EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? ?AAIA O?AIEA

IEOAEUeNUeEEE TH??E AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

OAeE 943.6.08+943.8.074+

9(47.74)+329.4(47.74)

NOAAEAIIss IIEUeNUeEEO NONI?EUeII-IIE?OE*IEO

NEE AeI OE?A?INUeEIAI IEOAIIss A AAEE*EI?

IA II*AOEO OO NOIE?OOss (1902-1914)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.02 – anana?oiy ?noi??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo e?a?i Euea?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Caoe?eueiye Eaii?ae Iiaianiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo e?a?i

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Oaaaoeye Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iiai? oa iia?oiuei? ?noi???

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

No?iinueeee Aai??o Eineiiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oe?a?iiciaanoaa oa o?einio?? Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. Ioethy

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Ean?
Oe?a?iee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 29″ a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 15 aiae. 15 oa. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E. 04.04.11 o Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290602, i. Euea?a, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (aoe.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 28 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Nooee I. I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aaaaoia?eiaa non?aenoai oe?a?ioe?a ? iieye?a, ?oi? ??ciiiai?oi? aca?ieie
caeeoeee o na?aeiiino? oeeo neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a /eiaei ye iiceoeaieo,
oae ? iaaaoeaieo iiiaio?a. Inoaii? iaiaeii?aciai aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
o?ao?ie noi?iiaie aeey iiaeeaeaiiy iai?eyci? i?ae aeaiia non?aei?ie
ia?iaeaie. A?aenooi?noue aea?aeaaiino? /anoi aoea ia?aoeiaeith aeey
iiaeieaiiy aca?iii? iaaeia??e. ?nioaaiiy iacaeaaeieo Oe?a?ie ? Iieueu?
aea? iiaeeea?noue iaoeiaoeyi ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe aei i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo
noinoie?a oe?a?ioe?a ? iieye?a, ?icoe?eoe iiea ia’?eoeaii? ?noi?e/ii?
?ioi?iaoe??, yea ia? ia iao? ca?eueieoe iaeaeaa ia?iaee a?ae noa?aioei?a
iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?ioenoiyiiy, iiaeieaoe ?aeaieia?/i? oia?aaeaeaiiy,
noai?eoe i?oeiee ooiaeaiaio oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o
OO? no.

Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoee a?aecia/aii?
i?ioeanii c?oeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a iaio ia?iae?a,
ye? i?iaeeaaee a i?ia?ioe?? Aaanao?cueei? iiia?o??, ui oaeoe/ii
ia’?aeiaea iieuenuee? e oe?a?inuee? aoi?/i? caie?, io?eiaaoe iacao
“Ei?ie?anoaa Aaee/eie oa Eiaeiia??? c Aaeeeei eiyc?anoaii E?ae?anueeei”
(aeae? – Aaee/eia). Eiioe?eo, ui c iniaeeaith aino?ioith i?iyaeany o
ia?o?e iieiaei? OO no., aoa ia a inoaiith /a?ao ni?e/eiaiee
cina?aaeaeaiiyi o oe?e i?ia?ioe?? Aano?i-Oai?ueie i?ia?aeieo ina?aaee?a
iieuenueeiai e oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueieo ?oo?a, ye? ei?enooaaeeny
cai?iaaaeaeaieie ooo eiinoeoooe?eieie naiaiaeaie. Ca oaeeo ianoaaei
caeaaaeinue ae ??ai? ca iiaeeeainoyie iioaioe?? iaio iaoe?iiaeueieo
?oo?a aeey iaeii? noi?iie – oe?a?inueei? – aeyaeeeny iani?eyoeeaeie
/a?ac iiiiiie?caoe?th iie?oe/iiai aeeooy iieuenueeith a?enoie?ao??th
(eiina?aaoi?aie) ? iaaeaiiy ia?aaaa iieuenueeiio aeaiaioo ca ?aooiie
oe?a?inueeiai. Oi/a iieuenuee? eiina?aaoi?e e ciooai? aoee ia ii/aoeo OO
no. ooeaoe oeyo?a eiii?ii?no ?c c?inoath/ei oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiaeueiei
?ooii, i?ioa caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y caa?aaeaiiy iieuenueeiai
“iie?iaeoaeuenoaa” iaae “iaio ?icaeiaieie ?oneiaie-oe?a?ioeyie”
caeeoaeanue caaaeueiii?eeiyoei noa?aioeiii iieuenueeiai iie?oeeoio,
eio?ee iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaaany ia i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noinoieao.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?aia aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oaia
i?aaenoaaey? cia/iee ?ioa?an. Aac aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy oa a?oioiaiiai
aiae?co iiae?e iaiiaeeeai ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe ae?yeuei?noue ??cieo
iie?oe/ieo nee, ye? ?ai?acaiooaaee iieuenueea e oe?a?inueea ianaeaiiy
e?ath. Iio??aia anaa?/ia ? aeaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? (iniaeeai a eiioaeno? noaaeaiiy iieuenueeeo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nee aei oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei?
ia ii/aoeo OO no.), yea aeicaieeoue e?aua c?icoi?oe i?e/eie ? i?aea?oioy
oeo /e ?ioeo iie?oe/ieo aeoe?e iaio noi??i. A?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a, oe?eae
? iioea?a on?o caae?yieo o noinoieao iie?oe/ieo nee ? iaiaei?iiith
i?aenoaaith iaoeiaiai aiae?co. O oie aea /an o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??
iieuenueea a?iiaaenuee?noue cia?aaeo?oueny ia?aaaaeii ni?iuaii ?
iaeiia?/ii, aac aeie?aieaiiy ??cieo, /anii i?ioeeaaeieo, iie?oe/ieo
oaai??a, eiaeai c yeeo ia?ane?aeoaaa eiie?aoi? oe?e? (aeieeaaeiee aiae?c
?noi??ia?ao?? iiaeaii o ia?oiio ?icae?e?). O iiaeieaii? iaeiia?/iino?
uiaei ioe?iee iieuenueei? noni?eueiino? Aaee/eie ia ii/aoeo OO no.
iieyaa? iaeia ?c oe?eae aeaii? aeena?oaoe??.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe??
? iieuenuee? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? neee Aaee/eie ia ii/aoeo OO no.,
cie?aia iie?oe/i? ia?o??, i?aeia?o?ei? oa ia?eaiaionuee? ia’?aeiaiiy.
I?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy ? oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?aiao ?
ae?yeueiino? aeacaieo iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee a
Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo OO no. cia/iith i??ith aieeioee ia iiaeaeueoee
ia?aa?a aca?iei aeaio non?aei?o neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a o ?o iia?oi?e
?noi???. Oiio aaaeeeai i?ine?aeeoaaoe i?e/eie e iane?aeee
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noia?a/iinoae ? eiioe?eo?a, ye? iaee i?noea ia
ii/aoeo OO no. o oe?e i?ia?ioe?? Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia???, canaeai?e a
iniiaiiio aeaiia ia?iaeaie – oe?a?inueeei ? iieuenueeei. Aaaeeeai
i?inoaaeeoe e ia’?eoeaii aena?oeeoe i?e/eie e ianoaaeie, ye? aecia/aee
noaaeaiiy ??cieo iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee Aaee/eie aei iiae?e, ui
a?aeaoaaeeny a e?a? /e a ?iia??? oa iaee aieea ia noinoiee i?ae iieyeaie
e oe?a?ioeyie.

O i?ioean? aea/aiiy i?aaenoaaeaii? oaie iaie aoei neiioeaio?iaaii oaaao
ia ae??oaii? oaeeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

aecia/eoe aieea aano??enueeiai oeaio?o ia i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? noinoiee a
Aaee/ei? a e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.;

i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iai?yie?a
iieuenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo Aano??enueei? iiia?o?? oa neeaaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai iieuenueeeo aaeeoeueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e;

aecia/eoe aioo??oi? oa ciai?oi? /eiieee, ye? aieeaaee ia ?aeaieia?th oa
i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue i?ia?aeieo iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee Aaee/eie
noiniaii oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo;

aea/eoe ?icaeoie iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a o Aaee/ei? a iiaeo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oiiaao, ye? neeaeenue ia ii/aoeo OO no., ?
aeieeaaeii i?iaiae?coaaoe ni?iae aeinyaiaiiy iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai
ii?icoi?iiy;

