IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?inoeooo i?iaeai ?eieo oa aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

CAAA?IA AEAIII?A IEEIEA?AIA

OAeE 621:658.5+658.589

NO?AOAA?ss ?ICAEOEO I?IIENEIAIAI AE?IAIEOeOAA IA I?AeNOAA? AEOEA?CAOe??
?IIIAAOe?EII? Ae?ssEUeIINO?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.01 – Aeiiii?ea i?iieneiaino?

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Iaeanna – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?ee i?aei?e?inoa

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iiiiaaiei I?ia Naio?e?aia,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
iie?oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?aaeuee?i Ieaenaiae? Naiaiiae/

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
aeiiii?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
noa?oee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Aa?aaao Ieaenaiae?
Ieaenaiae?iae/

?inoeooo i?iaeai
?eieo oa aeiiii?ei-

aeieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Oiaeueieoeueeee oaoiieia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao “Iiae?eey”,
eaoaae?a

aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino?

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 ” aa?aniy 1999?. i 16.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E41.177.01. a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai
?eieo oa aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 270044, i. Iaeana, O?aioeocnueeee aoeueaa?, 29

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
?eieo oa aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
270044, i. Iaeana, O?aioeocnueeee aoeueaa?,29

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 ” na?iiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee
Noaiaiia A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? iacaeaaeiino? oa
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie iiaeeeai eeoa ia i?aenoaa? ?icaeoeo
aenieioaoiieia?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoee oa
oaoi?ee. No/ani? iai?yiee aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie aecia/athoue
iaiao?aei?noue no?oeoo?ieo oa ?ioeoooe?eieo ia?aoai?thaaiue. Ia?o?
aacothoueny ia oaoi?/iiio ia?aica?i?ii?, iie?ioaii? oaoiieia?/ii?
no?oeoo?e i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa c aeoeaiei ni?eeiyooyi
iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/ieo aeinyaiaiue. Oaeei /eiii, cia/i? oni?oe a
i?aaei?e?iieoeoa? nueiaiaei? iia’ycothoue eeoa c iiaiaaaaeaiiyie.

Aei ii/aoeo caaaeueii? e?ece a?eueoa /anoeia oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy
ii?aeueii oa o?ce/ii canoa??ea. Ae?iaieoeoai ae eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeii?
i?iaeoeoe?? ia oeueiio iaeaaeiaii?, c aeei?enoaiiyi noa?eo oaoiieia?e,
i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. Naia oea ? aieiaiei aaeueiii a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie. Noaa?e?caoe?y aeiiii?ee oa ?? iinooiiaee c??no,
ye na?ae/eoue i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i, iio?aao?
?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio.

Ii?yae c oeei, iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? i?iieneiai?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee, a iao?e e?a?i?, aeiee ua ia io?eiaee
iaiao?aeiiai ?icaeoeo. A niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? ?i a?aeaaaeaii
iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae, a cai?iiiiiaai? ?ic?iaee ia aeiaaaeai? aei naiai
eia?/iiai caaa?oaiiy oa ?aae?caoe??. Iaiao?aei?noue oai?aoe/ieo oa
i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaie c ieoaiue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeai?no? i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oeyoii aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioeann?a, iineeaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai ni?yioaaiiy i?iieneiai? iie?oeee cacia/eee aea?? oaie oa
?? aeooaeuei?noue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo 1994–1998??. ??
?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? aea?aeathaeaeaoieo IAe? ? 308-69
oa ? 231-71.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa??
?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia aac? aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
i?ioeano oa oi?ioaaii? iaoeiaeo canaae uiaei oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa??
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

i?iaanoe ci?noiaiee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?
eiai ?ie? a noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee;

— aecia/eoe iniiai? oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa;

— ni?anoaaeoe no/ani? iaoiaee ioe?iee aoaeoeai?no? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ainiiaea?/i? nenoaie;

— i?iaanoe aeiiii?/iee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio iaeaaaeeea?oeo oaeoi??a
?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino?, cie?aia ?iiiaaoe?eiiai;

— aecia/eoe iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee aieeao ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
oaeoi?o ia i?iieneiainoue;

— ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
oeio ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe aecia/eee iniiai? iai?yiee oa ci?no aeena?oaoe??.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue aeiiii?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? oiiae
oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia aac?
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oaeoi?o.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaeoi?e ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? oa
?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane a oe?e noa??.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith ?
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no/ani? eiioeaioe?? ea?oaaiiy
? i?aai?caoe?? i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa; caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, i?eeiyo?
i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee c ieoaiue ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy; ioae?eaoe?? caei?aeiiieo oa a?o/eciyieo
a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a c i?iaeai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. A ?iaio?
canoiniaoaaeeny iaoiaee oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ae?yeueiino?
iaoeiiaoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno, iia?aoeaia oa noaoenoe/ia ca?oi?noue
iaoeiiaoae?aaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa Iaeanueeiai ?aa?iio, caniae
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy ia i?aenoaa? aenia?oieo ioe?iie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— anoaiiaeaii ooieoe?iiaeueio caeaaei?noue i?ae ??aiai ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa noaiii ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?;

— ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy i?iieneiai? iie?oeee c
o?aooaaiiyi i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo;

— noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy “?iiiaaoe?eiiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino?”,
iaaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iieaciee?a oa
iaoiae?eo eiai ioe?iee;

— ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace aeey aecia/aiiy no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino?;

— noi?ioeueiaaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?e
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio;

aecia/aii iniiai? no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio aeey i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa;

