3

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa.

AAAOIIIAA Iaae?y Aanee?aia

OAeE 947.7 (043)
“1917/1920”: 37

Noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?i?: 1917-1920 ??.

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iaeno?aiei
Aaeaioeia Oaaei??aia eaoaae?a caaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eoeue/eoeueeee Noai?neaa Aieiaeeie?iae/

Cano. Aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio *oiae Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/

aeaeai ?noi?eei-o?eieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i.E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai (i.Iaeana)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — N?ioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo i 14-00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aae E 05th01.13 i?e Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith 270057, i.
Iaeana, aoe.Uaie?ia, 12, aoae 9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith 270057, i.
Iaeana, aoe.I?aia?aaeainueea, 24

AAoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 16 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

E.?.i., aeioeaio
Eicianueeee A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Inaioa — niaoeeoi/ia aaeocue a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy,
iaeei c iaeaaaeeeaioeo /eiieeia iioaeaeooaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai
caaaa/aiiy ia?iaeo. No/ania nioeiaeueia i?aeoeea naioiaiai ?iaiy
aeiaaea ia eeoa iiaeii?yaeeiaaiinoue ooieoeiiioth/eo nenoai inaioe
noniieueiei oiiaai a eiie?aoiie aea?aeaai, a e aiaee?eea
ooiaeaiaioaeueio no?aoaai/io caeaaeiinoue aiae inaioe iiaeaeueoi?
inoi?i? caiii? oeeaieicaoei?, iaaino?aeueii iinooie yei? (?icoiiiiy
naioo, noniieuenoaa, ethaeeie) caeieniththoueny /a?ac inaioo.

Eiiaoeue OO no. iicia/eany e?ecith eeane/ii? nenoaie inaioe, yea
iaa?aea eiai/ii? aecia/aiinoi iai?eeiioei XVIII no.,
aaiethoeiiioaaea ai?iaeiaae aieia, oaeineiiaethaaeanue, aea a nai?o
iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao caeeoeeanue iaciiiiith, ui i i?ecaaei ia
no/aniiio aoaii aei aiaenoaaaiiy inaioe aiae aeeoo?aeo caieoia, iio?aa
ethaenoaa. Caaaeueii aaaee eeane/ii? nenoaie inaioe aeaee i?eaiae
Iiaeia?iaeiie i?aaiicaoei? THIANEI ua a 70-o ?ieao aiaeianoe ?o aei
aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai no/aniinoi. Caiaene ana i/aaeaeiioith noa?
?aaeueiinoue aeiei?iiii? ?? ia?aaoaeiae. Aieueoa oiai, i?aoaici?
ia?iaeia ia ?ieue i?iaiaeieo iaoeie naioo aecia/aoeia ?o caeaoiinoue
noai?eoe iaeaoaeoeaiioo nenoaio inaioe, yea aieiaeiea a iiaeeeainoth
i iioaioeiaeii ocaiaeeoe i?ia?aneaii inaioii oaoiieiai? c
iioa-?anaie eiie?aoieo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue i caiii? oeeaieicaoei?
caaaeii.

Oe?a?ia nueiaiaeii — iiaiii?aaiee noa’?eo ?a?iiaenueei? iieioeee,
ui canaiae/o? ?? eoeueoo?iee iioaioeiae, yeee, a ia?oo /a?ao,
aecia/a?oueny ?iaiai inai/aiinoi, inaioe. Inoaiii ?iee a inoi?i?
Oe?a?ie aiaecia/eeeny ?yaeii ei?aeoeieieo, iiaea?iicaoeieieo,
no?oeoo?ieo ?aoi?i a inaioiie aaeoci. Aiie caeienithaaeenue a iaaeao
Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i inaioo», Eiioeaioei? iaoeiiiaeueii? inaioe,
Eiioeaioei? iaoeiiiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy. Aea «cnoao ia?aaeeaie», ui
icia/aa ae aeeaeiii ?aoi?iaoi?nueei i i?aaiicaoeieii ciiie ia
aiaeaoeiny. Ioaea, iaoa aea?aeaaa, ye i aanue naio, o iiooeao
oeyoia ia?aaoaeiae «noinoieia» nenoaie inaioe c nioeiaeueiith
nenoaiith. Aeaath/e ia oeueiio oeyoo i?i aoiaeaeaiiy e?a?ie a
iioaa?iaaio naioiao eoeueoo?o /a?ac aeaiie?aoecaoeith inaioe oa
aoiaiicaoeith, Oe?a?ii neiae ae?ioeoe i?iaeaio aiaeiiaeaiiy i
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo o?aaeeoei? oe?a?inueei? inaioe. ?aaeicaoei?
icia/aieo aeoeaioia a inaioiie iieioeoei ni?eyoeia aio/eciyiee
aeinaiae.

?aeiino?oeoeiy aoaiia noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? nenoaie inaioe a
Oe?a?ii o 1917-1920 ??. c iaoith aianaiiy iiaiai ciaiiy a inoi?ith
inaioe oa inoi?ith Oe?a?ie, ui ni?eyoeia c iaeiiai aieo oi?ioaaiith
iaoeiiiaeueii? naiaeiiinoi, a c ae?oaiai — e?eoe/iiio noaaeaiith aei
iiaeaethaaiiy aeieniinoi i ia?niaeoea a inaioiie aaeoci, caiaeeoue aeaio
oaio ia ?iaaiue aeooaeueieo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee
iai?yiie aeineiaeaeaiiy, iia’ycaiee ye c iiaeaioiaeith i?aoeue
inoi?e/iiai oa oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiai/iiai oa?aeoa?o ?yaeo eiioeaio?ia
oe?a?iiciaanoaa (“Oe?a?ia-eoeueoo?a”, “Oe?a?ia-inoi?iy”), iaae
?ic?iaeith yeeo i?aoeth? Iinoeooo nenoaiieo aeineiaeaeaiue
inaioe oa Iinoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo
ii.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, oae i oaiith aeineiaeaeaiue eaoaae?e
inoi?i? Oe?a?ie Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aeiiiii/iiai
oiiaa?neoaoo:»I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiinoi: inoi?iy
oa no/aniinoue».

Iaoa i caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeaiiai aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia aiaeoai?eoe a inoi?e/iie
iineiaeiaiinoi i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? nenoaie inaioe a
Oe?a?ii o 1917-1920 ??.; ?ice?eoe iaoiaeieiai/ii aniaeoe aeai?o i
inoi?e/io iaoiiaeaiinoue i?iiaaiaaieo a icia/aiee ia?iiae ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo inaioiuei? aaeoci; aecia/eoe, uia e?eoe/ii inieneeoe, ?iaaiue
ocaiaeaeaiinoi iiioeieiaaieo ?icieie aeaaeaie ?aoi?i inaioiuei?
nenoaie c ?aaeueiei aeiiiii/iei i iieioe/iei noaoonii, iioaioeiaeii
Oe?a?ie, eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiinoue anoaiiaeaii? o 1920 ?.
iaoeiiiaeueii? nenoaie inaioe ia naioiaiio ?iaii.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae?iciaii ianooiii caaaeaiiy:
i?inoaaeeoe ca’ycie iiae aei?aaiethoeieiei inaioiii ?ooii oa
ia?oeie aoaiaie ia?aoai?aiue a aaeoci inai-oe aeiae ?aaiethoei?,
?icaeyiooe iayaii a oiai/ani?e iaaeaaiaioei (1917-1920 ??.) iiaeoiaee
aei ae?ioaiiy ieoaiiy i?i iaoeiiiaeicaoeith inaioe, c’ynoaaoe
i?e/eie iiey?ecaoei? iana-eaiiy Oe?a?ie a ieoaiii oe?a?iicaoei?
inaioiuei? aaeoci, aea/eoe ?iaaiue aieeao aeaaeieo no?oeoo? ia
?ai?aaiicaoeith inaioiueiai i?ioeano, aeineiaeeoe neio?iiiinoue
iaoiaee/iiai, iaoiaeieiai/iiai oa no?oeoo?iiai iiiaeaiiy a
inaioiie noa?i, aenaioeeoe iaaeineiaeaeaia ieoaiiy i?aaiiciaaiiai
o/iianueeiai ?ooo: aeoiee, oi?ie, oa?aeoa? aieeao ia
noaiia-eaiiy nenoaie inaioe, niianoaaeoe aei?iaoaaii o
1917-1920 ??. oeyoe noaiiaeaiiy inaioiuei? nenoaie a ieoaiiyo:
nioeiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, i?ioanieii? inaioe, oi?aa-eiiiy,
eaae?iai? iieioeee, aecia/eoe ?iaaiue naiaiaee i caeaaeiinoi
Oe?a?ie aiae ?ini? o i?ioeaaeo?i noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie inaioe a
1919-1920 ??., aeoeaiooaaoe ia i?e/eiao ia?aaeiciaaiinoi iaii/aieo
ieaiia ca ?iciioeiiaeo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, aecia/eoe ?i-aaiue
aiaeiiaiaeiinoi, i?iiaaiaaieo ooieoeiiioth/eie a Oe?a?ii ai?iaeiaae
1917-1920 ?i-eia o?yaeaie, ia?niaeoea a aaeoci inaioe aioo?ioiii
oa ciaiioiii ia?aoai?aiiyi a noniieuenoai.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaia ina?oe (a?ae ??
eiioeaiooaeueiiai ae??oaiiy aei ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe??), i?ioeaaeo?a
noaiiaeaiiy yei? caeaaeaea a?ae caaaeueiiai ?noi?e/iiai eiioaenoo: ci?i
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean ciaaaiiy i?iiiceoe?e (?o ?noi?e/ia
iaoiiaeai?noue, nioe?aeueia aiioeaiaai?noue) uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ina?oiuei? aaeoc?, ?i?oe?eiaaieo o?yaeaie, ui