c’ynoaaoe aieiai? oaeoi?e, ui aieeaaee ia oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai oaai?o a e?a?, ?ice?eoe aeaea?aea neaaeino?
iiceoe?e oe?a?ioe?a o noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e no?oeoo?? aaeeoeueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ? iaeiith c ia?oeo
a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ni?ia a?aeoai?aiiy oe?e?nii? ea?oeie
oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
Aaee/eie oa eiai noaaeaiiy aei oe?a?inueeiai /eiieea ia ii/aoeo OO no.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iia? i?aeoiaee aei ?yaeo iie?oe/ieo iiae?e ? yaeu, ui iaee
i?noea a i?ioean? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a o e?a?. Aeena?oaio
cai?iaaaeaeo? iiaa aa/aiiy aieeao no?aeeiai? aeoeaiino? oe?a?inueeeo
naeyi o 1902 ?. ia cao?ooaaiiy iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo nee iieuenueeiai
iie?oe/iiai oaai?o oa oi?ioethaaiiy ?aea? a?aeiiaeaiiy iieuenueei?
aea?aeaaiino? c oeaio?ii o Aaee/ei?, aeeth/ath/e ?? no?aeio
(oe?a?inueeo) /anoeio. O aeine?aeaeaii? i?inoaaeaii noaaeaiiy aei
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy iieuenueeiai iie?oe/iiai oaai?o ia ye ?aeeii?
iiiie?oii? neee, a ye ??cieo, /anii i?ioeeaaeieo iie?oe/ieo iai?yie?a
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Oea aeaei ciiao eiinoaooaaoe iiaaaei? a?aei?iiino?
i?ae i?ia?aeieie iie?oe/ieie oa?oiiaaiiyie iieye?a o Aaee/ei? a ieoaii?
i?i noaaeaiiy aei oe?a?ioe?a oa oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue iaiioae?eiaaieo aeaea?aeueieo iaoa??ae?a aeiiiiiaea
a?aeoai?eoe o? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? iiae??, ye? ia ciaeoee iaeaaeiiai
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo??. Oea noino?oueny, cie?aia,
c’?caeo iieuenueeeo iie?oee?a 1903 ?. o Eueaia?, yeee, ia iaoo aeoieo,
ni?e/eiea nooo?a? ci?ie a iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?aiao aaaaoueio iieuenueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Aaee/eie.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith i?aenoaaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino?
oa ?noi?ecio. I?e ?ica’ycaii? aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue aeena?oaio
aeei?enoiaoaaa caaaeueiiiaoeia? oa niaoe?aeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia, aiae?c, neioac, ii??aiyiiy, a oaeiae iieniaee,
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee oa aaiaoe/iee iaoiaee.

Aeei?enoai? a aeine?aeaeaii? aeaea?aea (?o aeieeaaeiee aiae?c c?iaeaii a
ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe??) aeicaieeee aaoi?o neeanoe a?eueo
a?oioiaia oyaeaiiy i?i iaeei ?c aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a iie?oe/ii? ?noi???
Aaee/eie – ?ieue ? cia/aiiy iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue oa ?o
aieea ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/io neooaoe?th oe??? i?ia?ioe?? Aano??enueei?
?iia???.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?aaenoaaeaiee o
iueiio oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii? iaoeiaeo ?ia?o c ?noi??? Aaee/eie oa
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a o Oeaio?aeuei?e oa No?aei?e ?a?ii?, i?e ?ic?iaoe?
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue oa iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa
Iieueu?. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey no/anieo
iie?oieia?a oa oaoiaeo iie?oee?a.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue 1902-1914 ??. Ii/eiath/e c
1902 ?., iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noia?a/iino? iaa?aee iiaeo ye?nieo oi?i.
O oeueiio ?ioe? iieuenueea iie?oe/ia ae?oa aoea noo?aiaaia c?inoaiiyi
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Aaee/eie, ui
i?iyaeeiny a ianiaeo no?aeeiaeo aenooiao oe?a?inueeeo naeyi. Oea
i?ecaaei aei ia?aaeyaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai aaaaoueio iieuenueeeo
iie?oe/ieo nee e?ath. Oi?ioth/e eiioeaioe?th “iaoe?iiaeueieo I’?iiio?a”,
iieuenueeee oa oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooe noaee oiniaeaiiyi
ai?iaeeo oaai??a aeaio neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee?
noia?a/iino? a oeae ia??iae aeinyaee eoeuei?iaoe?? oa iinoaaeee ia?aae
iii??eiaaieie i?aaenoaaieeaie iaio noi??i aeiiao aeinyaiaiiy “modus
vivendi” oe?a?inueeiai e iieuenueeiai ia?iae?a o iaaeao iaeiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ooai?aiiy, a oaeiae ?aae?caoe?? iiaeeeainoae aca?iiiai
ii?icoi?iiy oa caiaee. Aeii?ioth/ith oaiaeaioe??th
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a ia?aaeaeiy ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie aoei
i?aaiaiiy aeinyaiooe oaiaee a ?ioa?anao ye iieuenueeiai, oae ?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iae?a. Oaea oaiaea noaea ?aaeuei?noth a ethoiio 1914 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ai?iaiaaia oeyoii ?? iaaiai?aiiy ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
?noi??? neia’yinueeeo e?a?i Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
?. O?aiea, a iioae?eiaai?e a?ioo?? oa noaooyo, aenooiao ia i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: I’yoee i?aeia?iaeiee neaa?noe/iee eieiea?oi
(Euea?a, 1996), “Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? o OO no.”
(?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1996), “Aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? oa
Oeaio?aeueii-No?aei?e ?a?ii?: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue” (tha?eaei? /eoaiiy
iai’yo? A. Eeieinueeiai) (Eooeuee, 1997), “Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee?
noinoiee i/eia iieiae?: a?ae aaaeei? ?noi??? aei ni?ai?aoe? iieiae?
?a?i?aa?iio” (Eooeuee-Ethae?i-Oaoeuee, 1997).

A iniiao no?oeoo?e aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeaii i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee
i?eioeei. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e, ia?ae?eo oiiaieo nei?i/aiue.
Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 189 noi??iie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? a naaa 225 iaeiaioaaiue oa caeia? 18
noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aea» aaoi? ie?aneea iniiai?
aoaie ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ii? aeoiee c i?iaeaie iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
aca?iei o Aaee/ei? a e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no., a oaeiae aeaa
caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniiaieo aeae?a aeaea?ae aei aea/aiiy oaie.

O ?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao?? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo a?aeiinei o Aaee/ei?
ia??iaeo ii/aoeo XX no. iiaeia i?ine?aeeoaaoe /ioe?e aoaie, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeeie iai?yieaie aeine?aeaeaiue: 1) eiiieaeni?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? Aaee/eie; 2) aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e oa noni?eueieo iai?yie?a ye iieuenueeiai, oae ? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a e?ath; 3) aiae?c i?aaii-iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a o
?icaeoeo aaeeoeueeiai noni?euenoaa.

?noi?e/i? ?ica?aeee ia?oiai aoaio aea/aiiy iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
a?aeiinei o Aaee/ei? 1902-1914 ??. iaee cia/i? ?aeaieia?/i? iaoa?oaaiiy
oa ia?aaaaeii “ia?o?eiee” oa?aeoa?. Na?aae ieo caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao
i?aoe? ?yaeo oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a, a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a,
ienueiaiiee?a, cie?aia I. A?ooaanueeiai, ?. O?aiea, I. Eiceinueeiai,
TH. Aa/einueeiai, I. Iaca?oea oa ?ioeo.

O iieuenuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iaea?eueo
iii?oieie iinoaooyie o aea/aii? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei a
Aano?i-Oai?nuee?e ?iia??? caaaeii oa iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a,
cie?aia, aoee E.Aaneeaanueeee, A.Oaeueaeiai, A.I?eueooe.

I?iaeaia ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei? oa
noaiiaeua iieuenueeiai ia?iaeo ia?aae ia?oith na?oiaith a?eiith
i?eaa?oaea oaaao e ?in?enueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? ii/aoeo XXno.

Cia/iei aei?iaeii a ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiyo i?aeai?iiiai
ia??iaeo noaea a?oioiaia i?aoey e?aea?a oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo
aano??enueeiai ia??iaeo E.Eaaeoeueeiai. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? ci?ie aaeeoeueeiai noni?euenoaa a 1848-1914 ??. c
na?aaeeie oe?a?inueeiai oaai?o, E.Eaaeoeueeee aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?eea
?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy uiaei noaaeaiiy iieuenueeeo iie?oee?a aei
oe?a?inueeiai oaeoi?o a e?a?. ?noi??th aaeeoeueeiai iineaio?euenueeiai
?ooo c ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. aei ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie aeeeaa
I.Aiae?onye .

Iieuenueea ?noi??ia?ao?y i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo iiiiaieeany aeaeaiiyi
i?aoe? A.Oaeueaeiaia, noiniaii ?noi??? ?icaeoeo iieuenueei? iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee 1864 — 1914 ??. Aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae i?i iiaeyaee aecia/ieo
iieuenueeeo ae?y/?a eea?eeaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy ia oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a
Aaee/ei? aei 1914 ?ieo iiaeia ii/a?iiooe c ooiaeaiaioaeueii? i?aoe?
iieuenueeiai ?noi?eea N.Eaiaae/a,yea aia?oa aoea iioae?eiaaia a 1935?.

O?ao?e aoai aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? Aaee/eie i?eiaaea? ia iiai?iiee
ia??iae. O oeae /an ?noi?e/ia iaoea ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie oa
nioe?ae?noe/ii? Iieueu? ia?aaoaaea i?ae neeueiei aieeaii ia?enenonueei?
?aeaieia??, yea aacoaaeany ia canaaeao eeaniai? ai?ioueae, a?aeeeaeaiiy
?aeae nioe?aeueii? nie?aea?iino? oa oi?ioaaiiy i?eioeei?a “eeaniaiai
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?cio”. Oea i?ecaaei aei cai?oaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a.