— aecia/aii i?eioeeie i?iaaaeaiiy i?iaeoeoiaiai ia?eaoeiao i?e
oi?ioaaii? no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa
i?iiiceoe??, ui aoee io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aoee
ai?iaaaeaeai? o AAO “Iaeaneaaaeue”, i?eeiyo? aei ?icaeyaeo a Eii?oao? c
ieoaiue iaoee, oaoi?ee oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Iaeanueei? iaeanii?
aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean oa aeei?enoiaothoueny a eo?nao eaeoe?e “Ea?oaaiiy
?iiiaaoe?yie”, “Ea?oaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?yie”, “Iaiaaeaeiaio iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaie”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa” a i.Iaeana, 1996 ?. ?acoeueoaoe o/ano? a
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao Iaeanueeiai ?aa?iio aeeeaaeai? o
ne?aeoth/eo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo eenoeao: “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeeee ioeaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee” ?229-96, “Iniaaiiinoe iieacaoaeae ioeaiee
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai o?iaiy i?aaei?eyoee” ?227-96, “Niaoeeoeea ii?aaeaeaiey e
ioeaiee eiiiaaoeeiiiiai o?iaiy i?aaei?eyoey” ?274-96, “Yenia?oiua
iaoiaeu a oi?ie?iaaiee no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa eiiiaaoeee” ? 302-96.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iaa?oioiaaii oaco i?i
iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio, ye neeaaeiai?
/anoeie no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie. Ia i?aenoaa?
ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai aeina?aeo, aaoi?ii i?iiiio?oueny nenoaia
iieaciee?a ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ??aiy i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo oa iaoiaeeea eiai
ioe?iee; ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?e ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
oeio oa eeaneo?eaoe?th i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, a?aeiinii ?o no?aoaa??
a aaeoc? i?iieneiaiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 14 ?ia?o, caaaeueiei
ianyaii 15,38 ae.a., c yeeo iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 8 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy. ?iaioa i?noeoue 139 noi??iie, 12 iaethie?a

ia 8 noi??ieao, 24 oaaeeoe? ia 9 noi??ieao, 7 aeiaeaoe?a. Aei ?iaioe
aeiaea?oueny nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 120 iaeiaioaaiue ia 11
noi??ieao.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii
aeine?aeaeaiue, caoeuathoueny oai?aoe/i? ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee
noiniaii ieoaiue noaa?e?caoe?? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ia aac?
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oaeoi?o.

?icae?e 1. ?iiiaaoe?eiee i?ioean, ye noeioeth/ee oaeoi? i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?nioth/eo eiioeaioe?e ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aecia/aii iniaeeai aaaeia cia/aiiy oaoi?/iiai oa
oaoiieia?/iiai ia?aica?i?iiy a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a aeiiii?/iiio
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii e?eoe/iee iaeyae
aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo oa caei?aeiiieo a/aieo-aeiiiieno?a c ieoaiue
i?iieneiaeo ?iiiaaoe?e. I?ioean cae?eniaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
?, naiai ?iaeo, iane?aeeii iaeiie/aiiiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioeeaeo,
aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeyoue: iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? eaae?e, ?ioaeaeooaeueia
i?aoey oa i?iaeoeoe.

A ?iaio? i?aee?aneaii, ui aeey e?ea?aeaoe?? a?aenoaaaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae
?icaeiooeo e?a?i na?oo c ??aiy aeeooy iaiao?aeii nooo?ai i?aeaeueoe
i?iaeoeoeai?noue noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe
iio?aao? ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i a ooieoeeiioaaii? ?eieo i?iieneiaeo
iiaiaaaaeaiue. Aeey caa??aaiiy oa ca?eueoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie oa eiai iia?e?caoe?? iaiao?aeii noai?eoe aio/eo
aea?aeaaio i?iieneiao iie?oeeo, noi?ioaaoe aaaeae? ea?oaaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie a i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Iniiaith ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano ? iiaiaaaaeaiiy. A na?oia?e e?oa?aoo??
ia ?nio? ?aeeiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iiiyooy “iiaiaaaaeaiiy”. Aiii
?icaeyaea?oueny a aeaio aniaeoao: ye iaeeie/iee aeo oa ye i?ioean.
Cia/iith iniaeea?noth ?iiiaaoe?e oa i?iieneiaiai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano
? oa, ui aiie iinyoue ?eceeiaee oa?aeoa?. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui
eiia?oe?eiee oni?o aeinyaa?oueny eeoa o 10% ii/aoeo i?iaeo?a. ?ecee,
iia’ycaiee c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi i?iieneiaeo iiaiaaaaeaiue aeoaea cia/iee,
aea oae?ae cia/i? ? iia’ycai? c iei i?eaooee.

A ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii iaeyae oai??? oa i?aeoeee oi?ioaaiiy i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee a e?a?iao c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith.

Aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yiee no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaino? ia aac? oai??? oeeee?/iino?. I?aee?aneaii, ui aiae?c
i?iaeai ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? i?iaiaeeany
ia?aaaaeii a ?aieao oaiaoeee /enoiai IOI, aea eiie?aoi? no?oeoo?e oa
iaoai?cie ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a i?iieneiaino?, ae?iaieea aeeoo?aiai
oeeeeo i?iieneiaeo iiaiaaaaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaeeny iaaeinoaoiuei, aac
iaiao?aeiiai oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai iaa?oioiaoaaiiy.

?icae?e 2. Aeiiii?/iee aiae?c no/anieo oaiaeaioe?e o a?o/eciyi?e
i?iieneiaino? oa ?? ?iiiaaoe?ei?e noa??.

Iae. 1. Aca?iica’ycie iiiyoue oaoi?/iee, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee oa
?iiiaaoe?eiee ??aaiue i?iieneiaino?

A ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy oa aiae?co ioe?iee oaoi?/iiai oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaeo ainiiaea?/eo nenoai, a
oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iniia ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
aaoi?ii iaaeaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/iee
i?aeo?ae aei ioe?iee ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oaeoi?o ?icaeoeo noa’?eo?a
i?iieneiaiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy (iae.1).

