IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO NOIAeICIAANOAA ?I.A.E?EINUeEIAI

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

E?eoaieiA?eoi? Ieaen?eiae/

930. 9 (477 + 510)

NOAIIAEAIIss OE?A?INUeEIAI EEOA?CIAANOAA.

(XVIII NO. — 41 ?.OO NO.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue — 07.00.02 — Anana?oiy ?noi??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? ?a?ac?enueeiai noaio, Aeaeaeiai oa No/aniiai
Noiaeo ?inoeoooo noiaeiciaanoaa ?i.A.E?einueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — Iai?aaIeaia Aeieo??aia, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
caa?aeoth/a Eaoaae?ith aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i Aieeinueeiai ?inoeoooo
aeiiii?ee oa iaiaaeaeiaioo (i.Eooeuee).

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

EauaieiEaii?ae Iaae?eiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei IAIOe?a?ie.

I?e?oaiei Na?a?eIeaenaiae?iae/, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee
eiinoeueoaio a?aeae?eo no?aoaa?? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?inoeoooo no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaee Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?
iai?iie Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y -?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i.I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAIOe?a?ie, Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «10» «aa?aciy » 1999?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae26.174.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe a ?inoeooo? noiaeiciaanoaa
?i.A.E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Aae?ana: Oe?a?ia, 252001, i.Ee?a, aoe.A?ooaanueeiai, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
noiaeiciaanoaa ?i.A.E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «9» «ethoiai» 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe /Aoaaiie I.A./

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No?ae oa Oe?a?ia — oaia, ui ca nai?i ci?noii
??ciiieaiiaa ? iane/aia i?eeeaaeii eiie?aoieo ?noi?e/ieo aca?iieiioaeo?a
oa aca?iiaieea?a. Aeieeaaeiee ?icaeyae a?aeiinei iaoi? e?a?ie c? Noiaeii
o ieioeiio cia/ii ?icoe?th? ?o aaia?ao?th ? i?eaiaeeoue ia Aeaeaeee
No?ae — aei Eeoath.

*anoeia aeaaiueiai o?aineiioeiaioaeueiiai oeyoo Iae?i — E?naaii, ui
i?ioiaeea caieyie Oe?a?ie-?on?, caa??aa? iaai? ne?aee oi?aiaaeueieo
eiioaeo?a, aea a?oaieia?/iee iaoa??ae iiaea i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaoe eeoa oaeo
o?aineoeueoo?iiai iai?io. Ca /an?a iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai iaioaaiiy Oai
Aaeee (Iae?i), Ea?aei?oi a Eeoa? aeiae iiiaieuenueei? aeeiano?? THaiue
oa Ee?a, Aaee/, Aieiaeeie? o neeaae? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? aea?aeaae
iieiythoueny ia ??ci? aiee iiiaieuenueei? ieeoiaie, yea iinoa?
?ao?aineyoi?ii ciaiue oa oyaeaiue i?i iaeaea? e?a?ie ? i?eionea?
iaeiie/aiiy a?aeiiinoae i?i iaeaea? noi?iie. I?ioa iayai? aeaea?aea (ye
ienaii? oae ? ?a/ia?) aai iaeaea ia i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iiae?aieo
eiioaeo?a, aai na?ae/aoue o?eueee i?i o?aineoeueoo?iee oa?aeoa? iai?io,
a ?nioaaiiy eoeueoo?ieo caiice/aiue aeeeeea? aeeneon?eia noaaeaiiy.
Oaeee noai ?a/ae caa??aa?oueny aei ae?oai? iieiaeie XVIIIno.

A oeae /an /anoeia eieeoiuei? iiiaieuenueei? ieeoiaie noa? neeaaeiaith
Iineianueeiai oea?noaa (i?ae aeaaeo yeiai iinooiiai i?aeiaaea? Oe?a?ia)
? i?iaeiaaeo? aooe ?ao?aineyoi?ii ciaiue ? oyaeaiue i?i Eeoae. Oi/a
a?aeiineie Eeoae-Oe?a?ia ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?oiai ia??iaeo, iaaoaathoue
nenoaiaoeciaaiiai aeaeyaeo, aiie iathoue iiina?aaeeiaaiee oa?aeoa? ?
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ?ioa?anai e?a?ie-iina?aaeieoe?.

Iiaeeea?noue ?icaeoeo naiino?eieo a?aeiinei ? a?aeoaia? o?aoueiai
ciaeiinoaa c Eeoa?i noaei ?aaeueiei o?eueee c a?aeiiaeaiiyi o 1991?.
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Iiia?aaei?e iiina?aaeeiaaiee eiioaeo aecia/ea
niaoeeo?eo a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie c Eeoa?i. Aiie iaiaaeoaaeeny aai ia?aaaaeii
aecia/aeeny naia oi?ioaaiiyi oyaeaiue i?i oeth e?a?io — oiaoi ye ?noi??y
?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa, a aac ciaiiy Eeoath ia iiaeia aeinyaiooe
??aiii?aaieo a?aeiinei c iei. Ioaea, niaaeueia iaoeo iiia?aaeiee?a ?
oi?eaeueiith iiaeeea?noth ii/aoeo oaeiai ciaiiy o iaaeao oe?a?inueeiai
aeina?aeo, ui ? iaae?eiei aa?aioii oa iniiaith ye aeey ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei-eeoaenueeeo noinoie?a oae ? oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa.
Oaeei /eiii, oaiaoeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny aea/aiiyi ciaiue i?i
Eeoae a Oe?a?i?, ui a?aeia?aaeaii o iaca? ?iaioe- «Noaiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa. (XVIIIno. -41?.OOno.)».