Aeaui oe?oo iiaeeea?noue aeey iaiaa?o a a?e ia’?eoeaiino?, i?ae
iie?oe/ia ?noi??y, a?aee?eaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?eueii-aeiiii?/ii?
?noi??? Aaee/eie. Iie?oe/ii-i?aaiaee ono??e Aaee/eie ye neeaaeia?
/anoeie Aano??enueei? ?iia??? aena?oeaii a ?iaioao i?ioani?a
A. Eoeue/eoeueeiai. Nooo?aei aei?iaeii o aea/aii? i?ioean?a noaiiaeaiiy
? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiieo ?oo?a Aano??enueei? ?iia??? ae?oai? iieiaeie
O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. noaee aeine?aeaeaiiiy ?in?enueeeo ?noi?ee?a
?inoeoooo neia’yiiciaanoaa ? aaeeai?noeee AI N?N?. I?ioa,
iaoiaeieia?/iee noaiaoeci, ui a?aeaeany ia oeeo i?aoeyo cia/iith i??ith
niioai?thaaa caaaeueio ea?oeio iie?oe/ieo aca?iei.

O ia??iae i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie a?aeaoaa?oueny noaiiaeaiiy oa
aeoeaiee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? a ai?a?aoe??. Iii?oiith
iinoaooth, ui caeiaeany i?iaeaiith iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo a?aeiinei,
aoa I. Aeaieiae/-Aeia?yinueeee. A?aeiiee oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee
?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee aeaa ia’?eoeaio oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?e/ei ? iane?aee?a
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioe??/ o Aaee/ei?, a?oioiaii i?iaiae?coaaa
aoii-ineoieia?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? oaeoi?e, ui coiiaeee eiioe?eo
aeaio ia?iae?a ia oa?aiao e?ath.

Iieuenueea iiai?iia ?noi??ia?ao?y c?iaeea cia/iee aianie o aea/aiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei o Aaee/ei?, iie?oe/ii-i?aaiaiai
noaiiaeua aaeeoeueei? aaoiiii?? o neeaae? Aano??enueei? ?iia???. Iniiaia
oaaaa iieuenueeeo iaoeiaoe?a 50-o (

ii/aoeo 80-o ??. aoea cina?aaeaeaia ia aeine?aeaeaii? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e
oa i?aai?caoe?e iieuenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei?.
?icaeyaeath/e i?iaeaie i?eeiyooy aeai?/iai caeiio aei Aaeeoeueeiai
naeio, iaeaeeae/a i?ae?eoia aei ieoaiiy iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo aca?iei
iieuenueeee ?noi?ee TH. Aooei.

*aoaa?oei aoaiii o aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
a?aeiinei o Aaee/ei? noaa ia??iae e?ioey 80-o – 90-o ??. OO no. O /an
aeoeaii? ?icaoaeiae iacaeaaeieo iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa a oe?a?inuee?e
oa iieuenuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?yo ana a?eueoa c’yaey?oueny iaoeiaeo
?ica?aeie, ye? noinothoueny i?iaeai oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai
i?ioenoiyiiy a Aaee/ei? iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.

Iii?oieie o?ao?aie no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee, ye?
aeine?aeaeothoue oe?a?inueeee aecaieueiee ?oo oa iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee?
noinoiee o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O ( ii/aoeo OO no. ? I. Eoaooye,
O. Noaae?e, I. A?eooa, I. Ioae?ee, ?. *i?iiaie.

Aiae?c iiceoe?e iieuenueei? oeyooe o noaaeaii? aei oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie
ia ii/aoeo OO no. iiaeia ii/a?iiooe c a?oioiaiiai neioaco ?noi???
Oe?a?ie ss. A?eoeaea. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th a Aaee/ei? ia
ceai? O?O -OO no. iiaeaee o ni?euei?e i?aoe? N. Ea/a?aaa oa I. ?iaeee.
Caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a no?aei?e i?ia?ioe??
Aano??enueei? ?iia??? iaia?aaeiaei? ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, aca?iiae?th
i?ae ??cieie iieuenueeeie e oe?a?inueeeie iie?oe/ieie oa?oiiaaiiyie
Aaanao?cueei? iiia?o?? c?iaea o nai?o iaeiia?oeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
i?ioani? N. Iaea?/oe. Iii?oia i?noea na?aae ?noi??inionueeeo iaeyae?a
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo aca?iei o Aaee/ei? iin?aeathoue i?aoe? i?ioani?a
ss. Aeaoeaae/a. Ia’?eoeaiee, iicaaaeaiee aiioe?e iiaeyae ia
iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee oa?aeoa?eco? iaoeia? ?iaioe E.
Caoe?eueiyea, yeee, ie??i aiae?oe/ieo iaeyae?a c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee,
a?oioiaii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaa noaaeaiiy iieuenueeeo nioe?ae?no?a oa
ethaeiaoe?a aei oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei?
ia ii/aoeo OO no.

Iia?oiy iieuenueea ?noi??ia?ao?y iiiiaieeany aaaiieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
?noi??? iieuenueeiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio aano??enueei? aeiae. Iieuenuee?
a/ai? ?icai?ioee oaeiae aeoeaio ?iaioo c aea/aiiy ?noi??? on?o
iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?yie?a, ui ae?yee a Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo OO no.

Iaeio c ia?oeo ni?ia aiae?co noaaeaiiy iieuenueeeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
nee aei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy a Aaanao?cuee?e iiia?o?? c?iaea ss.
A?ooaea. Caneoaiao? ia a?aecia/aiiy oaeiae iiyaa i?aoe? *. Ia?oa/a, ui
i?enay/aia aeeeth/ii i?iaeai? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai i?ioenoiyiiy a
Aaee/ei?.

I?aaenoaaeaiee aeua ei?ioeee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae aea? i?aenoaae
oaa?aeeoe, ui iiaeyaee a/aieo c iaio noi??i cina?aaeaeoaaeenue
ia?aaaaeii ia aeine?aeaeaii? aeaniiai (oe?a?inueeiai /e iieuenueeiai)
iie?oe/ieo ?oo?a, ? oea i?ecaaei aei iaaeiioe?iee (aai aee?eaeaii?
ioe?iee) i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie. Oiio aeioe?eueii a?eueo ia’?eoeaii
aea/eoe iieuenueeee iie?oe/ii-a?iiaaenueeee ?oo a Aaee/ei? a eiioaeno?
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoie?a ia ii/aoeo XX no.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iaiioae?eiaai? a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee Eueaiaa, Aa?oaae, E?aeiaa, A?ioeeaaa, a oaeiae niiaaaee
iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a, i?ana oa ioae?oeenoeea oeueiai ia??iaeo.

Nooo?aei aeiiiaiaiiyi aei aeuacaaaeaieo aeaea?ae ? aeieoiaioaeuei?
ioae?eaoe??. Na?aae iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo
iniaeeao oe?ii?noue aeey ian i?aaenoaaeythoue noaiia?aie Aaeeoeueeiai
e?aeiaiai naeio, i?ioieiee nan?eieo can?aeaiue, aeiaeaoeia? iaoa??aee
Aaeeoeueeiai naeio. Aeei?enoaiiy oeeo aeieoiaio?a o eiiieaen? aea? ciiao
yeiaeiiai?oa a?aeoai?eoe i?iaeaio noaaeaiiy iieuenueeeo iie?oee?a aei
oe?a?ioe?a oa aca?iei i?ae ieie.

Iaea?eueo a?oioiaio aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee
iaiioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee a?o?a?a oa ?oeiienieo oiiae?a a?ae?ioae Oe?a?ie
oa Iieueu?. Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a Oe?a?ie a i.
Eueaia? i?aaenoaaeaiee o ?iaio? iaoa??aeaie aea?aeaaieo onoaiia
Aano??enueei? ?iia???, i?ia?aiieie aeieoiaioaie iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e
(oiiaee “Aaeeoeueea iai?nieoeoai” oa “Oaaeaoo ?ooianueeee, i?aceaeaio
i. Eueaiaa”).

Aaaaoee aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae ciaoiaeeoueny o oiiae? “Euea?anueea
aee?aeoe?y iie?oe??” Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Euea?anueei? iaeano?. Oea a
iniiaiiio ca?oe ne?ae/eo i?i iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a, ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
eaaaeuei? e iaeaaaeuei? iie?oe/i? oa?oiiaaiiy, no?aeeiao ai?ioueao naeyi
oa caoiaee iie?oe?? uiaei i?eieiaiiy nioe?aeueieo ? iaoe?iiaeueieo
eiioe?eo?a. O oeueiio ae oiiae? i?noeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
anaiieuenueeee c’?cae iie?oee?a 1903 ?. o Eueaia?. Oey iiae?y aein? ua
ia aoea i?aaeiaoii oaaae oe?a?inueei? e iieuenueei? ?noi??ia?ao?e.
Iaoa??aee e aeieoiaioe i?i iieuenueeee oi?oi oia?oa cai?iaaaeaeai? aei
iaoeiaiai ia?ao.

Aaaaoeie ia aeaea?aea c ?noi??? iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo iai?yie?a
Aaee/eie ii/aoeo XX no. oa ?o noaaeaiiy aei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy ?
?oeiieni? iaoa??aee, ui i?noyoueny o a?aeae?e? ?oeiien?a Euea?anueei?
iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i. A. Noaoaieea IAI Oe?a?ie. Oea aeieoiaioe
iieuenueeiai aeaiie?aoa O. ?iiaiiae/a, iiaeieye?a A. Eiceianueeiai oa
E. I?i?inueeiai.

