EE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE E?IAA?NOE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IIOAIAIEI Aeea Ai?en?aia

OAeE 412.3 = 20

NOEEAIAO?E*I? OA?AEOA?ENOEEE

I?EEIAOIEE?A ??CII? II?OAIII? NO?OEOO?E

A NO*ANI?E AIAE?ENUeE?E IIA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?aeoeee aiae?enueei? iiae Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Ai?ioue ?aaai?y ?aai?aia,

eaoaae?a i?aeoeee aiae?enueei? iiae

Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iiaeue/aiei Ea?ena Oaaei??aia,

eaoaae?a i?aeoeee aiae?enueei? iiae

Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eieica Oaoyia Aeieo??aia,

eaoaae?a i?aeoeee iiaeaiiy oa iniia

ia?aeeaaeo Ai?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?iicaiieo iia

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea, eaoaae?a ?iicaiieo iia aoiai?oa?ieo oaeoeueoao?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 8 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.054.02 aeey caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa)
o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?e Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio e?iaa?noe/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? (252650INI, Ee?a-5, aoe. Aaeeea Aaneeuee?anueea, 73).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (aoe. Aaeeea
Aaneeuee?anueea, 73)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 8 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? aeioeaio

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A. A.
Eaeeoa

I?iaeaia ii?oaie ?nio? aaea aaaaoi ?ie?a, aea aiia caa?aaea naith
aeooaeuei?noue ? ? iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo i?iaeai o no/ani?e
e?iaa?noeoe?, ine?eueee ?icoi?iiy ii?oaie iia’ycaia c oaeeie
oeaio?aeueieie oai?aoe/ieie ieoaiiyie ye nooi?noue iniiaieo
e?iaa?noe/ieo iaeeieoeue, ??aiaaa no?oeoo?a iiae, no?oeoo?a neiaa oa
naaiaioaoe?y eiai ia neeaaeia? /anoeie, oeiieia?/ia c?noaaeaiiy iia oa
?i.

I?iaeaiith ii?oaie oa ii?oaiiiai /eaioaaiiy ne?a o ??ciee /an caeiaeeny
aaaaoi e?iaa?no?a: ?. I. Aiaeoai aea Eo?oaia, E. N.
Aa?ooaea?ia, I. Ae. A?oothiiaa, E. I. Aie/eiaa, ?. A. Cyoe?anueea,
?. I. ?aaiiaa, A. N. Ea/eeia, A. Ee?iia, ?. Eo?eeiae/, I. N.
Eoa?yeiaa, TH. N. Ianeia, I. I. Oeoiiia, V. Adams, L. Bloomfield, D.
Bolinger, H. Gleason, Z. Harris, Ch. Hickett, E. Nida oa ?i. ?iaioe
a?ae??ciythoueny ca ianyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo (a?ae aiae?co
ie?aii? ii?oaie ye aeainoi?iiiuei? iaeeieoe? iiae, ui ia? oi?io oa
cia/aiiy, aei aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a ii?oaiiiai aiae?co).

Iaeyae ?ia?o, ye? i?enay/ai? i?iaeai? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ii?oai, iieacaa,
ui a?eueo?noue ?ia?o iienothoue eiie?aoi? ii?oaie, a ia ii?oaii?
eaioethaeee. ?iaioe oaeiai ?iaeo, aacoiiaii, caaaa/othoue e?iaa?noe/io
iaoeo. I?ioa caneoaiao? ia oaaao aea/aiiy oaeoi??a ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aae’?eoeaieo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a o iiaeaii?, a
cie?aia ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/iee oaeoi?, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiceoe?? ao?enaeueieo ii?oai ii a?aeiioaiith aei ei?aiaaeo. Oe? i?iaeaie
e aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue iaoiai aeine?ae-aeaiiy, aeeiiaiiai a ?one?
noeeaiao??? ? i?enay/aiiai aea/aiith i?iaeaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aae’?eoeaieo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a o oaenoao
o?ueio ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a: iaoeiaiai, ooaeiaeiueiai oa aacaoiiai.

Iaoa ?iaioe – aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? ii?oaiii? no?oeoo?e i?eeiaoiee?a
no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae c oi/ee ci?o noeeaiao??? oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aae’?eoeaieo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo
eaioethaee?a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ao?enaeuei? e noo?enaeuei? ii?oaie oa
ii?oaii? eaioethaeee, aeyaeai? a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy ii?oaiiiai
aiae?co i?eeiaoiee?a no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae.

I?aaeiao niinoa?aaeaiue — ooieoe?iioaaiiy aae’?eoeaieo ao?enaeueieo
ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a.

O ?iaio? ia?aa??y?oueny a?iioaca: /anoioa aae’?eoeaieo ao?en?a oa
ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a ia? noeea?ic??cithaaeueio iiooaei?noue.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe oa ia?aa??ee aenoiooi? a?iioace a ?iaio?
ae??oo?oueny ?yae caaaeaiue:

1. Aea/eoe: a) /anoioo aae’?eoeaieo ao?en?a;

a) /anoioo ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a.

2. Cae?enieoe iiceoe?eiee aiae?c ao?enaeueieo ii?oai.

3. Anoaiiaeoe iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? /anoioe eiie?aoieo
ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/iiai
oaeoi?o.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?th aeeiiaii a iaaeao
iaoeiai? oaie “Nenoaii? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaieo
iaeeieoeue oiiaoe/ii?, a?aiaoe/ii? oa eaene/ii? nenoai no/anii?
aiae?enueei? iiae”, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith i?aeoeee aiae?enueei?
iiae Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (oaia
caoaa?aeaeaia ?aaeith AAeO, i?ioieie ? 9 a?ae 21 o?aaiy 1998 ?ieo).

Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaoaaea nooe?eueia aea??ea, yea
neeaaea?oueny c oaeno?a 25 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 25 oai??a aiae?enueeeo ?
aia?eeainueeeo ienueiaiiee?a oa 25 aacao caaaeueiei ianyaii 75000
neiaiaaeeaaiue. Aeey aiae?co aoei a?ae?a?aii 5977 i?eeiaoiee?a: 2370 – c
oaeno?a iaoeiaiai noeeth, 1730 – c oaeno?a ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice oa 1877 –
c oaeno?a aacaoiiai noeeth.

O ?iaio? canoiniaothoueny ??ci? ca oa?aeoa?ii iaoiaee oa i?eeiie
e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co:

1. Iaoiae aaciina?aaei?o neeaaeiee?a (c iaoith iiae?eo aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a ia ii?oaie).

2. Iiceoe?eiee aiae?c (c iaoith aeae?eaiiy ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a oa
aea/aiiy iiceoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee ao?en?a o ?o iaaeao).

3. Noaoenoe/i? i?eeiie, a naia: ei?aeyoe?y ?aia?a, e?eoa??e Nouethaeaioa
(ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aeyaey?oueny nooi?iue aeecueeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
ianea?a oaeno?a oa iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue aca?iica’yceo i?ae iaaieie
ooieoe?iiaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?iai-aeeoueny
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy aae’?eoeaieo
ao?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a o oaenoao iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e, ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice oa aacaoiiai noeeth ca oaeeie
ia?aiao?aie: /anoioa (?c canoinoaaiiyi i?eeii?a iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee); iiceoe?eiee aiae?c ao?enaeueieo ii?oai ii a?aeiioaiith aei
ei?aiaaeo; ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiia?ioth/eo oi?i oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a,
o neeaae yeeo aoiaeeoue a?eueoa, i?ae iaeia ei?aiaaa ii?oaia.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. ?nio? caeaaei?noue i?ae /anoioith ao?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo
eaioethaee?a o oaenoao aeine?aeaeoaaieo noee?a oa caaaeueiith
e?euee?noth aeaieo ooai?aiue: /ei aeua caaaeueia /anoioa ii?oai oa
eaioethaee?a, oei aeua ?oiy /anoioa a aeine?aeaeoaaieo noeeyo.

2. Ia ii?oaiiiio ??ai? ae?? caeii ia?aaaae, nooue yeiai a oiio, ui
iaaaeee?e e?eueeino? ao?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a
aeanoeaa aeniea /anoioa ? aiie ianooue iaeneioi ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, a oie /an ye ?aooa ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a ?
iecueei/anoioieie, iaoa?aeoa?ieie aeey ii?oaiii? no?oeoo?e i?eeiaoiee?a
no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae.