Ia?aio oaio ca oioae?oa?ii? aeiae i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai aoei aeine?aeeoe.
?? ?ic?iaea eeoa ia?aaeaa/aea aeeth/aiiy ?in?enueeeie oa ?aaeyinueeeie
aeine?aeieeaie iaaeaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo eeoa?ciaaoe?a aei neeaaeo
?in?enueei? iaoee aac niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy oe??? niaaeueie ?
aecia/aiiy oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaio
aeena?oaoe?? caoaa?aeaeaii ia A/ai?e ?aae? ?inoeoooo noiaeiciaanoaa
?i.A.E?einueeiai, a yeiio c iiiaioo canioaaiiy o 1991 ?. ?icii/aeeny e
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie c? Noiaeii oa ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
noiaeiciaanoaa. Ia oeueiio oa?ai? aaea ia nueiaiaei? aeinyaiooi
iaaaeyeeo ?acoeueoao?a, i?ioa aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa ua o?eueee
?icii/eia?oueny. Aaea ia?o? ni?iae aeine?aeeoe oea ieoaiiy i?eianee
oe?eaa? ciao?aeee, ye? cia/iith i??ith aeiiiaiththoue, a ?iiae? iaa?oue
ci?iththoue aaea ?nioth/ee aaoi?eoaoiee iiaeyae ?in?enueeeo ?noi?ee?a ia
i?noea oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a Eeoath o neiieia??. Oiio aeaia ?iaioa
aoiaeeoue aei eiiieaeno caaaeaiue ii ?ica’ycaiith ieoaiue c ?noi???
a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie oa Noiaeo e ?icaeoeo noiaeiciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?, ui eiai
cae?enith? ?inoeooo noiaeiciaanoaa ?i.A.E?einueeiai.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy oaiiiaio
eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?, eiai aeoie?a, caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo oa oi?i
?nioaaiiy. Oea nea?iao? aiae?c ia o?e iai?yiee, ui aecia/athoue ia’?eoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?eoi??aeueiiai, ?inoeoooe?eiiai oa ia?niiaeueiiai
??aiy. Caaaeaiiy, ye? iinoaaea aeena?oaio neeaaeathoue eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i? a cacia/aiee ia??iae ?
aeeth/athoue oaee ieoaiiy: 1)aecia/aiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace oe?a?inueeiai
eeoa?ciaanoaa, 2)aecia/aiiy eiea oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a oa
aeine?aeiee?a, ye? i?e/aoi? aei aea/aiiy Eeoath, 3)aiae?c oe?a?inueeeo
i?aoeue c i?iaeai aea/aiiy Eeoath, 4)anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy oa i?noey
oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a o eeoa?ciaanoa?, 5)noai?aiiy a?ia?ae?ia?ao??
oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa, 6)aecia/aiiy ?inoeoooe?eieo i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaaeenue i?ae /an ?icaeoeo oe??? iaoeiai? aaeoc?, 7) oi?ioethaaiiy
caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae ?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa ia
??cieo aoaiao, ye? iathoue a?aeoai?eoe caaaeueio ea?oeio ?noi???
?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i? e caii/aoeoaaoe oaeei /eiii ??
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ii?aeiaii? eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai oa
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai i?aeoiae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi cia/iiai oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo, aei yeiai a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao canoiniao?oueny noaoenoe/iee
aiae?c. Aeine?aeaeaiiy eeoa?ciaanoaa ye eiiieaeno ??ciiiai?oieo ciaiue
ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy noi?aeieo o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo aeenoeeie?i —
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa, ?noi??? iaoee, o?einio??, nioe?ieia??, iie?oieia??, —
oiio ci?no cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo caaaa/o?oueny iaoiaeaie oeeo iaoe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaioii ?iaeoueny ni?iaa
aia?oa a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? oe?e?nii aeine?aeeoe ?noi??th ?icaeoeo
eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i? ia iniia? iiaeo aeaea?ae. Anoaiiaeai? /ioe?e
aoaie oeueiai i?ioeano — 1) caeeaaeaiiy i?aeaaeei iaoeiaiai ?in?enueeiai
eeoa?ciaanoaa oe?a?inueeeie i?n?iia?aie i?ae /an ?iaioe o ?in?enuee?e
I?aaineaai?e Aeooiai?e I?n?? («iaei?inneeneia oa/aiea») (1701 —
1806??.); 2)o?enaoe?y eeoa?ciaanoaa aaciina?aaeiuei ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie, ui oiiaeeeaeei oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo iaoeiaeo oeaio??a ?
noai?eei ia?aaeoiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai
eeoa?ciaanoaa (1806?. — ii/aoie OOno.); 3)noaiiaeaiiy ee?anueei? oeiee
i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa c iiaiei a?aeiia?aeiei iaoeiai-ina?oi?i
oeeeeii, ui noai?eei ?aaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey inoaoi/iiai aecia/aiiy
neiieia?/iiai ??aith aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i? (1913 — 1918??.); 4)ca
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a, a ca’yceo c ?aaiethoe?ei?noth naiiai noni?euenoaa,
eeoa?ciaanoai iaaoaa? ?en iai?aai?/iiai neioaco, ui aeeth/a? ye aenieee
??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiue ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa
(?iaioe A.Eo?oea), oae ? ca?aeaieia?ciaaiiai iaiaoeiaiai («a?ioo?iiai»)
eeoa?ciaanoaa, i?e/iio iiaeaeueoa aeeiai?ea noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? aecia/a? ia?aiiao inoaiiueiai ? ?ai?aneaia aeieuaiiy
ia?oiai (20-o? ??.OOno. — 1941?.). Aaoi?ii aecia/aii oa aeine?aeaeaii
iaoeiao niaaeueio oe?ei? iecee oe?a?inueeeo eeoa?ciaaoe?a, anoaiiaeaii
oaeo ?nioaaiiy ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai noiaeiciaanoaa acaaae? ?
eeoa?ciaanoaa cie?aia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe
iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? iaoeiaeo i??i?eoao?a Oe?a?ie a aaeoc?
eeoa?ciaanoaa. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aee?eaathoue iiaee
iai?yiie o a?aeiineiao Oe?a?ia-No?ae, aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
?ic?iaoe? eo?n?a ? i?ae?o/iee?a c anana?oiuei? ?noi???, ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
? oe?a?inueei? oea?eae, ?ae?a??ciaanoaa oa ?noi??? a?o/eciyii?
o?einio??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeoai?th? aaiaoe/iee ca’ycie a oe?a?inueeiio
eeoa?ciaanoa?, aeaiiino?o? eiai o?aaeeoe?? oa iniaeeaino?, iioeaaoe?? oa
ni?yioaaiiy ?icaeoeo, ui ia? iaaeaoe iiaiai ?iioeueno a
oe?a?inueei-eeoaenueeeo a?aeiineiao e a?ae?iaeaeaiith no/aniiai
eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ?o
i?noeoue aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa, aoei aeeeaaeaii aaoi?ii o aeiiia?aeyo ia
1-o Noiaeiciaa/eo /eoaiiyo A.E?einueeiai (Caaieai?iaeea, 1997?.), ia 2-o
Noiaeiciaa/eo /eoaiiyo A.E?einueeiai (Ee?a, 1998?.), ia aeaio iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao a ?inoeooo? noiaeiciaanoaa ?i.A.E?einueeiai IAIO (1997,
1998??.) oa ia Nai?ia?? aeey aeeeaaea/?a yiiinueei? iiae i?e Iinieuenoa?
ssiii?? a Oe?a?i? (Ee?a, 1998). Ine?eueee oaia aeena?oaoe?? iia’ycaia c
?noi???th iaoee i?i Eeoae, ?nioaaea iaiao?aei?noue aecia/eoe o
i?aeaioia/?e ?iaio? i?eioeeiia? iniaeeaino? eeoaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??,
i?i ui eoeiny o aeiiia?aeyo aaoi?a ia ??Anaoe?a?inuee?e nooaeaionuee?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?ia: ethaeeia, noni?euenoai, i?e?iaea» (Ee?a,
1996?.) oa VIIII?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Eeoae. Eeoaenueea
oeea?e?caoe?y oa na?o. ?noi??y, no/ani?noue, ia?niaeoeae» (Iineaa,
1997?.). Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i’yoe
ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa caaaeueiei ianyaii 162n. neeaaea?oueny c
anooio (nn.6 — 19), /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a (nn.20 — 121), aeniiae?a (nn.122
— 124), ?iaiiiai iieaae/eea (nn.125 — 136), aaia?ao?/iiai iieaae/eea
(nn.137 — 143), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (nn.144 — 162).
Ia?oee?icae?e — «Ii/aoee oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa (1701 —
1806??.)» (nn.20 — 44), ae?oaee ?icae?e — «Iaoeiai-ina?oi?e ia??iae oa
i?iaeoe ?inoeooae?caoe?? eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i? (1806?.- ii/.OOno.)»
(nn.45 — 60), o?ao?e ?icae?e — «Eeoa?ciaa/? nooae?? a Oe?a?i? ia
ii/aoeoOOno.: noaiiaeaiiy ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa
(1913 — 1918??.)» (nn.61 — 75), /aoaa?oee ?icae?e — «Oe?a?inueea
eeoa?ciaanoai 20-30-o ??.: i?ae iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa «ienoaoeoaii
iie?oe/ii? a?ioo?e» (1918- 1941?.)» (nn.76 — 121). A ?iaio? aeei?enoai?
aeaea?aea oe?a?inueeith, aiae?enueeith, i?iaoeueeith, iieuenueeith,
?in?enueeith oa eaoeinueeith iiaaie.