ooieoe?iioaaee a Oe?a?i? a iaaeao ia?aii? aeey aeine?aeo o?iiieia??:
1917-1920 ?iee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy oa iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a
iieyaa? a oiio, ui o aiaeiiaiaeiinoi c iinoaaeaiith iaoith a ?iaio?
c?iaeaii ni?iao, ca oiiae caeo/aiiy iiaeo aeaea?ae, iiaeieaoe
i?eioeei eieaeicaoei? (o?iiieiai/iee, i?iaeaiiee) aeineiaeaeoaaii?
oaie, i?eoaiaiiee iiia?aaeieeai. Ii?ooaii o?aaeeoeith a
inoi?iia?aoi?, eiee aeaia oaia ?icaeyaeaeany a i?yiie caeaaeiinoi aiae
caai?iiieo aeoia 1863 i 1876 ?ieia. Aeeeaae iaoa?iaeo iiaoaeiaaii ia
no?aoaai/iie caeaaeiinoi aiae iiaeie 1905-1907 ??., ui ni?e/eieee
aiaeiiio caai?iiieo aeoia o aiaeiioaiii aei anueiai oe?a?inueeiai,
iinoaaeaoe na?aae o?yaeiaeo eie, a Aeoii ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee
«oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy». Aei anueiai, c?inoaiiy inaioiueiai iioaioeiaeo a
ia?iiae ?aaiethoeieieo ciaaaiue iiaeaii ye eiai/ia i?iaeiaaeaiiy
cia/iiai iiaeianaiiy inai/aiinoi (a cia/eoue i inaioiuei? aaeoci)
a Oe?a?ii a eiioei OIO — ii/aoeo OO noieiooy. ?icaeyae oaie
aeiiiaiaii ia’?iiith iioi?ia-oei?th i?i oa?aeoa? «niiai?aoei» a noa?i
inaioe Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee c Oei/aniaei o?yaeii. Aeaiee aniaeo (c
?icieo i?e/ei) iaii?iaaii aeineiaeieeaie-iiia?aaeieeaie.

Iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a aeoeaioaoei? ia aecia/aeueiie ?iei a
i?ioeaaeo?i noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie inaioe i?aaiiciaaiiai inaioiueiai ?ooo,
ui iaa aaaiiee aei?aaiethoeieiee aeina?ae: Anaoe?a?inueea
o/eoaeuenueea niieea, Oiaa?enoai oeieueii? inaioe, Anaoe?a?inueea
oiaa?enoai oeieueii? inaioe. Naia icia/aii eoeueoo?ii-inaioii
ooai?aiiy aoee iiioeiaoi?aie o i?iiiceoei? eiioeaioei? inaioe i
neeaaeaee cia/iee aieea ia i?aeoeeo a aaeoci inaioe. Ia ?o oai?/iio
i iaoeiaiio iioaioeiaei caniiaaii Aaia?aeueiee nae?aoa?iao
inaioe, yeee o aeaiiio aeineiaei ?icaeyaea?oueny ia ye iiioeiaoi?,
a ye ?aaeicaoi? eiioeaioei? nenoaie inaioe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoaoia inoi?e/iiai aeineiaeo aecia/a?oueny
iiaeeeainoth aeei?enoaiiy eiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeo, iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue i oai?aoe/ieo aeniiaeia aeey iaienaiiy niaoeiaeueieo i
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c inoi?i? Oe?a?ie, inaioiueiai ?ooo,
?ic?iaee eaeoeieieo eo?nia, i?iaaaeaiiy naiiia?nueeeo i i?aeoe/ieo
caiyoue o aocao, i?aaiicaoei? nooaeaionueeeo eiioa?aioeie c aeaii?
i?iaeaie.

O?iiieiai/ii ?aiee aeaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia?iiae
Oe?a?inueei? ?aai-ethoei? 1917-1920 ??. Ia?aiiaa Ethoiaai? ?aaiethoei?
1917 ?ieo a ?inienueeie iiia?i?, ia?aoiae Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoei? ia
naiinoieieoeueeee eo?n, iia’ycaia c oeeie iiaeiyie aiae?iaeaeaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ieo oaiaeaioeie aeaei iaaeith ia i?aeoe/ii, ?aaiethoeieii ca
nai?th noooth, ia?aoai?aiiy a aaeoci inaioe, aoaeiaieoeoaa
iaoeiiiaeueii? oeiee ia canaaeao aeaiie?aoecaoei? iaa/aiiy,
ni?yioaaiiy eiai ia caaaeueiee ananoi?iiiie ?icaeoie iniaenoinoi. 1920
?ie — ia eeoa aeaieia ooieoeiiioth/ie a no/aniie eiioeaioei? inoi?i?
ia?iiaeecaoei? ?aaiethoei? a Oe?a?ii, a e aeciaiiy ciaiaiiinoi ca
iiaei?th, ui noaeany oeueiai ?ieo i ea?aeeiaeueii aieeioea ia i?ioean
iinoeoooeiaeicaoei? inaioiuei? noa?e: 1920 ?ieo — ia II-e
Anaoe?a?inueeie ia?aaei c ieoaiue inaioe (17-25 na?iiy) noaeiny
ioioeieia caoaa?aeaeaiiy inaioiuei? ia?niaeoeae, ocaeiiaii nenoaio
inaioe, ui iineea naiinoieiee oa?aeoa? i aeiyea a Oe?a?ii aei ii/aoeo
30-o ?ieia. Ioaea, ia?ii aiaeiinii oeieiniee ia?iiae aiae iaea?,
oai?aoecoaaiiy, oi?i i?aaiicaoei? aei anoaiiaeaiiy nenoaie inaioe.

Aieiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei?, yei aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

I?aaiiciaaiee inaioiie ?oo a Oe?a?ii iaa aaaiio
aei?aaiethoeieio i?aeoeeo. Aea?aeaaia iieioeea a aaeoci inaioe oa
iinoeoooei?, ui aoiethaaee ?? a aeeooy a 1917-1919 ??.
caniiaoaaeenue ia ooiaeaiaioaeueieo (aeiaeaii ?aaiethoeieieo ca nai?th
noooth) ?ic?iaeao iiioeieiaaieo a?iiaaenueeei ooai?aiiyi:
Anaoe?a?inueeith o/eoaeuenueeith niieeith.

O /ane aeai?thaaiiy aea?aeaaiinoi o?eaa? i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
nenoaie inaioe iaoeiiiaeueii? ca ciinoii i oi?iith.

Anaoe?a?inueea o/eoaeuenueea niieea oi?iaeiaae 1917-1920 ?ieia —
iaeaeoeaiioee i iaei?iaeoeoeaiioee caoeniee th?eaee/ieo i
aeiiiii/ieo i?aa caaeiyiiai a ooieoeiiioth/ie nenoaii inaioe
o/eoaeuenueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo.

I?ioyaii 1917-1920 ?ieia ca ?icieo oeiia aeaaee o?eaa? ciaaaiiy
iiae iiey?ieie ca nai?th noooth i?eioeeiaie oi?aaeiiiy:
oeaio?aeicaoei? i aeaoeaio?aeicaoei?.

I?aeoeeiaaia o?yaeiaeie eieaie eaae?iaa iieioeea oieno?
cieaeaiiy i?eioeeio aeaiie?aoecio aiae ia?iiaeo aei ia?iiaeo.

Iieioe/ii aeoeaii neee aea?aeaae o ieoaiii oe?a?iicaoei?
inaioiuei? aaeoci iiaeieyeenue, oiiaii, ia i’youe iniiaieo a?oi,
ui i?ecaaei ca aaoueiaiaoo aei oi?ioaaiiy aeaio o?iioia: oe?a?inueeiai i
aioeoe?a?inueeiai.

O?yaeiaa iieioeea o aiaeiioaiii aei i?aaiicaoei? inaioiueiai
i?ioeano aeey iaoeiiiaeueieo iaioei iineea ciiiiee oa?aeoa?.

Nenoaia inaioe, iiioeieiaaia i caoaa?aeaeaia ?aaeyinueeeie ea?iaieie
eieaie Oe?a?ie o 1920 ?ioei, iaea inoioii (i?eioeeiiai)
aiaeiiiiinoi aiae ?inienueei?, iiciioa nithcii?, ui aeeeeeaei ai?ioueao
iai?yiia, aeanyoeeioi? i?ioenoiyiiy.

I?eioeeiiaa ae?ioaiiy inaioiuei? iieioeee ca aeaaee ?aae
caniiaoaaeinue ia a?aooaaiii aeinaiaeo /ania ?aaiethoei? a aeaiie
aaeoci, iio?aa iiaoaeiae iiai? niieueiinoi a iaaeao aea?aeaae oa
inaioiuei? ia?niaeoeae, ui oi?ioaaeany ia naioiaiio ?iaii.

