiae?e (iieaeoey?iee aai ?iiiee) nieae a
i?aai?/i?e iao?eoe?. U?eueia oiaeiaea iie?a?aiiaeo oa??a (d 002
=3,4-3,6A) i?e aenieiio ai?no? aoi?iiaeo ?a/iaei (14-35% ia IIA),
i?aeaeuaia aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, caaaa/ai?noue i?e?iaeaiaioaie (a?eueoa
30 aeae?a) na?ae/eoue i?i a?aei?iiino? aoaeiae ? iaaeiieaeoey?ii?
i?aai?caoe?? nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie o ii??aiyii? c ianieiiei aoa?eeyi
aeecueeiai iaoaii?o?cio

3. Aeine?aeaeaii neeaae i?e?iaeieo i?ia?ae?a nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie.
Iieacaii, ui iniiaiith niieoeith iao??th o nieiiiio aoa?ee? Cao?aeiiai
Aeiiaano ? oei?eae. C’yniaaii o?i?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy i?ia?ae?a a i?ioeanao
icieaiiy, eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co oa i?e ieeneaii? aoa?eey iia?o?yi. Oeyoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a icieaiiy a oieiaei?e eeniaa?e ieaci?,
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ? na?aaeiueioaiia?aoo?iiai icieaiiy aecia/aii
iioeiaeuei? oiiae icieaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey, ye? aeicaieythoue aeinyaoe
i?i?iaeueieo ao?ao iao??th i?e aeei?enoaii? oeiiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy.
C’yniaaii ?ieue ? iniiai? ia?o?ooe aca?iiae?? iaoeaiiai oei?eaeo iao??th
c i?aai?/iith ianith a i?ioeanao oa?iie?co nieiiiai aoa?eey.

4. Noi?ioeueiaaia eiioeaioe?y aoaeiae NA ye i?e?iaeieo niieoe aeeth/aiiy
(INA) ci?oaiiai oeio, aea ye aaeaiae aenooiathoue a?ae?aoiaai? ?iie
iao??th oa oei?o, i???ioiaai? aei a?aeiia?aeieo o?aaiaio?a no?oeoo?e
i?aai?/ii? iane aoa?eey, yea iaaoaa? iniaeeaeo aeanoeainoae, i?eoaiaiieo
ye ao?iio aoa?eeth (aenieee aeo?ae aoi?iiaeo eeneio), oae ? eai’yiiio
na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio (d002 3,56). Oei?eae iao??th i?e
oeueiio oaeiae ao?a/a? nai? oa?aeoa?i? aeanoeaino? ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
niieoea.

5. Aeeiiaii nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo iao??th oa oei?o a
i?iaeoeoao i??ie?co, a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ? eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co nieiiiai
aoa?eey, ye? na?ae/aoue, ui aeey iaea?aeaiiy oe?eueiaeo i?iaeoeo?a c
i?i?iaeueiei ai?noii iao??th oa oei?o a?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie ? i?ioeane
a?ae?iaai?caoe?? oa eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co.

6. Anoaiiaeaii iayai?noue o?ueio — /ioe?ueio i?ia?ae?a cae?ca (i??eo
FeS2 — iniiaia /anoea, y?iceo MeFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, nniiieueiieeo FeSO4H2O,
?ee?o Fe+2) a aeo?aeiiio nieiiiio aoa?ee?. Iieacaia ?ieue niieoe cae?ca
a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e, iaaeiieaeoey?ii? i?aai?caoe?? oa
aeanoeainoae i?aai?/ii? iane aoa?eey, aea/aii o?i?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy
niieoe cae?ca a i?ioeanao a?ae?iaai?caoe?? oa aeeo/aiiy aoi?iiaeo
eeneio. Aecia/aii, ui i?ney a?ae?iaai?caoe?? aoa?eey iniiaia niieoea
cae?ca — i???ioei Fe1-xS, a aioaoi?iiaaiiio aoa?ee? — noeueoao cae?ca
(II)

7. Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aeeo/aiiy aoi?iiaeo eeneio c
nieiiiai aoa?eey, ciaeaeaii caeaaeiino? ?o aeoiaeo a?ae aaiaoe/ieo
iniaeeainoae ne?iaeie (ai?noo a?o?ei?oo, eiioeaio?aoe?? aeoeaieo
eeniaaeo a?oi, ai?noo iao??th). Aea/aii ?iciiae?e iniiaieo no?oeoo?ieo
a?oi (a?iiaoe/i? oa iaa?iiaoe/i? o?aaiaioe, ooieoe?ei? a?oie,
aaoa?iaoiii? niieoee), i?e?iaeaiaio?a oa ia?aoai?aiiy i?ia?ae?a a
i?ioean? iaea?aeaiiy aoi?iiaeo eeneio. Anoaiiaeaii a?aenooi?noue niieoe
oei?o a i?iaeoeoao oa eiioeaio?oaaiiy oe?iieo aeaiaio?a (Co, Ni, Mn, Ag)
a caeeoeiaiio aoa?ee?. Aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?i?, o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa
ni?aoe?ei? iniaeeaino? i?iaeoeo?a eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co nieiiiai aoa?eey,
ui aeaei i?aenoaae aeaoae?coaaoe eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e
nieiiiai aoa?eey uiaei oaeaoieo eiiieaen?a cae?ca oa ?iia??ieo niieoe
aeayeeo i?e?iaeaiaio?a, a oaeiae ni?iaiicoaaoe iiaeeea? iai?yiee
aeei?enoaiiy aioaoi?iiaaiiai aoa?eey. Cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueiaiee
iaoai?ci i?ioeano eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co nieiiiai aoa?eey.