Ci?no ?iaioe. O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aeib3noue aea/aiiy ?noi???
noaiiaeaiiy eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?, oaiiiai yeiai ia nueiaiaei? ?
iaeaea iaa?aeiiei. Oea aeiaaaeaii ?noi??ia?ao?/iei iaeyaeii aeaea?ae,
i?enay/aieo ?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa a ?in?? oa N?N?. Caaaeath/e ia
a?aenooi?noue a?aeiia?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai ieoaiiy
ianaiia?aae aecia/aii iaae? oa oiiae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiiyoue
«oe?a?inueea eeoa?ciaanoai» oa «eeoa?ciaanoai a Oe?a?i?». Cae?eniaii
ia?oo ni?iao caaaeueii? ia??iaeecaoe?? ?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?,
a yeiio aecia/aii o?noue aoai?a a?ae aeieeiaiiy aei no/aniino?:
1)ii/aoee oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa (1701 — 1806??.); 2)
iaoeiai-ina?oi?e ia??iae (1806 — ii/.OOno.); 3)noaiiaeaiiy ee?anueei?
oeiee i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa (1913 — 1918??.); 4)oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa (1918 — 1941??.); 5)
noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa (1941 — 1991??.);
6) c 1991?. — ii/aoie ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa. A
aeine?aeaeaii? caeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia ia?oeo /ioe?ueio aoaiao ?icaeoeo,
ine?eueee i’yoee oa oinoee ia??iaee ia aeaiee iiiaio ua ia a?aeoai?eee
aeaniiai aaiaoe/iiai ca’yceo c iiia?aaei?ie aoaiaie, ui a eiiieaen?
neeaaeathoue ?aeeiee aca?iicoiiaeaiee i?ioean c nooo?aeie aioo??oi?ie
caeiiii??iinoyie. A?aeoae, oaia o?iiieia?/ii ioiieth? ia??iae c ii/aoeo
XVIIIno. aei 41?ieo OO no.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Ii/aoee oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa (1701 —
1806??.)» aea/a?oueny i?iaeaia aeieeiaiiy iaoeiaeo ciaiue i?i Eeoae o
na?aaeiueia?/i?e Oe?a?i? ? aeaii aecia/aiiy noaio aca?iia?aeiinei
ia?iae?a oeeo e?a?i. O XVIIIno. a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?oee na?aeiiee eiioaeo
oe?a?ioe?a c Eeoa?i, aiane?aeie eiioaeo?a e?a?ie-iina?aaeieoe?, ?in??.
Ia ii/.XVIIIno. Oe?a?ia iieiy?oueny a neeiaiio iie?oe/iiio iie?
iieiaei? ?in?enueei? ?iia???, yea aeoeaii i?inoaa?oueny ia No?ae oa
e?iaoeue-e?ioeai iio?aiey? aei ei?aeii?a Na?aaeeiii? ?iia???. Ia?oei
i?aaenoaaieoeoaii ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a Eeoa? noa? i?aaineaaia i?n?y a
Iae?i?, c yeith iia’ycaii ia?oee aoai o ?icaeoeo ciaiue i?i Eeoae a
Oe?a?i? (1701-1806??.), ine?eueee ii/aoie ? noaiiaeaiiy Iae?inueei?
aeooiaii? i?n?? cae?eniththoue ia?aaaaeii oe?a?ioe? («iaei?inneeneia
oa/aiea»). A oeae ia??iae caeeaaeaii i?aeaaeeie aea/aiiy ?ae?a??,
?noi???, o?einio??, eoeueoo?e Eeoath, c’yaeythoueny ia?o?
eaeneeia?ao?/i? ?iaioe, ni?yiiaai? ia noai?aiiy ia?oiai
eeoaenueei-?in?enueeiai neiaieea, iiyaa yeiai iaoiiaeaia aeiiaaie
i?aeia?iaeieo noinoie?a ?in?y-Eeoae. A?o.Nio?ii?e [A?eaianueeee] ?
ia?oei ?noi?eeii Eeoath a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???, i?aoe? yeiai iaaeeaeai?
aei iinoaiiaee iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy eeoaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??.
Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith oeueiai ia??iaeo ? a?aeiinii aa?iii?eia ii?aeiaiiy
aeooiaieo, iie?oe/ieo oa iaoeiaeo caaaeaiue o ?iaio? i?n??. Aeeiai?ea
?icaeoeo o/ano? oe?a?inueeeo nayuaiee?a o ?in?enuee?e Aeooiai?e I?n?? o
Iae?i? (?AeII) iia’ycaia c caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th ia?aianaiiy
iaoeiaeo oe?a?inueeeo oeaio??a aei iiaeo ia i?aii/? — Iineae oa
Iaoa?ao?ao. A O?Ono. aaniethoio a?eueo?noue ?AeII aaea neeaaeathoue
?in?yie, ? aeania aiie caii/aoeiaothoue ?in?enueea iaoeiaa
eeoa?ciaanoai. Iaeiae eiai ia?aaeoiiae noai?eea o XVIIIno. ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo nayuaiee?a ia?oiai ia??iaeo oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa, ui
eiai caeiiii??ii caaa?oo? iniaa ia/aeueieea VIII?AeII a?o.Nio?ii?y
[A?eaianueeiai] (aeioneieea Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? Aeaaeai??), ia?oiai
?noi?eea Eeoath a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???, neeaie yeiai aei oiai ae aoee
cae?eniai? ia?o? ni?iae i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiaiai oa iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
a i?n??, eiiieaeoaoe?? ?? a?ae?ioaee. ?iaioe a?o.Nio?ii?y
[A?eaianueeiai] ao?eththoue aeinyaiaiiy oe?eiai ia?oiai ia??iaeo
ae?yeueiino? ?AeII. ?c caaa?oaiiyi ?iaioe VIII?AeII ne?i/o?oueny ia?oee
ia??iae ?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa (1806?.). Nooo?ai, ui a oeae ia??iae
oe?a?inueea eeoa?ciaanoai ?icaeaa?oueny ia oa?eoi??? Eeoath oa
e?a?ie-iina?aaeieoe?: a?aenooi?noue oa?eoi??aeueii? o?enaoe?? ciaiue i?i
Eeoae a Oe?a?i? oa i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a
?in?enueeei aea?aeaaieoeueeei caaaeaiiyi noaee i?e/eiith oiai, ui
canioaaiiy oeaio??a aeine?aeaeaiiy Eeoath ia a?aeaoeinue ?, a?aeoae, ia
aoei noai?aii aaciina?aaei?o ia?aaeoiia aeey ?icaeoeo ina?oi?o oa
iaoeiaeo eeoa?ciaa/eo nooae?e ia oa?ai? Oe?a?ie. I?ioa, ie?aneaiee
ia??iae iiaeia aaaaeaoe ii/aoeaie oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa,
i?i ui na?ae/eoue niaaeueia oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iaoeiai-ina?oi?e ia??iae (1806?.- ii/.OOno.) oa
i?iaeoe ?inoeooae?caoe?? eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?» cae?eniaii ?icaeyae
oi?ioaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue Eeoath a Oe?a?i? iaoeiaiai ??aiy. A oeae
ia??iae caa??aa?oueny iaeiia?/iee oa?aeoa? a?aeiinei oe?a?ioe?a c Eeoa?i
(a?aeiiino? i?i Oe?a?io a Eeoa? ia aeaiee iiiaio ia cao?eniaai?).

