Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

OAeE 632:633.853.494[477.924.85]

Neoi?e ?ai? Aeaieeiae/

No?ee?noue iiaeo ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea aei aieiaieo oai?ia a
i?aaiaa?aaei?e /anoei? E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie

06.01.11 — o?oiiaoieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?, Eaa?iao
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Ia?aneie?i Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?oiiaoieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

i?ioani? Oei/aiei A?eoi? Eineiiae/,

?inoeooo iai/?aieoeoaa ? aaooaiieoeoaa OAAI,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii caoenoo ?ineei

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

*aaai Aaneeue Neaei?iae/,

?inoeooo caoenoo ?ineei OAAI,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ii iaoeia?e ?iaio?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aea?aeaaia aa?iaeieia?/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, i.
AEeoiie?

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.004.02 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, Ee?a – 41, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 15,
ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 11, ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 ” n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.?.Iaiaeaeoe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aaaaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo no?eeeo ni?o?a aei oai?ia ?
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii caoenoo ?ineei. Iaeiae aaaaoi/eneaii?
ni?oe c cia/iei nooiaiai no?eeino? aoee aeaaaeai? aac ?icoi?iiy
iaoai?ci?a oe??? no?eeino?. Iaeiei c cania?a aeinyaiaiiy oeueiai
?icoi?iiy ? iaeiie/aiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ciaiue i?i caoeni? iaoai?cie
?ineeie-ainiiaea?y ? oeo oaeoe/ieo i?eeii?a, ye? aeei?enoiao? iaoiaai
aeey iiaeieaiiy oeeo aa?’???a, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiy oeeo ciaiue aeey
i?aeoe/iiai caoenoo ?ineei a?ae oai?ia. Oiio aeei?enoaiiy a naeaeoe?? ia
?ioi?oao iaeiia?oeo aeinyaiaiue iaoee, ui noinothoueny aca?iia?aeiinei
?ineeie ? iaoiaaia ye ia a?io?i?/iiio ??ai?, oae ? ia ??ai?
aca?iia?aeiinei ?ineeie-ainiiaea?y c iaoiaaiii a oiiaao iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ? ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi, yea aeicaieeoue ae??oeoe
i?iaeaio ii noai?aiith eiiieaenii-?ioiino?eeeo ni?o?a aei oai?ia.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii c oaiaoe/iei ieaiii aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie.
Iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0196U001932.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaia oe?eue iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue –
aea/eoe no?ee?noue iiaeo ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea aei eiiieaeno a?eaeiaeo
oai?ia ( iani?aaaeiy ai?ioienoa ?ina, aeueoa?ia??ic, n??a aieeue),
aeyaeoe aeaea?aea no?eeino? ?ineei aei oeeo oai?ia ? io?eiaoe
ia?niaeoeai? eiiieaenii-?ioiino?ee? oi?ie iceiiai ??iaea. Aeey aeeiiaiiy
oeueiai caaaeaiiy aoee iinoaaeai? ne?aeoth/? caaea/?:

1. I?iaanoe ?ioiieia?/io ioe?ieo ni?oic?ace?a iceiiai ??iaea.

2. ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai? niiniae ioe?iee no?eeino? ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea
aei iani?aaaeiuei? ai?ioienoi? ?ine, aeueoa?ia??ico, n??i? aiee? ia
?aii?o noaae?yo ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei, a oaeiae ia ia?oeo aoaiao
naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe.

3. Aea/eoe aieea ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae ?ineei iceiiai ??iaea, no?ie?a
iin?ao ? ii?i aen?ao ia ?iciianthaeaeaii?noue ? ?icaeoie oai?ia.

4. Aeyaeoe aieea oe?aeiee?a ??iaea ia o?aaeai?noue eiai oai?iaaie.

5. Aea/eoe aieea o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo aeaea?ae no?eeino?, ye?
aecia/athoue ?ioi?oao ?ineei.

6. Io?eiaoe no?ee? oi?ie ? ni?oe iceiiai ??iaea aei eiiieaeno oai?ia.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeey I?aaiaa?aaeii?
/anoeie E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie aoei i?iaaaeaii ?ioiieia?/ia aea/aiiy
aeo?aeiiai eieaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo iceiiai ??iaea.

Noai?aiee iiaee naeaeoe?eiee iaoa??ae no?eeee aei oai?ia.

C iaoith iie?ioaiiy ? i?enei?aiiy iaoiae?a ?ioiieia?/ii? ioe?iee
naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo ?ic?iaeai? niiniae ioe?iee no?eeino? ?ineei ia
??cieo oacao ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo.

Aea/aiee aieea ni?oiaeo ? aa?ioaoi?/ieo oaeoi??a ia ?iciianthaeaeai?noue
? ?icaeoie oai?ia, a oaeiae ?ieue oe?aeiee?a a o?aaeaii? ?ineei
iaoiaaiaie.

Aia?oa aeine?aeaeai? aeaye? a?io?i?/i? iaoai?cie no?eeino? ni?o?a
iceiiai ??iaea aei oai?ia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. C aea/aieo ni?oic?ace?a
aeae?eaiee oe?iiee ii no?eeino? aei oai?ia aeo?aeiee iaoa??ae. A
?acoeueoao? ?iaioe io?eiai? ia?niaeoeai?, aenieia?iaeaei?, no?ee? aei
oai?ia oi?ie iceiiai ??iaea. Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo ioe?iee
naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo ia ii/aoeiaeo oacao ?icaeoeo ?ineei iiaeia
aeae?eeoe no?ee? oi?ie ia ia?oeo aoaiao naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano ?
aeeth/aoe ?o a no?auoaaiiy aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?iaioe. Ia iniia?
a?io?i?/ieo oaeoi??a no?eeino? ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea aei oai?ia iiaeia
i?iaiaeeoe a?aea?? aaouee?anueeeo oi?i aeey a?a?eaeecaoe?? ia ii/aoeiaeo
aoaiao naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniaenoa o/anoue aeena?oaioa iieyaa? o
aeeiiaii? aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie. Iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0196U001932.

Oi?ioaaiiy i?iiiceoe?e aeey naeaeoe?eii? i?aeoeee. *anoea aaoi?a i?e
noai?aii? ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea: Aaaeaiee, Ia?eeia A?iieoe?, ?aiie
Iiae?eey ? *i?iee aaeaoaiue noaiiaeoue a?ae 10 aei 15 %.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo ? ani??aio?a IAO (ethoee 1996,1997 ??.)

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 4 iaoeiaeo ?iaioe.
Aeena?oaio ? ni?aaaoi?ii ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea Aaaeaiee, Ia?eeia
A?iieoe?, ?aiie Iiae?eey, *i?iee aaeaoaiue.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno aeeeaaeaia
ia 154 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ia? anooi, 5 ?icae?e?a, 28
oaaeeoeue, 27 ?enoie?a, aeniiaee. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
i?noeoue 295 aeaea?ae, na?aae ieo 99 ia ?iicaii?e iia?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooii?e /anoei? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, iiaeaii ei?ioeo
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, ?? oai?aoe/io, i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ? ai?iaaoe?th
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

1.Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e.

Iiaea?oueny ei?ioeee e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ii
i?iaeai? ?ioi?oaoo ?ineei aei oai?ia. I?iaiae?ciaai? ? ocaaaeueiai?
aeaea?aea e?oa?aoo?e aeecueeiai ? aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey ii aieiaiei
oai?iaao iceiiai ??iaea.