Na?aae iieuenueeeo a?o?aieo oiiae?a oe?eaaeie ? aeieoiaioe aa?oaanueeiai
Aieiaiiai a?o?ao aeaai?o aeo?a, ye? noinothoueny aca?iei i?aaey/i? a
Aaee/ei? ia?o?? eiina?aaoi??a c oeaio?aeueiei o?yaeii. A a?o?a?
Iieuenueei? Aeaaeai?? iaoe o Aa?oaa? i?noyoueny aeieoiaioe iaeiiai c
e?aea??a iieuenueeiai iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai ?ooo N. Eic?oeueeiai oa
aeoeaiiai ae?y/a iieuenueeiai iaieiina?aaoeaiiai iai?yieo a Aaee/ei? ia
ii/aoeo XX no. A. ssai?nueeiai. Nooo?aa ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i noaaeaiiy ??cieo
iai?yie?a ethaeiaiai ?ooo aei oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
ciaoiaeeoueny a iniaenoeo oiiaeao ae?y/?a ethaeiaiai iai?yieo
E.Eaaaeianueeiai ? A.N?aaeiyanueeiai, ui caa??aathoueny a A?o?a?
Caeeaaeo ?noi??? ethaeiaiai ?ooo o Aa?oaa?.

O e?ae?anueeiio Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? i?noeoueny oiiae “A?iii
Eiina?aaoi??a”, yeee a iniiaiiio neeaaea?oueny c i?ioieie?a can?aeaiue
e?ae?anueeeo eiina?aaoi??a. Iiai?oo ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i noaaeaiiy
iieuenueei? a?iiaaenueeino? aei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy iiaeaii ii/a?iiooe
?c oiiaeo “?iaaioa? oei/aniaee” oeueiai ae a?o?ao, aea ? c?a?aiiy
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a ??ciiiai?oieo iie?oe/ieo iai?yie?a oa
noni?eueieo ae?y/?a Aaee/eie.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iineoaeeee oiiaee
a?aeae?eo ?oeiien?a ssaaeeiinueei? a?ae?ioaee a E?aeia?. Ei?aniiaeaioe?y
eieeoiueiai aaeeoeueeiai iai?nieea I.Aiaaeeinueeiai oa ca??ea “Iaoa??aee
aei ?noi??? Aaee/eie ia ii/aoeeo XX no.” ianooue cia/ia ?ioi?iaoe?eia
iaaaioaaeaiiy noiniaii aea/aiiy iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo aca?iei a
Aaee/ei?.

A?o?ai? noiaeua ?oeiienieo iaoa??ae?a a?ae?ioaee ?i. Innie?inueeeo o
A?ioeeaa? i?noyoue iaeio c iaea?eueoeo eieaeoe?e iniaenoeo oiiae?a
ae?y/?a iieuenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei? (O. ?ooianueeiai,
A. Oaeueaeiaia, E. Aa?iaia, E. Eaaaeianueeiai, C. Aaneeaanueeiai,
ss. Eani?iae/a, ?iaeei Cae?nueeeo, ?icaaaeianueeeo, Aeneioo?a oa ?ioeo).

Ea?oeio iie?oe/ieo iiae?e o Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo XX no. nooo?ai
aeiiiaith? iaioa?ia e?oa?aoo?a. Niiaaaee I. Aiaaeeinueeiai,
N. Aeiia?inueeiai, ?. Aeaoeinueeiai, A. A?oina a?aeia?aaeathoue iiaeyaee
??cieo iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue e?ath noiniaii oe?a?ioe?a.

Aei aeaea?aeueii? aace i?aaenoaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeaaeeoue oaeiae
aaeeoeueea ioae?oeenoeea ii/aoeo XX no. Na?aae oe?a?inueei?
ioae?oeenoeee nai?ie aiae?oe/ieie iaeyaeaie ae??ciyeeny i?aoe? ?.
O?aiea, I. A?ooaanueeiai , I. Eiceinueeiai, E. Eaaeoeueeiai, A. Eina ,
?. Noaoaithea oa ?ioeo. O iieuenuee?e ioae?oeenoeoe? iiaeaii oe?ieee
niaeo? iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a o noaaeaii? aei oe?a?inueeiai /eiieea.
Na?aae ieo ? ?iaioe A. Oaeueaeiaia, ?. Aeiianueeiai, A. Aeoaaiiae/a,
?. A?iy?nueeiai oa ?ioeo.

Aiae?c aaeeoeueei? i?ane, ui i?aaenoaaeyea an? iie?oe/i? iai?yiee
Aaee/eie ii/aoeo XX no., aeaa aaaaoee oaeoe/iee ? noaoenoe/iee iaoa??ae
oa iaeno?ieao?oo aaio iie?oe/ieo ioe?iie eiie?aoieo iiae?e.

Ii?aoeueiaai? o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oi? aeaea?aea
aeicaieeee aaoi?o neeanoe aeieeaaeia oyaeaiiy i?i ci?no, oa?aeoa? ?
coiiaeai?noue ?aeaieia?? oa iie?oeee i?ia?aeieo iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo
oa/?e noiniaii oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo
XXno. I?aenoiee aea/aiiy aeaiiai ieoaiiy aeeeaaeai? o ianooiieo
?icae?eao.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? «Iieuenueea ni?eueiioa oa oe?a?inueeee ?oo
o iaoe?iiaeuei?e iie?oeoe? Aano??enueei? ?iia??? ia ?oaaae? O?O — OO
noie?oue» i?enay/aiee aiae?co i?aaii-iie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua iieuenueeiai
e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iae?a o Aaee/ei? ( i?ia?ioe?? Aano??enueei? ?iia??? (
ia ceai? O?O – OO no. O iueiio oaeiae iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia?o?eiiai
no?oeoo?oaaiiy iieuenueeiai e oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueieo ?oo?a e?ath,
?oi? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?ia?aie oeueiai ia??iaeo.

Aiae?c noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ianoaiiaee Aaee/eie ye i?ia?ioe??
Aano??enueei? iiia?o?? caaaeii oa noaaeaiiy iieuenueei? noni?eueiino?
aei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, cie?aia, aea? i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe:
?ic’?aeiai?noue oe?a?inueeiai e iieuenueeiai ia?iae?a, ye? ia?aaoaaee
i?ae aeaaeith /oaeicaiieo ?iia??e, caaea ia ii/aoeo XX no. ?oi?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei? ?ooe aei iaei??? oa?eoi??? oa coiiaeea
c?oeiaiiy a ?aieao no?aeii? i?ia?ioe?? Aaanao?a?a eiioeaioe?e aeaio
iaoe?iiaeueieo I’?iiio?a.

Aeaeea?iaaia aano??enueeith eiinoeoooe??th i?aai ia iaoe?iiaeueio
??ai?noue ia i?aeoeoe? aoei iinoaaeaia a i?yio caeaaei?noue a?ae
iie?oe/ii? neee iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a. I?ioean oe?a?inueeiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia oa?aiao Aaee/eie i?ioiaeea ae iaaaaaoi oni?oi?oa, yeae
ia iie?oeea oeaio?aeueiiai o?yaeo e aano??enueeiai aeai?o a noaaeaii?
aei oeo ia?iae?a, ye? ianaeyee ?iia??th, oa ?iia?nueeee i?eioeei
“iiae?eye ? aeaaea?the”. Oae aoei ? a No?aei?e Aaeee/i?, aea a?eueo?noue
ianaeaiiy noaiiaeee oe?a?ioe?, a aeaaea oaeoe/ii ia?aaoaaea a
iieuenueeeo ?oeao.

Inoaii? aeanyoe??//y XIX no. iicia/aia a Aaee/ei? ooai?aiiyi iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e ?a?iiaenueeiai c?acea. Ia?oei, ooi ?icii/aa ia?o?eia
no?oeoo?oaaiiy aaeeoeueeiai noni?euenoaa, aoee oe?a?inuee? ?aaeeeaee oa
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe ?acii c iieuenueeeie ethaeiaoeyie oa nioe?ae?noaie.
Iniaeea?noth iie?oe/iiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy a Aaee/ei? aoei e oa, ui
oe?a?ioe? a i?aai?caoe?eiiio ieai? oaeaeoa cao?ooaaeeny iaaeiei
ia?o?eieo no?oeoo?, i?ae iniiai? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oaai?e
iieuenueeiai ?ooo. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui iieuenueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo
iaa a?eueo aeeaiea, ?noi?e/ii coiiaeaia aea?aeaaieoeueea ei??iiy,
i?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeiaoe?a ?ai?oa, i?ae iieuenuee?
aaeeoeuee? iie?oeee, iaieineee i?i nai? iai??e a?aeiiaeoe iacaeaaeio
oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao.

Aiae?c oe?ieiai niaeo?o iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai iieuenueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia ceai? O?O — OO no. cana?ae/ea cia/i?
?ica?aeiino? i?ia?ai oa ae?yeueiino? iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee Aaee/eie
noiniaii oe?a?ioe?a. Iaa?oue o oaai?? iieuenueei? oeyooe (eiina?aaoi??a)
ia aoei ?aeiino? c oeueiai ieoaiiy. Aeey noaiue/ee?a oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy
aoei aeaiaioii iie?oe/iiai ?ic?aooieo aeey oo?eiaiiy aeaaee a e?a?. Oaea
iie?oeea eiina?aaoi??a caeeoaea iaaio iiaeeea?noue aeey
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai ii?icoi?iiy i?ae aeaiia neia’yinueeeie ia?iaeaie.