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Ci?ia ia?aaeeaie: a?ae i?n?iia?noaa oe?a?inueeeo
nayuaiee?a aei i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa» iieacaii nooo?a? ci?ie, ui
a?aeaoeeny o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa i?ae /an ae?oaiai
ia??iaeo eiai ?icaeoeo, ui iia’ycaiee ?c ciaioaiiyi o/ano? oe?a?inueeeo
nayuaiee?a o ?AeII. Oae, i?ioyaii anueiai ia??iaeo ia /ie? ?AeII
ia?aaoaaa eeoa iaeei oe?a?iaoeue — a?o.Aai?ai?i [Ii?a/aae/]. Aeania
i?iaeaia iieyaa? ia no?eueee a oiio, ui nei?i/o?oueny /enaeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeiai nayuainoaa, a a oiio, ui cia/ii iia??oo?oueny eiai ye?niee
neeaae. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei caiaiaaeo eeoa?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue. C
?ioiai aieo, iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a ae?yeueiino? i?n?? i?iaiaeyoue
na?onuee? iniae (o/anoue yeeo o ?AeII iineoue nooi i?aeoe/iee oa?aeoa?).
Cie?aia, aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?iaioe i?n?? oa iaeiie/aiiy ciaiue i?i
Eeoae iaee oni?oe aeaio na?onueeeo i?aaenoaaiee?a — oe?a?ioe?a —
i?enoaa?a ?.O.Oeieianueeiai e ?.I.Eiaae?anueeiai. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea,
caaaeueia ci?ia ia?aaeeaie aeei?enoaiiy oe?a?inueeeo i?ioan?eieo nee o
?iaio? ?AeII ia caaaaeeea aeieeiaiith iaoeiaiai eeoa?ciaanoaa ? noai?eea
i?aea?oioy noaiiaeaiiy i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «O?enaoe?y eeoa?ciaanoaa ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie:
oi?ioaaiiy oeaio??a oa aaaaeaiiy aea/aiiy Eeoath aei iaoeiai-ina?oiueiai
i?ioeano» a?aeia?aaeaii i?ioean ?iaiaioiiai oi?ioaaiiy aeaii? iaoee
aaciina?aaeiuei a Oe?a?i?, iia’ycaiiai c aeine?aeaeaiiyie o?einio??,
?noi??? oa iiae Eeoath. A oeae /an a?aeaoaa?oueny oa?eoi??aeueia
o?enaoe?y eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?, ui ni?e/eith? caeeaaeaiiy oeaio??a
aea/aiiy Eeoath — Iaeana, Ee?a, Oa?e?a (iiaeaii a?aeiia?aeii ?ie?
oeaio?o a iaooe?). Caaaeyee ?ao?aineyoe?ei?e ooieoe?? oa?eoi???
?in?enueei? ?iia???, naia a Oe?a?i?, a?aeaoaathoueny ni?iae aeeeaaeaiiy
eeoaenueei? iiae oa ?noi??? Eeoath. Oi?io?oueny o?aaeeoe?y eeoa?ciaa/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a ?? iaaeao neeaaea?oueny niaaeei?ii?noue, ui caeeaaea?
i?aeaaeeie aeey aeieeiaiiy ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa;
aeieea? i?ioenoaaeaiiy ee?anueei? oa iaoa?ao?cueei? eeoa?ciaa/eo oe?e.
I?ioa o naiino?eio aaeocue a oeae ia??iae eeoa?ciaanoai a Oe?a?i? oae ?
ia a?aeie?aieeinue, ine?eueee aoei a?aenooi? aea?aeaaia caiiaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiai aaooieo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Eeoa?ciaa/? nooae?? a Oe?a?i? ia ii/aoeoOOno.:
noaiiaeaiiy ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa (1913 — 1918??.)»
iiaeaii i?ioean inoaoi/iiai ioi?ieaiiy iaoeiaiai eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?
i?ae /an o?aoueiai ia??iaeo eiai ?icaeoeo, oe?eeii iia’ycaiiai c
ae?yeuei?noth Ee?anueeiai Eiia?oe?eiiai ?inoeoooo ? iaoiiaeaiee
?aaeueiei iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iei noaiii ?in??. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaio anoaiiaeth? oaeo ?nioaaiiy ee?anueei?
oeiee i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa, yea a?aeiia?aeaea ?in?enuee?e
aaiiie?oeoe? oa eiie?aoiei caaaeaiiyi iieiaeiai ?in?enueeiai eai?oaeo,
ui ooeaa iiaeo ?eie?a caooo. Aacia?a/ii, oaea ia ii/aoie OOno. a Eeoa?
oaeiae iaeiie/aii iaai? a?aeiiino? i?i Oe?a?io, i?ioa oaeo ?ioi?iaoe?th
ia iiaeia aeieoiaiooaaoe ia aeaiee iiiaio c iaeyaeo ia cae?eo?noue aeey
oe?a?inueeiai aeine?aeieea eeoaenueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo a?o?a?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aeieeiaiiy noiaeiciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue o
Ee?anueeiio Eiia?oe?eiiio ?inoeooo?» aeine?aeaeaii aeoiee ? ianoaaeie
oaeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? no?aeiiai iai?yieo a iaoeiai-ina?oi?e ?iaio?
oeueiai caeeaaeo.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aeaeae?e No?ae. I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano: aeeeaaeaiiy eeoaenueei? oa yiiinueei? iiae e iaoeia?
a?ae?yaeaeaiiy nooaeaio?a Ee?anueeiai Eiia?oe?eiiai ?inoeoooo aei e?a?i
No?aeii? Ac??» aeine?aeaeaii aaciina?aaei?e i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iiaiiai
iaa/aeueii-i?aai?caoe?eiiai oeeeeo, ui neeaaeaany c aeeeaaeaiiy iiae,
io?eiaiiy oaoiaeo ciaiue, ia?aiiy oaiaoeee eeoa?ciaa/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa a?aea?aeoaaiiy Eeoath c iaoith iaia’yceiaiai iieueiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaienaiiy iaoeiai? i?aoe?, nea?iaaieo ia ?icaeoie
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ?in?? (a oiio /ene? e Oe?a?ie) c
Eeoa?i (?ic?iaee i?ioani?a E.A.Aiaeiai). Oae Ee?a noa? iaoeiai-ina?oi?i
oeaio?ii aea/aiiy Eeoath, a yeiio c’yaeythoueny ni?aaaei? eeoa?ciaaoe?,
a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai oi?io?oueny ee?anueea oeiea i?aeoe/iiai
eeoa?ciaanoaa, ui ii?iaeaeo? iieie?iiy iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a, ye?
ao?ethaaee ?aea? nai?o a/eoae?a. ?icaeoie i?aeoe/iiai iai?yieo a
eeoa?ciaanoa? na?ae/eoue i?i aeanoeao aoaeue-ye?e aaeoc? noiaeiciaanoaa
caeiiii??i?noue aaiethoe?eiiai i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy, ia?oei uaaeai yeiai
? aaciina?aaei? iio?aae noni?euenoaa, a ianooiiei — aeaaeai?/iee aiae?c.
Ia o?aoueiio ia??iae? aoei noai?aii oie iaiao?aeiee i?i?ioi, ui iaaeae?
iiaeiai aoa caaacia/eoe oni?oia iioe?aiiy eeoa?ciaanoaa aei ??aiy
neiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?e/iio iaoeiaa o?aaeeoe?y oe?a?inueeiai
i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa ia oie iiiaio iaea iniiaith aeinyaiaiiy
ee?anueei? ?noi?e/ii? oeiee (A.Aioiiiae/ — I.A.Aeiaia?-Caiieuenueeee).
Aacoiiaii, aoee noai?ai? an? ia?aaeoiiae aeey iiaeaeueoiai oni?oiiai
?icaeoeo ia o?eueee eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?, aea e anoaiiaeaiiy
aaciina?aaei?o noinoie?a Oe?a?ia-Eeoae ia ??ai? caiiaeaiue
i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueeiai eai?oaeo, i?ioa oeae i?ioean aoei
oiia?eueiaii iiae?yie ?na?oiai? a?eie ? ?aaiethoe?? 1917?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Oe?a?inueea eeoa?ciaanoai 20-30-o ??.: i?ae
iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa «ienoaoeoaii iie?oe/ii? a?ioo?e» (1918-
1941?.)» cai?iiiiiaaii ?icaeyae inoaiiueiai, /aoaa?oiai ia??iaeo
aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?, i?ae /an yeiai
a?aeiiino? i?i Oe?a?io a Eeoa? aeoea?cothoueny ? oi?io?oueny ??aaiue
aeainoi?iii?o a?aeiinei.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy Eeoath a iaoeiaeo caeeaaeao
Oe?a?ie» iieacaii ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiue Eeoath, ui ?o aaea
Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa anioe?aoe?y noiaeiciaanoaa c ?? ee?anueeith oa
iaeanueeith o?e?yie.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «A.A.Eo?oe ? o?aaeeoe?y oe?a?inueeiai
i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa o i?ioean? ?icaeoeo neiieia?? a Oe?a?i?»
aeine?aeaeaii niaaeueio ia?oiai oe?a?inueeiai neiieiaa A.Eo?oea.
Iieacaii aaiethoe?th ?noi?e/ieo caoe?eaaeaiue A.Eo?oea ia i?aenoaa? eiai
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iaeaeuee aoai yei? iciaiaiiaaiee ?ic?iaeith
eiioeaioe?? ?noi??? ?in?enueei-eeoaenueeeo a?aeiinei XVI — XVIIIno., ui
?? iane?aeoaaei ?aaeyinueea eeoa?ciaanoai a aeine?aeaeaii? oeueiai
ieoaiiy. Aecia/aii i?ia?aeia i?noea A.Eo?oea a i?aai?caoe?ei?e
ae?yeueiino? ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?inoeooae?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a a
oe?a?inueeiio noiaeiciaanoa? acaaae? e a eeoa?ciaanoa? cie?aia.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy Eeoath a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i?.
Oaeoe/ia cieeiaiiy oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa aiane?aeie
caaaeueiiai aeieuaiiy noiaeiciaanoaa a O?N? a 30-o? ?iee» aecia/aii ?ene
oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa, anoaiiaeaieo ia iniia? a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai
aiae?co. Ia oeae ia??iae cae?eniaii iano aeaeaiue c i?iaeai aea/aiiy
Eeoath, i?ioa, ia aeaeue, a?eueo?noue c ieo iathoue ca?aeaieia?ciaaiee,
iaiaoeiaee («a?ioo?iee») oa?aeoa?, coiiaeaiee ea?aeeiaeueieie ci?iaie ?
oaeoe/ii iiaiith i?aei?iith nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? aen?ieia??
noni?euenoaa o ?aaeyinueeiio ?aeaieia?/iiio i?inoi?? (e?euee?niee
iieaciee aeaeaiue iani?aaae? a?aeoai?th? ia i?ioeanoaeuei? iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa, a neiioiie caaaeueiiai iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/iiai
eiioaenoo). Ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue i?aoeue ? i?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a
aoei c?i?oe?eiaaii c iaeyaeo ia caaaeaiiy iioe?aiiy ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo
ia No?ae, aea Eeoae ia oie /an aoa e?aea?ii. C?icoi?ei, ui oaoia?
eeoa?ciaa/? i?aoe? ii??aiyii c «iie?oe/ieie a?ioo?aie» noaiiaeee ooo
aaniethoio iaio?noue. Naia aiie aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe caaaeuei?
caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo eeoa?ciaanoaa o oeae ia??iae ye ii?aeiaiiy aeaio
oaeoi??a: 1)caaa?oaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai
eeoa?ciaanoaa, yea aioo??oiuei caa?aaea aeoea «noa?i?» iaoee ? noaiiaeea
ni?aaaei? oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy iiaeeeainoae iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo; 2)
iiyaa i?iiaaaiaeenonueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa, ui noai?thaaei ?ioa?an aei
Eeoath ia iaiaoeiaiio ??ai?. Aca?iia?aeiineie iaio aeacaieo oaeoi??a
coiiaeththoue aanue niaeo? eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i? o /aoaa?oee ia??iae.
Aiane?aeie iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e oe?a?inueea eeoa?ciaanoai cieea? a
1941?ioe? (aeaeaiiy inoaii?o i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a Eeoath ?
ii/aoie A?o/eciyii? a?eie, yea aoea ae?oaei i?ney iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e
oaea?ii ii neeao anueiai ?aaeyinueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa). Ioaea, ?icaeoie
ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa oa ii/aoe?a anoaiiaeaiiy
aeainoi?iii?o ca’yce?a Oe?a?ia-Eeoae aoa ia??aaiee o?aa?/ieie iiae?yie
30-o??. Oea iaei iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aeey ?nioaaiiy eeoa?ciaanoaa ye
aaeoc? a Oe?a?i? oa ?icaeoeo i?aeoe/ieo a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie oa Eeoath o 20
— 30-o???. Ee?anueea oeiea i?aeoe/iiai eeoa?ciaanoaa ii/eia?
cai?uoaaoenue e inoaoi/ii aeo?niy?oueny iaiaoeiaei («a?ioo?iei»)
eeoa?ciaanoaii, iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy aeainoi?iii?o ca’yce?a
cai?uo?oueny ia?o?eieie a?aeiineiaie.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeaii caaaeuei? i?aenoiee aecia/aiiy oaiiiaio ?
aoai?a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa.