3. Ca ia?aiao?ii «na?aaeiy /anoioa ao?enaeueieo ii?oai» i?ae /an
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ao?en?a noee? iiae?eythoueny ia aea? a?oie, ui ia
ia?aoeiathoueny: 1) iaoeiaee noeeue, 2) ooaeiaei?e ? aacaoiee noee?, a
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? noo?en?a — ia o?e a?oie: 1) iaoeiaee noeeue, 2)
ooaeiaei?e noeeue, 3) aacaoiee noeeue.

4. Ca ia?aiao?ii «na?aaeiy /anoioa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a» aiae?ciaai?
noee? iiae?eythoueny ia aea? a?oie, ye oae?, ui ia ia?aoeiathoueny: 1)
iaoeiaee noeeue, 2) ooaeiaei?e ? aacaoiee noee?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny
oei, ui i?iaaaeaiee eiiieaeniee iien ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ao?enaeueieo ?
noo?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a, aeyaeaieo a ?acoeueoao?
i?iaaaeaiiy ii?oaiiiai aiae?co i?eeiaoiee?a no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae a
oaenoao ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a, caaaa/o? ciaiiy i?i i?eeiaoiee
ye /anoeio iiae oa ii?oaiio no?oeoo?o ye i?eeiaoieea, oae ?
aiae?enueeiai neiaa acaaae?, ni?ey? iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? oai???
ii?oaiii? niieo/oaaiino? oa aa??thaaiiy, ?icaeaa? aacia? iieiaeaiiy
noeeaiao???.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe aeieeaa? c iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a eo?n? oai?aoe/ii? a?aiaoeee
(?icae?ee “I?eeiaoiee”, “Ii?oaiia no?oeoo?a neiaa”) oa a eo?n?
noee?noeee (?icae?e “Ooieoe?iiaeueia noee?noeea”). Iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe a?aoiaai? a eaeneeia?ao?/i?e i?aeoeoe? aeey
oeeaaeaiiy neiaieea ii?oai. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
caoaeiaai? ii?oaii? eaioethaeee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?ae /an
iaienaiiy iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie, a oaeiae iaoeiaeo ?ia?o o
naeoe?? aiae?enueei? iiae Iaei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe, eo?niaeo oa aeeieiiieo
?ia?o nooaeaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ci?no aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa i?aaeiaoii
iaaiai?aiiy oa i?ieoia ai?iaaoe?th ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e i?aeoeee
aiae?enueei? iiae oa ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (1997-1999 ?.), ia 3-e I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiii’thoa?ia e?iaa?noeea oa aeeeaaeaiiy
/oaeicaiieo iia o aeueo

iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao” (Euea?a, ea?oaiue 27-30, 1998 ?.), ia 4-e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? TESOL “TESOL Ukraine: XXI Century
Perspectives” (Oiaeueieoeueeee, n?/aiue 26-27, 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii a 4 noaooyo ?
3 oacao.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a
c aeniiaeaie, caeeth/aiiy, a?ae?ia?ao?? (198 aeaea?ae oe?a?inueeith,
?in?enueeith, aiae?enueeith oa i?iaoeueeith iiaaie), nieneo aeaea?ae
?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo, nieneo eaeneeia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae, 12
aeiaeao-e?a. Ianya oaenoo aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 174 noi??iee,
caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe – 245 noi??iie.

O anooi? i?aaenoaaeaia ia??oiooaaiiy ia?aii? oaie, aecia/athoueny
aeooaeuei?noue, iiaecia, ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oi?ioeththoueny iaoa e caaaeaiiy, iieno?oueny oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue oa
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe, aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo oa iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeine?aeaeaiiy” —
aeeeaaeaii iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ia yeeo aaco?oueny aeaia
aeena?oaoe?y: ?icaeyaeathoueny e?iaa?noe/i? iniiae aea/aiiy
eia?ei-o?einionueeiai aniaeoo iiiyooy ii?oaie, ?ice?eaa?oueny nooue oa
i?eioeeie ii?oaiiiai aiae?co.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy — “*anoioa
aae’?eoeaieo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai” — aeine?aeaeo?oueny /anoioa ii/aoeiaeo
i?ao?enaeueieo oa e?ioeaaeo noo?enaeueieo ii?oai, anoaiiaeththoueny
?ciii?oi? oa a?aei?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ooieoe?iioaaiiy aae’?eoeaieo
ao?enaeueieo ii?oai o oaenoao ??cieo noee?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Ii?oaiia no?oeoo?a i?eeiaoiee?a no/anii?
aiae?enueei? iiae” — aeae?eythoueny oa aiae?cothoueny 46 iiaeaeae
ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a, o neeaae yeeo aoiaeyoue aeine?aeaeai? a ae?oaiio
?icae?e? ao?enaeuei? ii?oaie; i?iaiaeeoueny iiceoe?eiee aiae?c
i?ao?enaeueieo oa noo?enaeueieo ii?oai ii a?aeiioaiith aei ei?aiaaeo oa
?ioeo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai; ?icaeyaea?oueny ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiia?ioth/eo
oi?i oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a, o neeaae yeeo aoiaeeoue a?eueoa, i?ae
iaeia ei?aiaaa ii?oaia.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeeoueny i?aenoiie i?iaaaeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ie?aneththoueny ia?niaeoeae
iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c ia?aii? i?iaeaie.

Aeiaeaoee ianyaii 49 noi??iie neeaaeathoueny c 12 /anoei. A ieo
i?aaenoaaeai? oaaeeoe?, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue ??ci? aniaeoe
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ao?enaeueieo ? noo?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo
eaioethaee?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Iniiaieie aeo?aeieie oai?aoe/ieie iieiaeaiiyie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

1. Ii?oaia — oea aeainoi?iiiy iaeeieoey iiae, ine?eueee ?acii ?c
caoeiaith iaieiieith aiia ia? e iaaia cia/aiiy, yea aeyaey?oueny i?e
c?noaaeaii? ??cieo ne?a aai ??cieo oi?i oiai naiiai neiaa.

2. Ii?oaiiee aiae?c ia?aaeaa/a?, ye ? anyeee aiae?c acaaae?, a?aeiiee
iaa?? i?ioeaaeo?, ui aeeiiothoueny a iaai?e iine?aeiaiino?:

a) naaiaioaoe?y iniiae;

a) ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ii?oai;

a) eeaneo?eaoe?y ii?oai.

Caaaeaiiy ii?oaiiiai aiae?co iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe ye i?iaaaeaiiy oaeiai
aiae?co, i?ae /an yeiai aeinyaa?oueny iien ?aaeueii ?nioth/eo ii?oai
iiae, niinia?a ?o c’?aeiaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iniiaiith ae oiiaith
/eaioaaiiy ne?a c e?eueeiia ii?oaiaie ? iiaoi?thaai?noue oi/a a iaeiiai
c aeaio eiiiiiaio?a neiaa a ?ioiio e?iaa?noe/iiio ioi/aii? c oei naiei
cia/aiiyi.

3. Oni?oiee ?icaeoie ii?oai?ee ye iaoee iio?aao? /?oeiai aecia/aiiy ??
iaae, ia’?eo?a, iaoeiaeo iiiyoue, oa?i?i?a, oi/i?oiai a?aeiaaeoaaiiy
ii?oaiiiai aiae?co a?ae neiaioai?/iai.

4. ?icaeoie iiae cae?enith?oueny ia eeoa ca ?aooiie noaiiaeaiiy ii?i ?
iiaieo noaiaea?o?a, aea e oeyoii ?icoeooaaiiy (aa??thaaiiy) noaeeo
iaeeieoeue.

Aa??thaaiiy iiaea iaoe i?noea ye o ieai? ae?aaeaiiy, oae ? a ieai?
ci?noo. *anoi aeyaey?oueny, ui iaaia ii?oaia i?aaenoaaeaia ia ne??cue
oei naiei ii?oii, aea ??cieie ii?oaie a ??cieo ioi/aiiyo. Oe?
aeueoa?iaoeai? iai?oanoaoe?? ii?oaie iaceaathoueny aeiii?oaie. A iia?
?niothoue oaeiae i?aeii?oaii? i?ieeaaeee (?ioa?o?ene), ye?
neeaaeathoueny c iaei???-aeaio (??aeoa o?ueio-/ioe?ueio) oiiai, ia
iathoue naiino?eiiai cia/aiiy e aenooiathoue ye aoae?aaeueiee can?a,
ooieoe?y yeiai iieyaa? a ii?aeiaii? ii?oai o neia?. ?ioa?o?ene
c’yaeythoueny i?ae ei?aiai ? noo?enii o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ii?aeiaiiy
neiaioa??ieo ii?oai c ei?aiai c ii?oieia?/ieo i?e/ei oo?oaeiaia aai
iaiiaeeeaa.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ii?oaiiiai aiae?co aoei ae??oaii ?ioa?o?ene ye oae? ia
aeae?eyoe, a ?icaeyaeaoe ye eiiiiiaioe aeiii?o?a a?aeiia?aeieo
ao?enaeueieo ii?oai, ine?eueee aeai? i?eeeaaee ia aiinyoue eaene/ieo
ci?i o cia/aiiy noo?en?a.