I?iaaaeaiiee a ?icae?e? aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui nueiaiaei?, a Oe?a?i?,
iathoue i?noea iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe?? a i?iieneia?e noa??. Ia i?ioyc?
inoaii?o 5 ?ie?a iaoeiiaoae?aaeueia aaeocue ooieoe?iio? ianoaa?eueii.
?aioaaaeuei?noue iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy a 1996 ?ioe? noaiiaeea 10,4%. Ianya
oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? cieceany a 2 ?ace (o ii??aiyii? c 1990 ?ieii),
ianya eaieoaeueieo aeeaaeaiue oaeiae ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy.
I?inoi? aaeeeeo iaoeiiaoae?aaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa caaee aei nei?i/aiiy
/enaeuei?no? i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/iai ia?niiaeo o 3,2 ?ace. I?e oeueiio,
a?eueoa /anoea – oea aenieieaae?o?eiaai? oa aeina?aei? oao?aoe?.
?aaeuei? aeo?aoe ia i?iieneia? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? ?ic?iaee ca inoaii? 4
?iee ciaioeeeny a?eueo i?ae a 6 ?ac?a. Aenieee ??aaiue ?ioeyoe?? aeia?a
aei a?aeeaco a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a c aaeeeei ianyaii
?iaanoeoe?e oa cia/iei no?ieii inai?iiy. ?c ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?ic?iaie,
aeeeth/athoue iaea?eueo neeaaei? oa aenieioaoiieiae/i? ae?iae, ye?
iio?aaothoue oe?iei? eiiieaeoaoe??. A noeoii?no?, on? iaaaoeai? oaeoi?e
i?ecaaee aei oiai, ui a 90-o ?ieao ??cei cieceany oaoi?/iee ??aaiue
a?o/eciyii? i?iaeoeoe??, a oaeiae iieacieee aeei?enoaiiy oa noai?aiiy
aeiaoiae?a.

Caaaeueia ianoaa?eueia neooaoe?y a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi
no/aniiai noaio ?aa?ii?a e?a?ie, cie?aia Iaeanueeiai. ?ic?ea
ainiiaea?/eo ca’yce?a c eieeoi?ie ia?oia?aie, aeao?oeeo eioo?a,
iaieaoaaeani?iiiaei?noue i?aei?e?inoa i?ecaaee aei cieaeaiiy ianyao
iaoeiiaoae?aaeueii? i?iaeoeoe?? (1996 ??e a ii??aiyii? c 1990 ?ieii), o
na?aaeiueiio, ia 87%. Ieoiia aaaa oaeoe/ieo aeo?ao ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy

a i?iieneia?noue caoiae?a IOI a iaea?aeaiiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio i?eaooeo
noaiiaeea iaiueo 1%, /enaeuei?noue niaoe?ae?no?a, ui caeiyo? a iaooe?
ciaiueoeeany ia 41,9%, a e?euee?noue c?ace?a, oaoi?/iee ??aaiue ye?o
a?aeiia?aea? ??aith e?aueo a?o/eciyieo oa caei?aeiiieo aiaeia?a – ia
60,1%. A i?aenoieo, Oe?a?ia ia? uiaeiy c?inoath/a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia oa
oaoiieia?/ia a?aenoaaaiiy a?ae ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i.

C iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueo aeeaieiai aiae?co no/aniiai noaio
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oaeoi?o i?iieneiaino? oa eiai aieea ia ?icaeoie
iaoeiiaoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno Iaeane, a oaeiae ioe?iee noaio
noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino? a oe?e noa?? a ?iaio? aeei?enoai? aenia?oi?
iaoiaee aea/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa.

A iane?aeie ia?iaee iaea?aeaieo a?ae niaoe?ae?no?a i?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno ioe?iie oa ?o ia?iaee aoee c?iaeai? ianooii? aeniiaee, a naia:

— nueiaiaei? iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue iaaoaathoue i?iaeaie
noaa?e?caoe?? oa iinooiiaiai c?inoaiiy i?iieneiaino? ca ?aooiie
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oaeoi?o;

— ia iaoeiiaoae?aaeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao i?aeoe/ii iaia? iaoaiecio
ioe?iee oa oi?ioaaiiy i?iieneiai? no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio;

— oi?ie noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino? c ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
caaeiaieueiythoue eeoa 35% iio?aae o iiae?aii? ?ioi?iaoe??.
A?aeiia?aeii, eeoa 55% ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai ?eie?a iiaeo i?iaeoeo?a oa
oaoiieia?e io?eiathoue ?icaeyioo? noa’?eoe ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

— ia aeeaey/enue ia aenieee iaoeiaee iioaioe?ae, ae?iaie/? no?oeoo?e
aeeiiothoue eeoa 17% aeanieo IAeAeE? ? aei 20% IAeAeE? caeo/athoueny o
noi?iii?o i?aai?caoe?e. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui eeoa 55% ae?iaie/eo
iiooaeiinoae a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai IAeAeE?, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoue. Ia
60% iaoeiiaoae?aaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa i?noa Iaeane iaio 30% caaaioaaeaieo
ae?iaie/eo iiooaei?noae, ia 30% i?aei?e?inoa — a?ae 31 aei 50%;

— iniiai? ?iiiaaoe?ei? coneeey a i?iieneia?no? cina?aaeaeai? ia
ai?iaaaeaeaii? /anoeiaeo iiaei (65-75%), ia ianya i?eioeeiiai iiaeo
i?iaeoeo?a oa oaoiieia?e i?eiaaea? i?eaeecii 40%. *anoea
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue a caaaeueiiio ianyc? IAeAeE? noaiiaeea
iaio i?ae 10%, i?eeeaaeieo ?ic?iaie – 65%. Iaeiae, aeciaii iaiao?aeiei
i?aeaeuaiiy ianyao i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue aei 75-80%;

— oa?i?iiaa i???ioaoe?y IAeAeE? ?iciiae?eaia oaeei /eiii: i?ecia/ai? aei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaeaeeae/? 3 ?iee – 73%; 3-7…8 ?ie?a – 17%; a?eueo 8
?ie?a – 10 %;