Aeniiaee:

?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa iaa neeaaeiee, ?ieiee niiaiaiee
i?ioe??/ oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo, coiiaeaiee, iaeiae, oi?aa?naeueiith c /an?a
na?aaeiueia?//y a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie i?e/eiith — i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noth
?ioa?anai o??? /e ?ioi? ?iicaiii? aea?aeaae, a iaoiio aeiaaeeo ?ioa?anai
?in??.

Iaeaeaai?oee ia??iae ?icaeoeo a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie oa Eeoath aeaoo?oueny
/anaie iaioaaiiy *eia?ceae?a oa iiiaieuenueei? aeeiano?? THaiue, aei
oeueiai ae ia??iaeo iaeaaeeoue iaeaeaai?oa caaaeea i?i ia?aaoaaiiy ?on?a
o Eeoa?.

Aei XVIIno. i?aeoe/ii ia ?nioaaei i?yeeo na?aeioeoa i?i eiioaeoe
oe?a?ioe?a c Eeoaenueeith ?iia???th, aea o ae?oa?e iieiaei? oeueiai
noie?ooy ii/eia?oueny iiaioaaiiy Iineianueeei oea?noaii eieeoiuei?
oa?eoi??? iiiaieuenueei? ieeoiaie ? ?? aeo?ae ia ei?aeiie I?aeiaaanii?,
a yeiio aa?ooue o/anoue ? oe?a?ioe? (aeooiaainoai oa eicaoeoai: a?ae
?yaeiaeo aei aeueo uaae?a aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeaaee).