2.Oiiae oa iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a 1994-1998 ?ieao. Iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue ia A?iieoeuee?e aea?aeaai?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e
aeine?aei?e noaioe?? ia n??eo e?niaeo a?oioao. Ai?no aoiono a i?iiio
oa?? neeaaea? 2,1-2,3 %, ?aaeoe?y a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio a iniiaiiio
neaaieenea 5,1-5,3 ?i, a?ae?ie?oe/ia eeneioi?noue a iaaeao 3.5-3,8
ia-aea. ia 100 a. Noia aa?a?aieo iniia neeaaea? a na?aaeiueiio 12,9-13,6
ia-aea. ia 100 a a?oioo i?e nooiai? iane/aiino? iniiaaie 75-80%. Ai?no
aeiionoeiiai aeey ?ineei acioo 3.4-5,4 ia ia 100 a a?oioo, ?ooiiiai
oinoi?o 10-12 ? iai?iiiai eae?th 12-14 ia ia 100 a a?oioo.

Ee?iao oe??? ciie iii??ii oaieee, iaoai?ieia?/i? oiiae a ?iee
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/ieo
iieaciee?a. Iieueia? aeine?aee i?iaiaeeeenue a oeiiaeo naeaeoe?eii —
ian?iieoeueeeo eaieao iieueiai? n?aici?ie. I?aeaioiaea, ia?ia?oie a?oioo
oa aeiaeyae ca iin?aaie iceiiai ??iaea aoee caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie aeey
E?ninoaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie.

I?ae /an aaaaoaoe?? i?iaiaeeeenue oaiieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy, aecia/aee
no?ee?noue aei iieyaaiiy, no?oeoo?i? iieacieee o?iaeaeiino?,
ceiino?ee?noue ?ineei (ca?aeii “Iaoiaeeee aea?aeaaiiai ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?” , 1983).

No?auoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a iieueiaeo oiiaao ca caaaeueii i?eeiyoith
iaoiaeeeith aeey o?anoioea?oeo eoeueoo?. Iae?e o?aaeaiino? ?ineei
i?iaiaeeany ii iaoiaeeoe? ?ic?iaeai?e a IAO (Ia?eia ?.E., 1991) ? ii
oeae? Iaoa?niia.

Aieea no?ie?a iin?ao, ii?i aen?ao, ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae ?ineei aea/aee
a ae??aiiae?eyii/iiio aeine?ae? ia oaeeo ni?oao: Oeniaieoeueeee, Na?oi/,
Ai?eciio, Aaaeaiee, Ia?eeia A?iieoe?. ?ici?? iae?eiai? ae?eyiee 20 i?,
iiaoi?i?noue 4-o e?aoia, no?iee iin?ao 15 ? 30 na?iiy, ii?ie aen?ao 80
? 120 oo/i?.

Aieea oe?aeiee?a ia ?icaeoie oai?ia ??iaea aeine?aeaeoaaee a 4-o e?aoi?e
iiaoi?iino? ia oeo aea ni?oao. Ieiua iae?eiai? ae?eyiee 20 i?, no?iee
iin?ao 20 na?iiy, ii?ia aen?ao 80 oo/i?.

Aecia/aiiy a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a i?iaiaeeee a caei?iaeo ? ?io?eiaaieo
?ineeiao ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? iaoiaaiaco (c ?icaeoeii oai?iae aei 25 %)
??cieo ii no?eeino? ni?o?a.

Ai?no i?aiaio?a (oei?io?e A ? A, ea?ioeii?aee) aecia/aee
niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii (NO-16), a?oai?io N ca ?aaeoe??th
O?eueiaia, ?aaeoeiaai? oeoe?e – ca Aa?o?aiii, aee? – ca ?ooeianueeei,
ee?oeiaeio – iaoiaeii iniiaaiei ia ??ci?e oaeaeeino? a?ae?ie?co aii?oii?
? e?enoae?/ii? ee?oeiaeie a ?icaaaeaieo ? eiioeaio?iaaieo eeneioao,
e?ai?i – ii iiaeeo?eiaaiiio iaoiaeo Eeaniia aeey o?aa’yienoeo ia’?eo?a,
aetheiceiieaoe – eieiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii (OAE-56I) iiaeeo?eaoe?y
Eiiiiiaa.

Ai?no ?a/iaei a ian?ii? aecia/aee: ie?? – ia eiii’thoa?iiio aiae?caoi??
? iaoiaeii ?ooeianueeiai, a?oeiaa eeneioa – iaoiaeii oaiia?aoo?ii?
??cieoe? ia?aoiaeo aei oaa?aeiai noaio ie?aieo eeneio i?e iiiooi?ii?
iaa??oiai aei 70? N ?ic/eio a aoaiie? (1:80 ie?? – 0,1 ia) i?e ??ceiio
eiai ioieiaeaeaii? aei 21? N, i?ioa?i ii iaoiaeo Eaiaeaey,
aetheiceiieaoe iaoiaeii iaia?iaiai aetheioanoa, aee?ieo eeneio a ie?? –
iaoiaeii AAEO (O?ii 5 c iieoi’yii-?ii?coth/ei aeaoaeoi?ii).
Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii
iaoiaeeee A.A. Aeiniaoiaa.

Iaie aoee ?ic?iaeai? niiniae ooo/iiai ca?aaeaiiy iceiiai ??iaea ia
?aii?o oacao ?icaeoeo, aeey ioe?iee no?eeino? ?ineei aei oai?ia. A
yeino? ?ioaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo aeei?enoiaoaaee iiioeyoe?? iaoiaai?a,
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey aeaii? ciie. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aii
ni?eeiyoeeaee ni?o ?inue. A eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao aoaeoeaiith aeyaeeanue
?iieoeyoe?y ian?iiy, i?i?inoe?a, n?i’yaeieae iceiiai ??iaea.
Eiioeaio?aoe?y noniaic?? eii?ae?e Alternaria brassicicola i Botrytis
cineria aeey ca?aaeaiiy ian?iiy neeaaea? – 100 oo. a iie? ci?o
i?e?ineiia i?e ca?eueoaii? a 120 ?ac, i?i?inoe?a – 70-80 oo.,
n?i’yaeieae – 50-60 oo. Eiioeaio?aoe?y noniaic?? eii?ae?e Peronospora
brassicae aeey ca?aaeaiiy i?i?inoe?a ? n?i’yaeieae – 40-50 oo.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy ??cieo ii no?eeino? ni?oic?ace?a i?e ooo/iiio
ca?aaeaii? ? a i?e?iaeieo oiiaao anoaiiaeaii, ui o?aaeai?noue iaoiaaiaie
iceiiai ??iaea a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao ei?aeth? c ioe?ieith o?aaeaiino?
?ineei a aei?ineiio noai?.

Oae ei?aeyoeaiee ca’ycie i?ae o?aaeaiiyi ian?iiy, i?i?inoe?a,
n?i’yaeieae iceiiai ??iaea caoaeieeii aeueoa?ia??ico ? o?aaeaiiyi ?ineei
a oaco oea?o?iiy noaiiaea 0,81;0,84;0,82; i?ae o?aaeaiiyi ian?iiy,
i?i?inoe?a n?i’yaeieae ??iaea caoaeieeii n??i? aiee? ? o?aaeaiiyi a oaco
caeaiiai no?o/ea – 0,85;0,89;0,93; i?ae o?aaeaiiyi i?i?inoe?a
n?i’yaeieae ??iaea caoaeieeii iani?aaaeiuei? ai?ioienoi? ?ine oa
o?aaeaiiyi ?ineei a oaco oea?o?iiy – 0,82;0,91.