I?eioeei aacieaoiiai iaa/aiiy, ai?ioueao ca ?aaeicaoeith yeiai
i?aaiiciaaia oe?a?inueea o/eoaeuenoai aaei aiae ii/aoeo OO no., o
aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae ?aaeiciaaii ia aoei. Inaioiy noa?a
ooieoeiiioaaea o aacathaeaeaoiiio i?inoi?i.

Iniiaii ia?aoeiaee aei ?aaeicaoei? iaii/aieo ieaiia ca ?iciioeiieo
aeaaeieo no?oeoo? — ineoieiai/ia iaaaeaioiaaiinoue noniieuenoaa aei
i?iiaaiaaieo inaioiio ia?-niaeoea, ia?inoath/a aiae ia?iiaeo aei
ia?iiaeo aeiiiii/ia e?eca, oaeoi? ei?ioei/aniinoi aeaaee.

Ai?iaaoeiy aeena?oaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeiiia?aeyo ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 200-??//th i?noa Iaeane /Iaeana, 1994/; Ia
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ?
neeaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue” /Iaeana,
1994/; ia ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ania
aoiieoeueoo?ia oa aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ?
aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” /Iaeana, 1996/, a oaeiae o
ioaeieaoeiyo aeena?oaioa: «Iiaeianaiiy iaea? iaoeiiiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
ia canaaeao ?aeeii? oeiee (1917-1919 ??.)» // Iaaeaaiaiea i
ineoieiaiy. — 1997. — ? 1. — 0,3 ae?.a?e.; «Eiioeaiooaeueia i
i?aeoe/ia ae?ioaiiy inaioiuei? iieioeee a Oe?a?ii (1919-1920 ??.)» //
?iaeia oeiea. — 1997. — ? 3-4. — 0,3 ae?.a?e.; «Ic inoi?i? inaioiueiai
?ooo a Oe?a?ii: Anaoe?a?inueea o/eoaeuenueea niieea» // Iaoa oeiea. —
1997. — ? 3. — 0,25 ae?.a?e.; «Iniiaii aeoeaioe a inaioiie iieioeoei
aeiae Aee?aeoi?i? (ia a?oiaieo iaoa?iaeao)» // Caienee inoi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo. — Aei.5. — Iaeana, 1997. — 0,3 ae?.a?e.; «Ic inoi?i?
inaioiueiai ?ooo: Oiaa?enoai oeieueii? inaioe» // ?eieiai aaaeaei oa
noeioee ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoai. — Iaeana, 1997. — 0,3
ae?.a?e.; «Iinoea i ?ieue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeia
Iaenayoioiai Neiiaeo oa i?aaeiaoo Caeii Aiaeee (naionueea inaioa) o
i?aeoeoei ?aoi?ioaaiiy inaioiuei? aaeoci a Oe?aiii ia?iiaeo ciaaaiue:
1917-1920 ??.» // Ainiee nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue. —
Aei.1. — Iaeana, 1997. — 0,3 ae?.a?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoeiy
neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, o?ueio ?icaeieia (ia?oee caaa?oo?oueny
aecia/aiiyi iaoiaeieia?/ii? iniiae aein-eiaeaeaiiy), yei, a naith
/a?ao, iiaeieythoueny ia ia?aa?aoe; aeniiaeia, nieneo eioa?aoo?e i
aeaea?ae, iiaiiiai iieaae/eea, aeiaeaoeia. Ianya aeena?oaoei?
noaiiaeoue 200 noi??iie, e??i oeueiai 23 noi??iee ia?aoiao? nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (316 iaeiaioaaiue), ?iaiiee iieaae/ee — 5
noi??iie, aeiaeaoee — 14 noi??iie. Anueiai — 242 noi?iiee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii iaoo ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia, a?aoiaioiaaii o?iiieia?/i? oa
aaia?ao?/i? iaae?, iiaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ai?iaaoe?th.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?/iee oa aeaea?aeiciaa/ee iaeyae
i?iaeaie” aiae?ciaaii aeaea?aea oa e?oa?aoo?o c oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Eieueeinoue inoi?iia?aoi/ieo i?aoeue, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeineiaeaeaiiy
i?ioeano noaiia-eaiiy nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?i? o 1917-1920 ??. aeineoue
cia/ia. I?acaioiaaia a ieo oaia-oe/ii-eiioeaiooaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy
aea? iiaeeeainoue aoaiicoaaoe i?ioean ?o ?icaeoeo: I-e aoai — 1917 ?.
— na?aaeeia 30-o ?ieia; II-e aoai — na?aaeeia 30-o ??. — I-a iieiaeia
50-o ??.; III-e aoai — II-a iieiaeia 50-o ??. — 60-oi ??.; IV-e aoai —
70-oi — 80-oi ??.; V-e aoai — 90-oi ??. Iniiaiei e?eoa?i?i iiaeieo ia
aoaie ? ?iaaiue caaacia/aiiy iaoeiiiaeueii-aeaiie-?aoe/ieo
o?aaeeoeie o i?iiiiiaaiiio aeeeaaei iaoa?iaeo.

Inoi?iia?aoiy 20-o ?ieia c ieoaiue inaioe ia? ?yae iniaeeainoae:
i?ioean aeineiae-aeaiiy aiaeaoaa?oueny neio?iiii c i?ioeanii, yeee
iiaeiaaeaa iiae oai?aoecoaaiiy, aaoi?aie aoee aaciina?aaeii
o/anieee, ?iaioe iineee, a ia?aaaaeath/ie aieueoinoi,
iiynithaaeueii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueeee oa?aeoa?. C iiceoeie nueiaiaeaiiy oei
aeineiaeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii o ?iei aeaea?ae1.

N.Iinoa?iae aeoeaioo? ia noo? iie?oeee iaoe?iiae?caoe??,
i?aaeiaoii ?icaeyaea? no?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy; aiae?coth/e i?e/eie
ia?aae?ciaaiino? ?aoi?i, i?aeaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i
caaaeueiiia?iaei?noue ? iaoe?iiaeuei?noue ina?oiueiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.

A.A?eiueei oa ss.?yiii, aeaoaeueii oa?aeoa?ecoth/e caoiaee oa iie?oeeo
?aae a i?ioean? noai?aiiy nenoaie ina?oe, aeathoue eeoa iia?aeio ioe?ieo
ia?aoai?aiue o aei?aaeyinueeee ia??iae, iacaaaoe i?aeoeeo 1917-1919 ??.
?ooii ca ?ia?oe??th. ss.?yiii aeiaae?co? aeine?aeaeoaaio i?iaeaio,
aeath/e aeania, ?noi?e/ii ? o?einionueee aiioeaiaaia, ?icoi?iiy

——————-

1 Iinoa?iae N. Ic inoi?i? inaioiueiai ?ooo ia Oe?a?ii ca /ane
?aaiethoei? 1917-1919 ??. — E.: Ae?oea?, 1920. — 127 n.; A?eiueei A.
I/a?ee niaaoneie i?inaaoeoaeueiie iieeoeee. — Oa?ueeia: Iooue
i?inaauaiey, 1923. — 194 n.; eiai ae. *a?aiai caaaeaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai
aoaeiaieoeoaa a oea?eii inaioe. — E.,1920. — 186 n.; ?yiii ss.
Ia?iaeia inaioa ia Oe?a?ii ca aeanyoue ?ieia ?aaiethoei?. — E.:
Aea?aeaeaeaa Oe?a?ie, 1927. — 125 n.; eiai ae. I nenoaia ia?iaeiiai
i?inaauaiey // Oeyo inaioe. — 1928. — N 1.

iiiyooy “nenoaia ina?oe”. A ioe?ioe? no/aniiai eiio iiiaioo
a?aeooiaoo?oueny a?ae, a eeeeeaiiai ?noi?e/iith eia?eith, aaaaoia?/iiai
i?ioenoiyiiy ?aeaae?noe/ii? (a?enoie?aoe/ii?) ca iaoiaeieia??th ?
iaoiaeeeith nenoaiith ina?oe ? iaoa??ae?noe/iith (ieaaaenueeith).
Oe?a?inueeo nenoaio iaceaa? ni?iaith ia’?aeiaoe aea? caaaeai? nenoaie
ina?oe. Aaoi? iaiieyaa? ia caeaaeiin? nenoaie ina?oe ia eeoa a?ae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aeaaeo, a e a?ae oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

E?euee?noue ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeaii? i?iaeaie ia ii/aoeo 30-o
?ie?a cia/ii ciaioo?oueny1. Oa?aeoa?iith aeey ieo ? iia?aei?noue ioe?iie
ia??iaeo 1917-1920 ??. I?aoe?, aeaoiaai? na?aaeeiith 30-o,
aeaiiino?othoue caiaiaae aeaii? oaiaoeee. I?i inoaoi/io caai?iio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo oaiaeaioe?e a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c
ieoaiue ina?oe ?ie?a ?aaiethoe?? cana?ae/eei aac?iaiia aeaeaiiy
?i?oe?eiaaia Eii?na??aoii ina?oe3, ui noaei ieu?aiei oaea?ii iaianaiei
noae?inueeith ?ai?aneaiith iaoeiith ii o?e /anoei? ae?y/?a ?noi?e/ii?
iaoee, iiaeyaee yeeo anooiaee a i?ioe??//y c io?oe?eieie. Naiino?ei?
oi?ie

ina?oe a Oe?a?i? iacaaii “aaee/aciei c?eaii”. Aeaia aeaeaiiy cana?ae/eei
iiaiee ?ica?ii “iniaeeai? oe?a?inueei? nenoaie ina?oe”. O anooii?e
noaoo? ii?iaiii iacaaii “ai?ia?a” nithcii? ina?oiuei? iie?oeee.