Eeoa?ciaanoai a Oe?a?i? oa eiioaeoe c Eeoa?i a i?ioean? aaiethoe?eiiai
?icaeoeo i?ieoei /ioe?e ia??iaee: 1)aeiiaoeiaee (1701-1806),
2)iaoeiai-ina?oi?e (1806-1913), 3)i?aeoe/ia eeoa?ciaanoai (1913 —
1918??.), 4)oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa (1918 —
1941??.).

Ia ii/aoeo XVIIIno. aoei caniiaaii ?AeII. Oea noie?ooy noaiiaeoue
oe?a?inueeee ia??iae a ?noi??? i?n??, ai ia?aaaaeio e?euee?noue
o/aniee?a neeaaeaee oe?a?inuee? nayuaiieee (oiai/ania ae?oa ye Oe?a?ie,
oae ? an??? ?in?enueei? ?iia???), a?eueo?noue c yeeo aoea aeioneieeaie
Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? Aeaaeai??. ?o neeaie aoei i?iaaaeaii i?aai?caoe?ei?
caoiaee c iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?AeII, cia/ia i?noea o ye?e
iin?aeaee iaoeiaa oa ina?oiy ?iaioa. Oe?a?ioe? cae?enieee ia?o?
eaeneeia?ao?/i? oa ?noi?e/i? ?iaioe, a ia?oee ?noi?ee Eeoath a
?in?enuee?e ?iia??? ? oe?a?ioeai ca iioiaeaeaiiyi. ?iaioa i?iaiaeeoueny
aaciina?aaeiuei ia oa?eoi??? Eeoath. *a?ac a?aenooi?noue cai?ioiueiai
ca’yceo c Aaouee?aueiith ? ye iane?aeie oeueiai a?aenooi?noue caiiaeaiiy
ia oaeiai ?iaea aeine?aeaeaiiy o oeae /an ia a?aeaoaa?oueny
oa?eoi??aeueia o?enaoe?y eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?. I?ioa a oe?a?inuee?e
e?oa?aoo?? XVIIIno. c’yaeythoueny i?eioeeiia? caaaeee i?i Eeoae. Ia
i?ioyc? noie?ooy oe?a?inueea eeoa?ciaanoai aeinyaa? aioo??oiuei?
aeic??eino?, i?ioa eiai eia?ea ciaeaea nai? aeyaeaiiy eeoa ia ii/aoeo
O?Ono. A oeae ia??iae oe?a?inuee? aeine?aeieee naia ia oa?eoi??? Eeoath
cia/iith i??ith noai?eee ia?aaeoiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
iaoeiaiai eeoa?ciaanoaa a ?in??, e?a?i?-iina?aaeieoe?.

Ia ii/aoeo O?Ono. naia a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?oa a ?in?enuee?e
?iia??? ni?iaa aeeeaaeaiiy eeoaenueei? iiae oa aea/aiiy ?noi??? Eeoath a
iaaeao anana?oiuei? ?noi???. I?ioean ia iaa iioe?aiiy, ine?eueee ia
ciaeoia i?aeo?eiee ?in?enueeei o?yaeii, ui caaaeueioaaei ? iaa?oue
i?eieieei ia aeayeee /an eiai ?icaeoie. I?ioa o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?Ono.
aeieea? oeaio? aeine?aeaeaiue Eeoath a Oe?a?i? — Iaeana. Iiae?ai?
i?ioeane a?aeaoaathoueny a Ee?a? ? Oa?eia?, ui, iaeiae, ia oie /an
ae??oaeueiiai cia/aiiy ia iaee. Ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue
ie?aneaiiai ia??iaeo i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai, aecia/aiei caaaeaiiyie
i?aeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Iio?aaa o eeane/iiio eeoa?ciaanoa? aeieeaea
iaaecae/aeii ??aeei, iaeiae oea aoa ia?oee aeina?ae neiieia?/iiai
ni?eeiyooy ?noi???, o?einio?? oa eoeueoo?e eeoaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??.
Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy iaei i?aeoe/ia ni?yioaaiiy, ui ianooiiiai ia??iaeo
inoaoi/ii aecia/eei noaoon eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Ia ii/aoeo OOno. a?aeaoeinue noaiiaeaiiy ee?anueei? oeiee i?aeoe/iiai
noiaeiciaanoaa, ie?ano yei? noaiiaeei naia eeoa?ciaanoai: ii?aeiaiiy
aeinyaiaiue no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, noaoenoeee, ?noi???, nioe?ieia??
oa ?ioeo iaoe c? ciaiiyi eeoaenueei? iiae oiiaeeeaeei aea/aiiy oiai /e
?ioiai ieoaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei a Eeoa?. Oae aia?oa a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoeanue
?inoeooae?caoe?y eeoa?ciaanoaa oa noai?aiiy iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie eeoa?ciaanoaa aoa ni?e/eiaiee
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie ci?iaie a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, ui
a?aeaoeenue i?ae /an ?aaeyinueeeo ia?aoai?aiue. Aac noii?ao, an?
aeinyaiaiiy oeueiai ia??iaeo aoee i?aeaioiaai? aeine?aeaeaiiyie
iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo ? oiai/iai? iiyaith ia?oiai oe?a?inueeiai
neiieiaa, Ai?ena Eo?oea, /eth i?ea?iaeueio eiioeaioe??th ?noi???
?in?enueei-eeoaenueeeo a?aeiinei aac ?icaieino eiii?ethaaee ?aaeyinuee?
aeine?aeieee oe??? i?iaeaie. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo
? ii?aeiaiiy ca?aeaieia?ciaaiiai («a?ioo?iiai»),
iaoeiai-i?ina?oieoeueeiai oa iaoeiaiai eeoa?ciaanoa, aea aaniethoio
a?eueo?noue neeaaeaei «a?ioo?ia» eeoa?ciaanoai. I?ioa noa?ith oeieith
aaea aoei i?aeaioiaaia oe?ea iieie?iiy iieiaeeo eeoa?ciaaoe?a, ui
i?aaioee aei iaoeiaiai, a ia ?aeaieia?/iiai iaoiaeo a iaooe?.
?inoeoooe?eiee i?ioean ioi?ieaiiy oeaio??a aeine?aeaeaiiy Eeoath a
Oe?a?i? iaaoaa? inoaoi/iiai ?icaeoeo. Aieiaiee iaaeie?e i?ioeano — a?ae
aeeeaaeaiiy eeoaenueei? iiae a ina?oi?o caeeaaeao. O?aa?ci neooaoe??
iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i? ia
i?aeeyaa? inoaoi/iiio aecia/aiith ? ioe?ioe?, ine?eueee eiai aoei
?ai?anneaii ia?a?aaii, ?, a?aeoae, ia?aaeoiiae ia iaee ao?eaiiy o
iane?aeeao. I?ioa eeoa?ciaanoai a Oe?a?i? ia? naith ?noi??th, naith
niaaeueio ? o?aaeeoe?th aea/aiiy, ui aacoiiaii ? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii aeey
a?aeoai?aiiy eeoa?ciaanoaa a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oe?eeiaeoa ?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiiy noaiiaeaiiy ?icaeoeo
eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i? o XVIII — 1941?ioe? iaiiaeeeaa a ianyc?
i?iiiiiaaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ca e?eueeio i?e/ei:
1)cia/ia e?euee?noue ?in?enueeeo ? eeoaenueeeo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a
iaaeinyaeia aeey oe?a?inueeiai aeine?aeieea, ? oea ia aeicaiey?
a?aeoai?eoe iiaio ea?oeio aeaea?ae c ?noi??? eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?; 2)
cae?eo? iie?oe/i? a?o?ae Neoaeae Aaciaee Oe?a?ie (EAeA) ia aeicaieythoue
ciaeoe aeiaeii? ni?aae ?ai?aniaaieo oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a Eeoath;
3) i?aeoe/ii iiaiith terra incognito ? aeaea?aea eiiieaeooaaiiy
eeoaenueeeo c?a?aiue o oiiaeao ioca?a Oe?a?ie, aea oe?eeii eiia??ii
i?noyoueny iaiao?aei? iaoa??aee. ?ica’ycaiiy oneeaaeiaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy
? iioe?aiiy niaeo?o iiooeo iiaeeeaeo oeaio??a eeoa?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?
(ui iathoue ni?aianoe c iaoeiai-ina?oi?ie oeaio?aie) noaiiaeoue
caaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy aaaeeeaiai ye aeey eeoa?ciaanoaa, oae ?
aeey an??? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ieoaiiy, ui eiai aia?oa noi?ioeueiaaii
aeena?oaioii. Ae??oaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy ia? ni?eyoe ? iiaeaeueoiio
?icaeoeo ciai?oi?o noinoie?a Oe?a?ie c Eeoa?i. Ia iaio aaaeeeaeie ca
ienaii? ? ia?acioai?/? oa ?a/ia? aeaea?aea, iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth
?AeII, iiooe yeeo aeicaieeoue oe?oa a?aeoai?eoe ?noi??th oe??? i?iaeaie.