5. Eiia?ioth/? oi?ie — oea iniaeeaee oei ii?oieia?/ieo aeaiaio?a
oa?i?iieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ui yaeythoue niaith i?i?iaeuei? aeaiieaiia?
iaeeieoe?.

Iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? /anoioa (aai aaeeaai?noue) ?
niieo/oaai?noue.

*anoioa — aaaeeeaee aaae?eue o ?iciaaeoaaii? noee?a. Aiia
?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeei c ?ino?oiaio?a niinoa?aaeaiue ca ae??th
noaoenoe/ieo caeii?a, ye e?eoa??e eeaneo?eaoe?? oaeo?a oa ii??aiyiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaeeieoeue, ye iieaciee aeyaeaiiy ni?eueieo oa
a?aei?iieo ?en, ye iaeia c ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaenoo.

I?ae niieo/oaai?noth ?icoi??oueny caeaoi?noue i?ao?enaeueieo oa
noo?enaeueieo ii?oai anooiaoe o ca’ycee c ?ioeie ii?oaiaie a iaaeao
neiaa.

Aiae?c oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aaaeaoueny ca aeuaiienaieie ia?aiao?aie a
iaai?e iine?aeiaiino?, a naia: o caaaeueiiio ianea? aaca?aeiinii aei
noeeth, o eiaeiiio noee? cie?aia, ia ??ai? eiie?aoieo aae’?eoeaieo
ao?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a.

Ii??aiyiiy ?iaaioa?ieo niene?a ao?enaeueieo ii?oai oa ii?oaiieo
eaioethaee?a aeicaieeei aecia/eoe, ui ?iaaioa?? i?ao?enaeueieo ii?oai ?
noaoenoe/iei ia?aiao?ii eeoa aeaio ia? noee?a (iaoeiaiai e ooaeiaeiueiai
oa ooaeiaeiueiai e aacaoiiai), ?iaaioa?? noo?enaeueieo ii?oai ia ?
noaoenoe/iei ia?aiao?ii on?o o?ueio aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia? noee?a
(iaoeiaiai oa ooaeiaeiueiai, iaoeiaiai oa aacaoiiai, ooaeiaeiueiai oa
aacaoiiai), a ?iaaioa?? ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a, iaaiaee, ? noaoenoe/iei
ia?aiao?ii on?o ia? ii??aithaaieo noee?a.

Aecia/aiiy /anoioe aae’?eoeaieo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai iieacaei, ui
iaeaeuith /anoioith ? i?ao?enaeueieo, ? noo?enaeueieo ii?oai
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaoeiaee noeeue, ae?oao iiceoe?th caeia? aacaoiee
noeeue, o?aoth — ooaeiaeiy i?ica.

Aeae?eai? a eiaeiiio ianea? ciie aeniei?, aeua na?aaeiuei?, na?aaeiuei?,
ieae/a na?aaeiuei? oa iecueei? /anoioe ?iciaaeiaothoueny ca neeaaeii
ii?oai:

1) i?ao?enaeuei? ii?oaie, ioiieai? ciiith na?aaeiuei? /anoioe, ?
noeea?ic??cithaaeueieie aeey an?o c?noaaethaaieo ianea?a, a oie /an ye
aeey iaoeiaiai e ooaeiaeiueiai, iaoeiaiai e aacaoiiai ianea?a
noeea-iiooaeieie ? aeniei/anoioi? i?ao?ene, a aeey iaoeiaiai oa
ooaeiaeiueiai noee?a noaoenoe/iei ia?aiao?ii ? ii?oaie, ui aoiaeyoue aei
ciie /anoioe ieae/a na?aaeiuei?. Ii?oaie iecueei? /anoioe ia ?
noeea?ic??cithaaeueieie aeey an?o ia? ii??aithaaieo noee?a;

2) noo?enaeuei? ii?oaie, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ciie aeniei? /anoioe a
ianeaao oaeno?a iaoeiaiai e ooaeiaeiueiai oa ooaeiaeiueiai e aacaoiiai
noee?a, ? noeea?ic??cithaaeueieie, a aeey iaoeiaiai e aacaoiiai oa
ooaeiaeiueiai e aacaoiiai ianea?a noaoenoe/iei ia?aiao?ii ? noo?ene,
ioiieai? ciiith /anoioe ieae/a na?aaeiuei?. Iecueei/anoioi? ii?oaie an?o
ia? ii??aithaaieo noee?a oa aeniei/anoioi? ii?oaie iaoeiaiai e aacaoiiai
noee?a ia ? noeeaiiooaeieie.

Aiae?c /anoioe eiie?aoieo i?ao?enaeueieo oa noo?enaeueieo ii?oai a
ie?aii acyoeo ianeaao oaeno?a na?ae/eoue i?i nai???aei?noue ca’yce?a
i?ae ii?oaiaie ca oeei ia?aiao?ii, i?i ?o niaoeeo?/i?noue aeey eiaeiiai
ianeao oaeno?a.

Ia ii?oaiiiio ??ai? ae?? caeii ia?aaaae. Ae?y oeueiai caeiio ia iaoiio
iaoa??ae? i?iyaeeany a oiio, ui ye a on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ianeaao
cie?aia, oae ? a caaaeueiiio ianea? a oe?eiio aeae?ey?oueny iiiaeeia
ao?enaeueieo ii?oai, ye? ? aeniei/anoioieie, aiie ianooue iaeneioi
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iienothoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue (75% ±
3%) aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ianeao, a oie /an ye ia?eoa??ei? ao?ene ?
iecueei/anoioieie, oiaoi iaoa?aeoa?ieie aeey ii?oaiii? no?oeoo?e
i?eeiaoiee?a ? iienothoue eeoa 10% ± 3% aiae?ciaaiiai iaoa??aeo.

Aeniei/anoioieie aeyaeeeny:

a) i?ao?enaeuei? ii?oaie com-, dis-, ex1-, in2-, re-, un- — a on?o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo noeeyo; a2- oa de- — a iaoeiaiio oa ooaeiaeiueiio
noeeyo; ad-, in1-, inter-, sub- — a iaoeiaiio oa aacaoiiio noeeyo ? ana-
— eeoa a iaoeiaiio noee? (aeea. oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

A?aeiinia /anoioa i?ao?enaeueieo ii?oai

o oaenoao ??cieo noee?a

?I?ao. ii?oaieIaoe. noeeueOoae. noeeueAacaoi.
noeeue1a1—0,44-2a2-2,767,053,203a3—0,88-4ab-2,211,32-5ad-5,892,645,606
ana-4,42-0,807ante-0,18—8anti-0,55-1,209bi—0,4010cata-0,18—11co-0,74
-4,0012com-17,6814,989,6013contra-0,18-0,8014de-3,324,852,4015di-0,180,4
40,4016dia-1,29—17dis-7,377,496,8018dys—0,4019en-0,741,320,4020epi-1,
290,440,4021eu-0,18—22ex1-7,005,297,6023ex2—0,4024extra-0,180,441,202
5for-0,180,44-26fore-0,55-0,4027hypo-0,37—28in1-5,343,527,2029in2-6,081
7,1812.0030inter-3,320,443,6031intra-0,37—32mal—0,44-33meta-0,18—34no
n-1,840,440,8035ob-1,662,201,6036out—0,4037over-1,110,440,8038para-1,2
9-0,8039per-1,112,201,6040peri-0,18—41post-0,18—42pre-2,581,32-43prete
r—0,44-44pro1-0,370,441,2045pro2-1,661,762,0046re-6,815,296,0047self—0
,440,4048semi-0,18—49sub-2,761,765,2050super-0,18—51sur-0,370,440,8052
syn-1,66-0,4053trans—0,44-54un-3,1312,7811,2055under-0,18-1,60Anueiai99
,9899,99100,00I?ei?oee. 1. *i?iei o?eooii aeae?eai? /anoioe
i?ao?enaeueieo ii?oai, ui aoiaeyoue aei yae?a (75% ± 3%
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo), eo?neaii — aei iniiaii? nenoaie (90% ± 3%
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo), ?aooa — aei ia?eoa???.