?noi??ia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ??-ai aoaio a?aecia/athoueny a?aeaa?oei
no?aie?iiyi aaaoi??a “iaieiooe” i?ioe??//y 1917-1920 ??2. Oe?a?inueea
nenoaia ina?oe o caaaeaieo i?aoeyo io?eiaea iaaaoeaio ioe?ieo.

A?ae?iaeaeoaaia ?noi?e/ia iaoea a oiiaao aeanoae?i?caoe?? o ??-e iie.
50-o ??. — 60-o? ??. iineeth? ?ioa?an aei aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie3.
A?aei?ii? ca ?aeaeii-oi?iiaei ci?noii ? aeeaeiith iaoeiaiai aiae?co
icia/ai? i?aoe? na?ae/eee i?i i?aaiaiiy aeine?aeiee?a aeaoae?coaaoe
i?ioean eoeueoo?iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?, a?aoiaoth/e neeaaei?noue
? noia?a/eea?noue ii/aoeiaiai aoaio, aea, i?e oeueiio, oaea oaaaa ia
caaaeaee aecia/aea ??aaiue ?noi?e/ii? i?aaaee: E.*a?eaoei ioe?ith?
Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo ye aioeia?iaeia ooai?aiiy, yea ?oeioaaei oeiee,
ina?aaeee ?aaeyinueei? eoeueoo?e; I.A?euaiei iaceaa? Aaia?aeueiee
nae?aoa??ao ?ia?oiei ooai?aiiyi, ui ia i?eeoaaeiny i?i ina?oo aeey
ia?iaeo.

———————

1 Aaaei?iei I. Caaaeueia iaa/aiiy ia Oe?a?ii. Noai i
ia?niaeoeae. — E.,1930. — 112 n.; Iaaiia TH. Iaia’yceiaa
iaa/aiiy ia Oe?a?ii. — Oa?eia, 1931. — 44 n.; Eica/aiei A.
Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a ?? ieioaoeia i no/aniinoue. — E., 1931;
Ne?eiiee I. ?aeiino?oeoeiy e?a?ie i ia?aaoaeiaa oeiee. — Oa?eia,
1932.

2 Ia o?iioi eoeueoo?e. — [Ee?a], 1935. — 261 n.

1 Aooaei N. Inaioa ia ?aaeyinueeie Oe?a?ii. — E.,1945.- 15 c.; *aaaea?ia
N. Eaiiinueei caiiaioe a aei?. — E.: ?aaeyinueea oeiea, 1938; eiai ae.
30 ?ieia ?aaeyinueei? oeiee O?N? // Iaoeiai caienee oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeineiaeiiai iinoeoooo iaaeaaiaiee. — E., 1949. — N 3. —
N.47-66.

2 Aieiaeiae I. 40 ?ieia ?aaeyinueei? inaioe ia Oe?a?ii. — E.:
Ciaiiy, 1957.- 30 n.; A?eoeaiei I. ?icaeoie ?a-aeyinueei? oeiee ia
Oe?a?ii. — E.:?aaeyinueea oeiea, 1958. — 70 n.; I?ieiiaiei A.
?icaeoie caaaeueiiin-aioiuei? oeiee Oe?a?inueei? ?N? ca ni?ie
?ieia ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. — E.:Ciaiiy, 1958. — 38 n.;
*a?eaoei E. Caaaeueia iaa/aiiy a Oe?a?inueeie ?N? (1917-1957). —
E.: ?aaeyinueea oeiea, 1958. — 164 n.

Aaaiiei aianeii o aea/aiiy i?iaeaie noaea i?aoey ?.Cieioiaa?oiai1, aea
a?aoiaioiaaii aeaoo anoaiiaeaiiy nenoaie ina?oe, ui “eaiaei” ae?th/o aei
oeueiai o?aaeeoe?th. I.N.A?eoeaiei a iiiia?ao?? “Ia?ene c ?noi??? oeiee
a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? (1917-1965)” aaea?oueny aei oiiaiiai iiae?eo Oe?a?ie
aeiae ?aaiethoe?? ia ?aaeyinueeo (Oa?e?a) ? Oe?a?io “caoiieaio
ao?aeoacii-iaoe?iiae?noe/iith Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith”. Oea aoa cia/iee
e?ie a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?, yeee iieyaaa o aeciaiee ca Oe? aeaaeieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, a a?aeiia?aeii ? caoiae?a c ?? aieo aei ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ina?oiuei? nenoaie.

Ia /aoaa?oiio aoai? (70-o? — 80-o? ??.) ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
ia?aaaaeath/?e a?eueoino?, iaieiaee oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ?anioae?e
Nithco a ieoaiiyo ina?oe. ?iaioai, /anii, i?eoaiaiiee oaiaeaioe?eiee
i?aea?? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, caiia/oaaiiy iaaaoeaieo noi??i i?ioeano2.
sse i?eeeaae, i?aoey A.Iaeueie/aiea, a ye?e aaoi? ocaaaeueiea ?
nenoaiaoecoaaa aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, oa, ia aeaeue, ceiaaeeaa?
oacith i?i iaaieiio

oai?/o ?iaioo eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? ii anoaiiaeaiith nenoaie ina?oe, i?i
anaioiiethth/o no?aoaa?/io caeaaei?noue i?ioeano a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo
?ic?iaie A.Eai?ia. Aeine?aeiee iaieia?, o oaeee niin?a, ?noi?e/io
i?aaaeo, yea na?ae/eoue i?i caniiaai?noue no?oeoo?ii-iaoiaeieia?/-

ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia eiioeaiooaeueieo ae??oaiiyo aei?aoethaaieo
A.A?eiueeii oa ss.?yiii.

O 90-o ??., c a?aeiieo i?e/ei, cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ioa?an aei iaoe
aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo. Inoaii? i’yoee?ooy a?aecia/eeiny iiyaith ?yaeo
i?aoeue, ui ca ?aeaeii-ci?noiaei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ? aeecueeeie aei
aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaie oaie3.

A icia/aieo i?aoeyo i?enooii aeineoue aeieaciai oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i
oeyoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy inaioiuei? aaeoci aeiae Oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoei?, oi/a a ieo i eieaeiciaaii aeineiaeaeoaaio i?iaeaio, ui
cieaeo?, iaaiith ii?ith, oeiiiinoue i?aoeue.

———————

1 Cieioiaa?oee I. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? eoeueoo?e
(1917-1920). — E.:A-ai AI O?N?, 1961. — 424 n.

2 Iaeueie/aiei A. A.E.Eaiei e noaiiaeaiea ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey
ia Oe?aeia. — E.: Aeua oeiea, 1982. — 81 n.; Iiaeeinueeee I. Oeiea,
o/eoaeue, iaaeaaiaiea (Inoi?e/iee ia?en). — E.: ?aaeyinueea oeiea,
1978. — 118 n.; I/a?ee enoi?ee oeiei e iaaeaaiae/aneie iinee
ia?iaeia NNN?, 1917-1941 aa. — I.:Iaaeaaiaeea, 1980. — 456 n. oa ii.

1A?eoeaiei A.I. Aeieoiaioe oiiaeo Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?noaa
ia?iaeii? inaioe ye aeaea?aei c inoi?i? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aiae?iaeaeaiiy (1917 ?.) // OIAE. — 1997.
— N 3. — N.65-78; Iaeai?iaea A., Iaeai?iaea N. Iaoeiiiaeueii oeiee
Oe?a?ie: inoi?iy, ?icaeoie, o?iee // ?iaeia oeiea. — 1992. — N
11-12. — C.6-16; ?iciaee Ae. Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea e oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a // OIAE. — 1993. — N 2-3. — N.17-27; ?ioa? I. TH.
Aeiyeueiinoue oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo o?yaeia a
aaeoci inaioe (1917-1920) // Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa inoi?e/ieo iaoe. — *a?iiaoei, 1996.
— 28 n.; Oieiiaiei N.I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i eiioeaioeith
iaoeiiiaeueii? oeiee a Oe?a?ii a ia?iiae 1917-1920 ??. (Ii
noi?iieao aeo?iaeo «Aieueia oe?a?inueea oeiea») // Aiae?iaeaeaiiy.
— 1993. — N 2. — N.9-14; eiai ae. Inoi?iy noaiiaeaiiy
?aaeyinueei? nenoaie inaioe a Oe?a?inueeie ?N? (1918-1921) //
Iaaeaaiaiea. ?anioaeieainueeee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee cai?iee. — Aeione
28. — E.: ?aaeyinueea oeiea, 1989. — N.108-114; eiai ae. Inaioiy
iieioeea oe?a?inueeeo o?yaeia o 1917 -1920 ??. // Iaaeaaiaiea
i ineoieiaiy. — 1995. — N 2. — N.156-163.