8. Iaoiaeaie aea?eaaoia?ao?/iiai, niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co oa iioe/ii?
i?e?ineii?? oai?aoe/ii i?iaiae?ciaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy a i’yeeo oiiaao neioaoe/iiai ??aeeiai iaeeaa c
nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie (aeo?ae 78-83% ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a ia i?aai?/io
iano ianoe) oa ye?niiai neioac — aaco, ?icaeiooi oyaeaiiy i?i
eaoae?oe/io ae?th i?e?iaeieo i?ia?ae?a nieiiiai aoa?eey a i?ioeanao eiai
aeeaiei? eiiaa?n??, iaea?aeaii ? ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeniei — e
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? aeoeaaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiai aoa?eey.

9. ?icaeiooi oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci ni?aoe?? n??aea c aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a
i?e?iaeiei nieiiei aoa?eeyi oa oeaiaie eiai a?ae?iaai?caoe??. Iieacaia
nooo?aa ?ieue a?aeiiaiiai iaoai?cio ni?aoe?? o aeiaaeeo i?e?iaeiiai
nieiiiai aoa?eey. Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a canoinoaaiiy i?e?iaeiiai nieiiiai
aoa?eey aeey aeoyao n??aea c a?aei?aoeueiaaieo ?ic/ei?a e?ii —
oioii?iieneiaino?.

10. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeiia? noaie eiiieaenii? aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? oa
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? eiiaa?n?? ?aca?aii? a?o/eciyii? aoaeaoeaai?
ne?iaeie — nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie — ye aeaea?aea aia?aaoe/ieo oa
a?aeiiaieo aac?a, iioi?iiai iaeeaa, o?i?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a oa aeaoaaeo
aaeni?aaio?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oaiae?ee O.A. I oeiecia ieeneaiey oaa?aeuo ai?th/eo eneiiaaiuo.//
No?iaiea e naienoaa oaey.- Eeaa: Iaoeiaa aeoiea. — 1981.- N.91-114.

2. Oaiae?ee O.A. Iniaaiiinoe no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee, ia?niaeoeau e
i?iaeaiu eniieueciaaiey oei?niaea?aeaueo oaeae Oe?aeiu // Eaoaeec a
i?aa?auaieyo oaey. — Iiaineae?ne: Iaoea. — 1997.- N.189-196.

3. Shendrik T.G. Microelements in the wastes of humin acids production
// Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral
Production.- Rotterdam : Balkema, -1998.- P. 723-726.

4. Oaiae?ee O.A. Oeceei-oeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey e iooe eiiieaeniiai
eniieueciaaiey ieia?aeueiie /anoe OAE //Ai?th/ea neaioeu. — 1984.- ?4.
N.426-427.

5. Oaiae?ee O.A. Nie?iua oaee Oe?aeiu eae ni?aaiou e i?aaeoanoaaiieee
aaeni?aaioia //Oa??aeua ai?th/ea eneiiaaiua a ?aoaiee yeieiae/aneeo e
yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena ?innee. —
Caaieai?iae: Ecae-ai IAO. — 1998.- N.161-167.

6. Na?ai/oe A.E., Oaiae?ee O.A, Eeoaeiaiei A.A. I ninoaaa,
?ani?ino?aiaiee e enneaaeiaaiee oaeae n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai
uaei/iuo iaoaeeia.// Eciaiaiea naienoa oaey i?e oeie/aneeo e oece/aneeo
aicaeaenoaeyo. — Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea. — 1984.- N.43-58.

7. Oaiae?ee O.A., Neiiiiaa A.A., Iioioeeay E.E. ?ani?aaeaeaiea iao?ey a
“nieaiuo oaeyo” Caiaaeiiai Aeiiaanna. //No?oeoo?a e naienoaa eneiiaaiuo
oaeae. — Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea. — 1986.- N.59-67.

8. Na?ai/oe A.E, Aooociaa E.O., Oaiae?ee O.A. Eiiieaeniay ia?a?aaioea
iieiaeuo oaeae Oe?aeiu //Oeiey e ia?a?aaioea oaey. — Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea.
— 1987.- N.19-26.

9. Nieae?aaneay I.N., Iaoeaiei A.I., Oaiae?ee O.A. I?eiaiaiea
neaie?othuaai yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia i?e iaeaiaioaie/aneii eco/aiee
ieaeiaea?aiiiauo eaiaiiuo oaeae. //Aioaie/aneee aeo?iae. — 1988.- O.73,
?7.- N.1030-1033.