Iiaeieyee, ye i?aaenoaaieee no?aeiiaaeeoeueei? oeyooe, i?eiee ia aoee
i?eoeeueieeaie ni?ai?aoe? c oe?a?ioeyie, ine?eueee aaaaeaee inoaii?o
caa?icith aeey nai?o ianaiia?aae aeiiii?/ieo, a i?ci?oa e
eoeueoo?ii-iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a o No?aei?e Aaee/ei?.

Cia/ia /anoeia iieuenueeiai aaeeoeueeiai noni?euenueaa ia iaae? O?O — OO
no. aeineoue eiyeueii noaaeeany aei oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo. Iiiceoe?ei? aei
aeaaee (a oeae ia??iae) iieuenuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, na?aae yeeo aoee
e?aa?ae-aeaiie?aoe, ethaeiaoe?, nioe?ae?noe aenooiaee ca ni?ai?aoeth c
oe?a?ioeyie. Aea oey ni?ai?aoey, ia aeoieo ?aeaieia?a caaaeaieo
iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee, iiaeiia aoea iaoe aeeeth/ii iiiceoe?eiee
oa?aeoa? noiniaii i?aaey/i? a Aaee/ei? ia?o?? eiina?aaoi??a.

Cina?aaeaeoth/e ia iaae? noie?oue onth iiaiioo aeaaee a Aaee/ei?,
iieuenueea noni?eueia ae?oa iaei ia?aeiaeany oaaea?ae?noe/ieie
aeiiaaaiiyie oe?a?ioe?a ? caa?oaea iniiaio iie?oe/io oaaao ia
i?aeia?o?ei? noio?a/ee a naiiio iieuenueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaai??. Aea
e?enoae?caoe?y aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue na?aae oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo nee ?c caeo/aiiyi aei oeeo ?aeae noni?eueieo iec?a, c iaeiiai
aieo, i?eo?ae ia a?aio aaeeoeueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee iaoe?iiae?cio
aiaeae?a, c ?ioiai, oa iiaia aacii?aaei?noue o ae??oaii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy oeaio?aeueiiai aano??enueeiai o?yaeo ni?eyee iaaeae? c?inoaiith
i?ioenoiyiiy iieye?a ? oe?a?ioe?a o Aaee/ei?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e «E?enoae?caoe?y ?aea? iieuenueei? aea?aeaaiino?
(1902-1907 ??.)» ioiieth? ia??iae 1902-1907 ??. O iueiio aea/athoueny
i?e/eie e iane?aeee oi?ioaaiiy ?aea? iieuenueei? aea?aeaaiino?, nooue
yei? iieyaaea a i?enoinoaaii? noa?i? eiioeaioe?? iieuenueei?
aea?aeaaiino? aei iiaeo oiia iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy Aaee/eie, eiee ia
iie?oe/io a?aio no?aeii? i?ia?ioe?? ?iia??? Aaanao?a?a aeoeaii
aeoiaeeoue oe?a?inueeee aecaieueiee ?oo ? ii/eia? ?aaeueii i?aoaiaeoaaoe
ia ??aiii?aaia noaiiaeua o noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e no?oeoo??
eiinoeoooe?eii? iiia?o??.

Aiae?coth/e oeyo, i?ieaeaiee iieuenueeith noni?eueii-iie?oe/iith
aeoieith a ia??iae 1902 — 1907 ??., niinoa??aa?ii i?ioean aeoeaiiai
oi?ioaaiiy ?aea? a?aeiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae ia aac?
iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo oai??e oa i?aaiaoe/ieo nioe?aeueii-?ioaeaeooaeueieo
aeieo?ei. Iaeiei c aaaiieo iiooiao?a aei e?enoae?caoe??
aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aea? aeey iieye?a aoea “oe?a?inueea caa?ica” a
Aaee/ei?. Ae?aciee iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iee aniaeo naeyinueeeo no?aee?a
1902 ?., eiee oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai aia?oa ?aaeueii caaeaeea?oaaei
naaa ye iie?oe/iee /eiiee, i?eca?a aei oiai, ui ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio
c’?cae? o Eueaia? 1903 ?. iaeaea an? iieuenuee? iie?oeee iiae?eaieo
iieuenueeeo caiaeue io?oe?eii iaieineee nai?th ni?eueiith iaoith
a?aeaoaeiao iacaeaaeii? Iieueu?. Oe? iiaeyaee aacoaaeeny ia
o?aaeeoe?eiiio ia?aeiiaii? i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iieuenueei?
aea?aeaae o ?? ?noi?e/ieo ei?aeiiao, aea oe?a?inuee? caie? aoaeooue
i?aai?/iith /anoeith ?a/? Iiniieeoi?.

E?enoae?caoe?y ?aea? iieuenueei? aea?aeaaiino? nai?i a?no?yi aoea
ni?yiiaaia oaeiae i?ioe i?aeaaeei oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?e?niino?
Aaanao?cueei? iiia?o??. O oaeeo oiiaao oeaio?aeueiiio aano??enueeiio
o?yaeia? aeiaaeinue ooeaoe aaaeae?a aeey iaeo?ae?caoe?? iiaeeeai?
caa?ice c iieuenueeiai aieo. Noi?ioaaaoe e?aeiao aaei?i?no?aoe?th ?c
a?eueo iii??eiaaieo i?aaenoaaiee?a cao?aeiiaaeeoeueeeo eiina?aaoi??a,
A?aeaiue ye eiiiainaoe?th caeeoea ia ?o ?icaeyae ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noia?a/iinoae.

Aacii?aaei?noue aano??enueeiai o?yaeo o ae??oaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?iaeaie, c?inoaiiy iie?oe/ii? aaae oe?a?inueeiai iie?oeeoio oa
iioe?aiiy iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? ?aeaieia?? aiaeae?a noaee aeaea?aeii
aioo??oi?o eiioe?eo?a o iieuenueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? Aaee/eie ia
ii/aoeo OO no. Naia “oe?a?inueea ni?aaa” iaeeaea na?e a?aeaeoie ia
iiey?ecaoe?th iieuenueeiai noni?euenoaa, eiai iiae?e ia i?eoeeueiee?a ?
i?ioeaiee?a iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai ii?icoi?iiy a Aano?i-Oai?uei?.

Noaaeaiiy aei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy iniaeeai /?oei i?iaeyaeaeiny a
iie?oeoe? iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e i?ae /an ia?eaiaionueeeo ?
naeiiaeo aeai?/eo eaiiai?e. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a oe?a?inueea i?iaeaia
ia?aoai?eeanue o i?ia?aeio oaio i?e oi?ioaaii? ia?aaeaeai?/eo
i?aeia?o?eieo nithc?a ? aeie?a.

I?ae /an ?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy ?aoi?ie aeai?/i? nenoaie aei aano??enueeiai
ia?eaiaioo, a i?ci?oa a ia??iae naieo ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a 1907 ?.,
iieuenuee? iie?oe/i? neee Aaee/eie, iacaaaeath/e ia nai? i?aeia?o?ei?
noia?a/iino?, aeeoee ia aeai?e ?aeeiei aioeoe?a?inueeei aeieii.
Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai noaei noai?aiiy a a?oaei? 1906 ?. ?aaee Ia?iaeiai? –
iieuenueeiai ia?aaeaeai?/iai ia’?aeiaiiy, aei yeiai oa?eoee
i?aaenoaaieee o?yaeiaeo e?e, oeaio?enonueei? iiiceoe?? o oi?i? aeieo
ethaeiaoe?a ? aeaiie?ao?a, a oaeiae i?aai?aaeeeaeueieo i?aaenoaaiee?a
iieuenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo Aaee/eie — aiaeae?a. Iineeaiiy
?oiueiai aieeao ia iieuenueeo aaeeoeueeo noni?euei?noue, yea iniaeeai
a?ae/ooii i?iyaeeiny i?ney ?o oni?oo ia ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ao,
a?aeeeaeaei ia iaaecia/aiee oa?i?i iiaeeea?noue oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai
ii?icoi?iiy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Naeiiaa aeai?/a ?aoi?ia: a?ae i?ioenoiyiiy aei
eiii?ii?no (1908-1914 ??.)» cina?aaeaeaia oaaaa ia iiae?yo 1908-1914 ??.
O 1908 ?. iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noia?a/iino? a Aaee/ei? aeinyaee
iaaacia/ii? iaae?. Oi?iaeiaae oeueiai ?ieo a?aeiineie i?ae aeaiia
ia?iaeaie aoee iano?eueee iai?oaeaieie, ui oiae?oi? iie?oe/i? /eiieee ia
iiaee ia?aaeaa/eoe, ni?iaiicoaaoe, a oiio e a?aeaa?iooe
i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? nooe/ee e e?iaii?ieeooy. I?iaeaia ae??oaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy iiae?eeea iieuenueeee iie?oe/iee oaa?? ia
i?eoeeueiee?a ? i?ioeaiee?a i?eie?aiiy c oe?a?inueeith noi?iiith. O
aeaiiio ?icae?e? i?inoaaeo?oueny neeaaeiee oeyo, i?ieaeaiee iieuenueeeie
e oe?a?inueeeie iie?oeeaie aei i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai eiii?ii?no, ui aoa
aeinyaiooee ia iniia? iiceoeaiiai ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy a?aee?eooy
oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa i?eeiyooy caeiio i?i aeai?e aei
Aaeeoeueeiai e?aeiaiai naeio a 1914 ?.