Aeinyaiaiiy o iai?yieo aei anoaiiaeaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? nenoaie
inaioe, a ia?a-ei/aieo ?iaioao, aiaeianaii aeeeth/ii aei caaithaaiue
aeaiie?aoe/ieo o?yaeia (c ?o ?yaeo aeaaaeaii aeaaeo ?aae), iiae yeeie
o?eaaei ciaaaiiy a ia?iiae ?aaiethoei?. Iioaioeiae eiioeaiooaeueiiai i
ooieoeiiiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, aeanoeaee i?aaiiciaaiiio inaioiueiio
?ooiai aei?aaiethoeieii? i ?aaiethoeieii? aeiae, i ?iaaiue eiai aieeao
ia ia?aoai?aiiy a inaioiie aaeoci, aeineiaeieeaie 90-o ?ieia a?aoiaaii
ia aoei.

Aei anueiai, a ia?aei/aieo ?iaioao aiaenooiy iioi?iaoeiy, oi/a a
iieniaiai oa-?aeoa?o, i?i no?aoaai/io caeaaeiinoue oe?a?inueei? aeaaee,
ui ia?aaeeaaea noaaeith oi?io-aaiiy, aiae Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo
?ini? a ia?iiae c aa?aciy 1917 ?. aei aeiaoiy 1917 ?.

Aaoi?e-no/anieee iaoiaeyoue oaaaith i?iaeaio iiey?ecaoei?
a?iiaaenueeeo i iiei-oe/ieo nee Oe?a?ie a ieoaiii oe?a?iicaoei?
inaioiuei? noa?e. C aeineiaeaeaiue, o?iiieiai/-ii ie?aneaieo
1917-1920 ??., aeeeth/aii «eaioetha», ui i?acaioo? eiioeaiooaeueio i
iaoiaee/ii-i?aeoe/io ni?yiiaaiinoue i?aaiia aeaaee ?aae o,
aeooaeiciaaiie a aeaiiio aeineiaeaeaiii, i?iaeaii noaiiaeaiiy
nenoaie inaioe a Oe?a?ii a ia?iiae aiioaeueiiai ca ciinoii
nioeiaeueiiai ceaio.

Inoi?iia?aoi/iee iaeyae, iia’ycaiee c i?iaeaiith noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie
inaioe a Oe?a?ii a ia?iiae iaoeiiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii?
?aaiethoei?, aeiaiaeeoue iaeaaeiee ?iaaiue

oaaae aei ia? c aieo a/aieo i caeaaeiinoue ?iaiy ia’?eoeaiinoi
aaoi?ia aiae caaaeueiiai inoi?e/iiai eiioaenoo (/ano, a yeee
iaienaii oa /e iioa aeineiaeaeaiiy), ui oi caoaeoaaa, oi
?icoe?thaaa iiaeeeainoi aaoi?ia aei i?aaaeeai? ?aeiino?oeoei?
i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie inaioe. I, ui aaaeeeai, aeania
i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? nenoaie inaioe (1917-1920 ??.) ia
aeineiaeaeoaaany, oiaoi aeaiee oaiaoe/iee aeii?, iaeaeia
oiiaeueiinoue a aiaeiciaaiiio inoi?iia?aoi/iiio aei?iaeo
aiaenooii.

?aaeicaoeiy iaoe i caaaeaiue aeaii? ?iaioe noaea iiaeeeaith /a?ac
caeo/aiiy ia?oiaeaea?ae, aeinooiiiai nueiaiaeii a?oiaiiai ianeao.
Aeey ?ice?eooy iaeaeiiai caaeoio aeineiaeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii iioaeieiaaii
aeieoiaioe1.

Iaiaoiaeio iioi?iaoeith i?i noai inaioe, ia?niaeoeae ?? ?icaeoeo
aeathoue oiai/anii cai?ieee aeae?aoia, iinoaiia oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue2.

———————

1 Aoi?ia Anaoe?aeineia niaauaiea ii i?inaauaieth. — [Oa?ueeia], —
1920. — 144 n.; Aei inoi?i? iiaeiaoeiiiaeueieo i?ioeania ia
Oe?a?ii (20-30-oi ?iee). Aeieoiaioe i iaoa?iaee // OIAE. — 1990. — N
12. — N.60-72; 1991. — N 1. — N.99-112; 1992. — N 12. — N.91-106;
Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea. Aeieoiaioe i iaoa?iaee o aeaio
oiiao. — O.1 (4 aa?aciy — 9 a?oaeiy 1917 ?.) — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea,
1996. — 558 n.; Oai naii. — O.2 (10 a?oaeiy 1917 ?. — 29 eaioiy 1918
?.) — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1997. — 442 n. i o.ii.

2 Cai?iee Aeae?aoia, iinoaiia oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue ii ia?iaeiiio
Eiiina?iaoo inaioe ON??. — Oa?eia: Oe?aea?aeaeaeaa, 1920. — 57 n.;
Ia?eiii?in a iiaie ceiiiie/aneie ianoaiiaea (etheue-ieoya?ue 1921 a.) —
Oa?ueeia, 1921. — 40 n.

Oeiiiei aeaea?aeii aeey ?aeiino?oeoei? i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie
inaioe ? niiaaaee o/anieeia: iaioa?ia eioa?aoo?a1. Aeath/e caaaeueio
ioeiieo iaioa?iie eioa?aoo?i, ye aeaea?aeo inoi?e/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy,
aiaecia/eii, ui eiai iinoea a i?ioeaaeo?i inoi?e/iiai iiciaiiy ?
aieueo aieeaiaei ia ia oi?ioaaiiy i?aaeiaoiiai ?iaiy iiciaiiy
(eiino?oeoeaia ciaiiy i?i ieioea), a ia ?aoeaeneaiee ?iaaiue, oiaoi
ia iniaenoo ?aoeaenith aeineiaeieea: ia eiai inoi?e/ii-iaoeiai i
iaoiaeieiai/ii oyaeaiiy.

Caaaeaiith oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy ia iiaee ?iaaiue iaoeiainoi,
aeooaeueiinoi ni?eyee iaoa?iaee a?oiaia oa ?oeiienieo aiaeaeieia
iaoeiaeo aiaeiioae: Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao aeueo
i?aaiia aeaaee oa oi?aaeiiiy Oe?a?ie (oiiae 166 — Iiiinoa?noai inaioe,
o.1115 — Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, o.2201 — Iiiinoa?noai
inaioe Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, o.2581 — Aaia?aeueia nae?aoa?noai inaioe
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, o.2582 — Iiiinoa?noai inaioe OI?, o.4805 —
ssi Ea?eiae/ ?yiii /1880-1958), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
inoi?e/iiai a?oiao Oe?a?ie (oiiae 707 — Oi?aaeiiiy Ee?anueeei
iaa/aeueiei ie?oaii /1803-1919 ??.), Aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao Iaeanueei?
iaeanoi (oiiae 42 — Eaioeaey?iy iiia/eoaey Iaeanueei? o/aiai?
ie?oae), Aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao Oa?eianueei? iaeanoi (oiiae —

?-203 — Oa?eianueeee aoaa?inueeee aeeiiaa/ee eiiioao. Aiaeaeie
oi?aaeiiiy, o.?-1630 — Icthinueeee iiaioiaee aeeiiaa/ee eiiioao,
o.?-1635 — Aiaeaeie ia?iaeii? inaioe Iooe?nueeiai iiaioiaiai
aeeiiaa/iai eiiioaoo ?aae ?iaioie/eo, naeyinueeeo i
/a?aiii-a?iienueeeo aeaiooaoia, o.820 — Oa?eianueeee aoaa?inueeee
aiaeaeie inaioe, o.1635 — Aiaeaeie ia?iaeii? inaioe Icthinueeiai
iiaioiaiai aeeiieiio), aiaeaeieo ?oeiienia Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai?
aiaeiioaee ii. A.Aa?iaaenueeiai, aiaeaeieo ?oeiienia Iaeanueei? iaoeiai?
aiaeiioaee ii. I.Ai?ueeiai oa oiiaeao Iaeanueeiai inoi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iai
iocath.

Aeei?enoaiee a?oiaiee ianea aeineoue ?iciiiaiioiee: ioioeieii
aeieoiaioe, iaoa?iaee, iia’ycaii c aeiyeueiinoth ?iciioeiiaeo
inaioiio onoaiia, a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?ae-iaiue. Aeieoiaioai aeanoeaa
iiaeeaiaeoaeueia ciinoiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea: caeiiiaeaa/i i ii?iaoeaii
aeoe, aeieiaa aeieoiaioaoeiy, noaoenoe/ia caioiinoue, nioeiieiai/ii
ianoaaeaiiy, aeieiaa i i?eaaoia eenooaaiiy. O ?aeiinoi nai?e aiie
iinoyoue aaaeeeai aiaeiiinoi c aeineiaeaeoaaieo iaie i?iaeai.