?ic?iaeaiee eaai?aoi?iee niin?a ooo/iiai ca?aaeaiiy ian?iiy ?
i?i?inoe?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ua aei iin?ao a iie? iiia?aaeiuei ioe?ieoe
? a?ae?a?aoe no?ee? oi?ie c aeo?aeiiai naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo. Oea
aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ?iaio? caa/anii aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee ii
no?eeino? iaoa??ae, iaaea? naeaeoe?eiiio i?ioeano a?eueo iai?aaeaiee
oa?aeoa? ? aeicaiey? i?ioyaii ?ieo ioe?ithaaoe aaeeeo e?euee?noue
naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo. Ca?aaeaiiy a oaco n?i’yaeieae aea? iiaeeea?noue
?iaeea?aeoaeueii aea?aeiaoaaoe neeueii ni?eeiyoeea? ?ineeie a iaaeao
ni?oo aai e?i?? aeey iie?ioaiiy yeinoae ?ineei ? aeeth/aiiy ?o a
iiaeaeueoo a?a?eaeecaoe?th, a oaeiae ?c a?a?eaeii? iiioeyoe?? aeae?eeoe
no?ee? ?ineeie, ye? iiaeia aenaaeeoe a iie? aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?iaioe.

?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeiiai iiaee niin?a ioe?iee a?a?eae?a F0 ia no?ee?noue
aei aeueoa?ia??ico ia ?ineeiao aea i?iaiaeeeanue a?a?eaeecaoe?y.
?iieoeyoe?th i?iaiaeeee i?ney ooai?aiiy no?o/e?a. Eiioeaio?aoe?y
noniaic?? eii?ae?e caoaeieea iaoiaaia 50-60 oo. a iie? ci?o i?e?ineiio
i?e ca?eueoaii? a 120 ?ac. Aoea anoaiiaeaia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae o?aaeaiiyi
a?a?eae?a F0 a eaai?aoi?ii-iieueiaeo oiiaao ? iine?aeoth/eie iieie?iiyie
F1 ? F2 a i?e?iaeieo oiiaao a oaco aeiaoi-caeaiiai no?o/ea.

3. Aieea aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a ia ?iciianthaeaeaii?noue ? ?icaeoie
oai?ia.

I?aaeeueiee aea?? iioeiaeueieo no?ie?a n?aae ? ii?i aen?ao aeicaiey?
caiia?aoe ?ioaineaiiio ?icaeoeo oai?ia. Oae ?ineeie ni?eeiyoeea? aei
oai?ia ia iaei?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo, a ?io?e aeyaeythoue a?eueoo
no?ee?noue. A ca’yceo c oeei iiaeeeai oae ci?ithaaoe no?iee n?aae, uia
noaae?y ?icaeoeo ia ye?e ?ineeie aeyaeythoueny iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie
aei oai?ia, i?eoiaeeeanue ia oie /an eiee iaoiaai a?aenooi?e, aai ia
iiaea ca?aceoe ?ineeie. A caeaaeiino? a?ae aonoioe noiyiiy ?ineei iiaea
ci?ithaaoeny ? i?e?iee?iao ana?aaeei? iin?ao a ni?eeiyoeeaee /e
oe?aeeeaee a?e aeey ?icaeoeo caoaeiee?a oai?ia.

Iceiee ??iae iin?yiee 15 na?iiy i?e aonoio? noiyiiy ?ineei 80 oo/i?
o?aaeaany caoaeieeaie oai?ia iaeiaioa a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie aa??aioaie
aeine?aeo – ?icaeoie iani?aaaeiuei? ai?ioienoi? ?ine iaioee ainaie ia
9-12 %, iaaani? – 10-12 %, a oaco oea?o?iiy — 12-15 %, aeueoa?ia??ico —
a oaco oea?o?iiy ia 8-11 %, aeiaoi-caeaiiai no?o/ea 0,8-1,0 aaea, n??i?
aiee? – a oaco caeaiiai no?o/ea 2,0-3,9 (oaae. 1).

I?e iioeiaeueieo no?ieao iin?ao (15 na?iiy) ? ii?i? ian?iiy (80 oo/i?)
noai?ththoueny iaee?au? oiiae aeey ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo iceiiai ??iaea i?e
i?i?iaeuei?e o?aaeaiino? eiai oai?iaaie. Oae iana ian?iiy c ?ineeie aeua
ia 6,9-8,8 a, iana 1000 ca?ai – 0,9-1,1 a, ai?no a?eea ia 5,0-8,5 %,
ie?? – 12,8-18,5 %, o?iaeaei?noue – 6,1-7,5 oe/aa .

Oaeoi? ni?oo a?ae?a?a? nooo?ao ?ieue a no?eeino? ?ineei aei oai?ia
(oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1 — No?ee?noue ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea aei oai?ia (1994-1997 ??).

Ni?o

No?iee iin?ao na?iaiue

Ii?ie aen?ao oo/i?

Ia?iiinii?ic, %Aeueoa?ia??icN??a aieeue,
%?icaeoie?icaeoie?icaeoiein?iueaaniaOea?o?iiyoea?o?iiy, %no?o/ie,
aae?acaeaiee
no?o/ieOenue-iaie-oeueeee158014182391,67,6120192227142,09,73080202328121
,99,3120243038202,511,5Na?oi/158010131751,46,1120161923111,97,3308017202
491,87,1120212532162,38,1Ai?e-ciio158011131761,36,0120161922101,87,23080
17202591,77,0120212532162,38,2Aaaea-iee15809111441,04,412011172181,55,83
08015182271,55,5120182328121,86,4Ia?ee-ia
A?iieoe?15809121661,35,7120131721101,96,9308014182381,76,9120182228162,3
7,8IN?052,132,12,371,30,0050,32

Oae, ni?o Oenueiaieoeueeee ia i?ioyc? 3-o ?ie?a aeyaea iaeiaioo
?ioii?noue aei iaoiaai?a a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie ni?oaie :

ii ia?iiinii?ico: ?icaeoie oai?iae (%) a?eueoee ainaie ia 3-8, iaaani?
3-8, oaco oea?o?iiy 3-10;

ii aeueoa?ia??ico: ?icaeoie oai?iae a?eueoee a oaco oea?o?iiy ia 3-8 %,
aeiaoi-caeaiiai no?o/ea 0,1-0,7 aae?a;

ii n???e aiee?: ?icaeoie oai?iae a?eueoee ia 1.5-5,1 %.

Aea?? eiiaoaie ?ineei aeey oa?/oaaiiy aecia/a?oueny noeoii?noth
iniaeeainoae, ye? c iaeiiai aieo iiaeooue aenooiaoe a yeino? aa?’???a,
ye? iaiaaeothoue iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ineei aeey oa?/oaaiiy, a c
?ioiai iiaeooue a?aoe ?ieue oaeoi??a, i?eaaaethth/eo eiiao, oei naiei
noeioethth/e ?o aei aca?iiae?? c ?ineeiaie. A ?acoeueoao? oaei?
aca?iiae?? ?ineeie o?aaiothoueny, a ieo aeieeathoue neeaaei? aioo??oiuei
ee?oeii? ?aaeoe??, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ci?ie ?o a?io?i?/ieo ?
o?c?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, ui aieeaa? ia aca?iia?aeiineie ?ineei c
iaoiaaiaie.

A eiaeiiio ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo a nenoai? eiiaoa-?ineeia oe? aai ?io?
oaeoi?e aenooiathoue a yeino? aecia/ath/eo aeii?iaioo iiaeaeueoi?
iiaaae?iee ?ineeie c iaoiaaiii. Oiio cia/iee oai?aoe/iee ? i?aeoe/iee
?ioa?an yaeythoue c oe??? oi/ee ci?o aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae eiiaoaie
oe?aeieeaie ? ?o ei?iiaeie ?ineeiaie.