2. a1- — a reduced form of Old English preposition “on”, meaning “on”,
“in”, “into”, “to”, “toward” preserved before a noun in a prepositional
phrase, forming a predicate adjective or an adverbial element; a2- — a
reduced form of Old English preposition “of”; a3- — an Old English
point-action prefix, not referring to an action as a whole, but only to
the beginning or end; ex1- — a prefix meaning: forth, from, out; beyond;
away from, out of; thoroughly; upward; without, not having; ex2- — a
prefix meaning former, previous, previously; in1- — a prefix meaning in,
into, within, on, toward; in2- — a prefix meaning no, not, without,
non-; pro1- — a prefix meaning before in place or time; pro2- — a prefix
meaning: moving forward or ahead of; forth; substituting for, acting
for; defending, supporting.

a) noo?enaeuei? ii?oaie -able, -al, -ent, -er, -ic, -ous iayai? a o?ueio
ii??aithaaieo noeeyo, -an, -ed, -ing, -y – a ooaeiaeiueiio oa aacaoiiio
noeeyo, -ive — a iaoeiaiio oa aacaoiiio noeeyo, -ar oa -ary — eeoa a
iaoeiaiio noee?, -ful — eeoa a ooaeiaei?e i?ic? (aeea. oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

A?aeiinia /anoioa noo?enaeueieo ii?oai

o oaenoao ??cieo noee?a

?Noo. ii?oaieIaoe. noeeueOoae. noeeueAacaoi. noeeue1 -able6,006,444,262
-al25,459,5323,093 -an2,422,687,024 -ant2,181,343,025 -ar4,611,341,956
-ary4,791,883,027 -ate3,092,281,958 -ed3,5210,745,249 -en0,242,550,4410
-ent5,525,234,4411 -er6,796,586,1312 -ern0,790,271,4213 -ese—0,7114
-esque-0,400,0915 -est1,152,282,2216 -fold0,12—17 -ful1,583,491,5118
-ic12,244,167,9019 -id0,851,480,4420 -ile1,091,480,5321
-ine0,670,130,1822 -ing1,585,914,2623 -ior0,910,271,3324
-ish1,451,483,2925 -ite1,210,671,1526 -ive4,972,423,8227
-less0,422,150,6228 -like0,120,40-29 -ly0,552,151,5130 -oid—0,0931
-ory0,420,130,5332 -ous3,767,923,5533 -some-0,94-34 -ular0,240,40-35
-ulent-0,130,0936 -ward0,300,270,0937
-y0,9710,474,09Anueiai:10099,9999,98I?ei?oea. *i?iei o?eooii aeae?eai?
/anoioe noo?enaeueieo ii?oai, ui aoiaeyoue aei yae?a (75% ± 3%
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo), eo?neaii — aei iniiaii? nenoaie (90% ± 3%
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo), ?aooa — aei ia?eoa???.

Na?aaeiy /anoioa ? aaaeeeaei iieacieeii ia?aiao?o noeeth. Ca oeei
ia?aiao?ii o eiaeiiio noee? aoei aeae?eaii i’youe ao?enaeueieo ii?oai,
ye? iathoue iaeaeuo na?aaeith /anoioo:

1) i?ao?enaeuei? ii?oaie com2-, in2- (ni?euei? aeey an?o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a), dis- (ni?eueia aeey iaoeiaiai oa ooaeiaeiueiai
noee?a), ex1- (ni?eueia aeey iaoeiaiai oa aacaoiiai noee?a), un-
(ni?eueia aeey ooaeiaeiueiai oa aacaoiiai noee?a), re- (oa?aeoa?eco?
eeoa iaoeiaee noeeue), a2- (oa?aeoa?eco? eeoa ooaeiaeith i?ico), in1-
(oa?aeoa?eco? eeoa aacaoiee noeeue);

2) noo?enaeuei? ii?oaie -al, -er (ni?euei? aeey o?ueio aeine?aeaeoaaieo
noee?a), -ic (ni?eueia aeey iaoeiaiai oa aacaoiiai noee?a), -ed
(ni?eueia aeey

ooaeiaeiueiai oa aacaoiiai noee?a), -able, -ent (oa?aeoa?ecothoue eeoa
iaoeiaee noeeue), -y, -ous (oa?aeoa?ecothoue eeoa ooaeiaeith i?ico), -an
(i?eoaiaiia eeoa aacaoiiio noeeth).

C iaoith aecia/aiiy a?aenoai? i?ae noeeyie o aeine?aeaeaii? aoei
anoaiiaeaii i’youe ii?ia?a (cia/aiiy l ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao i?ae 0 oa
1,00):

a) aaeeea a?aenoaiue: a?ae 1,00 aei 0,80;

a) a?aenoaiue aeua na?aaeiuei?: a?ae 0,79 aei 0,60;

a) na?aaeiy a?aenoaiue: a?ae 0,59 aei 0,40;

a) iaea a?aenoaiue: a?ae 0,39 aei 0,20;

ae) i?i?iaeueia a?aenoaiue: a?ae 0,19 aei 0.

?iciiae?e ao?enaeueieo ii?oai, ?icoiaeaeaiiy na?aaei?o /anoio yeeo ?
nooo?aeie, ia i’youe cii, aeaa iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe a?aenoaiue i?ae
noeeyie:

1) i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?ao?enaeueieo ii?oai a?aenoaiue i?ae iaoeiaei oa
aacaoiei noeeyie a?eueoa, i?ae a?aenoaiue i?ae iaoeiaei ? ooaeiaei?i oa
ooaeiaei?i ? aacaoiei noeeyie;

2) i?e aeine?aeaeaii? noo?enaeueieo ii?oai a?aenoaiue i?ae iaoeiaei oa
ooaeiaei?i noeeyie a?eueoa, i?ae i?ae noeeyie aeaio ?ioeo ia?.

?ioi?iaoe?y i?i /anoioo aae’?eoeaieo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai iaaeinoaoiuei
?ice?eaa? iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ii?oaiii? no?oeoo?e neiaa.
Aaaeeeai ciaoe, ye aiie niieo/athoueny c ?ioeie ii?oaiaie a iaaeao
neiaa, oei a?eueoa, ui iai iaa?aeii? ?iaioe, a yeeo aeine?aeaeoaaany
aeaiee aniaeo i?iaeaie, a oiio ia ianooiiiio aoai? iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaaaa aoea neiioeaio?iaaia ia aeae?eaii? ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a oa
aiae?c? ?o /anoioe.

A ?iaio? aoei c?iaeaii ni?iao iiaoaeoaaoe ii?oaii? eaioethaeee
i?eeiaoiee?a no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae (aeea. oaae. 3, aea
i?aaenoaaeaii oe? ii?oaii? eaioethaeee oa i?eoaiaiia ?i /anoioa a
eiaeiiio aeine?aeaeoaaiiio noee?).

Oaaeeoey 3

A?aeiinia /anoioa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a o oaenoao

??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a

?Ii?oaii? eaioethaeeeIaoe. noeeueOoae. noeeueAacaoi.
noeeue1R25,2752,2534,472R+s33,7627,2837,993R+s+s10,133,646,774R+s+s+s0,5
50,230,595R+s+s+s+s0,08—6p+R2,533,061,707p+R+s14,777,698,478p+R+s+s1,98
0,751,709p+R+s+s+s1,050,120,0510p+p+R+s0,891,451,3311p+p+R+s+s0,130,06-1
2p+p+R0,08—13R+R0,551,102,1814R+R+R-0,060,2715R+R+s0,681,391,8116R+R+s+
s0,210,060,1117R+s+R0,080,120,2118R+s+R+s0,040,230,2719R+s+R+s+s—0,0520
R+R+s+R+s—0,0521R+p+R+s0,08—22p+R+s+R+s+s0,04—23R+R+s+p+p+R+s0,04—24
p+R+s+R-0,06-25R+s+p+R+s—0,1626R+p+R+s+s0,25-0,1127c.f.+R0,34-0,0528c.f
.+s0,380,12-29c.f.+s+s0,30—30p+c.f.0,30—31p+c.f.+s0,04—32c.f.+c.f.+s1
,730,060,6933c.f.+c.f.+s+s0,51-0,1134c.f.+R+s1,650,170,6435p+c.f.+R+s0,9
3—36c.f.+p+R+s0,25—37R+c.f.+s0,130,12-38c.f.+p+R+s+s0,08—39R+c.f.+s+s
0,04—40c.f.+s+R+s0,04—41c.f.+c.f.+R+s0,04—42c.f.+c.f.0,04—43c.f.+R+s
+s—0,0544c.f.+c.f.+c.f.+s+s—0,0545c.f.+p+c.f.+s—0,0546c.f.+c.f.+s+R+s
—0,05Anueiai:99,99100,0299,98I?ei?oee. 1. Oiiai? iicia/aiiy: R —
ei??iue, p — i?ao?en, s — noo?en, c.f. — eiia?ioth/a oi?ia.