10. Oaiae?ee O.A., Neiiiiaa A.A., Iioioeeay E.E. Iniaaiiinoe aiaeeca
oaeae n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai uaei/iuo iaoaeeia. // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. —
1989.- ?10.- N.43-44.

11. Oaiae?ee O.A., Neiiiiaa A.A. Iniaaiiinoe aaeni?aoeee-aeani?aoeee
oei?eaea iao?ey nieaiuie oaeyie Caiaaeiiai Aeiiaanna.// Oeiey e oeceea
oaey. — Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea. -1990.- N.42-49.

12. Oaiae?ee O.A,. Na?ai/oe A.E. No?oeoo?ii-oeie/aneea iniaaiiinoe
nie?iuo oaeae. — I.: 1988.- 13 n. (I?ai?./ Ei-o Ai?th/eo eneiiaaiuo;
? 000111).

13. Oaiae?ee O.A., Eiaaeaa E.A., E?uieia E..I. ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iua
enneaaeiaaiey nieaiuo oaeae Iiaiiineianeiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey Caiaaeiiai
Aeiiaanna. //Oeceei-oeie/aneay aeoeaaoeey oaeae. — Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea. —
1989. — N.64-69.

14. Na?ai/oe A.E., Oaiei A.A., Oaaeiieyn A.I., Oaiae?ee O.A. Oa?ie/aneay
aeano?oeoeey NO Caiaaeiiai Aeiiaanna, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia?aaioaiiuo
?anoai?aie iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa. // Oeiey oa??aeiai oiieeaa. — 1990.-
?2.- N.29-36.

15. Na?ai/oe A.A., Oaiae??e O.A. Iaoeiaee iiooe iai?yie?a eiiieaeniiai
aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aeueii? /anoeie oaa?aeeo ei?enieo eiiaeei.// A?niee
Aeaaeai?? Iaoe O?N?.- 1985.- ?5.- N.66-67.

16. Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E., THeei I.E., Ceieia A.A., Neiiiiaa A.A.
Ia?aue iiuo iieo/aiey aeeaeeeo i?iaeoeoia ec nie?iuo oaeae. // Eioi?i.
Atheeaoaiue ii iiaui iaoiaeai ooeeecaoeee oaeae.- Eaoiaeoea: Ecae-ai Ae.
Ei-oa Ai?iiai Aeaea.-2/32-1987, 1/33-1988.- N.59-68.

17. Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E., THeei I.E., Iauaiei E.A. Eco/aiea
aeeaeeeo i?iaeoeoia aeae?iaaiecaoeee nie?iuo oaeae. // Oai aea.-
N.47-58.

18. Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E., THeei I.I., Ceieia A.A., Neiiiiaa A.A.
Iieo/aiea aeeaeeeo i?iaeoeoia ec nieaiuo oaeae Iiaiiineianeiai
ianoi?iaeaeaiey Aeiiaanna. //Oeiey oa??aeiai oiieeaa.- 1989.- ?4.-
N.91-95.

19. Caeeianeee A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E. I iee?iyeaiaioiii
ninoaaa nieaiuo oaeae Caiaaeiiai Aeiiaanna // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. — 1991.-
?2.- N. 39-40.

20. Caeeianeee A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A., Iaoeaiei A.I. Aoieiiaua eeneiou
nieaiuo oaeae // Oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa oaeae. — Eeaa : Iaoe.
aeoiea. -1992.- N.3-10.

21. Neiiiiaa A.A., Enaaaa E.I., Oaiae?ee O.A. Aeeyiea oeie/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae oaeae Caiaaeiiai Aeiiaanna ia eo i?aa?auaiey i?e
oa?iiaeano?oeoeee.//Oeiey oa??aeiai oiieeaa.- 1991.- ?2.- N.24-30.

22. Saranchuk W., Shendrik T., Simonova W., Sajkowski A.
Strukturell-chemische Besonderheiten und mogliche Wege zur Nutzung von
Salzkohle der Ukraine.// Veredlung und Charakterisierung fossiler
Kohlenstofftrager. Rostok: Carbochemie.- 1990.- S.101-113.

23. Eociaoeia I.I., Oa?uiia A.E., Eaai/aiei I.I., Aa?aaiaoeiaa I.A.,
Nooiaa A.E., Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E. Aeae?iaaiecaoeey nieaiuo oaeae
Aeiiaanna a oao?aeeia.//I?iaeaiu eaoaeeca a oaeaoeiee.- Eeaa: Iaoe.
aeoiea. — 1992. — C.58-71.

24. Neiiiiaa A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A. Eaoaeeoe/aneia aeeyiea oei?eaea iao?ey
a ninoaaa nieaiuo oaeae ia i?ioeann eo oa?ie/aneiai ?aceiaeaiey. //
I?iaeaiu eaoaeeca a oaeaoeiee.- Eeaa: Iaoeiaa aeoiea. — 1992.-
C.142-151.

25. Na?ai/oe A.E., Caeeianeee A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A. Ia?aiaaiaoeci
iecei-iaoaii?oeciaaiiuo oaeae, ia?aaioaiiuo oaa?aeie uaei/ueth.// Oeiey
oa??aeiai oiieeaa. — 1992.- ?5.- C.52-57.