Nooi?iue iioeiaeaeaiiino? iceiiai ??iaea oe?aeieeaie cieaeo? no?ee?noue
?ineei aei oai?ia. Oae, ?ineeie i?e iioeiaeaeaii? eenoiai? ieanoeiee
??iaeiaei o?a/ai oa aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a ??iaeiaei ea?oei?aeii ?
ian?ii?aei iie?eoioiaioieeii aei 5%, iaioa o?aaeaeeny caoaeieeaie
oai?ia, i?ae iin?ae ??iaea c 20 % ia’?aeai?noth eenoiai? iiaa?oi? ? 15 %
iioeiaeaeaiiyi aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a: iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith ?inith
– ainaie ia 13-14 %, a oaco oea?o?iiy 16-20 %; aeueoa?ia??icii
a?aeiia?aeii – 5-8 % oa 10-14 %; n??ith aieeeth ia 2,7-5,7 % a oaco
caeaiiai no?o/ea (oaae. 2). I?e oeueiio iana ian?iiy c ?ineeie a ieo
aoea a?eueoith ia 3,4-4,4 a, iana 1000 ca?ai 0,5-0,7 a, ai?no a?eea
5,5-8,9 %, ie?? – 13,5-17,2 %, o?iaeaei?noue – 6,8-8,1 oe/aa.

Iioeiaeaeaiiy ye? caaaeathoue eiiaoe iceiiio ??iaeo, ni?eythoue
i?iieeiaiith a?eaeiaeo caoaeiee?a ? aiaee a ?ineeio. E??i oiai, a
o?aaiiaaieo ?ineeiao a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i? a?io?i?/i? ci?ie.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?oo ai?no oei?io?eo a eenoeao (oaca ?icaoee 4-7
eenoe?a) cieaeo?oueny ia 12,6 – 14,1 ia/100 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie, ea?ioeio
1- 1,8 ia /100 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie, anei?a?iiai? eeneioe – 17,7 – 26,6
ia/100 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie, caaaeueiiai acioo – 1,29-1,44 %, aoaeaaiae?a –
8,1-11,2 %, aee??a – 1,78-1,83 %, aeeeiceae?a – 1,45-1,75 %, ai?no
e?ai?io c?inoa? ia 0,13-0,44 %, aeoeai?noue ia?ieneaeace – 4,3-7,8 ie
0,1 I eiaeo ia 1 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie; a oaco oea?o?iiy anei?a?iiaa eeneioa
cieaeo?oueny ia 5,2 – 12,9 ia/100 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie, aoaeaaiae?a –
3,8-4,8 %, aee??a – 0,49-0,53 %, aeeeiceae?a – 0,55-0,62 %,
ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no e?ai?io ia 0,19-0,44 %, aeoeai?noue ia?ieneaeace –
0,5-3,5 ie 0,1 I eiaeo ia 1 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie; a noaaeao a oaco oea?o?iiy
anei?a?iiaa eeneioa ciaioo?oueny ia 5,6-12,3 ia/100 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie,
aeeeiceae?a – 0,42-0,73 %, e?ai?i c?inoa? ia 0,23-0,81 %, aeoeai?noue
ia?ieneaeace ia 3,2 –7,7 ie 0,1 I eiaeo ia 1 a ne?i? ?a/iaeie.

Oaaeeoey 2 — No?ee?noue ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea aei oai?ia (1995-1998 ??).

Ni?oIioeiaeaeai-i?noue ?ineei?icaeoie oai?iaeEeno-e?aaaia?a-oeaieo
i?aai?aia?iiinii?icaeueoa?ia??icn??a
aieeuein?iueaaniaoea?o?iiyin?iueoea?o?iiyno?o/iecaeaiee
no?o/ieOenueiaie-oeueeee551318214101,57,6201527354112242,713,3Na?oi/5511
1417440746,020152430361256859,0Ai?eciio55111317339766,220152431361057858
,9Ia?eeia
A?iieoe?5581013331683,72015213630849836,8Aaaeaiee5579122,031,03,52015202
4287,0131,96,5IN? 052,83,23,02,72,40,011,9

Oae, oaeaee?noue cieaeaiiy anei?a?iiai? eeneioe ? aeeeiceae?a a
iioeiaeaeaieo i?aaiao a?eueo no?eeiai ni?oo Aaaeaiee aoea iaioa a
1,3-1,89 ?aca oa 1,3-2,69 ?aca, a ??aaiue e?ai?io a?eueoee a 1,29-1,63
?aca i?ae a ni?oo Oenueiaieoeueeee Aeoeai?noue ia?ieneaeace aoea aeuith
a 1,28-1,46 ?aca.

4. ?ioiieia?/ia aea/aiiy eieaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo iceiiai ??iaea.

Iaaeie?eii aaaaoueio aeine?aeaeaiue ? a?aenooi?noue oe?e?niiai aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie ?ioi?oaoo. Oae, c iaeiiai aieo aea/a?oueny iaeia ie?aii acyoa
?ineeia, c ae?oaiai – aca?iiae?y iiioeyoe?? ainiiaea?-ia?aceo ?
ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, c o?aoueiai – o?c?ieia?y ? a?io?i?y oai?i?
?ineeie. An? oe? ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeothoueny /anoi ie?aii iaeia a?ae
iaeiiai, ia ye ?aeeia nenoaia a aacia?a?aiiio i?ioean? ?icaeoeo ?
aca?iiae??.

Oiio a nai?e ?iaio? ie ?icaeyaeaee ?ioi?oao ?ineei ia ye noaoe/io
aeanoea?noue, a

ye i?ieeaee noai, iaoiiaeaiee iioiaaiacii ?ineei ? aecia/aiei aeey
eiaeiiai a?eo o?c?ieia?/iei noaiii ?ineeiieo ee?oei, a oaeiae o?nii
iia’ycaiee c iaoiaaiii ? iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai. Aea/aiiy o?c?ieia?? ?
a?io?i?? oai?i? ?ineeie aeicaieeoue aeeaoa c?icoi?oe i?ioeane caei?iaiai
i?aai?cio, ye? aecia/athoue no?ee?noue aei ?ioaeoe??, aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue ciaeoe oaeoi?e ?ioi?oaoo ? iaoiaee aieeao ia ?ineeio aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy ?? no?eeino?.

Aeey aeyniaiiy aeaea?ae no?eeino? iceiiai ??iaea aei a?oie oai?ia
(ia?iiinii?ic, aeueoa?ia??ic, n??a aieeue) a oiiaao I?aaiaa?aaeii?
/anoeie E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie iaie i?iaiaeeeanue ?ioiieia?/ia ioe?iea
no?eeino? 38 ni?o?a a eieaeoe?eiiio ?icnaaeieeo a oiiaao i?e?iaeiiai
ca?aaeaiiy. ?ioiieo aei oai?ia ni?o?a aeyaeaii ia aoei. C ni?o?a, ui
aea/aeenue aoea aeae?eaia a?oia a?aeiinii no?eeeo aei oai?ia – Aaaeaiee,
Ia?eeia A?iieoe?, Oaaei??anueeee iie?ioaiee, IIC-025, *i?iee aaeaoaiue,
?aiie Iiae?eey, ? neeueii ni?eeiyoeeaeo – THii, E?ae, ?inue, Aeni?an.

Aeey a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee a?ae?a?ai? ii 3 ni?oe c eiaeii?
a?oie.

A?aeiinii no?ee? – Aaaeaiee, Oaaei??anueeee iie?auaiee, IIC- 25 ?
ni?eeiyoeea? – THii, ?inue, E?ae (oaae. 3).