2. *i?iei o?eooii aeae?eai? /anoioe ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a, ui aoiaeyoue
aei yae?a (75% ± 3% aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo), eo?neaii — aei
iniiaii? nenoaie (90% ± 3% aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo), ?aooa — aei
ia?eoa???.

sse aa/eii, a oaenoao iaoeiaiai noeeth aeniei/anoioieie ? oae? ii?oaii?
eaioethaeee: R, R+s oa p+R+s; o ooaeiaeiueiio oa aacaoiiio noeeyo aei
aeniei/anoioieo iaeaaeaoue eaioethaeee R oa R+s. On? ia?a?aoiaai?
eaioethaeee a eiaeiiio aeine?aeaeoaaiiio noee? ioiieai? yae?ii. Ioaea, a
on?o noeeyo aei yae?a iaeaaeaoue ii?oaii? eaioethaeee R oa R+s, ? eeoa
iaoeiaee noeeue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eaioethaeeii p+R+s, ye iaeiei c
aeniei/anoioieo.

*anoioa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a o oaenoao o?ueio ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a
(iaoeiaiio, ooaeiaeiueiio oa aacaoiiio) caeaaeeoue a?ae noia?ii? /anoioe
aeine?aeaeoaaieo eaioethaee?a: ?c c?inoaiiyi caaaeueii? /anoioe
ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a c?inoa? ?oiy /anoioa a ii??aithaaieo noeeyo.

Ii?oaii? eaioethaeee ? iaeoa?aeoa?i?oeie aeey oaeno?a iaoeiaiai noeeth,
iaeiaio oa?aeoa?ieie – aeey ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice, ae?oao iiceoe?th caeia?
aacaoiee noeeue. Ca ia?aiao?ii “na?aaeiy /anoioa” oaeiae aoei aeae?eaii
ii i’youe iaea?eueo /anoioieo ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a o eiaeiiio
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio noee?. Ii??aiyiiy aeaaaeaieo eaioethaee?a na?ae/eoue,
ui ca aeaiei ia?aiao?ii ii?oaii? eaioethaeee R, R+s, R+s+s oa p+R+s
aeyaeeeny ni?eueieie aeey an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo noee?a, p+R — ni?eueiee
aeey iaoeiaiai noeeth oa ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice, a R+R — oa?aeoa?iee eeoa
aeey ianeao oaeno?a aacaoiiai noeeth.

Aiae?c ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a c oi/ee ci?o nooo?aino? ?icoiaeaeaiue ?o
na?aaei?o /anoio oa ?iciiae?e aeae?eaieo eaioethaee?a ia i‘youe cii
aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe a?aenoai? i?ae noeeyie: a?aenoaiue i?ae iaoeiaei ?
ooaeiaei?i noeeyie a?eueoa, i?ae a?aenoaiue, ui aoea aeyaeaia i?e
ii??aiyii? iaoeiaiai e aacaoiiai oa ooaeiaeiueiai e aacaoiiai noee?a.

Aa??thaaiiy — oea caaaeueiiiiaia yaeua, yea aeanoeaa an?i ??aiyi iiae.
I?e aecia/aii? iaae aa??thaaiiy ii?o?a iaei??? ii?oaie ie a?aoiaoaaee ia
eeoa iiaeeea? noanoeoooe?? iaeiiai ii?oa ?ioei, aea e iiaeeea?
ia?iuaiiy, iai?eeeaae, aa??aioaie i?ao?enaeueii? ii?oaie ad- ? a-
(apart), ac- (accidental), an- (annual), ap- (appropriate), as-
(assured), at- (attracted); aeiii?oaie (aa??aioaie) noo?enaeueii?
ii?oaie -ic ? -atic (problematic), -etic (phonetic), -tic (analytic),
-ical (nonsensical), -ique (unique).

Iiceoe?eiee aiae?c i?ao?enaeueieo ii?oai iieacaa, ui a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia? ?niothoue i?eeiaoieee, ye? i?noyoue aea? i?ao?enaeuei?
ii?oaie. O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ii?oaiaie, ye? i?e?aeiothoueny aei
ei?aiy ca iina?aaeieoeoaii ?ioi? i?ao?enaeueii? ii?oaie, aeyaeeeny:
in2-, non-, un- — o oaenoao iaoeiaiai noeeth, in2-, mal-, self-, trans-,
un- — o oaenoao ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice, in2-, pre-, re-, un- — o oaenoao
aacaoiiai noeeth (iai?eeeaae, un-re-liable).

I?ao?enaeuei? ii?oaie iiaeooue oaeiae niieo/aoeny aai eeoa c ei?aiaaith
ii?oaiith (iai?eeeaae, postwar), aai c ei?aiaaith oa noo?enaeueieie
ii?oaiaie (iai?eeeaae, ant-arct-ic), aai eeoa c ei?aiaaith /e c
ei?aiaaith oa noo?enaeueiith ii?oaiaie (iai?eeeaae, com-pact,
com-fort-able):

— eeoa c ei?aiaaith ii?oaiith niieo/athoueny i?ao?ene ante- (anterior),
epi- (epoxy), over- (overall), para- (parallel) oa post- (postwar) a
ianeaao oaeno?a iaoeiaiai noeeth; a1- (amiss) oa for- (forlorn) — a
ooaeiaei?e i?ic?; anti- (anti-tank) oa over- (overage) — a i?an?;
a?aecia/eii, ui ii?oaia over- niieo/a?oueny ia c ei?aiaaith ii?oaiith, a
c eiia?ioth/ith oi?iith, yea o?aeoo?oueny ye ii?oaia iniaeeaiai eeano
ii?oieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue;

— i?ao?enaeueieie ii?oaiaie, ui iathoue aeanoea?noue aoiaeeoe
aeino?oeoo?e ne?a, a yeeo ? ia eeoa ei?aiaa? ii?oaie (aai eiia?ioth/?
oi?ie), aea e noo?ene, aeyaeeeny ex1- (external), extra-
(extraordinary), inter- (international), ob- (objective), pro1-
(provincial) oa sub- (subcentral) a on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo noeeyo, pro2-
(problematic) — a iaoeiaiio oa ooaeiaeiueiio noeeyo (yea a aacaoiiio
noee? i?eoaiaiia a?oi? i?ao?en?a, ui niieo/athoueny aai eeoa c
ei?aiaaith ii?oaiith, aai c ei?aiaaith oa noo?enaeueiith); ana-
(anachronistic), contra- (contraceptive), de- (developmental), en-
(elliptical), fore- (foregoing) — a iaoeiaiio oa aacaoiiio noeeyo (o
ooaeiaeiueiio noee? ana-, contra-, fore- ia cono??eeny acaaae?, a de- oa
en- a?aeiinyoueny aei a?oie i?ao?enaeueieo ii?oai, ui niieo/athoueny aai
eeoa c ei?aiaaith, aai c ei?aiaaith oa noo?enaeueiith ii?oaiaie); ad-
(attractive) oa epi- (episcopal) — a ooaeiaeiueiio oa aacaoiiio noeeyo
(o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ad- a?aeiineoueny aei a?oie i?ao?enaeueieo
ii?oai, ui niieo/athoueny aai eeoa c ei?aiaaith ii?oaiith, aaic
ei?aiaaith oa noo?enaeueiith, epi- — aei ii?oai, ui niieo/athoueny eeoa
c ei?aiai); a2- (abatable), anti- (Antarctic), cata- (catabolic), di-
(dichromatic), eu- (eubacterial), intra- (intravenous), meta-
(metabolic), semi- (semiarid), super- (supertribal), syn- (synthetic) —
oa?aeoa?eco? eeoa iaoeiaee noeeue; non- (nonartistic), over-
(overbearing), pre- (previous), preter- (preternatural), sur-
(surrounding) — eeoa ooaeiaeith i?ico; bi- (bifocal), co- (coherent),
dys- (dyspeptic), ex2- (ex-wifely), out- (outstanding), para-
(paramilitary), per- (permanent) — eeoa aacaoiee noeeue, ye? a ?ioeo
aeine?aeaeoaaieo noeeyo aai ia cono??/athoueny acaaae?, aai i?eoaiaii?
?ioei a?oiai;