— eiaeia c ?icaeyiooeo i?aei?e?inoa ? iiiiiie?noii, ianya iniiaii?
i?iaeoeoe?? ia a?o/eciyiiio ?eieo noaiiaeoue 70-75%, ia na?oiaiio ??ai?
eiieo?aioiini?iiiaei?noue ioe?ith?oueny a 57-65%;

— /anoea caeiyoeo IAe? a caaaeuei?e /enaeuei?no? ia?niiaeo neeaaea? 25%,
?nio? aeoiea i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy oe??? /anoee aei 33-35%;

— /anoea i?eaooeo, ui iaea?aeaia aeiaeaoeiai i?e i?iaaaeaii?
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? noaiiaeoue 35%. Iaeiae, ?ici?? aeacaii?
/anoee ioe?ith?oueny a 55% a?ae caaaeueii? iane i?eaooeo.

Aiae?c ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa na?ae/eoue, ui aeo?aoe,
ye? iia’ycai? c i?iieneiaeie ?iiiaaoe?yie, iaiaaeothoueny oaoiieia?/iith
i?aeaioiaeith ae?iaieoeoaa ca ?aooiie aeanieo eioo?a. I?aeoe/ii
a?aenooi? ?iaioe, ui iia’ycai? c IAe?, AeE?, i?eaeaaiiyi oa i?iaeaaeai
iaoaio?a, e?oeaic?e. Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, o iaee?auiio
aeiaaeeo, i?iaiaeyoueny eeoa ia ??ai? ?aa?iio. Na?aae oaeoi??a, ui
no?eiothoue ?iiiaaoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue a i?iieneiaino? ia?ainoaoaeia
cia/aiiy iathoue: a?aenooi?noue o?iainiaeo eioo?a – aeanieo oa o
caiiaieea, aenie? e?aaeeoi? noaaee, ianoa/a ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai ?eieo,
iaaeineiiae?noue caeiiiaeaa/i? aace.

?icae?e 3. Iniiai? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeai?no? i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ia aac? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa??
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio i?iieneiaeie noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy (iae.2).

Aeiaeaoeiai aei o?aaeeoe?eii? eeaneo?eaoe?? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ui
cae?eniththoue ?iiiaaoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio
eeaneo?eaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa a?aeiinii ?o no?aoaa?? a ieai?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo ca oeiii noai?aiieo iiaiaaaaeaiue.

O caeaaei?no? a?ae ia?aaaaeath/aai oeio i?iieneiaeo ?iiiaaoe?e
i?aei?e?inoaa iathoue aooe ?iciiae?eai? ia: ?iiiaaoi?e-e?aea?e oa
?iiiaaoi?e-i?ne?aeiaieee; i?aei?e?inoaa, ui noai?ththoue aacia?
?iiiaaoe?? oa ?iiiaaoe??–a?aeici?ie; ui noai?ththoue cai?i?th/e
?iiiaaoe??; ui noai?ththoue ?iiiaaoe?? aeey iaei??? aaeoc? oa aeey
onueiai ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa; ui ?ic?iaeththoue iniiai? oa
aeiaeaoeia? ?iiiaaoe??; ui noai?ththoue ?iiiaaoe??-i?iaeoeoe oa
?iiiaaoe??–i?ioeane; ui ?ic?iaeththoue ?iiiaaoe?? aeey iiaeo ?eie?a oa
o?, ui noai?ththoue iia? noa?e canoinoaaiiy ia noa?eo ?eieao.

Iae.2. I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?iieneiai? no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio

I?aei?e?inoaa iiaeooue aooe eeaneo?eiaai? ? ii aeeaei? iiaiaaaaeaiue, ui
noai?ththoueny – oea i?aei?e?inoaa, ui ?i?oe???othoue ?iiiaaoe?? ii
?aa?ia???oaaiith ia?a?nieo aeanoeainoae i?iaeoeo?a oa i?ioean?a; ui
noai?ththoue ?iiiaaoe?? ii ca?eueoaiith i?iaeoeoeai?no? oa e?euee?ni?e
?ioaineai?no? ae?th/eo i?ioean?a; ui noai?ththoue iiaeie, ye? iia’ycai?
c ia?aa?oi??iaeith ie?aieo aeaiaio?a ae?th/i? ae?iaie/i? nenoaie; ui
noai?ththoue aaeaioeai? ?iiiaaoe??; ?iiiaaoe??, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia
/anoeiaa iie?ioaiiy aeaiaio?a ae?iaie/i? nenoaie aac nooo?aeo ci?i
ooieoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie acaaae?; ui ?ic?iaeththoue iia? iieie?iiy
oaoiieia?e oa i?iaeoeoe?? aac ci?i ?o aaciaeo i?eioeeiiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e ? no?oeoo?; ?i?oe???oth/? iia? aeaee ae?iaie/eo nenoai
(i?iaeoeo?a oa oaoiieia?e), ui iathoue ye?ni? ci?ie ia?a?nieo
eiioeaioe?e, aea caa??aathoue ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?eioeei; ui noai?ththoue
iia? iieie?iiy oaoi?ee oa oaoiieia??.