Aea/aee e?euee?niee ? ye?niee neeaae aiaei?ic/eiieo aoaeaaiae?a,
?ineeiieo i?aiaio?a, ai?no a?eeiaiai ? iaa?eeiaiai acioo, aee?o,
ee?oeiaeie, anei?a?iiai? eeneioe, e?ai?io, ae?eiceae?a, aeoeai?noue
ia?ieneaeace. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ia no?ee?noue
iceiiai ??iaea aei oai?ia i?aiaioe, aoaeaaiaee, a?eee ? aee?e nooo?aiai
aieeao ia iathoue. Ai?no oeeo ?a/iaei a o?aaeaieo i?aaiao ?ineei
ciaiooaaany.

Oaaeeoey 3 — Oa?aeoa?enoeea ainiiaea?nueei-oe?iieo iciae ni?o?a iceiiai
??iaea oa ?o no?ee?noue aei aieiaieo oai?ia (1995-1998 ??).

Ni?oAi?no a?eea, %Ai?no ie??, %Ai?no aee?ieo eeneio, %O?iaeae-i?noue,
oe/aaiea?iiai?e?iieaai?e?iieaiiai?No?ee?Aaaeaiee23,143,958,018,211,237,3
Oaaei??anueeee
iie?auaiee22,943,857,620,311,235,5IIC-02521,243,261,220,210,435,2Ni?ee-i
yoeea?THii19,838,356,117,411,830,5?inue18,737,454,616,712,429,9E?ae18,53
7,153,216,212,928,1IN? 051,241,522,3

I?iaeiaaeaiiy oaaeeoe? 3.

Ni?o?icaeoie oai?iaIani?aaaeiy ai?ioienoa ?ina, %Aeueoa?ia??icN??a
aieeue, %noiaeein?iueaaniaOea?o?iiyOea?o?iiy, %AEiaoi-caeaiiai no?o/ea,
aaeCaeaiiai
no?o/eaNo?-ee?Aaaeaiee0,127,410,113,03,00,933,2Oaaei??anueeee
iie?auaiee0,136,78,812,03,30,802,5IIC-0250,155,77,110,62,20,773,4Ni?ee-i
yoeea?THii5,320,722,327,729,02,3416,3?inue7,323,024,730,729,72,6017,7E?a
e8,524,026,331,730,72,5018,7IN? 052,11,721,61,92,40,12,1

Ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueii? ee?oeiaeie ia 3,1-4,3 % i?e o?aaeaii?
oaeoeueoaoeaieie iaoiaaiaie a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?ioiieo ni?oao ca ?aooiie
e?enoae?/ii? ee?oeiaeie, iieaeoee yei? ooai?ththoue i?oeio e?enoae?/io
?ao?oeo, a oie /an ye e?euee?noue aii?oii? ee?oeiaeie iaeaea ia
ci?ithaaeanue. A ni?eeiyoeeaeo ni?o?a ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueii? ee?oeiaeie
ia 1,8-3,9 % eoei a iniiaiiio caaaeyee aii?oi?e, yea ? iaio
aii?yaeeiaaiith ? a ia? ia a?aei?io a?ae e?enoae?/ii? iiaeooue i?iieeaoe
iieaeoee aiaee.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo
ae?eiaeie oaeoi?aie, ye? aieeaathoue ia no?ee?noue ?ineei iceiiai ??iaea
aei oai?ia ? ??aaiue ae?eiceae?a a caei?iaeo, e?ai?io ? anei?a?iiai?
eeneioe a o?aaeaieo iaoiaaiaie ?ineeiao oa aeoeai?noue ia?ieneaeace a
?io?eiaaieo oeaieiao (?en. 1, 2, 3, 4).

?en.1 Aeeiai?ea ai?noo ae?eiceae?a a caei?iaeo eenoeao ??cieo ii
no?eeino? ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo.

?en.2 Oaeaee?noue iaae?iiy ai?noo anei?a?iiai? eeneioe a ??cieo ii
no?eeino? ni?oao iceiiai ??iaea i?e o?aaeaii? oai?iaaie, ia/ 100 a ne?i?
?a/iaeie.

?en.3 E?ai?o?eoaaiiy oeaiei i?e o?aaeaii? ia?iiinii?icii,
aeueoa?ia??icii, n??ith aieeeth ??cieo ii no?eeino? ni?o?a iceiiai
??iaea.

?en. 4 Aeoeai?noue ia?ieneaeace a o?aaeaieo ia?iiinii?icii,
aeueoa?ia??icii, n??ith aieeeth i?aaiao ??cieo ii no?eeino? ni?o?a
iceiiai ??iaea.

Ia i?ioyc? anueiai aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo niinoa??aaany o?niee ca’ycie
i?ae e?euee?noth ae?eiceae?a a ?ineeiao ? no?ee?noth ?o aei oai?ia. Oae
ai?no ae?eiceae?a a caei?iaeo i?aaiao ?ineei no?eeeo ni?o?a aoa a?eueoei
a 1,1-2,62 ?ace i?ae ni?eeiyoeeaeo.

Iaie ia aeyaeaii ca’yceo i?ae ai?noii anei?a?iiai? eeneioe a caei?iaeo
i?aaiao ?ineei ? ?o no?ee?noth aei oai?ia. Aeine?aeaeoth/e e?euee?noue
anei?a?iiai? eeneioe a ?io?eiaaieo oeaieiao ??cieo ii no?eeino? ni?oao,
aoea aeyaeaia caeiiii??i?noue: a eenoeao, noaaeao, no?o/eao
ni?eeiyoeeaeo ?ineei, o?aaeaieo iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith ?inith,
aeueoa?ia??icii, n??ith aieeeth, ia i?ioyc? an?o aoai?a iioiaaiaco ai?no
anei?a?iiai? eeneioe (ca ?aooiie oaeaeeiai ?? iaae?iiy) aoa cia/ii
iaioei i?ae a ?ioiiino?eeeo: i?e o?aaeaii? iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith
?inith a 1,24-4,82 ?ace, aeueoa?ia??icii – 1,04-3,76 ?ace, n??ith
aieeeth – 1,04-2,07 ?ace.

E?euee?noue e?ai?io a caei?iaeo i?aaiao ?ineei nooo?aiai aieeao ia
no?ee?noue ni?o?a ia ia?. I?yia caeaaei?noue aoea iaie a?aei?/aia i?ae
nooiaiai e?ai?o?eoaaiiy o?aaeaieo i?aai?a ? ?o oai?iaino?ee?noth: ai?no
e?ai?io a oai?eo oeaieiao no?eeeo ni?o?a aeuee i?e o?aaeaii?
iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith ?inith a 1,41-3,24 ?ace, aeueoa?ia??icii a
1,02-2,18 ?ace, n??ith aieeeth – 1,05-1,27 ?ace.

I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui eiaeiee c o?ueio
iaoiaai?a ?iaeoeo? aeoeai?noue ia?ieneaeace a oeaieiao
?ineeie-ainiiaea?y. Aeoeai?noue ia?ieneaeace a o?aaeaieo oai?iaith
no?eeeo ni?oao aoea aeuith, i?ae a ni?eeiyoeeaeo i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe??:
i?e o?aaeaii? iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith ?inith a 1,2-2,09 ?ace,
aeueoa?ia??icii a 1,21-1,94 ?ace, n??ith aieeeth – 1,12-1,8 ?ace.

Cai?ioiy caoenia ?aaeoe?y – aeoeaoaaiiy ia?ieneaeace ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
aeoeaiino? oeueiai oa?iaioo a caei?ia?e ?ineei?. Aeoeai?noue
ia?ieneaeace a caei?iaeo oeaieiao ia iia’ycaia c ?o aeoeai?noth aei
oai?ia.