— i?ao?enaeuei? ii?oaie in1- (intense, internal) (a on?o ii??aithaaieo
noeeyo), ab- (absurd, absolute), per- (perfect, perceptive), re-
(reborn, removable) (a iaoeiaiio oa ooaeiaeiueiio noeeyo), com-
(compact, compressed) (a iaoeiaiio oa aacaoiiio noeeyo), a2- (avail,
available), dis- (discrete, disgraceful) (a ooaeiaeiueiio oa aacaoiiio
noeeyo), ad- (adscript, accentual), dia- (dialect, diagnosable), for-
(forlorn, forbidden), pre- (precise, preferable) (eeoa a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo??), de- (decent, depressed), en- (entire, emphatic) (eeoa a
ooaeiaei?e i?ic?) oa pro2- (profound, productive) (eeoa a i?an?)
a?aeiinyoueny aei a?oie ii?oai, ye? niieo/athoueny aai eeoa c ei?aiai,
aai ye c ei?aiai, oae ? c noo?enaie (i?ao?enaeuei? ii?oaie, ui
cono??eeny a iaeiiio/aeaio c noee?a, a ?ioeo aai ia cono??eeny, aai
a?aeiinyoueny aei ?ioi? a?oie);

— aei a?oie i?ao?enaeueieo ii?oai, ye? niieo/athoueny c ?ioeie
i?ao?enaeueieie ii?oaiaie, ei?aiyie oa noo?enaie aai iathoue aeanoeaino?
?ioeo a?oi, a?aeiinyoueny: dis- (discreet, dissimilar, disproportional),
in2- (immense, innumerable), non- (non-American, nondiscrete,
nondistinctive), un- (unable, unprintable, uncommon, unreliable), (a
oaenoao iaoeiaiai noeeth), com- (compact, confederate, comprehensive),
in2- (illiterate, indefinite), mal- (maladjusted), self-
(self-contained), trans- (transcontinental), un- (unjust, unbearable,
unconscious) (a ooaeiaeiueiio noee?), in2- (insane, inviolate,
inaccurate), non- (non-voluntary, noncommittal), pre- (preelection,
previous), re- (reincarnate, recreational) (a i?an?).

I?iaaaeaiiy iiceoe?eiiai aiae?co noo?enaeueieo ii?oai aeicaieeei c?iaeoe
aeniiaee, ui aeine?aeaeoaai? ii?oaie i?e?aeiothoueny, ii-ia?oa, eeoa aei
ei?aiaai? ii?oaie (iai?eeeaae, wooden), ii-ae?oaa, ? aei ei?aiaai?, ?
aei ?ioeo noo?enaeueieo ii?oai (iai?eeeaae, normal oa conversational).

O aeine?aeaeaii? aoea aeae?eaia oaeiae a?oia noo?enaeueieo ii?oai, ye? a
iaeiiio c noee?a i?e?aeiothoueny eeoa aei ei?aiaai? ii?oaie, a a ?ioiio
— ? aei ei?aiaai?, ? aei ?ioi? noo?enaeueii? ii?oaie:

— noo?enaeueia ii?oaia -an a noee? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e
i?e?aeio?oueny eeoa aei ei?aiaai? ii?oaie (human, German), a a iaoeiaiio
oa aacaoiiio noeeyo ia? aeanoea?noue niieo/aoeny ye aaciina?aaeiuei c
ei?aiaaith, oae ? c noo?enaeueiith ii?oaiith (African, republican);

— coo?eno -ant, ye ? -an, a ooaeiaeiueiio noee? aeanoeai i?e?aeioaaoeny
eeoa aei ei?aiaai? ii?oaie (pleasant, constant), a oie /an ye a ?ioeo
aeaio noeeyo aeaia ii?oaia i?e?aeio?oueny ? aei ei?aiaai? (elegant,
stagnant), ? aei noo?enaeueii? ii?oaie (significant);

— ii?oaia -ate o iaoeiaiio oa ooaeiaeiueiio noeeyo i?e?aeio?oueny ye aei
ei?aiaai? ii?oaie (private, intermediate), oae ? aei ?ioi? noo?enaeueii?
ii?oaie (proportionate, passionate), a a aacaoiiio noee? -ate
i?e?aeio?oueny aei ei?aiy (adequate, inaccurate);

— uiaei noo?enaeueieo ii?oai -er, -ite, -less, -ly, -ory, oi
aeuaiienaiee oaeo noino?oueny ?o oaeiae. Aiie, niieo/ath/enue a iaeiiio
c noee?a eeoa c ei?aiai, a ?ioeo noeeyo niieo/athoueny c ei?aiaaith oa
noo?enaeueiith ii?oaiaie.

A aeine?aeaeaii? aoee aeyaeai? ua e?eueea noo?enaeueieo ii?oai, ui
i?aeeyaathoue aiae?co.

Ii?oaie -ese oa -oid aaeeaathoueny eeoa a aacaoiiio noee? oa
niieo/athoueny c ei?aiai (Japanese, Chinese, cameloid).

Noo?en -esque ia cono??any a iaoeiaiio noee? acaaae?, a aacaoiiio noee?
a?i aeyaea caeaoi?noue i?e?aeioaaoeny eeoa aei ei?aiaai? ii?oaie
(grotesque), a a ooaeiaeiueiio noee? a?i niieo/a?oueny eeoa c ?ioith
noo?enaeueiith ii?oaiith (picturesque).

Noo?enaeuei? ii?oaie -some oa -fold aoee aeyaeai? eeoa a ooaeiaei?e
i?ic? a niieo/aii? eeoa c ei?aiaaith ii?oaiith (handsome, threefold).

Ii?oaia -ular oa?aeoa?eco? iaoeiaee ? ooaeiaei?e noee? iiaeaiiy oa
aeyaey? caeaoi?noue i?e?aeioaaoeny aei ei?aiy (circular).

Noo?en -ulent aoa aeyaeaiee o ooaeiaeiueiio oa aacaoiiio noeeyo ? ia?
caeaoi?noue i?e?aeioaaoeny aei ei?aiaai? ii?oaie (fradulent, turbulent).

Niinoa?aaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui noo?enaeuei? ii?oaie, ye ? i?ao?enaeuei?,
??ciyoueny ca nai?i iieiaeaiiyi o ii?oaiiiio eaioethaeeo. sseui iaeia
/anoeia noo?enaeueieo ii?oai iiaea i?e?aeioaaoeny eeoa aei ei?aiaai?
ii?oaie a aeine?aeaeoaaieo noeeyo (-en, -ent, -ern, -ese, -esque,
-fold, -id, -ish, -ile, -ine, -ior, -like, -oid, -some, -ular, -ulent,
-ward, -y), oi ?ioa /anoeia aeyaeea caeaoi?noue niieo/aoeny ye c
ei?aiaaith, oae ? c noo?enaeueiith ii?oaiaie a aiae?ciaaieo noeeyo
(-able, -al, -ar, -ary, -ed, -est, -ic, -ing, -ive, -ful, -ous).

Iaie aoa aecia/aiee ua e o?ao?e oei noo?enaeueieo ii?oai. Oea ii?oaie,
ye? a iaeiiio ?c noee?a caeaoi? niieo/aoeny eeoa c ei?aiaaith ii?oaiith,
a a ?ioiio – ? c ei?aiaaith ii?oaiith, ? c noo?enaeueiith (-an, -ant,
-ate, -er, -ite, -less, -ly, -ory).

Iniaeeaei oeiii ii?oieia?/ieo aeaiaio?a ? oae caai? eiia?ioth/? oi?ie,
i?ae yeeie iathoueny ia oaac? aeaiaioe a?aoeueeiai oa eaoeinueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? i?eeiathoue o/anoue a ooai?aii? iaoeiaeo oa?i?i?a.

Iaoa??ae iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaa, ui aiie ia ? aeoaea oa?aeoa?ieie
aeey i?eeiaoiee?a, ui oe?eeii eia?/ii, ine?eueee eiia?ioth/? oi?ie
iinyoue oa?i?iieia?/iee oa?aeoa?, a i?eeiaoieeiaeo eaenai na?aae
oa?i?i?a ii??aiyii iaioa, i?ae ?iaiieeiaeo.