I?ia?aei? iiiaioe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. E?eoaiei A.I.Iaii?oieia?y noa?iaeaaiueiai Eeoath // Iaoa??aee oeaeiy
nooaeaionueei? iaoee. — E.: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao
«Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y». Nooaeaionueea iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai, 1996.
— N.170 — 172.

2. Eeeoaiei A.A.E ii?aaeaeaieth eaoaai?ee ia?aicaeaiiie nouiinoe
Iiaeiaaaniie // Oacenu aeieeaaeia VIII Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee «Eeoae. Eeoaeneay oeeaeeecaoeey e ie?. Enoi?ey,
nia?aiaiiinoue, ia?niaeoeau». — I.: Einoeooo Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, 1997. —
N.32 — 35.

3. E?eoaiei A.I.Ai?en Eo?oe ? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? neiieia?? //
Noiaeiciaanoai. — 1997. — ?1. — N.57 — 84.

4. E?eoaieiA.I. Oe?a?ioe? ia /ie? Iae?inueei? aeooiaii? i?n??: aei
ii/aoe?a aea/aiiy Eeoath a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? // Noiaeiciaanoai. —
1998. — ?2. — N.78 — 91.

5. E?eoaieiA.I. Iaa?aeiia aeaea?aei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy eeoa?ciaa/i?
niaaeueie a?o?iaiae?eoa Nio?ii?y [A?eaianueeiai] // Noiaeiciaanoai. —
1998. — ?3. — N. 146 — 155.

E?eoaiei A.I. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa. (XVIII —
41?.OOno.). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 — anana?oiy ?noi??y. — ?inoeooo
noiaeiciaanoaa ?i.A.E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii noaiiaeaiith oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa c
XVIIIno. aei 41?.XXno. A ?iaio? aia?oa ?iaeoueny ni?iaa iieacaoe aeoiee
oi?ioaaiiy, iniiai? aoaie, oa?aeoa?i? ?ene oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa ?
aecia/aii a?ia?ae?ia?ao?/iee ianya i?iaeaie. ?icaeoie aeaii? aaeoc?
iaoee aeine?aeaeaii o o?ueio iai?yieao — oi?ioaaiiy ia?a?nieo
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo caoe?eaaeaiue, aeieeiaiiy iaoeiaeo oeaio??a
(?inoeoooe?eiee ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiue) ? noai?aiiy iaoeiai? oeiee ye
?acoeueoaoeaiee iiiaio a i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
eeoa?ciaanoaa. Aecia/aii i?noea ? cia/aiiy oe?a?inueeeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
nee, ye? a?aee o/anoue o ?icaeoeo ?in?enueeiai oa ?aaeyinueeiai
eeoa?ciaanoaa ? aeiaaee /an aoee iicaaaeai? naiai oe?a?inueeiai ?iai?.
Aeena?oaio aia?oa aaiaeeoue aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao ??aee?ni? oa oi?eaeuei?
aeieoiaioe, ui noinothoueny ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai eeoa?ciaanoaa ?
?in?enueei-eeoaenueeeo a?aeiinei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eeoa?ciaanoai, neiieia?y, iaoeiaee oeaio?,
?inoeooae?caoe?y, ?in?enueei-eeoaenuee? a?aeiineie, Eeoae, Oe?a?ia,
?in?enueea Aeooiaia I?n?y o Iae?i?, Ee?anueeee Eiia?oe?eiee ?inoeooo,
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao.

Eeeoaiei A.A. Noaiiaeaiea oe?aeineiai eeoaaaaaeaiey. (XVIII —
41a.OOno.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 — anaie?iay enoi?ey. — Einoeooo
ainoieiaaaeaiey ei.A.E?uineiai IAI Oe?aeiu, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia noaiiaeaieth oe?aeineiai eeoaaaaaeaiey n
XVIIIno. ii 41a.XXno. A ?aaioa aia?aua i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea iieacaoue
enoiee oi?ie?iaaiey, iniiaiua yoaiu, oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou oe?aeineiai
eeoaaaaaeaiey e ii?aaeaeeoue aeiaeaeeia?aoe/aneee iauai i?iaeaiu.
?acaeoea aeaiiie io?anee iaoee enneaaeiaaii ii o?ai iai?aaeaieyi —
oi?ie?iaaiea ia?ae/iuo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iao/iuo eioa?ania,
aicieeiiaaiea iao/iuo oeaio?ia (o.a.einoeoooeeiiaeueiue eieeaeoeaiue
o?iaaiue enneaaeiaaiee) e nicaeaiea iao/iie oeieu eae ?acoeueoe?othuaai
iiiaioa a i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey oe?aeineiai eeoaaaaaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeyaony
ianoi e cia/aiea oao oe?aeineeo eioaeeaeooaeueiuo nee, eioi?ua i?eieiaee
o/anoea a ?acaeoee ?inneeneiai e niaaoneiai eeoaaaaaeaiey e aeieai auee
eeoaiu naiaai oe?aeineiai eiaie. Aeenna?oaio aia?aua aaiaeeo a iao/iue
iai?io ?aaeeea e oieeaeueiua aeieoiaiou, eanathueany enoi?ee oe?aeineiai
eeoaaaaaeaiey e ?onnei-eeoaeneeo ioiioaiee.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu /aou?a yoaia ?acaeoey acaeiiioiioaiee Oe?aeiu e
Eeoay, eioi?ia a aieueoae ia?a ii?aaeaeeeinue noaiiaeaieai iao/iuo
ciaiee i Eeoaa a Oe?aeia, -1)aei-iao/iue (1701-1806aa.), 2)
iao/ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiue (1806-1913aa.), 3)i?aeoe/aneia eeoaaaaaeaiea
(1913 — 1918aa.), 4) oi?ie?iaaiea oe?aeineiai niaaoneiai eeoaaaaaeaiey
(1918 — 1941aa.).