26. Oaiae?ee O.A., Caeeianeee A.A., Na?ai/oe A.E. No?oeoo?iua
i?aia?aciaaiey nieaiuo oaeae a i?ioeanna auaeaeaiey aoieiiauo eeneio.//
Oeiey oa??aeiai oiieeaa.- 1993.- ?4.- C.3-7.

27. Oaiae?ee O.A., Caeeianeee A.A., Iaea?iaa ?.A. No?oeoo?ii-oeie/aneea
i?aa?auaiey nieaiuo oaeae a i?ioeanna uaei/iiai aeae?ieeca.// Oeiey
oa??aeiai oiieeaa.- 1993.- ?5.- C.14-19.

28. Caeeianeee A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E. Ia?aiaaieoiua naienoaa
nieaiuo oaeae e i?iaeoeoia eo uaei/iiai aeae?ieeca.// Oeiey oa??aeiai
oiieeaa.-1993.- ?3.- C.9-13.

29. Saranchuk W.I., Shendrik T.G, Simonova W.W., Komraus J.L.,
Popiel E.S. Iron Compounds in the Ukrainian Saline Noals and Their
Transformation During Hydrogenation. // Erdol und Kohle.- 1994.- O.47,
?10.- P.385-388.

30. Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E. Nieaiua oaee Oe?aeiu — oeie/aneia
nu?uea e yia?aiiineoaeue.// I?iaeaiu i?eeeaaeiie aaieiaee, ai?iie iaoee
e i?iecaiaenoaa.- N.- Iaoa?ao?a: Aaieiaey.- 1993.- C.47-56.

31. Na?ai/oe A.E., Oaiae?ee O.A. ?ieue eaoaeeca a i?ioeannao ia?a?aaioee
oaeae n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai uaei/iuo iaoaeeia. //I?iaeaiu eaoaeeca
a oaeaoeiee.- E?aniiy?ne: Oeiey. — 1993.- C.34-49.

32. Neiiiiaa A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A. ?ieue oei?eaea iao?ey e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
iao?ey e oei?a a i?ioeannao oa?iioeie/aneie ia?a?aaioee nieaiuo oaeae.
// Aaieiaiy ? aaioiiiy ai?th/eo eiiaeei. -1994, ?3-4 (88-89).-
C.133-139.

33. Ineiia A.I., Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E. Aiaeec aiciiaeiinoae
iieo/aiey NAEO ec oaeae. // Aaieiaiy ? aaioiiiy ai?th/eo eiiaeei. -1994,
?3-4 (88-89).- C.101-125.

34. Naioiia A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A., Na?ai/oe A.E. Ia?niaeoeau
niaa?oainoaiaaiey niiniaia iieo/aiey NAEO e NAO n eniieueciaaieai
ie?ieeca oaey. // Aaieiaiy i aaioiiiy ai?th/eo eiiaeei. — 1994, ?1-2
(86-87), C.101-107.

35. Oaiae?ee O.A., Aaeaoeeee A.N. Enneaaeiaaiea iaaeoaciuo
acaeiiaeaenoaee a i?ioeanna ianeyiie aaeiia?aoeee nieaiuo oaeae.
//Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.- 1995.- ?1.- C.12-16.

36. Ineiia A.I., Oaiae?ee O.A. I?iecaiaenoai neioaoe/aneiai aeeaeeiai
oiieeaa ec oaeae. // Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea. -1995.- ?1.-
N.3-11.

37. Shendrik T.G., Simonova V.V., Afanasenko L.Ya. Chlorine behaviour at
salty coals thermal treatment. //Proc. 8th International . Conf. jn Coal
Science .-V.1.- Oviedo (Spain).- 1995.- P.823-827.

38. Naioiia A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A., Iaoeaiei A.I., Neiiiiaa A.A.
Eioaineoeeaoeey oa?iiaeano?oeoeee iin?aaenoaii iiaeeoeeaoeee oaeae.//
Aaieiaey e aaioeiey ai?th/eo eneiiaaiuo. — 1995.- ?1-2.- C.86-93.

39. Neiiiiaa A.A., Oaiae?ee O.A. Ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa nieaiuo oaeae e
eo i?aa?auaiey a ieeneeoaeueiuo oneiaeyo. // Oeiey oa??aeiai oiieeaa.-
1995.- ?6.- C.81-87.

40. Shendrik T.G., Simonova V.V., Galushko L.Ya., Afanasenko L.Ya.,
Saranchuk V.I. Catalysis and Ecological Problems in Salty Coals
Thermodestruction. // Catalysis and Adsorption in Fuel Processing. and
Environment. Protection.- Wroclaw. : Oficyna Wydawn. Polytechnica
Wroclawskiej.- 1996.- P.209-213.

41. Aieaoeueeee A.N., Oaiae?ee O.A. Aaeaaciy ?a/iaei c iaaeiieaeoey?iith
no?oeoo-?ith.// Aaieiaiy i aaioiiiy ai?th/eo eiiaeei. — 1996.- ?4
(88-89).- N.122-124.