Aaaiiei aeaea?aeii, ui iiaee?iiethaaei, ?icoe?thaaei iaoo
aeineiaeaeaiiy ni?yiiaaio ia aenaioeaiiy inoi?i? i?aaiiciaaiiai
inaioiueiai ?ooo, i?e/ei, ui ni?iaaeoaaee iiey?ecaoeith
noniieueieo nee Oe?a?ie a ieoaiii oe?a?iicaoei? inaioiuei? noa?e, noaee

———————

1 Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Aeiaaieee. 1917-1921. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1994.
— 270 n.; Aei?ioaiei Ae. Ii? niiieie i?i iaaeaai? ieioea
(1914-1918) // OIAE. — 1992. — N 7-8. — N.140-148; ?aaiethoeey ia
Oe?aeia. Ii iaioa?ai aaeuo. — I.-E.:Ainecaeao, 1930. — 436 n.;
Nei?iiaaenueeee I. Niiieie (e?iaoeue 1917 — a?oaeaiue 1918). —
E.-O?eaaeaeueo?y: Eieaa, 1995. — 493 n.; Oaiiaae I. Aaoueiaiueia ?
Aee?aeoi??y. O?eaee ?c niiiei?a // A?o/ecia. — 1996. — ? 1-2. —
N.131-137.

ia?iiaee/ii aeaeaiiy. A ia?iiaeeoei /ano ?aaiethoei? iayaii iaoa?iaee,
ui naiae/aoue i?i aenieee eiaoioei?io ?o iioi?iaoeieii?
iane/aiinoi. Ca aeai?iaith ic-iaeith aieueoinoue ioaeieaoeie c
ieoaiue noaiiaeaiiy inaioiueiai eo?no — noaooi, ei?an-iiiaeaioei?,
o?iiiea. Cia/iee aieea ia ?aaeicaoeith iaeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
?iaioe ni?aaea aeo?iae «Aieueia Oe?a?inueea Oeiea» — i?aai
Anaoe?a?inueei? o/eoaeuenueei? niieee.

Iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoei? ? i?eioeei inoi?ecio,
aaciaaiee ia eii-oeaioei? inoi?i? Oe?a?ie, aeeeaaeaiie o i?aoeyo
A?ae/aanueeiai I., A?ooaanueeiai I., E?ei’yeaae/a I., *eaeaanueeiai
Ae., ia no/anieo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oyaeaiiyo i i?eioeeiao, noiniaii
eoeueoo?ii-inoi?e/iiai i?ioeano, noi?ioeueiaaieo aecia/ieie
ca?oaiaeieie aeineiaeieeaie (Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee I., Oieiai A.,
Oiaiaea? I. oa iioi), iieiaeaiiyo i?iiaaiaaieo aaoi?ii no/anii?
eiioeaioei? oe?a?iiciaanoaa eao?aaoii iiaeia?iaeii? i?aii? iiaii
E.-A.Aa?aea?a aeaaeaiieii I.I.Eiiiiaieii.

Aaoi? aeineiaeo eaea oeyoii ciiie i?iaeaiiiai iiey: ?iaeoue aeoeaio
ia i?iaeaii nioeiieoeueoo?ii? iaoiiaeaiinoi iaoeiaiai iiciaiiy. A
ieoaiii iaoiaeieiai? aeineiaeaeaiiy nieiaea?eco?oueny c iiceoei?th
O.I.Iiiiai?: «aaaaoiaeii?ia iaoiaeieiaiy» c ?? i?eioeeiaie
iieiooiaeaiaioaeueiinoi, aeiiiaiaiinoi i ieth?aeicio ni?ey?
iiaeieaiith o?aaeeoeie «ai?ioueae ia cieuaiiy», ii?iaeaeaieo
eiio?iioaoeieiith eiaieith ooiaeaiaioaeicio a iaoeiaiio ieneaiii.

Aaaeeeaei a aeaiie ?iaioi ? iaiaaaiiy iiaeieaoe ia
iaoiaeieiai/iiio ?iaii iaoee, i?eoaiaiiee ?icaeoeo no/anii?
inoi?e/ii? iaoee, aei aiia?o?ioi? iaoeiiiaeueii? inoi?i?, ??
?iiaioecaoei?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?aeay iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe o eiioaeno?
?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e: 1917-1919 ??.” /a?ac i?eioeei iiae?eo ia
ia?aa?aoe ?icaeyiooi ianooii? ieoaiiy: i?aai?ciaaiee ina?oi?e ?oo:
aeoiee, oi?ie, oa?aeoa? aieeao ia ia?aoai?aiiy a aaeoc? ina?oe;
iiey?ecaoe?y a?iiaaenueeeo ? iie?oe/ieo nee Oe?a?ie o ieoaii?
oe?a?i?caoe?? ina?ouei? noa?e; ae?yeuei?noue o?yae?a ii ?aoi?ioaaiith
ina?oiuei? nenoaie: 1917-1919 ?iee.

Ci?noii ia?oiai ia?aa?aoa aeiaaaeaii eiioeaiooaeueio aioiai?noue (ia
iiiaio ?aaiethoe??) oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ii aeoeaieo nee aei ia?aaeyaeo
ooieoe?iioth/i? nenoaie ina?oe o iai?yieo aei ?? iaoe?iiae?caoe??.
Aioiai?noue iaoiiaeaia i?aeianaiiyi i?aai?ciaaiiai ina?oiueiai ?ooo, ui
aeiee a ia??iae ia?oi? ?in?enueei? ?aaiethoe?? ? ciaeoia na?e
a?aeaeoie o noaooo? iae?aaeeeaeuei?oiai noni?eueiiai ooai?aiiy
iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy — Anaoe?a?inueei? o/eoaeuenueei? ni?eee (1906
?.).

Ina?oiy aaeocue o aei?anioae?eainueeee ia??iae ae?? a iiai?e
iaoa??aeuei?e (o?iainoaaiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaia) ? /anoeia?e
caeiiiaeaa/i-?icii?yae/?e caeaaeiino? a?ae Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo ?in??,
yeee no?eioaaa iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo. Cia/ieo ci?i a ina?oi?e i?aeoeoe? ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny. Aeoea?cothoue naith ae?yeuei?noue noni?euei?
iaaeaaia?/i? ooai?aiiy: Anaoe?a?inueea o/eoaeuenueea ni?eea oa
Oiaa?enoai oe?eueii? ina?oe, ui aa?ooue ia naaa ?i?oe?aoeao o neeeeaii?
? i?iaaaeaii? ina?oyinueeeo oi?oi?a c iaoith eiinie?aeaoe??
iaaeaaia?/ieo coneeue, ni?yiiaaieo ia noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
nenoaie ina?oe.

Ni?iae oi?ioaaiiy Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiiaeo oa
oiaa?enoaa “Eii?eea ia ??aeio oeieo”, aeey iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
ia?aoai?aiue a aaeoc? eoeueoo?e, iie?auaiiy ia i?eianee, aeyaeeenue
iacaeaoieie aieeaaoe ia ao?eaiiy caaeoi?a a aeeooy.

I?ioean anoaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe a aei?aaeyinueeee
ia??iae (1919 ?.) ia?aaeaa/aa ?ai?aai?caoe?? a ina?oi?e aaeoc? o aeaio
iai?yieao: oe?a?i?caoe?y, nenoaiaoecaoe?y (no?oeoo?ii-iaoiaeieia?/ia).
I?aeoe/iiio ao?eaiith ?aea? oe?a?i?caoe?? ia?aoeiaeaeaea no?ieao?noue
noni?euenoaa o noaaeaii? aei icia/aii? i?iaeaie. Iie?oe/ii aeoeai? neee
iiae?eyeenue oiiaii ia i’youe iniiaieo a?oi: a?ae aeoeaieo
i?iiiceoe?iia??a oe?a?i?caoe?? aei y?eo ?? ai?ia?a. I?ioenoiyiiy ia
ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao ?aaiethoe?? iineeeeinue i?ae /an ia?oi? ni?iae
ia?aaoaeoaaoe nenoaio oi?aae?iiy: iicaaaeoe Ee?anueeo oe?eueio ie?oao
iiia?aaeiuei aeanoeaeo ?e ea??aieo ooieoe?e. Iiiioth/? noi?iie —
Ee?anueeee i?ioan?eiee o/eoaeuenueeee nithc, i?aeo?eioaaiee Aeeiiaa/ei
eii?oaoii ? Anaoe?a?inueea o/eoaeuenueea ni?eea — ae?aciee iie?oeee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee.

Icia/aia iiey?ecaoe?y i?ecaiaeeoue ca aaoueiaiaoo aei oi?ioaaiiy aeaio
ai?iaeeo o?iio?a: oe?a?inueeiai ? aioeoe?a?inueeiai. Aeiaaaeaii, ui oea
i?ioenoiyiiy a?eueo yne?aai aeyaeeinue na?aae i?nueeiai eiioeiaaioo, aea
iieioii caa?aaeaiiy iiceoe?e ?in?enueei? eoeueoo?e, ?in?enueeiiiaiiai
iaa/aeueiiai oiiaeo aenooiaea aeua oeiea. Naei ia?aaeeaaei aeaiee
ia??iae aeaui ii-?ioiio; iniiaio iiiceoe?th oe?a?i?caoe??, iayaiiai ia
iiiaio ?aaiethoe?? iaa/aeueiiai oiiaeo, neeaaeaei aeooiaainoai. A
caaaeueiiiiae?eiaiio eiioaeno? aeooiaainoai aeae?eeeinue a ie?aio
iiiioth/o neeo c aeaio i?e/ei: ii-ia?oa, ianooi ia
oea?eiaii-ia?ao?yeuei? oeiee (?o cae?eooy /a?ac nenoaiaoecaoe?th)
iaieio/i a?a aei caoaeaiiy noa?e aieeao ia noni?eueio i?aeoeeo;
ii-ae?oaa, a?aeaa?oa iaaaaeaiiy (i?iaeaia iineea a ?aae? aeaaaoeaiee
oa?aeoa?) Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee i?eeiaoe aei naiai neeaaeo aeooiaainoai
aeeeeeaei c aieo inoaiiueiai ai?iaea noaaeaiiy aei iie?oeee
?i?oe?eiaaii? iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ooii.