Aeai?/? ceiaaeeaaiiy 1908 ?. ? (ye iane?aeie oeueiai) aaeanoai
aaeeoeueeiai iai?nieea A. Iioioeueeiai oe?a?inueeei nooaeaioii I.
N?/einueeei i?ecaaee aei aneaeaoe?? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai eiioe?eoo a
no?aei?e i?ia?ioe?? ?iia??? Aaanao?a?a. Iii??eiaai? iieuenuee?
aaeeoeuee? iie?oeee ae?eoee aei ?icoi?iiy oiai, ui eeoa eiii?ii?n c
oe?a?ioeyie ciiaea caa?aaoe ?aaeuei? aaaeae? iie?oe/ii? aeaaee a
iieuenueeeo ?oeao. Oei a?eueoa, ui a?aeainueeee o?yae “ciaia’ycaa”
i?aaey/o a e?a? ia?o?th e?ae?anueeeo eiina?aaoi??a ae??oeoe
i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie no?aeii? i?ia?ioe?? Aano??? c iaeyaeo ia
c?inoath/o a oeae ia??iae iiaeeea?noue a?enueeiaiai eiioe?eoo
Aano?i-Oai?ueie c ?in?enueeith ?iia???th.

Iniaeeaa ?ieue o ae??oaii? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai i?ioenoiyiiy a
Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo OO no., c iieuenueeiai aieo, iaeaaeaea aaeeoeueeiio
e?aeiaiio iai?nieeia? I. Aiaaeeinueeiio, yeee, i?eeoiaoe aei aeaaee a
e?a? a 1908 ?., oniaaeeoaaa aoiinoa?o iaea?eueoiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iiai iai?oaeaiiy. Iath/e i?ae eiio?ieai ?inoeooo
iai?nieea, noaiue/eee, c iiaiiai ni?eyiiy A?aeiy, i?iaiaeeee aeoeaio
?iaioo uiaei iiooeo iie?oe/ieo nithciee?a ia i?aeo?eieo ?aae?caoe??
?aea? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai ii?icoi?iiy. Aeei?enoiaoth/e nai?
iie?oe/i? aieeae oa iniaeno? ca’ycee, noaiue/eeai aaeaeiny a 1909 ?.
?icaeoe iaoe?iiae?noe/iee aeie aiaeae?a oa e?aa?ae-aeaiie?ao?a ?
i?eaa?iooe ia na?e a?e inoaii?o. I?eoeeueieeaie ni?ai?aoe? c oe?a?ioeyie
noaee ethaeiaoe?, ye? ca naith ni?ai?aoeth c? noaiue/eeaie io?eiaee
noaoon “ni?ao?yaeiai?” ia?o?? a Aaee/ei? oa cia/i? a?ioia? aeiaai?iaee
a?ae aano??enueeiai o?yaeo aeey nai?o ea??aiee?a. Oeae “o?eoia??ao”
iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e iinoaaea nia? ca iaoo caa?aaoe iieuenueeee
oa?aeoa? cao?aeii? ? no?aeii? /anoei i?ia?ioe??, a oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oee?a caeo/eoe aei iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy e?a?i eeoa a o?e i???, uia
ia aeaoe iiaeeeaino? noai?eoe oe?a?inueea naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Aaee/ei?.
Iieuenuee? ia?o?? “aeieo” iai?nieea ?icaeyaeaee oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy
e??cue i?ecio iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a Aaanao?cueei? ?iia???:
iaai? iinooiee ia ei?enoue aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a aoee iio??ai?, uia ia
aeiionoeoe ?o i???ioaoe?? ia ?in?th.

Aeey iieaaiaeaeaiiy iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai i?ioenoiyiiy a e?a?
aaeeoeueeei iie?oeeai ne?ae aoei ae??oeoe aeaa i?eioeeiiaeo ieoaiiy:
i?iaaaeaiiy naeiiai? aeai?/i? ?aoi?ie oa a?aee?eooy oe?a?inueeiai aeuiai
iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo o Eueaia?. Iaeaeaa oe? ieoaiiy iaee
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iee (a ia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiaee) oa?aeoa?.
Aioiai?noue “aeieo” aei eiii?ii?no c oe?a?ioeyie ni?e/eieea iaaaoeaio
?aaeoe?th c aieo iaoe?iiae?noe/ii i???ioiaaieo ia?o?e iieuenueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaai?o. Aiaeaee, iiaeieyee oa eea?eeaeuei? ethaeiaoe?
noai?eee “aioeaeie” iie?oe/ieo nee, yeee aenooiea i?ioeaieeii
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai ii?icoi?iiy.

Iieuenuee? oia?i?noe iino?eii aaeueioaaee ia?aaiai?iee i?ioean i?ae
iieuenueeith ? oe?a?inueeith noi?iiaie, aenooiath/e i?ioe o?yaeiaeo
i?iaeo?a aeai?/i? ?aoi?ie, iniaeeai a o?e ?o /anoei?, aea aeiioneaeiny
aeae?eaiiy oe?a?ioeyi iaiaeao?a.

Noai?aiiy eiina?aaoeaiiai “aeieo” oa iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai “aioeaeieo”, c
iaeiiai aieo, cia/ii iineaaeei iieuenueeee iie?oe/iee oaa??, a c ?ioiai
( i?ecaaei aei niia?eueiaiiy i?ioeano i?eeiyooy oeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a,
ye? a iaee noaoe iniiaith iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai i?eie?aiiy. Ai?ioueaa
ca aeaiie?aoecaoe?th nenoaie aeai??a aei Aaeeoeueeiai naeio o?eaaea
iiiaae 5 ?ie?a.

Ia??aeiei eaiaiai i?eeiyooy iiaiai aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa noaa
e?euee?niee ?iciiae?e naeiiaeo iaiaeao?a i?ae iieyeaie e oe?a?ioeyie a
iaeaooiueiio e?aeiaiio ia?eaiaio?. Noia?a/ee c oeueiai ieoaiiy oi/eeeny
a aeaio iie?oe/ieo ieiueiao: 1) “aeie” – “aioeaeie”; 2) iieyee –
oe?a?inuee? ia?iaeiaoe?. Eii?ii?no aoei aeinyaiooi aaea ia?ee?ioe? 1912
?. E??i oiai, iieuenueea noi?iia ia oeae /an oaea i?eeiyea ??oaiiy i?i
caiaeo ia a?aee?eooy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i?aaaea, ia aoei
eiie?aoii iaoiiaeaii i?noea canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai aoco).

Ia ii/aoeo 1913 ?. i?ioe ?ic?iaeaiiai aa??aioo naeiiai? aeai?/i? ?aoi?ie
aenooiea ?eii-eaoieeoeueeee ?ieneiiao, yeee aoa i?aeo?eiaiee aiaeaeaie.
O oae?e neooaoe?? iai?niee iiaeaa o a?aenoaaeo, a oe?na? ?icionoea
e?aeiaee naei.

Ia ii/aoeo 1914 ?. iiaee aaeeoeueeee iai?niee A. Ei?eoianueeee c
aeoeaiith i?aeo?eieith a?aeainueeiai o?yaeo oa iina?aaeieoeueeith
ae?yeuei?noth oe?a?inueeiai eaoieeoeueeiai ieo?iiieeoa A. Oaioeoeueeiai
noeeea iieuenueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a iiaiaeeoeny i?eeiyoe iiao aeai?/o
i?aeeiaoe?th, ca yeith oe?a?ioeyi iaaeaaaeinue 27,2 % i?noeue o
Aaeeoeueeiio e?aeiaiio naei?. Oea aoa cia/iee oni?o ye iieuenueei?, oae
? oe?a?inueei? iie?oeee. Noaaeaiiy iiai? aeai?/i? i?aeeiaoe?? c
i?eeiyoiith aeey oe?a?inueei? noi?iie e?euee?noth naeiiaeo iaiaeao?a oa
caiaea iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? ?o ia?eaiaionueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ia
a?aee?eooy oe?a?inueeiai aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo a Aaee/ei? noaee
iniiaith iieuenueei-oe?a?inueei? oaiaee, yea noai?eea iie?oe/iee
ooiaeaiaio aeey noaa?e?caoe?? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noia?a/iinoae o
no?aei?e i?ia?ioe?? Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia???. Caeeth/aiiy
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueei? oaiaee o?iiieia?/ii iaeaea ni?aiaei c ii/aoeii
ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, yea ia?aoeiaeeea ?aae?caoe?? i?aaii-iie?oe/ieo
canaae i?eeiyoeo aeiiiaeaiinoae.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeeeaaeaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??.