Aeei?enoaiiy oe??? nenoaie eeaneo?eaoe?? ? aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio noa’?eoii
i?iieneiaiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aecia/aii nenoaio oa iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee iieaciee?a ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ??aiy
?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa. A?aecia/iith iniaeea?noth iieaciee?a ? oa, ui
aiie aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe cae?ai?noue ainiiaea?/i? iaeeieoe?
?icaeaaoeny ia aeani?e iniia? o iaeaooiueiio c o?aooaaiiyi onueiai
ianyao iaeiie/aiiai i?iieneiaiai, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo. Na?aae iieaciee?a, ye? aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe ?iiiaaoe?eiee ??aaiue i?aei?e?inoaa, aaeoc?,
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee iiaeeeai aeae?eeoe:

— iaoeiaee, ?iaeaia?iee oa ?aai/ee iioaioe?ae, ui aecia/a?oueny ye
a?aeiinaiiy oaeoe/ii? /anoee ?ia?oiee?a, caeiyoeo IAe? (AeE?, IAeAeE? oa
a aeina?aeiiio ae?iaieoeoa? a?aeiia?aeaeueii) o caaaeuei?e /enaeuei?no?
ia?niiaeo aei ii?iaoeaii? aaee/eie oe??? /anoee;

— no?oeoo?a IAeAeE?, ui neeaaea?oueny c /anoee aeo?ao ia IAe? (AeE?);
a?aeiinaiiy noie aeo?ao ia IAe? aei noie aeo?ao ia AeE? (oeee iieaciee
iiaea iaoe ii?iaoeaia iaaaioaaeaiiy: aeacoaaoe ?ici?? aeo?ao ia IAe?, ui
iio??aie aeey iiaii? ?aae?caoe?? iioaioeeaeo AeE?, aai iaaiaee, ne?eueee
eioo?a iaiao?aeii aeeanoe a AeE? aeey ?iaeaia?ii? ?aaeecaoe?? iaeeieoe?
aeo?ao ia IAe?); /anoee aeo?ao ia ooiaeaiaioaeuei? IAe? o caaaeuei?e
noi? aeo?ao ia IAeAeE? a?aeiia?aeii ca ii?iaoeaii oa oaeoe/ii;
a?aeiinaiiy i?iaeoeoiaeo oa oaoiieia?/ieo IAeAeE?; a?aeiinaiiy IAeAeE?,
ui i???ioothoueny ia io?eiaiiy e?aoei-, na?aaei?- ? aeiaaino?ieiaeo
?acoeueoao?a. Ii?iaoeaia cia/aiiy iieaciee?a aeey i?aei?e?inoaa iiaea
aooe

caaeaii aenia?oiei oeyoii c o?aooaaiiyi aeaieo ii iaee?auei oa na?aaei?i
aiaeia?/iei i?aei?e?inoaai;

— iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ??aaiue ?ia?o;

— /anoea aieiaiiai i?iaeoeoo o caaaeueiiio ianyc? i?iaeoeoe??;

— /anoea i?iaeoeoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo;

— a?aeiinaiiy ianyao i?iaeoeoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny oa
i?iaeoeoe?? iniiaieo eiieo?aio?a.

Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? iaoeiiaoae?aaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe iio??ai?
aeey aeacaieo iieaciee?a ?iia?e/i? caeaaeiino?.

Cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia iieaciee?a aea? ciiao io?eiaoe aeinoaoiuei iiaio
ea?oeio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo noa’?eo?a i?iieneiaiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Iaeiae, nenoaia ca?oiino?, ui ?nio? ia aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe onth noeoii?noue i?iiiio?ieo iieaciee?a. A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii
iniiai? oi?ie ca?oiino? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace a
i?iieneia?e noa??. Iaiao?aeia ?ioi?iaoe?y iiaea iaeiie/eaaoeny ia
iaoeiieo iin?yo ? oi?ioaaoe aaiee aeaieo, ui, oaeei /eiii, ia i?ecaaaea
aei oneeaaeiaiue a ianyc? ?iaioe.

?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?e ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio.
Caeaaeii a?ae ??aiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoaa ia? aooe
?ic?iaeaia a?aeiia?aeia no?aoaa?y:

— o?aaeeoe?eia – ?aae?caoe?y ?iiiaaoe?e ii i?aeaeuaiith ye?no?
i?iieneiaeo oiaa??a, ui ?niothoue. Ooo iathoue ia?aaaaeaoe ?iaioe, ui
i???ioiaai? ia oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa a ae?th/iio ia??iae?, /anoea
aieiaiiai i?iaeoeoo ia? aooe i? iaiueo 70%, /anoea i?iaeoeoe?? ia ?eieo
– aeinoaoiuei aeniea;

— iiii?ooi?noe/ia – a?aeiiaeaiiy ani?oeiaioo ca ?aooiie aeioneo
i?iaeoeoe??, ui ia iio?aao? cia/ieo aeo?ao ia IAe? c iine?aeoth/ith
iaeiiiniaiaith i?enooi?noth. Iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaia ca ?aooiie
a?aeiiaeaiiy ani?oeiaioo /a?ac aeione aeinoaoiuei i?inoeo iiaeo ae?ia?a,
iiae?o?eaoe?? ?nioth/eo ae?ia?a, ocaaaeueiaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ca ?aooiie
a?aeiiaeaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a, iiaea?i?caoe??
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a;

— caeeoeiaa – i?aaiaiiy caeeoeoeny ia ?eieo c? noa?ei i?iaeoeoii. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo, i?iaeoeoe?y ?aae?co?oueny ia noaa?eueiiio ?eieo,
i?aei?e?inoai ia? cia/io /anoeo ?eieo oa ciaoiaeeoueny iiia?aaeo
iniiaiiai eiieo?aioa ? ia noaae?? c??eino?;

— ?i?oaoe?eia – i?eaeaaiiy iiai? oaoiieia?? o ?ioeo o??i. Oa?aeoa?ia
aeey i?aei?e?inoa, ui ua ia iathoue aeinoaoith aaco oa iioaioe?ae aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aeanieo IAeAeE?;

— iai?iiia – ia? iaoo i?eaeaaiiy iiaeo i?iieneiaeo oaoiieia?e o ?ioeo
o??i. Iaiao?aei?noue oe??? no?aoaa?? iiynith?oueny iecueeith /anoeith
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?ia?o, iaeiae ? aeinoaoiy /enaeuei?noue aeine?aeiee?a,
eiino?oeoi??a, oaoiieia?a oa ?ioeo, ui caeiyo? IAeAeE?;