42. Ineiia A.I., A?euoe N.A., Aieei C.A., Oaiae?ee O.A. Aeeyiea
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo iooiaeia ia aeae?iaaiecaoeeth ieceiiaoaii?oeciaaiiuo
oaeae.// Oeiey oa??aeiai oiieeaa.-1996.-?5.- N.64-70.

43. Shendrik T.G., Afanasenko L.Ya., Lyubchik S.B., Saranchuk V.I.
Ecological problems and some ways for their decision at the studying and
utilization of chlorine-containing coals.// Proc. International Conf.
“Carbon-98”.-V.1.- Strasbourg ( France).- 1998.v. 2. — P.747-748.

44. Shendrik T.G., Simonova V.V., Pashchenko L.V. The mineral matter of
Ukrainian salty coals in connection with the environmental problems of
their application. // Proc. 9th International. Conf. on Coal Science.-
v.1.- Essen (Germany).- 1997.- P.409-412.

45. Shendrik T.G., Simonova V.V., Demko Ya.V., Saranchuk V.I. The
investigation of Ag and Cu (II) sorption from water solutions by
chlorine-containing coals of Ukraine. //Proc. 23th Bienn. Conf. on
Carbon, Pennsylvania (USA).- 1997.- v.1, P.48-49.

46. Iauaiei E.A., Na?ai/oe A.E., Oaiae?ee O.A., Aaeooei E.ss.
Enneaaeiaaiea no?oeoo?u e naienoa aeae?ieeciiai eeaieia.// Oeiey
oa??aeiai oiieeaa.-1998.- ?1.- C.29-33.

47. Pashchenko L.V., Shendrik T.G., Saranchuk V.I. The gasification of
waste after production of humic acids on the base of low-grade coals.//
Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral
Production.- Rotterdam : Balkema, -1998.- P.589-592.

48. Shendrik T.G. Salty coals as natural insertion compounds.// Proc.
International Conf. “Carbon-98”.-V.1.- Strasbourg (France).- 1998.-
P.191-192.

49. Oaiae?ee O.A. Na?ai/oe A.E. ?ani?aaeaeaiea iee?iyeaiaioia e
i?aa?auaiey ieia?aeia a i?ioeanna uaei/iiai aeae?ieeca nie?iuo oaeae. //
Oeiey e i?e?iaeinaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee eniieueciaaiey oaey.- I.:
Ecae-ai IAO. -1999.- N.19-23.

50. A.n. NNN?, IEE3, N 22 A 11/00. Niinia ecaea/aiey na?aa?a ec
io?aaioaiiuo eeiioioi?anoai?ia./ E.N.Eaaiiaa, N.E.A?aa/ae.,
A.A.E?e/aaneay, O.A.Oaiae?ee., A.A.Neiiiiaa, A.A.Aeaieeaiei, E.E. Eiia?
(NNN?).- ? 4759639; Cayaeaii 2.10.1989;. Iioae. 15.02.90. Athe. ?16.–
11 n.

Oaiae??e O.A. No?oeoo?a, o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa ia?niaeoeae
aia?aio?i?/iiai aeei?enoaiiy nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?i?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.13 — iaooio?i?y oa aoaeao?i?y. ?inoeooo
o?ceei-i?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa aoaeao?i?? ?i. E.I.Eeoaeiaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,
Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aia?oa aeeiiaii eiiieaenia nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy o?i?/ii? aoaeiae
oa no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? iane (II) nieiiiai aoa?eey (NA) —
ia?niaeoeaii? a?o/eciyii? aia?aio?i?/ii? ne?iaeie. Anoaiiaeaii nooo?a?
iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e II NO, neeaae i?e?iaeieo i?ia?ae?a NA, ui
aieeaathoue ia iiaaae?ieo ne?iaeie a ??cieo i?ioeanao o?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee
(i??ie?c, a?ae?iaai?caoe?y, aaceo?eaoe?y). Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaiooaeueia
iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e NA, ca?aeii c yeith NA ? i?e?iaeieie niieoeaie
aeeth/aiiy i?oaiiai oeio. *anoeaie — “oacyyie” ? iae?iiieaeoey?i?
aii?yaeeiaai? no?oeoo?i? iaeeieoe? c ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?oiaie ? oaeaoi-
ooai?thth/eie o?aaiaioaie, a “ainoyie” — ?iie iao??th oa oei?o, a oaeiae
cae?ca. I?e oeueiio a NA niinoa??aa?oueny niieo/aiiy aeanoeainoae
aoa?eey iecueei? ? aeniei? noaae?e iaoaii?o?cio. Aea/aii caeiiii??iino?
oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? NA a ??cieo oiiaao. Aeaoae?ciaaii oa ocaaaeueiaii
aeaye? ia?o?ooe i?ioeano aeoeaaoe?? IIA i?e?iaeieie nieyie. Onoaiiaeaii
iniiai? caeiiii??iino? eoaeiiai a?ae?ie?co (EA) nieiiiai aoa?eey, ui
caeaaeaoue a?ae aaiaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeo?aeii? ne?iaeie. Aia?oa
aecia/ai? no?oeoo?a ? aeanoeaino? i?iaeoeo?a EA nieiiiai aoa?eey :
aoiao?a, aoi?iiaeo eeneio oa aioaoi?iiaaiiai aoa?eey (AAA).
Cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueiaiee iaoai?ci i?ioeano EA nieiiiai aoa?eey.
Anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? ?iciiae?eo iao??th, oei?o oa i?e?iaeaiaio?a a
i?ioeanao icieaiiy, i??ie?co ? a?ae?iaai?caoe?? NA. Cai?iiiiiaaia
i?eioeeiiaa noaia iaeia?aeo?aeii? oaoiieia?? ooee?caoe?? NA c
iaea?aeaiiyi o?ceieia?/ii aeoeaieo AE ? aeaoaaiai aaeni?aaioo — AAA,
yeee oaeiae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey iaea?aeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo aac?a
oa oe?iieo i?e?iaeaiaio?a. Anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? aeae?eaiiy ?
iaoai?ci ni?aoe?? n??aea i?e?iaeieie NA c eiai aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ??oaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeaie —
aeieia?/ii-a??aiiaaaeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?aca?aii? a?o/eciyii?
aoaeaoeaai? ne?iaeie — nieiiiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie — ye aeaea?aea
aia?aaoe/ieo aac?a, iioi?iiai iaeeaa, o?i?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a oa aeaoaaeo
aaeni?aaio?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nieiia aoa?eey, no?oeoo?a, niieoee aeeth/aiiy,
i?e?iaeaiaioe, aoi?iia? eeneioe, iaoaeioaeaoe, aeoeaaoe?y, aaeni?aaioe,
a?ae?iaai?caoe?y, aaceo?eaoe?y, aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie.