I?e aiae?c? eiia?ioth/eo oi?i aeyaeeiny, ui ii?oaii? eaioethaeee, ye?
i?noyoue o nai?e no?oeoo?? aeai? iaeeieoe?, iae/ano?oa cono??/athoueny a
ianeaao oaeno?a iaoeiaiai noeeth, ae?oaa i?noea iin?aeathoue oaenoe
aacaoiiai noeeth, o?ao? — oaenoe ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice.

Ni?eueieie aeey an?o o?ueio noee?a noaee ii?oaii? eaioethaeee
c.f.+c.f.+s oa c.f.+R+s; aeey iaoeiaiai ? aacaoiiai noee?a —
c.f.+c.f.+s+s; aeanoeaeie eeoa aeey ianea?a oaeno?a iaoeiaiai noeeth
aeyaeeeny eaioethaeee c.f.+s+s, p+c.f.+s, c.f+p+R+s+s, p+c.f.,
c.f.+s+R+s, p+c.f.+R+s, c.f.+p+R+s, c.f.+c.f.+R+s, c.f.+c.f.; aeey
oaeno?a aacaoiiai noeeth — c.f.+R+s+s, c.f.+c.f.+c.f.+s+s,
c.f.+p+c.f.+s, c.f.+c.f.+s+R+s.

C aeeno?eaooeaii? oi/ee ci?o oa iayaiino? eean?a ii?oai, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny c eiia?ioth/eie oi?iaie a aaciina?aaeiueiio
eiioaeo?, a?aei?oeii, ui ei?aiaaa oa i?ao?enaeueia ioi/aiiy aeanoeaa
eeoa iaaaeee?e e?eueeino? eiia?ioth/eo oi?i.

Ia?aaaaeath/ei oeiii o iaoa??ae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eaioethaeee, ui
neeaaeathoueny c eiia?ioth/i? oi?ie oa noo?enaeueii? ii?oaie (phonetic,
biotic).

Aiae?c ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a, ui iathoue o nai?io neeaae? a?eueoa, i?ae
iaeio ei?aiaao ii?oaio, aeicaieea c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. Eaioethaeee, ui neeaaeathoueny eeoa c aeaio (aai o?ueio) ei?aiaaeo
ii?oai, iathoue iaaenieo /anoioo aaeeaaiiy: o iaoeiaiio noee?
aeaiei?aiaaeo eaioethaee?a aeyaeeiny 13, o?eei?aiaaeo ia aeyaeeiny
acaaae?; a oaenoao ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice aeaiei?aiaaeo — 19, o?eei?aiaaeo —
1; o i?an? aeaiei?aiaaeo — 41, o?eei?aiaaeo — 5. Iae/ano?oa oe?
eaioethaeee iienothoueny iiaeaeyie Adj+N (fresh-water) oa N+Adj
(dust-free). ? oea ia aeeaii, ine?eueee caaaeueiieaoaai??aeueia cia/aiiy
i?eeiaoieea – eiai caeaoi?noue icia/aoe yeino? oa aeanoeaino? i?aaeiaoa,
ui ae?aaeaiee ?iaiieeii.

O oaenoao iaoeiaiai noeeth cono??eany aeineoue iaaaeeea e?euee?noue
ne?a, ye? neeaaeathoueny eeoa c aeaio iniia, a naia: long-range (1),
long-term (2), short-term (3), fresh-water (1), high-speed (1),
dust-free (1), man-made (1) oa o?e i?eeiaoieee, ui noai?ai? ca
aeiiiiiaith eiiaa?n?? (hairpin, background, cutthroat). Caoaeiaai? ia
iniia? oeeo i?eeiaoiee?a iiaeae? iathoue oaeee aeaeyae: Adj+N
(long-term, fresh-water), N+Adj (dust-free), N+PII (man-made), Adj+V
(long-range).

Ca aeiiiiiaith eiiaa?n?? i?eeiaoieee aoee ooai?ai? ca?aeii oaeeo
iiaeaeae: N+N (hairpin, background) oa V+N (cutthroat).

O ianeaao oaeno?a ooaeiaeiueiai noeeth cono??eeny neeaaei? neiaa, ui
ooai?ai? c aeaio oa o?ueio iniia. Aeine?aeaeoaai? neiaiooai?aiiy
iaeaaeaoue aei oaeeo iiaeaeae: Adj+Adj (dark-brown, dark-red,
pale-blue), N+Adj (knee-high, steadfast), N+PII (moonlit).

Eiiaa?oiaai? i?eeiaoieee iathoue iiaeae?: V+N (spendthrift), V+Adj
(travel-worn), N+N (wayside).

O?ueioiniiaiei o aea??eao c oaeno?a ooaeiaeiueiai noeeth aeyaeeiny
neiaiooai?aiiy five-year-old.

I?iaiae?ciaai? oaenoe aacaoiiai noeeth aeaee ciiao aeae?eeoe iaea?eueoo
e?euee?noue neeaaeieo i?eeiaoiee?a o ii??aiyii? c iaoeiaei oa ooaeiaei?i
noeeyie: 41 aeaioiniiaia oa 5 o?ueioiniiaieo neiaiooai?aiue.

Aeaioiniiai? ii?oaii? eaioethaeee iathoue oaeee aeaeyae: Adj+N
(middle-class, open-hearth), N+Adj (duty-free, powder-blue), Adj+V
(white-spread, high-rise), Adj+PII (far-flung), Num+N (second-class),
N+N (half-way, part-time), V+Adv (castoff), N+V (blue-chip), Adv+V
(no-go) Ca aeiiiiiaith eiiaa?n?? aoee ooai?ai? i?eeiaoieee c oaeeie
iiaeaeyie: V+prep (turnover), N+N (south-east, east-west), V+Adv
(farewell), prep+N (overnight).

O aeine?aeaeaii? aoei aeyaeaii oaeiae i’youe i?eeiaoiee?a, ui
neeaaeathoueny c o?ueio iniia: seven-year-old (3), fairy-tale-like (2).

2. Eaioethaeee R+s+R+s (helpless-sounding), R+R+s (good-hearted),
R+R+s+s (melodramatic), R+s+R (redish-brown) aeanoea? ianeaai on?o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo noee?a; R+p+R+s+s (high-dimensional) — ianeaai
iaoeiaiai oa aacaoiiai noee?a; p+R+s+R+s+s (comparative-historical),
R+p+R+s (ballon-expandable), R+R+s+p+p+R+s (wavelength-independent)
oa?aeoa?ecothoue eeoa iaoeiaee noeeue, p+R+s+R — eeoa ooaeiaeith i?ico,
R+R+s+R+s (cholesterol-lowering), R+s+p+R+s (allied-inclined), R+s+R+s+s
(personal-financial) — eeoa aacaoiee noeeue.

3. Iae?iciianthaeaeai?oith aoea anoaiiaeaia noo?enaeueia ii?oaia -ed o
neiaao oeio quick-eyed, three-wheeled oa ?i.

?acthioth/e aeuaneacaia, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?ae /an aea/aiiy
noeeaiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eeiaoiee?a ??cii? ii?oaiii? no?oeoo?e ie
anoaiiaeee, ui a?aenoaiue i?ae iaoeiaei ? ooaeiaei?i noeeyie a?eueoa
a?aenoai?, aeyaeaii? i?ae /an ii??aiyiiy iaoeiaiai e aacaoiiai oa
ooaeiaeiueiai e aacaoiiai noee?a. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue i?ao?enaeueieo
? noo?enaeueieo ii?oai oa iaeaeua /anoioa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a
cao?eniaai? a oaenoao iaoeiaiai noeeth, oea iiynith?oueny, i/aaeaeii,
oei, ui oeae noeeue ? iaea?eueo oi?o?eiaaiee oa noaiaea?oeciaaiee, i?ae
?aooa aeine?aeaeoaaieo noee?a.

O iaaeao iaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeei ioiieoe an? aaaeeea? aniaeoe
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, a oiio aeaye? ieoaiiy caeeoeeeny
iaaena?oeaieie. Ia?niaeoeaiei aaa/a?oueny a?aooaaiiy caeaaeiino? /anoioe
aae’?eoeaieo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai a?ae aoeiieia?? inoaii?o.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeoi a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ii?oaiia no?oeoo?a i?eeiaoieea no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae. — Iaoeiaee
a?niee AAeO. AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee. O?eieia?/i? iaoee. — 1997. — ?5. — N. 72-73.

2. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy neiaioai?/iai ? ii?oaiiiai aiae?co. — Iaoeiaee a?niee
AAeO. AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee. O?eieia?/i? iaoee. — 1998. — ?3. — N. 31-33.