Ia iaoo aeoieo eiaeiee c ie?aii acyoeo aeua oaeoi??a ia iiaea aaaiii
aieeaaoe ia no?ee?noue ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea aei oai?ia, ine?eueee an?
aiie o?nii iia’ycai? i?ae niaith. A iniia? eiaeiiai c ieo eaaeaoue
ieenii — a?aeiiaethaaeuei? ?aaeoe??. Oiio iaea?eueo aeoeaiei oaeoi?ii
caoenoo ? ?ioaineai?noue ieenethaaeueieo i?ioean?a. Oae aenieee
ieenethaaeueiee iioaioe?ae no?eeei ni?oai caaacia/o?oueny a?eueoith
aeoeai?noth ia?ieneaeace, a i?enooi?noue anei?a?iiai? eeneioe ?
ae?eiceae?a noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ooai?aiiy e?ai?io ? oiene/ieo
?a/iaei a e?eueeinoyo, iaiao?aeieo aeey caoenoo a?ae iaoiaai?a.

5. Naeaeoe?y iceiiai ??iaea ia aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ye?noue ?
no?ee?noue aei oai?ia.

I?e aeaaaeaii? ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea a aeaiee /an naeaeoe?eia ?iaioa
iai?aaeaia ia iaea?aeaiiy aenieia?iaeaeieo, ie?eieo ni?o?a, ye? ia
ineiathoue ian?iiy i?e aeic??aaii?, a?aecia/athoueny nei?inoeae?noth,
ceiino?ee?noth, no?ee?noth aei oai?ia ? oe?aeiee?a, no?eeeo aei
iieyaaiiy, c aenieith ye?noth ie??, iecueeei ai?noii a?oeiai? eeneioe
(0-0,5%), ? aetheiceiieao?a ia a?eueoa 1,5% (25 ieiieue/ a ian?iiy).
Iaeiei c iai?aaeaiue naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe ii ??iaeo ? iie?auaiiy oa?/iai?
yeino? ie??. Aeey oa?/iaeo oe?eae iaea?eueo i?eaeaoia ie?y c ai?noii
iea?iiai? 50-60%, e?iieaai? 20-25%, a iacia/ieo e?eueeinoyo e?iieaiiai?
(iaioa 5%) ? a?aenooi?noth a?oeiai? ? aeeica?iai? eeneio.

A inoaii? 10 ?ie?a a onueiio na?o? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yi?a
naeaeoe?? ? aeaaaeaiiy ni?o?a ? a?a?eae?a no?eeeo aei oai?ia.
Aoaeoeai?noue naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe a a?eueoino? caeaaeaoue a?ae oiai
iane?eueee aeia?a i?ae?a?aiee ? aea/aiee aeo?aeiee iaoa??ae. Aeyaeaiiy
?ioiino?eeeo ni?o?a iineoue ciiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, oae ye a eiaei?e cii?
i?iyaey?oueny ??ciee aeaeiaee neeaae iaoiaai?a ? ??cia ?ioaineai?noue
?icaeoeo oai?ia. E??i oiai i?e iiooeo aeaea?aea no?eeino? ne?ae caa?oaoe
oaaao ia ?? oei: aa?oeeaeueiee /e ai?eciioaeueiee. Iio??aii oaeiae
a?aooaaoe oiea?aioi?noue ?ineei. Iniiaiei ? iaeaoaeoeai?oei no/aniei
iaoiaeii ciiaeueii? naeaeoe?? ia ?ioi?oao aei oai?ia ??iaea ye
?ineeie-naiicaieethaa/a ? iaea?aeaiiy aeaea?ae ?acenoaioiino? aei ??cieo
iaoiaai?a.

Noai?ai? inoaii?i /anii ia A?iieoeuee?e aea?aeaai?e
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e noaioe?? ni?oe iceiiai ??iaea iiaeooue
aenooiaoe oaeeie aeaea?aeaie ?ioiiino?.

Aaaeaiee. Noai?aiee iaoiaeii ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai a?aeai?o c iiioeyoe?? NE
7450 Eanoa? e?i?y 69-4. Ni?o Aaaeaiee ?ioaineaiiai oeio,
na?aaeiueinoeaeee (295-305 aeiy), ca?iiaiai ? ei?iiaiai aeei?enoaiiy,
na?aaeiuei? ceiino?eeino? (4,2-4,8 aaea), no?eeee aei iieyaaiiy
(4,9-5,0), a?aeiinii no?eeee aei aieiaieo oai?ia (ia?iiinii?ic,
aeueoa?ia??ic, n??a aieeue). I?e ia?aaea/? ni?oo ia aea?aeaaia
ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy na?aaei?e o?iaeae ian?iiy neeaa 41,8 oe/ aa (+ 4,99
oe/ aa), caeaii? iane 479 oe/ aa (+ 37 oe/ aa). Ca?? ie?? – 18,3 oe/ aa
(+ 2,5 oe/ aa), ai?no ie?? a ian?ii? 43,9 % (+ 0,6%). Ni?o
a?ae??ciy?oueny ?aii?i a?ae?inoaiiyi iaaani?, iecueeei ai?noii a?oeiai?
eeneioe 0,3%, aetheiceiieao?a – 1,5%.

Ia?eeia A?iieoe?. A?a?eaeiee iiia? 42 AEao-Iao A??iaaith. Ca inoaii?
1993-1996 ?iee na?aaei?e o?iaeae ian?iiy 35 oe/ aa ( + 3,5 oe/ aa). Ca??
ie?? 16,1 oe/ aa (+ 1,8 oe/ aa), ai?no ie?? a ian?ii? 49,97% (+ 0,7%).
O?iaeae caeaii? iane 499 oe/ aa (+ 56 oe/ aa). Ni?o a?aecia/a?oueny
aenieith ceiino?ee?noth – 95,9% (+ 8,5%), ?aii?i a?ae?inoaiiyi aaniith,
iecueeei ai?noii a?oeiai? eeneioe 0-0,5%, aetheiceiieao?a 1,5 –1,7%.
Ni?o na?aaeiueinoeaeee, aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae 319 aei?a. A 1996 ?ioe?
ia?aaeaiee ia aea?aeaaia ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy.

?aiie Iiae?eey. A?a?eaeiee iiia? Oeniaieoeueeee o Ae?aia. Na?aaei?e
o?iaeae ian?iiy ca ?iee eiieo?niiai ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy (1995-1997 ??)
neeaa 38.8 oe/ aa (+ 12,7 oe/ aa). Ca?? ie?? 18,5 oe/ aa (+ 4,8 oe/ aa),
ai?no ie?? a ian?ii? 44,5%, o?iaeae caeai?? iane 478 oe/ aa (+ 23 oe/
aa). Ni?o a?aecia/a?oueny na?aaeiueith ceiino?ee?noth 91,8% (+10,9%),
iecueeei ai?noii a?oeiai? eeneioe – 0%, aetheiceiieao?a 38 ie iieue.
Ni?o na?aaeiueinoeaeee, ie?eiiai oa ei?iiaiai aeei?enoaiiy, i?eaeaoiee
aei iaoai?ciaaii cae?aiiy, a?aeiinii no?eeee aei oai?ia (ia?iiinii?ic,
aeueoa?ia??ic, n??a aieeue). A 1997 ?ioe? ia?aaeaiee a aea?aeaaia
ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy.