Oaiae?ee O.A. No?oeoo?a, oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa e ia?niaeoeau
yia?aioeie/aneiai eniieueciaaiey nie?iuo oaeae. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.13 — iaooaoeiey e oaeaoeiey — Einoeooo
oeceei-i?aaie/aneie oeiee e oaeaoeiee ei. E.I.Eeoaeiaiei IAI Oe?aeiu,
Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aia?aua auiieiaii eiiieaeniia nenoaiaoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea oeie/aneiai
no?iaiey e no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee oaeae n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai
niaaeeiaiee iao?ey e oei?a — nie?iuo oaeae (NO), a oiaea eioi?iai
onoaiiaeaiu nouanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe no?oeoo?u i?aaie/aneie iannu NO
Caiaaeiiai Aeiiaanna, ninoaa i?e?iaeiuo ieia?aeia NO, aeeythueo ia
iiaaaeaiea enneaaeoaiiai nu?uey a ?acee/iuo i?ioeannao oeie/aneie
eiiaa?nee (ie?ieec, aeae?iaaiecaoeey, aaceoeeaoeey). I?aaeeiaeaia
eiioeaiooaeueiay iiaeaeue no?iaiey NO, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie NO
i?aaenoaaeaiu eae i?e?iaeiua niaaeeiaiey aeeth/aiey niaoaiiiai oeia.
*anoeoeaie — “oicyaaaie” yaeythony iae?iiieaeoey?iua oii?yaei/aiiua oacu
n eenei?iaeiuie ooieoeeiiaeueiuie a?oiiaie e oaeaoiia?acothueie
no?oeoo?aie, a “ainoyie” — eiiu iao?ey e oei?a, a oaeaea aeaeaca. E?iia
iieea?aiiauo iaeaoia a no?oeoo?a IIO i?enoonoaotho oii?yaei/aiiua
iieeiaooaiiaua (aiaoaaeiiiaeiaiua) o?aaiaiou e eenei?iaeniaea?aeauea
no?oeoo?iua a?oiiu a naiaiaeiii e iaoaee-caiauaiiii ninoiyiee. I?e yoii
a NO iaaethaeaaony ni/aoaiea naienoa oaeae ieceie e aunieie noaaeee
iaoaii?oecia, a eiaiii: aunieee auoiae aoieiiauo eeneio e iaiaauaiiinoue
iee?iyeaiaioaie, a oaeaea ieioiay oiaeiaea iieea?aiiauo neiaa n
eii?aeeie?iaaiiuie eiiaie iao?ey e oei?a, e, eae neaaenoaea, iiauoaiiay
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue. Aia?aua onoaiiaeai ninoaa i?e?iaeiuo ieia?aeia NO
Oe?aeiu, eco/aii ?ani?aaeaeaiea iao?ey a i?e?iaeiuo nieaiuo oaeyo, aaea
iniiaiia niaaeeiaiea — aaeeo, a iaaieueoay /anoue iao?ey (io 0 aei 20%)
niaea?aeeony a aeaea oaiieyoia e ea?aieneeaoia. Auyniaiu oeie/aneea
i?aa?auaiey ieia?aeia a i?ioeannao icieaiey, uaei/iiai aeae?ieeca e i?e
o?aiaiee nieaiuo oaeae. Ia iniiaa n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca iaoiaeee
icieaiey (aunieioaiia?aoo?iay (AOI), n?aaeiaoaiia?aoo?iay (NOI) e
icieaiea a oieiaeiie eenei?iaeiie ieacia (OEI)) ii?aaeaeaiu iioeiaeueiua
ia?aiao?u icieaiey nie?iuo oaeae, iicaieythuea aeiaeoueny ieieiaeueiuo
iioa?ue niaaeeiaiee iao?ey i?e eniieueciaaiee oeiiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey.
Aia?aua iieo/aiu aeaiiua i niaaeeiaieyo aeaeaca a NO, eo ?iee a
i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?u e naienoa IIO, eo i?aa?auaieyo a
i?ioeannao aeae?iaaiecaoeee e ecaea/aiey AE. Aeaoaeece?iaaiu e iaiauaiu
iniiaiua ia?o?oou i?ioeanna aeoeaaoeee IIO i?e?iaeiuie nieyie.
Onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe uaei/iiai aeae?ieeca (UA) nie?iuo
oaeae, caaenyuea io aaiaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee enoiaeiiai nu?uey
(niaea?aeaiey aeo?eieoa, eiiia iao?ey, EOA e i?e?iaeu ia?aiaaiaoecia),
iieacaii ?ani?aaeaeaiea iee?iyeaiaioia e i?aa?auaiey ieia?aeueiuo
eiiiiiaioia a i?ioeanna uaei/iiai aeae?ieeca NO. Aia?aua ii?aaeaeaiu
no?oeoo?a e naienoaa iniiaiuo i?iaeoeoia UA nie?iuo oaeae: aoiaoia,
aoieiiauo eeneio e yioaoieie?iaaiiuo oaeae. Onoaiiaeaiu iniaaiiinoe
no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee e oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa aoiaoia e
yioaoieie?iaaiiuo oaeae, /oi iicaieeei aeaoaeece?iaaoue
eiioeaiooaeueioth iiaeaeue ?anoe?ythuaeny no?oeoo?iie ?aoaoee
i?aaie/aneie iao?eoeu nieaiuo oaeae. I?aaeeiaeai iaiauaiiue iaoaieci
i?ioeanna uaei/iiai aeae?ieeca nie?iuo oaeae, io?aaeathuee
o?ainoi?iaoeee ia oieueei i?aaie/aneie eiiiiiaiou NO, ii oaeaea
i?aa?auaiey ieia?aeia e ?ani?aaeaeaiea iee?iyeaiaioia. Aia?aua
yenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaia ia?niaeoeaiinoue iieo/aiey a iyaeeo oneiaeyo
ec nie?iuo oaeae Oe?aeiu neioaoe/aneiai aeeaeeiai oiieeaa. Eco/aiu
caeiiiia?iinoe oa?iiaeano?oeoeee NO a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo. Iieacaii
eaoaeeoe/aneia aeeyiea oei?eaea iao?ey a i?ioeannao ie?ieeca,
aaceoeeaoeee (aei 7000N) e aeae?iaaiecaoeee NO. ?acaeou i?aaenoaaeaiey i
eaoaeeoe/aneii aeaenoaee i?e?iaeiuo ieia?aeia NO a i?ioeannao
ieceioaiia?aoo?iie aaceoeeaoeee, iieo/aiu e iaiauaiu ?acoeueoaou auniei-
e ieceioaiia?aoo?iie aeoeaaoeee NO. Onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe
?ani?aaeaeaiey iao?ey, oei?a e iaeioi?uo iee?iyeaiaioia a i?ioeannao
icieaiey, ie?ieeca e aeae?iaaiecaoeee NO. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu aiciiaeiua
yeieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey oa?ie/aneeo i?ioeannia eiiaa?nee nieaiuo
oaeae. I?aaeeiaeai niinia ieceioaiia?aoo?iiai eniieueciaaiey NO aeey
ecaea/aiey na?aa?a ec io?aaioaiiuo ?anoai?ia eeii — oioii?iiuoeaiiinoe.
?acaeou i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaoaiecia ni?aoeee na?aa?a ec aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia
i?e?iaeiuie NO e oeaiaie aeae?iaaiecaoeee nieaiuo oaeae. I?aaeeiaeaii
?aoaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeaiu – yeieiae/anee — acaaoaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey ?aca?aiiai oaea?iaeiiai nu?uey — nieaiuo oaeae Oe?aeiu —
a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea yia?aaoe/aneeo e ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo aacia,
iioi?iiai oiieeaa, oeie/aneeo i?iaeoeoia e iaaei?iaeo aaeni?aaioia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nie?iua oaee, no?oeoo?a, niaaeeiaiey aeeth/aiey,
iee?iyeaiaiou, aoieiiaua eeneiou, iaoaeeioaeaou, aeoeaaoeey,
aaeni?aaiou, aeae?iaaiecaoeey, aaceoeeaoeey, yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu.