Eco/aia i?iaeaia aicieeiiaaiey iao/iuo ciaiee i Eeoaa a n?aaeiaaaeiaie
Oe?aeia e ii?aaeaeaii iieiaeaiea acaeiiioiioaiee ia?iaeia yoeo no?ai ia
i?ioyaeaiee 1701 — 1806aa. N enoi?eae aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey
?inneeneie i?aaineaaia iennee a Iaeeia naycai ia?aue yoai a ?acaeoey
ciaiee i Eeoaa a Oe?aeia, oae eae i?aeiouanoaaiii oe?aeioeu
(«iaei?inneeneia oa/aiea») ia/eiaee ?aaioo yoiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa
?inneeneie eiia?ee a Eeoaa. Aaoi? iieacuaaao e ioeaieaaao aeeaae
oe?aeineeo ienneiia?ia a ?acaeoea eeoaaaaaeaiey, /oi naiaeeeinue e
eco/aieth eie ?aeeaee, enoi?ee, oeeinioee, eoeueoo?u yoie no?aiu. Iniaui
aeinoeaeaieai enneaaeiaaoaey noaea iaoiaeea ee/iiai a?oeaa a?o.Nio?iiey
[A?eaianueeiai], ia?aiai enoi?eea Eeoay a ?inneeneie eiia?ee, eioi?ue
niaea?aeeo iaeioi?ua ooa?yiiua eeoaaaaae/aneea o?oaeu oe?aeineiai
ienneiia?a.

Ai aoi?ie, iao/ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiue, ia?eiae (1806a. — ia/.OOno.)
oe?aeineia eeoaaaaaeaiea i?aoa?iaaaao cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey — io
ienneiia?noaa e i?aeoe/aneiio eeoaaaaaeaieth, eioi?ia ?acaeaaaony e a
?inneeneie Aeooiaiie Iennee a Iaeeia (i?enoaau A.O.Oeieianeee e
A.I.Eiaaeaaneee), e ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu (oi?ie?othony oeaio?u
enneaaeiaaiey Eeoay — Iaeanna, Eeaa, Oa?ueeia). Aeaiiay oaiaeaioeey
ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieeanue a o?aoee ia?eiae (1913 — 1918), /oi
iainiiauaaaony aaoi?ii ia ioe?uouo ei a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeao Eeaaneiai
Eiiia?/aneiai Einoeoooa, eioi?ua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i i?ioeanna
noaiiaeaiey eeaaneie oeieu i?aeoe/aneiai eeoaaaaaeaiey (oi?ie?iaaiea
iieiiai o/aaii-i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai oeeeea — i?aiiaeaaaiea eeoaeneiai
ycuea, iieo/aiea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ciaiee, auai? oaiaoeee
eeoaaaaae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey e iao/iay eiiaiaee?iaea a Eeoae).

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea eeoaaaaaeaiey a Oe?aeia naycaii n iineaaeiei
aaiaoe/aneei ia?eiaeii, eioi?ue i?eoiaeeony ia 20-30-aaa., a?aiy
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, eioi?ua nouanoaaiiui ia?acii
aeeyee ia oa?aeoa? eeoaaaaae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. Einoeoooeeiiiue
o?iaaiue enneaaeiaaiee iieacai ia iaoa?eaeao Anaoe?aeineie iao/iie
annioeeaoeee ainoieiaaaeaiey. Auni/aeoei aeinoeaeaieai oe?aeineie iaoee
a enneaaeiaaiee Eeoay yaeyaony auoiae ia neiieiae/aneee o?iaaiue a eeoea
eeaaneiai i?ioanni?a A.A.Eo?oea, ianeaaeeth eioi?iai aaoi? oaeaeyao
iniaia aieiaiea. Iieacaia yaiethoeey enoi?e/aneeo acaeyaeia A.Eo?oea ia
iniiaa aai iao/iuo ?aaio, n?aaee eioi?uo iniaia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo
o?oaeai «eeoaeneiai oeeeea», aaea auea noi?ioee?iaaia i?eaeiaeueiay
eiioeaioeee enoi?ee ?onnei-eeoaeneeo ioiioaiee a XVI — XVIIIno.no.
Aeaiiay eiioeaioeey noaea ii?aaeaeythuae aeey anaai niaaoneiai
eeoaaaaaeaiey a enneaaeiaaiee yoiai aii?ina. Ii?aaeaeaii e aaaeouaa
ianoi A.Eo?oea a i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ieaia, /oi eiaei cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea
ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea einoeooaeecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a oe?aeineii
ainoieiaaaeaiea aiiaua e a eeoaaaaaeaiea a /anoiinoe. Ia?yaeo n
aeinoeaeaieyie a oe?aeineii eeoaaaaaeaiee eiaei ianoi iaaaoeaiia yaeaiea
— niaaoneay caeaeaeiaece?iaaiiinoue, oa?aeoa?iia oiio a?aiaie aeey anao
aniaeoia iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie. Yoi i?iyaeeinue a ecaeaiee
aieueoiai /enea ?aaio «a?ioth?iiai» oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua ia ioaa/aee
iao/iiio o?iaith eeoaaaaaeaiey. A neaaenoaee iieeoe/aneeo ?ai?annee
oe?aeineia eeoaaaaaeaiea en/acaao e 1941a. Oaeei ia?acii, ?acaeoea
eeaaneie oeieu i?aeoe/aneiai eeoaaaaaeaiey e ia/aei onoaiiaeaiey
aeaoonoi?iiieo naycae Oe?aeia-Eeoae auei i?a?aaii o?aae/aneeie
niauoeyie 30-oaa. Yoi eiaei iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey aeey nouanoaiaaiey
eeoaaaaaeaiey eae io?anee iaoee a Oe?aeia e aeey ?acaeoey ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo Oe?aeiie e Eeoaai a 20 — 30-aaa. — iao/iia eeoaaaaaeaiea
auoaniyaony «a?ioth?iui», a aeaoonoi?iiiea nayce caiaiythony ia?oeeiuie
ioiioaieyie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeoaaaaaeaiea, neiieiaey, iao/iue oeaio?,
einoeooaeecaoeey, ?onnei-eeoaeneea ioiioaiey, Eeoae, Oe?aeia, ?inneeneay
I?aaineaaiay Aeooiaiay Ienney a Iaeeia, Eeaaneee Eiiia?/aneee Einoeooo,
Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeianeee oieaa?neoao.

Kiktenko V.A. Formation of Ukrainian Studies of China. (XVIII —
41yearOOcentury.). — Manuscript.

PhD dissertation in history, speciality: 07. 00. 02 — the World History
— A. Krymskyi Institute for Oriental Studies of the National Academy of
Sciences, Ukraine, 1999.

The dissertation is dedicated to formation of the Chinese Studies in
Ukraine over the period of XVIII — 41yearof XXthcentury. The
dissertation is focused on the sources of formation, major phases and
characteristic features of the Chinese studies in Ukraine. The
bibliography on the subject is also defined in this work. The
development of this academic discipline has been examined along three
directions — formation of primary individual academic interests, raise
of the academic centres (i.e. institutional research level) and the
establishment of the academic school as a resulting phase in the
formation of Ukrainian Chinese studies. The role and significance of
Ukrainian scholars who contributed — although without being identified
as Ukrainians — to the development of Russian and Soviet Studies of
China have been defined. The author has introduced a number of rare and
unique documents concerning the history of Ukrainian Chinese studies and
Russian-Chinese relations.

Key words: Studies of China, sinology, academic centre,
institutionalization, Russian-Chinese relations, China, Ukraine, Russian
Spiritual Mission to Peking (Mission of Russian Orthodox Church), Kyiv
Institute of Commerce, University of Kyiv, University of Kharkiv.

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