*i?iee aaeaoaiue. A?a?eaeiee iiia? Oaia?a Ae?aia. Na?aaei?e o?iaeae
ian?iiy ca 1995-1997 ?iee 34,4 oe/ aa (+ 8,6 oe/ aa). Ca?? ie?? 15,7 oe/
aa (+ 2,4 oe/ aa), ai?no ie?? a ian?ii? 45,5%, o?iaeae caeaii? iane 484
oe/ aa (+ 30oe/ aa). Ni?o na?aaeiueiceiino?eeee 95,8% (+ 8,2%), ?aii
a?ae?inoa? aaniith c iecueeei ai?noii a?oeiai? eeneioe 0-0,5% ?
ae?eiceiieao?a 30 ie iieue, na?aaeiueinoeaeee, i?eaeaoiee aeey
iaoai?ciaaiiai cae?aiiy, a?aeiinii no?eeee aei aeueoa?ia??ico, no?eeee
aei ia?iiinii?ico ? n??i? aiee?. A 1997 ?ioe? ia?aaeaiee a aea?aeaaia
ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. O?oiiaoieia?/ia ioe?iea ni?oic?ace?a a oiiaao I?aaiaa?aaeiiai
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie iieacaea, ui iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieie ?
oeiaei/eiieie oai?iaaie iceiiai ??iaea ? iani?aaaeiy ai?ioienoa ?ina,
aeueoa?ia??ic, n??a aieeue. Oiio a aeaiiio ?aa?ii? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aanoe naeaeoe?eio ?iaioo iai?aaeaio ia noai?aiiy no?eeeo ni?o?a iceiiai
??iaea aei oeeo oai?ia.

2. Iioeiaeueiee no?ie n?aae iceiiai ??iaea (15 na?iiy) i?e ii?i? aen?ao
ian?iiy 80 oo/i? aeey E?ninoaiiai? ciie, ciaioo? ?ioaineai?noue ?icaeoeo
iani?aaaeiuei? ai?ioienoi? ?ine, aeueoa?ia??ico, n??i? aiee? ii??aiyii c
a?aie/ii aeiionoeiei no?ieii n?aae (30 na?iiy) ? ii?iith aen?ao 120
oo/i?.

3. Aeyaeai? aenie? iiceoeai? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee (r > 0,82) i?ae
o?aaeaiiyi ian?iiy, i?i?inoe?a, n?i’yaeieae iceiiai ??iaea
iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith ?inith, aeueoa?ia??icii, n??ith aieeeth a
eaai?aoi?ieo oa iieueiaeo oiiaao. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee ooo/iiai ca?aaeaiiy
iceiiai ??iaea caoaeieeaie oeeo oai?ia ?aeiiaiaeothoueny aeey ioe?iee ?
a?aeai?o a naeaeoe?? iceiiai ??iaea ia no?ee?noue.

4. Iioeiaeaeaii?noue iceiiai ??iaea oe?aeieeaie cieaeo? no?ee?noue
?ineei aei oai?ia. I?e iioeiaeaeaii? eenoy ??iaeiaei o?a/ai aei 20 % oa
??iaeiaei ea?oei?aeii ? ian?ii?aei iie?eoioiaioieeii aaia?aoeaieo
i?aai?a aei 15 % ?ineeie a?eueoa o?aaeaeenue iani?aaaeiueith
ai?ioienoith ?inith – ainaie ia 13-14 %, a oaco oea?o?iiy – 16-20 %,
aeueoa?ia??icii, a?aeiia?aeii ia 5-8 % oa 10-14 %, n??ith aieeeth a oaco
caeaiiai no?o/ea ia 2,7-5,7 %, i?ae i?e 5 % iioeiaeaeaii? oeeo i?aai?a.

5. A iioeiaeaeaiieo o?oioaaaie ni?oao iceiiai ??iaea a?aeaoaathoueny
cia/i? a?io?i?/i? ci?ie, ye? aieeaathoue ia no?ee?noue ?o aei oai?ia. A
iioeiaeaeaiieo oeaieiao a?eueo no?eeiai ni?oo Aaaeaiee oaeaee?noue
cieaeaiiy anei?a?iiai? eeneioe ? ae?eiceae?a aoea iaioa a 1,3-1,89 ?ace,
oa 1,3-2,69 ?ace, ??aaiue e?ai?io a?eueoee a 1,29-1,63 ?ace i?ae a ni?oo
Oenueiaieoeueeee. Aeoeai?noue ia?ieneaeace aoea aeuith a?aeiia?aeii a
1,28-1,46 ?ace.

6. Ai?no ae?eiceae?a a iceiiio ??iaeo aieeaa? ia no?ee?noue ?ineei aei
oai?ia., oae ye a ?acoeueoao? ?icuaieaiiy ae?eiceae?a a ?io?eiaaieo
oeaieiao iceiiai ??iaea ooai?ththoueny oiene/i? aeey iaoiaai?a ?a/iaeie
– aae?eiie, ye? no?eiothoue ?icaeoie oai?ia. Oae ai?no ae?eiceae?a a
caei?iaeo i?aaiao no?eeeo ni?o?a aoa aeuei a 1,1-2,62 ?ace i?ae a
ni?eeiyoeeaeo, ui ni?eyei a?eueoiio ooai?aiith oiene/ieo ?a/iaei i?e
o?aaeaii? iaoiaaiaie.

7. E?ai?i ? iaei??th c niieoe, ui a?ae?a?a? aieiaio ?ieue a ooai?aii?
iaoai?/ieo aa?’???a ia oeyoo caoaeiee?a oai?ia ? aeiyoeiai no?eeee aei
oa?iaio?a i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Ni?oe a yeeo nooi?iue e?ai?o?eaoe?? oai?eo
oeaiei aoea aeuith, i?iyaeyee a?eueoo no?ee?noue aei oai?ia. Ai?no
e?ai?io a i?aaiao oaeeo ni?o?a aoa aeuei a 1,41-3,24 ?ace i?e o?aaeaii?
iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith ?inith, aeueoa?ia??icii – 1,02-2,18 ?ace,
n??ith aieeeth – 1,05-1,27 ?ace i?ae a ni?eeiyoeeaeo ni?o?a.

8. Anei?a?iiaa eeneioa a iane?aeie aeniei? ieenethaaeueii –
a?aeiiaethaaeueii? caeaoiino? ni?ey? a?eueo aeoeaiiio noai?aiith
caoenieo aa?’???a ia oeyoo ?ioaeoe??. Oae a no?eeeo ni?oao oaeaee?noue
cieaeaiiy ai?noo anei?a?iiai? eeneioe a ?io?eiaaieo i?aaiao ?ineei aoea
iaioith i?e o?aaeaii? iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith ?inith a 1,24-4,82
?ace, aeueoa?ia??icii a 1,04-3,76 ?ace, n??ith aieeeth a 1,04-2,07 ?ace.

9. A?eueo neeueia aeoeaoaaiiy ia?ieneaeace a ?io?eiaaieo oeaieiao
no?eeeo ni?o?a ni?ey? ooai?aiith ? iaeiie/aiith i?iaeoeo?a
ieenethaaeueiiai iaoaaie?cio, ye? noai?ththoue iaoa??aeueio iniiao aeey
aeieeiaiiy aa?’???a ia oeyoo oai?ia. Oae ?ioaineai?noue ? oaeaee?noue
aeoeaaoe?? ia?ieneaeace a oai?eo oeaieiao no?eeeo ni?o?a aeua i?e
o?aaeaii? iani?aaaeiueith ai?ioienoith ?inith a 1,2-2,09 ?ace,
aeueoa?ia??icii – 1,21-1,94 ?ace, n??ith aieeeth – 1,12-1,8 ?ace.

10. Noai?ai? iia? ni?oe iceiiai ??iaea – Aaaeaiee, Ia?eeia A?iieoe?,
?aiie Iiae?eey, *i?iee aaeaoaiue. Aeai? ni?oe iiaeooue aenooiaoe
aaiaoe/ieie aeaea?aeaie no?eeino? aei eiiieaeno oai?ia ?
?aeiiaiaeothoueny aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy a naeaeoe?ei?e ?iaio?.