Iiceoe?? iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue Aaee/eie ia ii/aoeo OO no.
caciaaaee o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?ae ae??th oaeeo oaeoi??a: eiioeaio?aoe?y
aeaio iaoe?iiaeueieo I’?iiio?a o iaaeao iaei??? i?ia?ioe??
Aaanao?acueei? iiia?o??; c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy e?ath; e?enoae?caoe?y ?aea? iieuenueei?
aea?aeaaiino?; a?aenooi?noue iine?aeiaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee A?aeiy
o Aaee/ei?.

Ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? iieuenueeeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
nee a aeine?-aeaeoaaiee ia??iae cia/iee aieea iaee: iie?oe/i? i?ia?aie
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo Aano?i-Oai?ueie, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue ona?aeiieaiiyi iio?aae noai?aiiy i?aenoaa
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?; iioe?aiiy iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??
aiaeae?a, ye? ia ia?oee ieai noaaeee aaeeeiaea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane iieye?a;
iineeaiiy i?ioenoiyiiy iieuenueei? oa oe?a?inueei? a?iiaae o no?aei?e
i?ia?ioe?? ?iia??? Aaanao?a?a.

Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy iineoaeeei iiooiaoii aei iineeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
iieuenueeiai iie?oeeoio e iiae?eo eiai ia i?eoeeueiee?a ? i?ioeaiee?a
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai eiii?ii?no, yeee ae a?aoiaoaaa
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/i? ?ioa?ane iaio ia?iae?a. O iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?
Aaee/eie iaia?aaeiaei? ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie aenooieee aeaa iieuenuee?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oa?oiiaaiiy ( eiina?aaoeaii-aeaiie?aoe/iee «aeie» ?
iaoe?iiae?noe/iee «aioeaeie», ( ye? caeiaee a?aei?ii? iiceoe?? uiaei
oe?a?inueeeo aeiia, caeeoath/e, iaeii/anii, ca iieuenueeith noi?iiith
i?aai ia iie?oe/io aeii?iaoe?th a e?a?.

Caaino?aiiy iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a o Aaee/ei? cioneei
i?ia?aeieo ae?y/?a iieuenueei? oa oe?a?inueei? a?iiaae ooeaoe
iiaeeeainoae aca?iiiai ii?icoi?iiy. Iie?oe/ia i???ioaoe?y iaio
iaoe?iiaeueieo oaai??a ia aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/ia ia?aoai?aiiy
Aano?i-Oai?ueie ? oi?ioaaiiy a ?? iaaeao iniia iieuenueei? oa
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiinoae noai?thaaea i?aenoaae aeey ii?icoi?iiy
iieye?a ? oe?a?ioe?a. Oaea ii?icoi?iiy i?e o/ano? a?aeainueeeo i?aaey/eo
e?e noaei iiaeeeaei a ia?aaeaeaiue ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie. Iaeiae, ?c
aeiei??iiith ci?iith i?aeia?iaeii? neooaoe?? a ?a?ii?
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueea oaiaea ao?aoeea naith aeooaeuei?noue

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. Iieuenueea noni?euei?noue oa oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a Aaee/ei? a ia??iae
naeiiaeo aeai??a 1908 ?. (C ?noi??? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a).
– Euea?a: Eaiaiy?, 1997. – 46n.

2. Iieuenuee? aeaiie?aoe oa oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a Aaee/ei? iai?ee?ioe?
O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. (aei 1914 ?ieo)//A?niee Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y ?noi?e/ia. – Euea?a,

1998. – Aei. 33. – N. 122-131

3. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? noinoiee a Aaee/ei? oa naeyinuee? no?aeee 1902
?ieo//Neaa?noe/i? nooae?? – O.1: Iaoa??aee V-ai I?aeia?iaeiiai
neaa?noe/iiai eieiea?oio (Euea?a 14-16 o?aaiy 1996 ?.). – Euea?a, 1997.
– N. 144-147.

4. Aaee/eia ia ?oaaae? O?O – OO noie?oue: oe?a?inueeee /e iieuenueeee
I’?iiio? // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. – 1998. – ? 1.
– N. 131-135.

5. Anaiieuenueeee c’?cae iie?oee?a o 1903 ?. oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia
neooaoe?y a Aaee/ei? //Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? o OO
no. Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (21-22
eenoiiaaea 1996 ?.). – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997. – N. 109-113.

6. Iieuenueea a?iiaaenuee?noue oa ?aeay oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a
Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy//Eiina?aaoeci ? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a
Oeaio?aeueii-No?aei?e ?a?ii?. THa?eaeiee ca??iee iaoa??ae?a o?ao?o,
/aoaa?oeo ? i’yoeo /eoaiue iai’yo? A. Eeieinueeiai, ui a?aeaoeenue o
Eooeueeo oa Ethae?i? a 1996-1997 ?ieao. – Eooeuee; Ethae?i, 1997. – N.
40-42.

7. Iieuenueea ni?aaa: ca /ee ?aooiie? (Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? aca?ieie a
Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy) // Aeca?i. – 1997. – ?3. – N. 96-97.

Ieoaeuenueeee TH. A. Noaaeaiiy iieuenueeeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nee aei
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy a Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy (1902-1914). —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02. — anana?oiy ?noi??y. — Euea?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?ena’y/aii iaeiiio c aniaeo?a iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? Aaee/eie
ii/aoeo OO no., a naia — aieeao iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue ia
noni?eueii-iie?oe/io ianoaiiaeo a e?a?. Oi?ioaaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue
iieuenueeeo iie?oee?a ?icaeyaea?oueny a eiioaeno? ?oiueiai noaaeaiiy aei
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Aea/a?oueny aaiaca ? iane?aeee
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai i?ioenoiyiiy, ui iaei i?noea a oe?e no?aei?e
i?ia?ioe?? ?iia??? Aaanao?a?a. Aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? ?ieue iie?oe/ieo nee,
ye? i?aaenoaaeyee ??ci? aa?noae iieuenueeiai e oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy
Aaee/eie a i?ioean? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai ii?icoi?iiy. Aiii noaei
?aaeueiei c i?eeiyooyi naeiiaiai aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa iaia?aaeiaei?
ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aaee/eia, iieuenuee? iie?oe/i? oa?oiiaaiiy, oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo, i?aeiaoe?iiaeueia i?ioenoiyiiy,
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueea ii?icoi?iiy.

Ieoaeueneee TH. A. Ioiioaiea iieueneeo iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo nee e
oe?aeineiio aii?ino a Aaee/eia a ia/aea OO aaea (1902-1914). —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ca niaoeeaeueiinoueth 07.00.02. — anaie?iay enoi?ey. — Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia iaeiiio ec aniaeoia iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee
Aaee/eiu ia/aea OO a., a eiaiii — aicaeaenoaeth iieueneeo iieeoe/aneeo
a?oiie?iaaiee ia iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneoth ianoaiiaeo a ?aaeiia.
Oi?ie?iaaiea e aeayoaeueiinoue iieueneeo iieeoeeia ?anniao?eaaaony a
eiioaenoa eo aeeyiey ia oe?aeineia iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea. Eco/aaony
aaiacen e iineaaenoaey iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai i?ioeainoiyiey, eioi?ia eiaei
ianoi a yoie ainoi/iie i?iaeioeee eiia?ee Aaanao?aia. Aaoi? enneaaeoao
?ieue iieeoe/aneeo nee, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeyee ?aciua neie iieueneiai e
oe?aeineiai ianaeaiey Aaee/eiu a i?ioeanna iieuenei-oe?aeineiai
niaeaney. Iii noaei ?aaeueiui n i?eiyoeai naeiiaiai ecae?aoaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaeaioia ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aaee/eia, iieueneea iieeoe/aneea a?oiie?iaaiey,
oe?aeineia iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiia i?ioeainoiyiea,
iieuenei-oe?aeineia niaeanea.

Mykhalsky Yu. V.

The attitude of Polish social-political forces to the Ukrainian question
in Gallicia at the beginning of the XX century (1902-1914) — Manuscript.

A Dissertation for defending a degree of the candidate of Historian
Science, speciality, 07.00.02. — the World History, Lviv Ivan Franko
State University, Lviv, 1998.

The Dissertation is devoted to one of the aspects of political history
of Gallicia at the beginning of the twentith century. The influence of
Polish political groups on social political situation in the country.
The formation and the activity of Polish politicians is considered in
the contects of their relations with Ukrainian national movement. The
consequence of international opposition is being learned which was in
the Easten province of Gabsburg Empire. The author is inverstigating the
part of the political forces which were represented by different parts
of Polish and Ukrainian population of Gallicia in the proces of
Polish-Ukrainian mutual respect. It has become real after the adoption
of the Seim electorial system before the World War I.

Key words: Gallicia, Polish Political groups, the Ukrainian National
Movement, international opposition, the Polish-Ukrainian mutual respect.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 25.11.98

Oi?iao 60o90/16. Ae?oe – ??cia?ao?y.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,1. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. 412.

Oeaio? iia?aoeaii? iie?a?ao?? – o??ia “AIN”

i.Euea?a, aoe. Eeiiaa Aeay, 9.