3. O?oaeiiu? ii?oaiiiai aiae?co. — Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. AEo?iae
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee. O?eieia?/i?
iaoee. — Eooeuee, 1998. — ?3. — N. 52-55 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?. ?.
Ai?ioue, I. I. ?iaa/iaith).

4. Eiia?ioth/a oi?ia ye eiiiiiaio ii?oaiii?
no?oeoo?ei?eeiaoiee?a no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae. — Iaoeiaee a?niee
AAeO. AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee. O?eieia?/i? iaoee. — 1999. — ?3. — N. 23-25.

AIIOAOe?ss /RESUME/

Iioaiaiei A. A. Noeeaiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eeiaoiee?a ??cii?
ii?oaiii? no?oeoo?e a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae. — Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee aae’?eoeaieo
ao?enaeueieo ii?oai ? ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a oa iiceoe?eiiio aiae?co
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ii?oai o oaenoao o?ueio ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a —
iaoeiaiio, ooaeiaeiueiio oa aacaoiiio.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?one? noeeaiao???. Iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? /anoioa oa niieo/oaai?noue.

?ice?eo? ?ciii?oi? oa a?aei?ii? ?ene iiceoe?eiiai ?icoaooaaiiy
i?ao?enaeueieo ? noo?enaeueieo ii?oai ii a?aeiioaiith aei ei?aiaaeo oa
?ioeo ao?enaeueieo ii?oai. C?iaeaia ni?iaa aeaaaeaiiy iiaeaeae ii?oaiieo
eaioethaee?a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui /anoioa ao?en?a oa ii?oaiieo eaioethaee?a ?
noaoenoe/iei ia?aiao?ii aeine?aeaeoaaieo noee?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?oaia, ao?enaeueia ii?oaia, i?ao?enaeueia ii?oaia,
noo?enaeueia ii?oaia, ii?oaiiee eaioethaeie, ii?oaiia no?oeoo?a,
eiia?ioth/a oi?ia, ooieoe?iiaeueiee noeeue, iiceoe?eiee aiae?c, yae?i,
ia?eoa??y.

Potapenko A. B. Stylemetrical Characteristics of Adjectives with
Different Morphemic Structure in Modern English. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree in philology by speciality 10.02.04 —
Germanic languages. — Kyiv State Linguistic University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation deals with the investigation of quantitative
characteristics of the adjectival affixes and morphemic chains as well
as positional analysis of the investigated morphemes in different
functional styles — science, fiction and press.

The dissertation is carried out within the framework of stylemetry.
Frequency and combinability being the main parameters of the
investigation.

Isomorphic and distinctive peculiarities of the position of the
prefixesand suffixes as to the root and affixes are discovered. The
attempt is made to build the models of morphemic chains. It is proved
that frequency of adjectival affixes and morphemic chains serve to
differentiate the functional styles.

Key words: morpheme, affix, prefix, suffix, morphemic chain, morphemic
structure, combining form, functional style, positional analysis,
kernel, periphery.

Iioaiaiei A. A. Noeeaiao?e/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ?aciie
ii?oaiiie no?oeoo?u a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae-/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 — aa?iaineea ycuee. – Eeaaneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue eeiaaenoe/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth noeeaiao?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ?aciie ii?oaiiie no?oeoo?u, /anoioiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
aaeuaeoeaiuo aooeenaeueiuo ii?oai e ii?oaiiuo oeaii/ae, iiceoeeiiiiio
aiaeeco enneaaeoaiuo ii?oai a oaenoao o??o ooieoeeiiaeueiuo noeeae —
iao/iii, ooaeiaeanoaaiiii e aacaoiii. Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai /eaiaiey
neia ia ii?oaiu anoue iiaoi?yaiinoue oioy au iaeiiai eiiiiiaioa neiaa a
ae?oaii eeiaaenoe/aneii ie?oaeaiee n oai naiui cia/aieai.

?aaioa auiieiaia a ?onea noeeaiao?ee. Iniiaiuie ia?aiao?aie
enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony /anoioa e ni/aoaaiinoue. Naeaeaia iiiuoea
auaaaeaiey ii?oaiiuo oeaii/ae e enneaaeiaaiea eo /anoioiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee. Eeiaaenoe/aneee caeii i?aaeii/oaiey, aeaenoaothuee ia
enneaaeoaiii iaoa?eaea, iicaieee auaeaeeoue ai anao aiaeece?iaaiiuo
ianneaao oaenoia iaaieueoia eiee/anoai aooeenaeueiuo ii?oai e ii?oaiiuo
oeaii/ae, eioi?ua ianoo iaeneioi ooieoeeiiaeueiie iaa?ocee e ioaeaeeoue
eo io inoaeueiuo ii?oai e oeaii/ae, iaoa?aeoa?iuo aeey ii?oaiiie
no?oeoo?u i?eeaaaoaeueiuo.

Aeieacaii, /oi /anoioa aooeenia e ii?oaiiuo oeaii/ae yaeyaony
noaoenoe/aneei ia?aiao?ii enneaaeoaiuo noeeae.

N?aaeiyy /anoioa ?anniao?eaaaony aaoi?ii eae aaaeiue iieacaoaeue
noaoenoe/aneiai ia?aiao?a noeeae. Ii aeaiiiio ia?aiao?o a ?aaioa
auaeaeaiu aeaa a?oiiu noeeae, eioi?ua ia ia?anaeathony: 1) iao/iue
noeeue, 2) ooaeiaeanoaaiiue e aacaoiue noeee — i?e enneaaeiaaiee
i?aoeenaeueiuo ii?oai e ii?oaiiuo oeaii/ae, a i?e enneaaeiaaiee
noooeenaeueiuo ii?oai — o?e a?oiiu noeeae: 1) iao/iue, 2)
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue, 3) aacaoiue.

N oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo noeeyie auee onoaiiaeaiu
iyoue ii?iaia cii, iicaieeaoeo eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa
enneaaeiaaiey i?aoeenaeueiuo ii?oai ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo iao/iui e
aacaoiui noeeyie aieueoa, /ai ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo iao/iui e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiui, ooaeiaeanoaaiiui e aacaoiui noeeyie, a a ?acoeueoaoa
enneaaeiaaiey noooeenaeueiuo ii?oai e ii?oaiiuo oeaii/ae ?annoiyiea
iaaeaeo iao/iui e ooaeiaeanoaaiiui noeeyie aieueoa, /ai iaaeaeo noeeyie
aeaoo ae?oaeo ia?.

?ane?uou eciii?oiua e ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou iiceoeeiiiiai ?aciauaiey
i?aoeenaeueiuo e noooeenaeueiuo ii?oai ii ioiioaieth e ei?iaaui e
ae?oaei aooeenaeueiui ii?oaiai. A ?aaioa auaeaeaiu iiceoeeiiiua aa?eaiou
ii?oai, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony eae aeeiii?ou aaeuaeoeaiuo i?aoeenia e
noooeenia.

A oiaea iiceoeeiiiiai aiaeeca auee auyaeaiu a?oiiu i?aoeenaeueiuo e
noooeenaeueiuo ii?oai, eioi?ua eiatho naienoaa ni/aoaoueny n ei?iaauie e
ae?oaeie aooeenaeueiuie ii?oaiaie.

Eiiaeie?othueany oi?iu, eae iniaue oei ii?oieiae/aneeo yeaiaioia,
iaoa?aeoa?iu aeey i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, /oi iauyniyaony eo oa?ieiieiae/aneei
oa?aeoa?ii. Ei?iaaia e i?aoeenaeueiia ie?oaeaiea naienoaaiii oieueei
iaaieueoiio eiee/anoao eiiaeie?othueony oi?i. I?aiaeaaeathuei oeiii a
iaoa?eaea enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony ii?oaiiua oeaii/ee, ninoiyuea ec
eiiaeie?othuaeny oi?iu e noooeenaeueiie ii?oaiu.

Iiaeaee ii?oaiiuo oeaii/ae, eioi?ua eiatho a naiai ninoaaa aieueoa
iaeiie ei?iaaie ii?oaiu, oa?aeoa?ecothony iaaunieie /anoioie
oiio?aaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?oaia, aooeenaeueiay ii?oaia, i?aoeenaeueiay
ii?oaia, noooeenaeueiay ii?oaia, ii?oaiiay oeaii/ea, ii?oaiiay
no?oeoo?a, eiiaeie?othuayny oi?ia, ooieoeeiiaeueiue noeeue, iiceoeeiiiue
aiaeec, yae?i, ia?eoa?ey.

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