— caeaaeia – i?aei?e?inoai i???ioo?oueny ia ?ic?iaee ? oaoiieia??
e?oiieo o??i, ui iathoue ca’ycie c ae?yeuei?noth oeueiai i?aei?e?inoaa.
Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iayai?noue iiooaeiuei? eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieiae/ii?
neoaeae oa neoaeae i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeoe/ii ia
i?iaiaeyoue ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniea /anoea
iioi/ieo IAeAeE?, aeniea caeaaei?noue a?ae iniiaiiai eiieo?aioa;

— i?ii?aeia – iiooe iacaeiyoi? i?oe, oieeiaiiy i?yii? eiieo?aioe??.
Iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy oaei? no?aoaa?? iiynith?oueny caeiyo?noth
o?aaeeoe?eieo ?eie?a, ui aeeeeea? iio?aao iiooeo iacaeiyoi? i?oe;

— no?aoaa?y noai?aiiy iiaiai ?eieo – aeo?ae ia ?eiie c i?iaeoeoaie, ui
i?ooi ua ia ae?iaey?. Ooo iaiao?aeia aeinoaoiuei neeueia neoaeaa
IAeAeE?, a?aenooi?noue eiieo?aio?a;

— aino?i-ianooiiaa – i?aaiaiiy aooe ia?oei i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii?
i?iieneiaeo iiaiaaaaeaiue ia ?eiie. ?aae?co?oueny a oiiaao aei?noei?
eiieo?aioe??;

— iii??ii-ianooiiaa – ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy ae?oaiai i?noey a a?oi?
e?aea??a. Ciaiueoo?oueny ?ecee, oiio ui oiaa? aaea i?ieoia ii?iaoaaiiy
ia ?eieo.

A ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai
i?eaooeo, ui io?eia?oueny a?ae aoiaeaeaiiy o i?oo; aeiaeaoeiaiai
noeoiiiai ianyao i?iaeoeoe??; i?eaooeo, ui io?eia?oueny ca ?aooiie
i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino? i?iaeoeoe??.

?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen caoiae?a ii i?iaaaeaiith ia?eaoeiao IOI?. Eeane/ia
noaia i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiao, ui cai?iiiiiaaia O.Eioea?ii aeiiiaiaia oa
nei?aeoiaaia aaoi?ii c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano.
A oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oi?io?oueny
ia?eaoeiaiaa noa?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?aai?caoe??, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
noaiii i?e?i- oa iae?ina?aaeiaeua; i?iaiaeyoueny caoiaee ii /?oeiio
iic?oe?iioaaiith ia a?aeiia?aeieo naaiaioao ?eieo.

Cae?eniaiiy onueiai eiiieaeno ia?eaoeiao IOI? ? caaia’ycaiiyi
ia?eaoeiaiaeo neoaea on?o noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Na?aae iniiaieo
caaaeaiue oeeo neoaea iiaeii aeae?eeoe:

— ca?? oa aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai i?e?i- oa iae?inoa?e;

— i?aai?caoe?y oa eii?aeeiaoe?y i?iaaaeaiiy i?iaiicieo aeine?aeaeaiue
oaiaeaioe?e iaoee oa oaoi?ee;

— ?ic?iaea ieai?a, iie?oeee oe?i, i?iaaaeaiiy ?aeeaie, eiia?oe?eia
?aae?caoe?y aeeiiaieo IAeAeE?;

— iaoaioii-e?oeaic?eia ae?yeuei?noue.

A?aeae?e ia?eaoeiao iiaea aooe naiino?eiei i?ae?icae?eii, aai
a?oiith o neeaae? ieaiiaiai aai ieaiiai-ae?iaie/iai a?aeae?eo.

A ?icae?e? aecia/aii, ui aeey aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oaeoi?o a
i?iieneiaino? iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? iia? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie
ea?oaaiiy oeeeeii “iaoea-oaoi?ea-ae?iaieoeoai” aei yeeo a?aeiinyoue
oaoiiia?ee ? oaoiiiie?ne. Oe? i?ia?aneai? oi?ie i?iiiiothoueny aaoi?ii
aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Ca?iiiiiaaii oi?ioeo aeey ?ic?aooieo ?ioaa?aeueii? ioe?iee aeiiii?/iiai
aoaeoo a?ae i?enei?aiiy ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? ca ?aooiie ?iiiaaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a a (Yij):

n m

Yij = Dij Ii Tij ,

i=1 j=1

aea Dij – i?e??no iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?eaooeo ca ?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy

j-ai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai caoiaeo a i-io ?ioe?;

Ii — ?iaeaen ?ioeyoe?? a i-io ?ioe?;

Oij — ci?ie oaii?a inai?iiy j-ai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai caoiaeo;

n — e?euee?noue ?ie?a;

m — e?euee?noue iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, ui inaiththoueny a i-io
?ioe?.

Aeniiaee

I?iaaaeaiia a iaaeao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai
?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia i?aenoaa? aeoea?caoe??
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee:

1. Noaa?e?caoe?y ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?iieneiaino? oa ?? iinooiiaee c??no
iiaeeea? eeoa i?e o?aooaaii? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e. O
a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? ieoaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii? neeaaeiai?
a i?iieneiaino?, oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?iieneiaeo iiaiaaaaeaiue ia aeiaeaii
iaeaaeii? /eiiino?. sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae ia?aaeiaeo e?a?i na?oo,
i?iieneia? ?iiiaaoe?? ? iaeiei c iniiaieo aeaea?ae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
oa ?inoo.

Neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aea?aeaaii? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee ia? aooe
i?aeo?eiea oa ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
Oe?a?ie. Iaoiaeieia?/iith i?aenoaaith aeey oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa??
?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoaoe oai??th
oe?ee?/iino? I.Ae.Eiiae?ao’?aa oa E.Ooiiaoa?a.

Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo i?iieneiai? ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e oa ??
aca?iica’ycie c iae?iaeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie ii Oe?a?i?, acaaae?, ? ii
Iaeanueeiio ?aa?iio iieacaa, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy iacaeaaei?no? Oe?a?ie
iaiao?aeii caaeiaieueieoe iio?aae a i?iaeoeoe?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ca
?aooiie aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa i? iaio i?ae ia 70%. Oea iiaeeeai eeoa i?e
iiaiiio aeei?enoaii? iaeiie/aiiai ae?iaie/iai, iaoeiaiai oa eaae?iaiai
iioaioe?aeo, ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi i?iieneiaeo iiaiaaaaeaiue. Nueiaiaei?,
nenoaiaoe/ii cieaeothoueny ?ici??e ?ano?n?a, ui i?ecia/ai? aeey
iia?e?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oaeoi?o i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaaea?
aoaeoeai?noue i?iiiio?ieo iiaiaaaaeaiue, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoue. Oe?
i?ioeane ? iane?aeeii a?aenooi?no? /?oei ?ic?iaeaii? oa aei?noei
i?iaiaeeii? i?iieneiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee. sse ne?aenoai – ona
a?eueo c?inoath/a oaoi?/ia oa oaoiieia?/ia a?aenoaaaiiy a?ae
?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i.

2. Aecia/aii iiiyooy “?iiiaaoe?eiee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaino?”-cae?ai?noue ainiiaea?nueei? iaeeieoe? ?icaeaaoeny ia
aeani?e iniia? o iaeaooiueiio, c o?aooaaiiyi onueiai ianyao iaeiie/aiiai
i?iieneiaiai, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo. Oea
iiiyooy i?noeoue aeaiaio aeeiai?cio ? a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai
??ciyoueny iieacieee, ui aecia/athoue ?iiiaaoe?eiee, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee
oa oaoiieia?/iee ?icaeoie.

3. C o?aooaaiiyi i?aeia?iaeiiai aeina?aeo oa i?aeoeee ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoa, aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
no?aoaa?e ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio a i?iieneiaino?:

— aeiaeaoeiai aei o?aaeeoe?eii?, cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th
i?aei?e?inoa a?aeiinii ?o no?aoaa?? a ieai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo;

— ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ? iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ??aiy
?icaeoeo i?iieneiaeo noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

— a?aeiia?aeii anoaiiaeaiiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? aecia/a?oueny
no?aoaa?y ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio.

Aacia?a/ii, Oe?a?i?, ye iacaeaaei?e aea?aeaa?, iaiao?aeii oi?ioaaoe
naith aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo, yea aoaea ni?yiiaaia ia eiiieaeniee ?icaeoie
i?iieneiaino?. Noaa?e?caoe?y aeiiii?ee oa aeo?ae

c e?ece iaa?ae’?iii iia’ycai? c iiaeaaaeaiiyi ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
a i?iieneiaino?. ?icaeoie i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa caeaaeeoue a?ae
i?aaeeueiiai aeai?o no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? oeio i?iieneiaeie
i?aei?e?inoaaie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o ne?aeoth/eo ?iaioao

1. Iiiiaaiei I.N., Aaeueotheia A.A., Caaa?iay Y.I. e ae?. Eiiiaaoeeiiiue
iaiaaeaeiaio: Aeiiouaii Ieienoa?noaii aunoaai ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu a
ea/anoaa o/aaiiai iiniaey aeey nooaeaioia aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. —
Iaeanna: Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao,
1998.-196n. Iniaenoi aaoi?a – Aeaaa 2. Iiiyoea eiiiaaoeeiiiie noa?u e
o?iaiy eiiiaaoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey. Aeaaa 3. I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey
eiiiaaoeeiiiui i?ioeannii. Aeaaa 8. Iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee.

2. Iiiiaaiei I., Caaa?ia A. – Noai ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
iao?iiaoaeoaaii? Iaeanueei? iaeano? // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. – 1999. — ?1.
– N.92-93. Iniaenoi aaoi?a – Aiae?c iieaciee?a ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a i?iieneiaino? i.Iaeane.

3. Iiiiaaiei I.N., Caaa?iay Y.I. E?eoa?ee auai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiuo

no?aoaaee // O?oaeu Iaeanneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa.-Iaeanna.–1997.– Aui.2.– N.184-186. Iniaenoi aaoi?a – Aeaeu
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo no?aoaaee.

4. Iiiiaaiei I.N., Caaa?iay Y.I. Ioeaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea
oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu // Aecian-eioi?i.–1998.-?3.–N.51-53. Iniaenoi
aaoi?a – Iieacaoaee ioeaiee eiiiaaoeeiiiiai o?iaiy.

5. Caaa?iay Y.I. I?eiaiaiea i?ia?anneaiuo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna // ?eieia? aaaeae? oa noeioee ?icaeoeo
ainiiaea?/eo nenoai.– Iaeana: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao– 1998. – Aei.2.– *.2. – N.125-134.

AIIOAOe?ss

Caaa?ia A.I. No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia i?aenoaa?
aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.01 – aeiiii?ea

i?iieneiaino?. – ?inoeooo i?iaeai ?eieo oa aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia
aac? aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioeann?a. A ?iaio? aea/aii oa
ocaaaeueiaii a?o/eciyiee oa na?oiaee aeina?ae oi?ioaaiiy i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee, c o?aooaaiiyi ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oaeoi?o. Noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo noa’?eo?a i?iieneiaiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeiaeaoeiao eeaneo?eaoe?th i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ui
cae?eniththoue ?iiiaaoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue ca aecia/aiiyi aeeaeie oa
ia?aaaaeath/aai oeio i?iieneiaeoiiaiaaaaeaiue.

?ic?iaeaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ? iaoiae?eo ioe?iee ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ??aiy
i?iieneiaino? oa iaaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?ic?iae? ia oe?e
i?aenoaa? no?aoaa?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeio. Aecia/aii eiiieaen ia?ii?e?inoa
noiniaii i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?iieneiaa iie?oeea, i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai,
?iiiaaoe?eiee oaeoi?, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia i?iaeoeoe?y, no?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo.