Shendrik T.G. Structure, physical chemical properties and perspectives
for energetic — chemical usage of salty coals. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 02.00.13 — petroleum
chemistry & coal chemistry.- The L.M.Litvinenko Institute of Physical
Organic & Coal Chemistry of National Academe of Sciences of Ukraine,
Donetsk,1999.

The dissertation is the first complex systematic studying chemical
structure and supermolecular organization for salty coals of (SC)
Ukraine. The unique data concerning ultramicroscopic structure of SC
were obtained, at first in Eastern Europe the residue of Calamopitys
sp., was found. The significant peculiarities of organic mass structure
and natural mineral composition of SC were established, the latter
influence on investigated material behavior at different chemical
processes (pyrolysis, liquefaction, gasification) were investigated.
Chemical reactions of mineral matters during ash processes at different
conditions have been examined. Some physical and chemical properties of
SC (conductivity, surface area, paramagnetic properties, oxygen
functional groups, etc.) were determined. Conceptual model for SC
structure was proposed, according to it, SC are natural insertion
compounds of mixed type, which are combining properties of high rank and
low rank coals. The particles -“hosts’ are macromolecular phase with
oxygen functional groups and helate-forming structures, the particles —
“guests” are ions Na+ and Cl, the same ferrum ions. The generalities of
SC thermodestruction at various conditions were studied. Catalytic
influence of sodium chloride in pyrolysis, gasification (before 7000C)
and hydrogenation processes of SC have been shown. Main routs of
activation process for COM with natural salts were detailed and
generalized. Basic generalities for alkaline hydrolysis (AH) of SC were
established, latter depend on petrologic- genetic characteristics of
initial raw material (vitrinite and sodium content, active oxygen
functional groups and paramagnetism). Sum total scheme for chemical
reactions during AH process of SC was proposed. Characteristics for
products of AH were determined : humates, humic acids (HA), enthuminated
(residual) coals (EHC). The regularities for Na, Cl and some trace
elements distribution at ashing, pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes
were studied. Principal schemes of complex friendly technology for
liquid fuel, reducing gases, active HA and cheap adsorbents obtaining
has been worked up.

Key words: salty coals, structure, insertion compounds, microelemens,
humic acids, metal-helates, activation, adsorbents, hydrogen?zation,
gasification, ecological problems.

NIENIE OIIAIEO NEI?I*AIUe

OAE — oaa?ae? ai?th/? eiiaeeie

NA — nieiia aoa?eey

IIA — i?aai?/ia iana aoa?eey

?NA — ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee aiae?c

III — iaaeiieaeoey?ia i?aai?caoe?y

NAI — neaioth/a aeaeo?iiia i?e?ineii?y

INA — i?e?iaei? niieoee aeeth/aiiy

EOA — eeniaa? ooieoeei? a?oie

ssA?N — yaea?ia aaiia-?aciiainia (iannaaoa??anueea) niaeo?ineii?y

IS, QS — ?ciia?iee oa eaaae?oiieueiee cnoae

m — /enei oa??a o iaeao? INN

AE — aoi?iia? eeneioe

OEI — oieiaeia eeniaaa ieacia

AAA — aioaoi?iiaaia aoa?eey

INN — iie?ni?yaeai? no?oeoo?e

EA — eoaeiee a?ae?ie?c

t — oaiia?aoo?a i?ioean?a, 0N

d002 — i?aeoa?iaa a?aenoaiue o iaeao? INN

La — ae?aiao? iie?a?aiiaiai iaeaoo

Lc — oiaueia iaeaoo iie?a?aiiaeo oa??a

h/l — nooi?iue aii?yaeeiaaiino? iie?a?aiiaiai aai iie?iaooaiiaiai iaeaoo

o.i. — oiiai? iaeeieoe?

AA — aoaeaaiaei? (aoaeaaiaeiaa?)

R0 — iieaciee a?aeaeooy a?o?ei?oo

R — eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe??

n — /enei aei??thaaiue

H — oe?eia e?i?? niaeo?o AI?

g-oaeoi? — oaeoi? niaeo?ineii?/iiai ?icuaieaiiy

Ion — ?ioaineai?noue neaiaeo AI?

IA — i?e?iaeaiaioe

IIOe — ia?aiaai?oi? oeaio?e

II — iieaeoey?ia iana

a.i.i. — aoiii? iaeeieoe? iane

AII — aaio?i?/iee ioeueoeie?eaoeaiee iieaciee

N?I — neioaoe/i? ??aee? iaeeaa

III — i?aai?/ia iana ianoe

iia — nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? IIA

AI — aeaniee ianoiooai?thaa/

A?I — aeo?ae ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a

?EO, AEO — ?ii?aaiiaaiee oa aioeueaiaaiee eaoae?caoi?

AA — aeoeaiaaia aoa?eey

Sieo — ieoiia iiaa?oiy ni?aaioo

IA — iaoeeaiiaee aeaeeoiee

wIA — ieiua iieaeoee IA

OAE — oa??aeua ai?th/ea eneiiaaiua

NAEO, NAO — neioaoe/aneea aeeaeeea e aaciia?aciua oiieeaa

OOO — oeiey oaa?aeiai oiieeaa

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