NIENIE INIIAIEO ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Neoi?e ?.Ae. Aieea no?ie?a n?aae ? aonoioe noiyiiy ?ineei ia
no?ee?noue aei oai?ia // Caoeno ?ineei. – Ee?a, ?6. – 1997. – n.22.

2. Neoi?e ?.Ae. O?aaeoaai?noue ?ineei iaoiaaiaie caeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy
iioeiaeaeaiino? iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieie oe?aeieeaie eoeueoo?e // Caoeno
?ineei. – Ee?a,?9 – 1997 – n.12.

3. Neoi?e ?.Ae. Iceiee ??iae. Ooo/ia ca?aaeaiiy ?ineei o ?aii? noaae??
?icaeoeo// Caoeno ?ineei. — Ee?a, ?6 – 1998. — n. 22-23.

4. Neoi?e ?.Ae. Iceiee ??iae. ?ioiieia?/ia aea/aiiy eieaeoe?eiiai
iaoa??aeo // Caoeno ?ineei. – Ee?a, ? 11. – 1998. – n. 20-21.

5. Aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai ia ni?o ?ineei ?719 – ??iae iceiee (ni?o
Aaaeaiee).

Neoi?e ?.Ae. No?ee?noue iiaeo ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea aei aieiaieo oai?ia
a I?aaiaa?aaei?e /anoei? E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.11 –
o?oiiaoieia?y. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith no?eeino? iiaeo ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea
aei eiiieaeno a?eaieo oai?ia. C iaoith iie?auaiiy ? i?enei?aiiy iaoiae?a
?ioiieia?/ii? ioe?iee naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo ?ic?iaeai? niiniae, ye?
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe no?ee?noue ?ineei aei oai?ia ia ?aii?o oacao
?icaeoeo. Anoaiiaeaii aieea ni?oiaeo ? aa?ioaoi?/ieo oaeoi??a ia
?iciianthaeaeai?noue ? ?icaeoie oai?ia, a oaeiae ?ieue oe?aeiee?a a
o?aaeaii? ?ineei iaoiaaiaie. Aeine?aeaeai? a?io?i?/i? iaoai?cie
no?eeino? ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea aei oai?ia. Aeena?oaio ? ni?aaaoi?ii
ni?o?a iceiiai ??iaea Aaaeaiee, Ia?eeia A?iieoe?, ?aiie Iiae?eey, *i?iee
aaeaoaiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iceiee ??iae, ni?o, no?ee?noue aei oai?ia, o?aaeai?noue,
ni?eeiyoeea?noue, iaoiaai.

Nuoiee E.Ae. Onoie/eainoue iiauo ni?oia iceiiai ?aina e iniiaiui
aieaciyi a I?aaiaa?aaeiie /anoe Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.11 – oeoiiaoieiaey.
– Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth onoie/eainoe iiauo ni?oia iceiiai
?aina e eiiieaeno a?eaiuo aieaciae. A oeaeyo oeo/oaiey e onei?aiey
iaoiaeia ioeaiee naeaeoeeiiiiai iaoa?eaea ?ac?aaioaiu niiniau, eioi?ua
iicaieytho ii?aaeaeeoue onoie/eainoue ?anoaiee e aieaciyi ia ?aiieo
oacao ?acaeoey. Eaai?aoi?iue niinia eneonnoaaiiiai ca?aaeaiey naiyi e
i?i?inoeia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aua aei iinaaa a iiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
ioeaieoue e ioia?aoue onoie/eaua oi?iu ec enoiaeiiai naeaeoeeiiiiai
iaoa?eaea. Yoi iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue a ?aaioa naiaa?aiaiii
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ii onoie/eainoe iaoa?eae, ioeaieaaoue a oa/aiee
aiaea aieueoia eiee/anoai naeaeoeeiiiiai iaoa?eaea. Ca?aaeaiea a oaco
naiyaeieae i?aaenoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie a?aeiaee
neeueii aini?eei/eauo ?anoaiee a i?aaeaeao ni?oa eee eeiee e auaeaeaiea
onoie/eauo ?anoaiee, eioi?ua iiaeii aunaaeeoue a iiea.

Onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea ni?oiauo e aa?ioaoie/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue e ?acaeoea aieaciae, a oaeaea ?ieue a?aaeeoaeae a
ii?aaeaiee ?anoaiee iaoiaaiaie. Iioeiaeueiua n?iee iinaaa e ii?iu aunaaa
nicaeatho iaeeo/oea oneiaey aeey ?inoa e ?acaeoey iceiiai ?aina i?e
ieieiaeueiie ii?aaeaiiinoe aieaciyie. Iia?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ua ianaeiiua
iaiinyo iceiiio ?aino niaeaenoaotho i?iieeiiaaieth eioaeoeee e aiaeu a
?anoaiea, e?iia yoiai a ?anoaieyo i?ienoiaeyo cia/eoaeueiua
aeioeie/aneea eciaiaiey, iiieaeathuea onoie/eainoue ?anoaiee e
iaoiaaiai. Enneaaeiaaiu aeioeie/aneea iaoaieciu onoie/eainoe ni?oia
iceiiai ?aina e aieaciyi. Eco/aee eiee/anoaaiiue e ea/anoaaiiue ninoaa
oaeaaiaeia, ?anoeoaeueiuo ieaiaioia. Ninoaa aaeeiaiai e iaaaeeiaiai
acioa, aee?a, eeao/aoee, anei?aeiiaie eeneiou, eeaieia, aeeeiceaeia,
aeoeaiinoue ia?ieneaeacu. I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi ia
onoie/eainoue iceiiai ?aina e aieaciyi ieaiaiou, oaeaaiaeu, aaeee e
aee?u nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia eiatho. Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieaa
aeaenoaaiiuie oaeoi?aie, eioi?ua aeeyth ia onoie/eainoue ?anoaiee
iceiiai ?aina e aieaciyi anoue o?iaaiue aeeeiceaeia a caei?iauo, eeaieia
e anei?aeiiaie eeneiou a ii?aaeaiiuo iaoiaaiaie ?anoaieyo, a oaeaea
aeoeaiinoue ia?ieneaeacu a eioeoee?iaaiiuo oeaiyo.

Aeenna?oaio yaeyaony niaaoi?ii ni?oia iceiiai ?aina Aaaeaiue,
AEai/oaeeia Aeiieoeu, Oo?i Iiaeieuey, *i?iue aaeeeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iceiue ?ain, ni?o, onoie/eainoue e aieaciyi,
ii?aaeaaiinoue, aini?eei/eainoue, iaoiaai.

Sytnic I.D. Resistance of new winter rape sorts towards main diseases in
the right-bank part of forest-steppe of Ukraine. – Manuscript.

Thesis for an agricultural science candidate degree.

Speciality – 06.01.11. phytopathology.

National agricultural University. Kyiv. 1998.

The thesis deals with studying resistance of new winter rape varieties
to a complex of fungus diseases. To improve and speed up the methods of
selection material immunological estimation ways of resistance
estimation for plants at early stages of their development are worked
out/ The influence of variety and agrotechnical factors on spreading and
development of diseases and the role of pests in patogenic
susceptibility of plants to diseases are determined. Biochemical
mechanisms of resistance of winter rape varieties to the diseases are
investigated. The candidate for the degree is a co-author of such winter
rape varieties as Bazhaniy (Desirable), Perlina Vinnitsi, Ranok
Podillya, Chorniy Veleten.

Key words: winter rape, variety, resistance to diseases, susceptibility,
receptivity, pathogen.

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