AIIIOAOeEss

Caaa?iay Y.I. No?aoaaey ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa
aeoeaecaoeee eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.01 – yeiiiieea i?iiuoeaiiinoe. – Einoeooo
i?iaeai ?uiea e yeiiiieei-yeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee IAI Oe?aeiu,
Iaeanna, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia
aaca aeoeaecaoeee eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. A ?aaioa iainiiaaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee iaoaiecia ?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai oeia a i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo ea?a?oee a
?aieao oi?ie?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeee. Eco/ai e iaiauai iiuo
ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeee oi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee
a i?iiuoeaiiie noa?a.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec eiiiaaoeeiiiie noa?u a i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu e
Iaeanneie iaeanoe. N oeaeueth aieaa aeoaieiai eco/aiey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
o?iaiy ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiuo noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey, a ?aaioa
eniieueciaaiu yenia?oiua iaoiaeu eco/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue iaeaieaa oi/iua

e iainiiaaiiua auaiaeu a nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo. N?aaee
yenia?oia – oaoie/aneea aee?aeoi?a, aeaaiua eiaeaia?u aaaeoueo
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee ai?iaea Iaeannu.

Aiaeec ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao,
/oi n?aaee oaeoi?ia, naea?aeeaathueo eiiiaaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea eiatho: ionoonoaea oeiainiauo
n?aaenoa – nianoaaiiuo e o caeac/eea, aunieea e?aaeeoiua noaaee,
iaaeinoaoie eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee ?uiea, ianiaa?oainoai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu. Cao?aou, naycaiiua n i?iiuoeaiiuie eiiiaaoeeyie
naiaeyony e oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa ca n/ao
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Aeaii /aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey “eiiiaaoeeiiiue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey
noauaeoia i?iiuoeaiiiai oicyenoaiaaiey”. Auaeaeaiu iniiaiua iieacaoaee,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea oaoie/aneee, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee e eiiiaaoeeiiiue o?iaie
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. I?iaaaeaia eo n?aaieoaeueiay
oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Aeiiieieoaeueii e o?aaeeoeeiiiie, i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee inouanoaeythueo eiiiaaoeeiiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue. Auaeaeaiu a?oiiu i?aaei?eyoee a niioaaonoaee ni
noaiaiueth e aeoaeiie ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee. Oaeay
eeanneoeeaoeey i?eaioe?oao i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ia oi?ie?iaaiea oie
eee eiie no?aoaaee.

?ac?aaioaiu oi?iu io/aoiinoe ii iiaie oaoieea e oaoiieiaeyi,
iicaieythuea nia?aoue anth iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth aeey ioeaiee
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Naaaeaiey iiaoo
iaeaieeaaoueny ia iaoeiiuo iineoaeyo e oi?ie?iaaoue aaiee aeaiiuo, /oi
ia i?eaaaeao e oaaee/aieth iauaiia ?aaiou.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeaia nenoaia iieacaoaeae e iaoiaeeea ioeaiee
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai oaeoi?a a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe
?acee/iuo noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe iicaieee onoaiiaeoue
yiie?e/aneea caaeneiinoe aeey oeacaiiuo iieacaoaeae.

?ac?aaioaii aeanyoue iaeaieaa i?eaieaiuo no?aoaaee eiiiaaoeeiiiiai oeia
a i?iiuoeaiiinoe: o?aaeeoeeiiiay, inoaoi/iay, i?iiaaeooi/iay,
eieoaoeeiiiay, caaeneiay, iiii?ooienoe/aneay, iai?iieoaeueiay, nicaeaiey
iiaiai ?uiea, oia?aiii- e ino?iianooiaoaeueiay. Eaaeaeay ec
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo no?aoaaee iiaeao ?aaeeciauaaoueny ia?aeeaeueii n
ae?oaeie, a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee ia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii?aaeaeai ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey ia?eaoeiaa iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee, o/eouaathuee oaoiieiae/aneea aiciiaeiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaey e
?uii/iua iio?aaiinoe. A oiaea i?iaaaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee
oi?ie?oaony iae?i- e iee?in?aaea i?aaei?eyoey, i?iaiaeyony ia?ii?eyoey
ii /aoeiio iiceoeeiie?iaaieth ia niioaaonoaothueo naaiaioao ?uiea.

I?aaeeiaeaia oi?ioea aeey ?an/aoa eioaa?aeueiie ioeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai
yooaeoa io onei?aiey ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe ca n/ao eiiiaaoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iiuoeaiiay iieeoeea, i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai,
eiiiaaoeeiiiue oaeoi?, iao/ii-oaoie/aneay i?iaeoeoeey, no?aoaaey
?acaeoey.

SUMMARY

Zabarna E. The strategy of industry production development on the basis
of the intensification of innovative activity. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for the scientific degree of Candudate of economical
sciences ( Ph.D. in economics ) under 08.07.01 speciality –
Economics of

industry. – Market problem institute and economic-ecology researches of
National Science Academy of the Ukraine, Odessa, 1999.

Ohis work is devoted to the problems of the development of industrial
production on the basis of innovative activity. In this work it was
learned and generalized the native and foreign experience of the
formation of industrial policy. The concept of the level development
innovation of economie’s members is formulated. In this reseach there
were suggested classification of the enterprises, which carry on
innovative activity. These classifications add to the traditional
classification with such signs: predominate type of innovations and
depth of elabarations innovations.

The index system and methodics of this level eppraisement were worked
out and recomendations were given to innovative strategies forming. The
complex of measures on marketing of the scientific-technical results was
defined in this work.

Key words: industrial policy, industry production, innovative factor,
scietific-technical product, development strategy.

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