A?ooaanueeee I. Iaoa iie?oeea. – Euea?a, 1911; O?aiei ?. Iieyee ?
?oneie // C?a?aiiy oai??a.; O 50 o. – E., 1986. – O. 46. Ei. 2. – N.
317-330; Eiceinueeee I. Iiae?e Aaee/eie. – Euea?a, 1913; Aa/einueeee TH.
Aca?ii? a?aeiineie nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?o?e, oe?a?inueei? ?
iieuenueei? a No?aei?e Aaee/ei?. – Euea?a, 1910; Iaca?oe I. I?i
aoaoiieye?a, ?o ?noi??th, oai??th ? oaeio i?aai?caoe?th. – Euea?a, 1907.

Wasilewski L. Narodowo?ci Austro-Wegier. – Krakow, 1902; Wasilewski L.
Ukraina i sprawa ukrainska. – Krakow, 1911; Feldman W. Stronnictwa i
programy polityczne w Galicji. 1846-1906. – T. 1-2. – Krakow, 1907;
Piltz E. Nasze stronnictwa skrajne. – T. 2.- Krakow, 1903.

Iiaiaeei A. Aeaaiuy oa/ai?y iieueneie iieeoe/aneie iunee (1863-1907). –
N.-Iaoa?ao?au, 1907; Iiaiaeei A. Neaayineee i??u. Iie?oe/aneia e
yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeai?a neaayineeou ia?iaeia ia?aae aieiie 1914 aiaea.
– Iineaa, 1915.

Eaaeoeueeee E. ?noi??y iie?oe/ii? aeoiee aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a.
1848-1914. Ia i?aenoaa? niiiei?a ? aeieoiaio?a. – *. 1-2. – Euea?a,
1926-1927.

Aiae?onye I. Ia?ene ?noi??? aaeeoeueeiai iineaio?euenoaa. – Euea?a,
1935.

Feldman W. Dzieje polskiej my?li politycznej 1864-1914. – Warszawa,
1933.

Kieniewicz S. Adam Sapieha (1828-1903). – Warszawa, 1993.

Ceoiei N. ?aeaeia ai?ioueaa iaaeiei aa?a?ii-naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy a
Aaee/ei?. – Euea?a, 1960; Naaaeeinueeee I. Aa?a?i? a?aeiineie ia
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. – Euea?a, 1966;
Ina/einueeee A. Aaee/eia i?ae ai?oii Aano?i-Oai?ueie a aiioo
?iia??ae?cio. – Euea?a, 1954; Iaea?/oe N. Yoiinioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea e
iaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey ia caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caieyo a ia?eiae
eiia?eaeecia. – Eueaia, 1983.

Eoeue/eoeueeee A. Aea?aeaaiee eaae ? i?aai a Aaee/ei? (a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.). – Euea?a, 1965.

Iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea ia iieueneeo caieyo. Iniiaiua eaeaeiua oa/aiey
e iieeoe/aneea ia?oee a 1864-1914 aa. / Ioa. ?aae. A. I. I?aoia. –
Iineaa, 1988.

Aeaieiae/-Aeia?yinueeee I. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? noinoiee o O?O
noi??//?. – Ithioai, 1969; Aeaieiae/-Aeia?yinueeee I. Iioioeueeee ?
Aiaaeeinueeee. Oe?na?nuee? iai?nieee Aaee/eie 1903-1913. – ?ei, 1987.

Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee ?. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee: oyaa? ?noi???
// ?noi?e/i? ana. – O. 1. – E., 1994. – N. 83-110; Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee
?. Oe?a?ioe? a Aaee/ei? i?ae aano??enueeei iaioaaiiyi // ?noi?e/i? ana.
– O. 1. – E., 1994. – N. 413-450.

Najdus W. Szkice z historii Galicji. – T.1: Galicja w latach 1900-1904.
– Warszawa, 1958; Grzybowski K. Galicja 1848-1914. Historia ustroju
politycznego na tle historii ustroju Austrii. – Krakow; Wroc?aw;
Warszawa, 1959; Grodziski S. W Krolestwie Galicji i Lodomerii. – Krakow,
1976; Wereszycki H. Historia polityczna Polski 1864-1918. – Wroc?aw;
Warszawa; Krakow; Gdansk; Fod?, 1990.

Najdus W. Polska Partia Socialno-demokratyczna Galicji i (l?ska
1890-1919. – Warszawa, 1983; Zarys historii polskiego ruchu ludowego. –
T. 1: 1864-1918. – Warszawa, 1963; Dunin-W?sowicz K. Dzieje Stronnictwa
Ludowego w Galicji. – Warszawa, 1956.

Buszko J. Sejmowa reforma wyborcza w Galicji 1905-1914. – Warszawa,
1956.

Eoaooye I. Aaee/eia: noi??iee ?noi???. Ia?en noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
?ooo (O?O no – 1939 ?.). – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1993; Noaae?e
O.Oe?a?inueea «aania ia?iae?a» o Eueaia? // Euea?a. ?noi?e/i? ia?ene. –
Euea?a, 1996. – N. 168-183; A?eooa I. Aaeeoeueeee naei: aeai?/? eaiiai??
1889 ? 1895 ??. – Euea?a, 1996; Ioae?ee I. I?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy a
Aaee/ei? a eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei (ae?oaa iieiaeia
O?O noie?ooy) // Oe?a?ia a ieioeiio. – E.; Euea?a, 1996. – Aei. 9. – N.
77-102; *i?iiaie ?. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inueea oaiaea 1890-1894 ??.: aaiaca,
ia?aa?a iiae?e, iane?aeee. Aeen… eaiae. ?noi?. iaoe: 07.00.01. –
Euea?a, 1994.

A?eoeae ss. Ia?en ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii? oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?? O?O – OO noie?ooy. – E., 1996.

Ea/a?aaa N. ?iaeee I. Oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y. Ai?a?aoe?eiee ?oo c?
No?aeii? Aaee/eie oa I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie o 1890-1914 ??. – Euea?a, 1995.

Iaea?/oe N. A?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iee oeaio? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai e?ath
// Euea?a. ?noi?e/i? ia?ene. – Euea?a, 1996. – N. 267-290; Iaea?/oe N.
Oe?a?inueea ?anioae?ea aaee/ai. Ia?ene i?i COI?. – Euea?a, 1997.

Aeaoeaae/ ss. No?aeia Aaee/eia: aoi?/i? a?aeiineie, iaoe?iiaeuei? i?oe
oa iaioae?oaoe // Oe?a?ia a ieioeiio. – E.; Euea?a, 1994. – Aei. 6. – N.
78-93.

Caoe?eueiye E. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? noinoiee o OO no.: o?aaeeoe?? ?
no/ani?noue // I?iaeaie neia’yiiciaanoaa. – Euea?a, 1996. – Aei. 49. –
N. 71-76; Caoe?eueiye E. Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a i?aoeyo oa ae?yeueiino?
Eaiia Aaneeaanueeiai // Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? nooae??. Oe?a?ia –
Iieueua: ?noi?e/ia niaaeueia ? noni?eueia na?aeii?noue. – E., 1993. – N.
142-150; Zaszkilniak L. Polski ruch ludowy i kwestia ukrainska w Galicji
w koncu XIX i na pocz?tku XX wieku (do 1914 r.) // Wie? – ch?opi – ruch
ludowy – panstwo. Ksiega Pami?tkowa Profesora Jozefa Ryszarda Szaflika /
Pod red. A. Ko?odziejczyka. – Warszawa, 1996. – S. 61-67.

Buszko J. Polacy w parlamencie wiedenskim 1848-1918. – Warszawa, 1996;
Grodziski S. Sejm Krajwy Galicyiski 1861-1914. – T. 1. – Warszawa, 1993.

Szaflik J. Uwarunkowania aktywno?ci spo?eczno-politycznej ch?opow
galicyjskich u schy?ku XIX wieku // Rocznik S?decki. – 1991. – T. 22. –
S. 11-25; Jachymek J. Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe – Lewica, 1913-1914.
Studium o powstaniu, dzia?alno?ci i rosk?adzie ugrupowania politycznego.
– Lublin, 1991; Konefa? J. Katolicko-ludowe organizacje polityczne w
zaborze austriackim na prze?ome XIX i XX stulecia //
Ch?opi-Narod-Kultura. – T. 2: Dzia?alno?ae polityczna ruchu ludowego /
Pod red. S. D?browskiego. – Rzeszow, 1996. – S. 34-45; Czajowski J.
Kardyna? Sapieha. – Wrac?aw, 1997; Jaskolski M.
Konserwatyzm-nacjonalizm. Studia nad konfrontacjami ideowymi
konserwatyzmu krakowskiego i demokracji narodowej przed 1914 r. –
Krakow, 1988; Fazuga W. Ostatni stanczyk. Micha? Bobrzynski – portret
konserwatysty. – Poznan, 1982; Janowski M. Inteligencja wobec wyzwan
nowoczesno?ci: dylematy ideowe polskiej demokracji liberalnej w Galicji
w latach 1889-1914. – Warszawa, 1996; W?tor A. Dzia?alno?ae Stronnictwa
Demokratyczno-Narodowego w zaborze Austriackim do roku 1914. –
Szczeaein, 1993.

Grucha?a J. Rz?d austriacki i polskie stronnictwa polityczne w Galicji
wobec kwestii ukrainskiej (1890-1914). – Katowice, 1988.

Partacz C. Od Badeniego do Potockiego. Stosunki polsko-ukrainskie w
Galicji w latach 1888-1908. – Torun, 1996.

PAGE

PAGE 18

Похожие записи