Ciiie a noniieueiie i?aeoeoei, iia’ycaii c iaoeiiiaeueiith
?aaiethoei?th a Oe?a?ii, ia i?ecaaee ia ia?oeo aoaiao aei
ocaiaeaeaiinoi aeie nee, ui i?aaenoaaeyee aeioeieueio inaioo,
oeieueio (anio ?iaiia), aeuo (iinoeooonueei-oiiaa?neoaonueeee
?iaaiue). Iaeaieueo aeieiaeie neeaie a iiioeiaoeai, iai?aaeaiie ia
?aoi?ioaaiiy inaioe, aeyaeeenue i?acaioaioe oeieueii? eaiee
inaioiuei? aaeoci.

Aeioeieueia aeoiaaiiy, ai?iaeiaae oeo aea ia?oeo ia?iiaeia
?aaiethoei?, aoei eeoa neeaaeiaith iicaoeieueii? inaioe. I?e/eie
ia?aaeiciaaiinoi iaea? aeioeieueiiai aeoi-aaiiy o:
iaaeinoaoiie iaoiaee/iie i iaoiaeieiai/iie caaacia/aiinoi (oey
ianoaaeia ia caia?a/o? ciinoiaieo ?ic?iaie o aeaiie i?iaeaii
N.?oniai?), aiaenooiinoi eaae?ia (O?aaaeianueeee iinoeooo ?aeeiee a
Oe?a?ii c iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia icia/aiiai i?ioieth), aiaenooiinoi
eiooia, aaeaea aeeoy/ee naaeie (aeioe aiae 5 aei 7 ?ieia) ieaiiaaii
aacieaoiei.

I?acaioaioe iinoeooonueei-oiiaa?neoaonueei? inaioe «aeai?iee»
aeey naaa iacaeaaeiinoue aiae aoaeue-yei? aeui? aeaaee i, a oiio
/enei, aiae oe?a?inueei?. A eeiii 1917 ?ieo Oei/aniaee o?yae caeiiii
i?i aaoiiiiith aeueo oeie iaaea? eieaaiyi iinoeoooia i
oiiaa?neoaoia iiaio naiinoieiinoue a onio ieoaiiyo. Aei
oe?a?iicaoei? oei?? inaioiuei? eaiee ciiao aa?aoueny a?iiaaenueeinoue:
iaoeiai oiaa?enoaa, yei eaeooue oeyoii aiaee?eooy oe?a?inueeeo ca
oi?iith i ciinoii aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia.

Oieueee ca Aee?aeoi?i? ii?ooaii ieoaiiy i?i cae?eooy anio ?inienueeeo
oiiaa?neoaoia i, ye ianeiaeie, caniiaaii Aeaia?oaiaio aeui? inaioe, ui
canaiae/eei aeeth/aiiy iinoeooonueei-oiiaa?neoaonueeiai ?iaiy inaioe
a i?ioean ?aoi?ioaaiiy inaioiuei? nenoaie a Oe?a?ii. Oaeo
ii?ooaiiy ieoaiiy aeaeyaeaa oeueoeiaoeaii ii aiaeiioaiith aei
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo, yeee ia?aaoaaa, a a?eueoino?
nai?e, a iiiceoei? aei i?ioeaaeo?e anoaiiaeaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? nenoaie
inaioe.

C i?iaieioaiiyi OI? ?ic?iaeaii iniiai? caeiiii?iaeoe o ni?aaao ina?oe
aai oae?, ui aieeaaee ia i?aeoeeo a ina?oi?e noa??: ooaaeaii Caeii i?i
iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueio aaoiiii?th, ae?iaeaii Ieai ?aeeii? oeiee ?
ieai oi?aae?iiy ni?aaaie ina?oe, caii/aoeiaaii ?ai?aai?caoe?th
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe, caniiaaii ?aaeo i?i?no??a ia?iaeii? ina?oe, yea
eii?aeeioaaea ae?yeuei?noue aeaia?oaiaio?a, a?aeae?e?a; iinoaaeaii
ieoaiiy i?i oe?eueio noaoenoeeo, i?i ?iciaaeoaaiiy oe?e i?ae
iaoe?iiaeueiinoyie, i?i aaoiiii?th iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aae.

?i?oe?aoeaa o ieoaii? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ina?oiuei? aaeoc? iaeaaeaea
Oiaa?enoao oe?eueii? ina?oe. ?aae?caoe?th Ieaia ?aeeii? oeiee, c
i?iaieioaiiyi OI? ia?aa?aei ia naaa Aaia?aeueia nae?aoa?noai ina?oe. Ca
ieaiii ia?aaeaa/aeinue iiaeieaoe no?oeoo?io iaocaiaeaeai?noue, i?ia?aiio
?ica?aei?noue oa aeoae?noe/i?noue ina?oiuei? iie?oeee. Ieai aeiaaaa
ci?ie iaaiein?a a iaoiaee/iiio ? iaoiaeieia?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?
ina?oiuei? i?aeoeee, ui caniiaoaaeanue ia o?aooaaii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ioa?ano, yeee, ye ia iaoo aeoieo, iinea ia/aoue iaaecia/aiin?, ?
iniaeeainoyo oe?a?inueei? iaioaeueiino?. Neaaeith aoea aeoeaioaoe?y ia
iiiaio? ocaiaeaeaiino?, i?iiiiiaaii? oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoao, nenoaie
ina?oe c caaaeueiina?oiaith ina?oiueith i?aeoeeith ? aeiiii?/iith
(aaaaoi a /iio ia oie /an iaaecia/aiith) no?aoaa??th iiaiooai?aii?
aea?aeaae.

Aeiiii?/ia oa iie?oe/ia aeanoaa?e?caoe?y ia iiiaio i?iiiceoe??
noni?euenoao oeueiai ieaio oiiaeeeaeee eeoa iiiaeeiie? caoiaee. Iniiaia
i?e/eia ia?aae?ciaaiino? ieaio — noni?euenoai i?iaeiaaeoaaei ianoe ia
nia? iciaee noaiiaino?. ?ic?iaeaiee o oeae aea ia??iae ?aaeaie Ieai
?aeeii? o?oaeiai? oeiee, ui eiioeaiooaeueii aoa oaeiae ni?yiiaaiee ia
nenoaiaoecaoe?th ina?oiuei? noa?e, aeyaeany aacia?niaeoeaiei c i?e/ei
iiaii? ia?ai???ioaoe?? noni?eueii? i?aeoeee a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo
?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e.

?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iaiaeeeinue o aeae?eueea aoai?a:
eiaeiee o?yae anoaiiaethaaa nai? ea??ai? i?aaie — aaiaeea /e aeaiaeea ?c
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy oo /e ?ioo /anoeio ooieoe?iia??a. Oey i?ioeaaeo?a, ca
iiiioth/eo aeaaeieo no?oeoo? iaea ye ??cia “noeaia?ia” ae??oaiiy, oae ?
??ci? ?aeaeii-iaoiaee/i? aeoiee; /anii iicia/ai? aioeaeaiie?aoeciii:
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ? Aee?aeoi??y aeoiaeeee ?c iaoe?iiae?cio, ?aaee ia
ia?oeo aoaiao — c eeaniaeo ?ioa?an?a, i?ci?oa a?aeaoaa?oueny iineeaiiy
ia?o?eiiai ?ioa?ano.

Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi i?iaeoiaaii? nenoaie ina?oe aeciaii iaoe?iiaeueia
aeoiaaiiy. Ca Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?noaa ina?oe ?ic?iaeaii i?iaeo
eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy. I?ia?aneaiei iai?yieii a
?aae?caoe?? oe??? i?ia?aie aoei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e
? cae/a?a, yea ia ia?oeo aoaiao aea?aeaaioai?/eo ciaaaiue iaei
eiie?aoiee i?aeoe/iee aeo?ae. Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy ca aaoueiaiaoo,
Aee?aeoi??? iineei neaaea ae?aaeaiiy, ui iiynith?oueny iiey?ecaoe??th
noni?euenoaa o noaaeaii? aei oe?a?i?caoe??, iineeaiiyi aioeoe?a?inueeeo
iano?i?a, aeeeeeaieo iie?oe/iith ? aeiiii?/iith ianoaa?euei?noth. C
anoaiiaeaiiyi aeaaee ?aae aeoiaia ooieoe?y i?aoaiaeo? ia ?aai?iaoe?th,
aea iaoeia iiaa eiioeaiooaeueia ae??oaiiy: o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy,
eiioi?noe/ia.

Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, Aaia?aeueia nae?aoa?noai ina?oe aeaeea?oaaee
caaacia/aiiy i?aa iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ye /a?ac a?aee?eooy, caniiaaia
ia aeia?ia?eueiiio eaaeano?oaaii? eiioeiaaioo, iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?e, oae
? o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy. Oa ca i?iaoeueei? ieoiaoe??,
ca aaoueiaiaoo oe? ii/eiaiiy i?eieieee na?e ?icaeoie.
Iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueia aaoiiii?y aoea neaniaaia, a ca iath —
iaoe?iiaeuei? i?i?noa?noaa: aaeeei?onueea, iieuenueea, ?a?aenueea.

Ca aaoueiaiaoo e?ea?aeiaaii i?aaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ia yeeo a
aeiaaoueiai?anueeee ia??iae eaaeaa iaia’ycie iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
ina?oyi. Oea ? i?ecaaei aei iiaiiai coaiae?iiy i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe a
icia/aiee ia??iae. ?aeeiith neeith, ui noaa?eueii aenooiaea ia caoeneo
iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe aoea Anaoe?a?inueea
o/eoaeuenueea ni?eea.

?aae?caoe?y ?aeaeii-oaiaoe/iiai caaeoio o?aoueiai ?icae?eo “Anoaiiaeaiiy
nenoaie ina?oe: 1919-1920 ??.” ia?aaeaa/aea aeoeaioaoe?th ia ianooiieo
i?iaeaiao: oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? naiino?eii? ?icii?yae/i-caeiiiaeaa/i?
?i?oe?aoeae a ieoaiiyo ina?oe, ?noi?e/ia iaoiiaeai?noue aea?aeaaii?
i?ia?aie nioe?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, i?ioenoiyiiy oe?a?inueeiai
(i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y) ? ?in?enueeiai (iie?oaoi?caoe?y) iai?yi?a a
ina?oi?e iie?oeoe?.

Ci?noii ?icae?eo aeiaaaeaii, ui a Oe?a?i? c i?eoiaeii aei aeaaee ?aae
ai?iaeiaae 1919-1920 ??. o?eaa? i?ioean iai?aoethaaiiy noaa?aiii?
?icii?yae/i-caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae. Oe?a?inueea noi?iia aecia/a?
??aaiue aca?iia?aeiinei c ?in??th oa ?ioeie ?anioae?eaie:
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ca oiiae naiino?eiino?.

Iaiicaaaeaia i?eioeei?a aeaiie?aoecio eaae?iaa iie?oeea aeaea
iiaeeea?noue Oe?a?i?, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?in??, ia?eoe i?iaeaio naaioaaeo
?ioae?aaioe??. Ia a?i?th ina?oyi /aeaea ia?aaoanoaoe?y oa aeai?e,
caniiaai? ia th?eaee/ieo ii?iao.

I?eioeei aacieaoiiai iaa/aiiy, i?iaieioaiee Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith ?
“i?aeoiieaiee” ?aaeaie ia aoei ?aae?ciaaii. Noi?iiaaia a Oe?a?i?
oe?eueia ia?aaea yaeyea niaith i?aai?ci c ??ciei aeiiii?/iei ei??iiyi:
oeiee, ye? oo?eioaaeenue ca ?aooiie i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo, aeiaia??ia
oeiea, ao?oiaa, ui ooieoe?iioaaee ia eiooe naeyi, oeiea, ui iaoa??aeueii
ianeoaiaoaaeanue i?ioni?eeaie. sse na?ae/aoue a?o?ai? iaoa??aee,
aeiaia??i? oeiee /enaeueii ia?aaaaeaee — oaiaee iineee i?eioniaee
oa?aeoa?, aoee ?i?oe?eiaai? caa?oo. A aeayeeo aoaa?i?yo oa iia?oao
i?eioniai aaiaeeee ieaoo ca iaa/aiiy, ui i?ecaiaeeei aei a?aee?eoeo
aenooi?a.

I?ney ??-? Anaoe?a?inueei? ia?aaee c ieoaiue ina?oe (na?iaiue 1920 ?.),
ia ye?e noaeiny io?oe?eia iaieioaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ina?oiueiai eo?no,
Oe?a?ia a caeiiiaeaa/i-?icii?yae/iio ieai? iiai?noth a?aeiaaeiao? naaa
a?ae ?in??, a?ae oeueiai /ano a Oe?a?i? ae?yea eiioeaioaoeueii ?
no?oeoo?ii a?aei?iia a?ae ?in?enueei? nenoaia ina?oe.

Ia ia?aae? aecia/aii i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie a ina?oi?e ni?aa?: nioe?aeueia
aeoiaaiiy, i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa. ?aeaieia ina?oiueiai eo?no —
i?ea?/ieo oaoiie?aoe/ii? oa/?? a iaaeaaia?oe? A.A?eiueei. Nioe?aeueia
aeoiaaiiy iinoaei ? ye nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia, ? ye iaaeaaia?/ia
iaiao?aei?noue ? ae?inei a aea?aeaaio i?ia?aio. A ?in?? iiae?aiith
i?aeoeeith aoei ioiieaii eeoa aeae?eueea aoaa?i?e, aea
iaeeaoano?io?/i?oith aoea aaci?eooeuei?noue. Iniiaiee i?eioeei nenoaie
nioeaeoo — aea?aeaaa anoaiiaethaaea oie a?eiaee oeaic, aei yeiai ae?oe
iaee ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia? o?eueee i?aaa, aeiiae, aea i?yeeo
iaia’yce?a. A aeena?oaoe?? aeoeaioiaaii ia i?aeoeoe? i?eioniai?
ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a ??cieo aaeocae ia aeoiaaoae?a aeey
nenoaie nioeaeoo, ia i?eueaao aei “aoiaeaeaiiy” a nenoaio nioeaeoo.

Ci?noii o?aoueiai ia?aa?aoo ???-ai ?icae?eo aeiaaaeaii ??aaiue oaaae
eiieo?oth/eo o?yae?a aei ?aea? i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? ? cina?aaeaeai?noue ia
oe?e i?iaeai? no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy ca aeaaee ?aae: i?ioan?eia ina?oa noa?
na?oeaaeiith ina?oiuei? nenoaie. Ia ??-e Anaoe?a?inuee?e ia?aae? c
ieoaiue ina?oe iineeth?oueny i?ioenoiyiiy oe?a?inueei? ? ?in?enueei?
noi??i. Oe?a?inueea a?aoiaioiaaii aeiaaea “ni?acao/i?noue” “Noaie”
(nenoaie) aaea ae?th/ei aioo??oi?i ? ciai?oi?i caeiiai ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo. Iiceoe?? Oe?a?ie ia ia?aae? aoee cae??ieai?, oa oey ianoaaeia
aeeeeeaea iaiao?aei?noue iaaiai?aiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie ia
caaaeueiioaaea?aoeaiiio ??ai?: ia Ia?o?e ana?in?enuee?e ia?o?ei?e
ia?aae? c ieoaiue ina?oe. Ia?eiiin Oe?a?ie o i?ioeaaeo?? iaaiai?aiiy
io?eio? ia?aaaae. I?ioenoiyiiy iaei a?eueoa ye aeanyoee?oith ?noi??th.
Iniiai? a?aei?iiino? aenieoaoiaaieo nenoai — ?in?enueea iicia/aia
iaoiaeieia?/ii-iaoiaee/iith aeoae?oe/i?noth, caniiaaia ia
nioe?aeueii-?aoi?iaoi?nuee?e oa/?? a iaaeaaia?oe? (I.E?oinueea,
A.Iaea?aiei); oe?a?inueea a?aeiia?aeaea ci?noo iiiyooy nenoaia: aoea
eiioeaiooaeueiith ?aaeoe??th ia aioo??oi? ia?aoai?aiiy oa ciai?oi?
ci?ie, caniiaoaaeanue ia oaoiie?aoe/i?e oa/?? a iaaeaaia?oe?
(A.A?eiueei, ss.?yiii, A.Aano?a).

AENIIAEE

Ia?aoai?aiiy a ina?oi?e aaeoc? /an?a ?aaiethoe?? — ?acoeueoao ci?i ia
na?oiaiio ? aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiio ??aiyo. ?aaiethoe?ei?e neooaoe??
ni?eyei cia/ia i?aeianaiiy ina?oiueiai ??aiy a iiia?o?? a e?ioe? O?O no.
ia ii/aoeo OO no. Oe?a?i? iaaeaaaeenue, a oeueiio ca’yceo, ye iaai?
naiaiaee, oae ? ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino?, ui aeeeeeaei aei aeeooy noni?eueio
iaiao?aei?noue — i?aai?ciaaiee ina?oi?e ?oo, aecia/aeueiith ?enith yeiai
aoei ii?aeiaiiy aeiia iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai oa i?ioan?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o: Anaoe?a?inueea o/eoaeuenueea ni?eea (1906 ?.). Aeaiiio
ooai?aiith iaeaaeaea ?i?oe?aoeaa o aei?aoethaaii? eiioeaioe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe.

?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oiuei? aaeoc? a ia??iae ?aaiethoe?? o oeaio?? oaaae
eiieo?oth/eo o?yae?a. Ci?ie o?eaaee o aeaio iai?yieao: nenoaiaoecaoe?y,
oe?a?i?caoe?y.

C oe?eiai ?yaeo i?e/ei, aeaoaeueii aiae?ciaaieo a ?iaio?, ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie (aeeth/ath/e iaaeaaia?/i? eaae?e, o/i?anoai, nooaeaionoai) o
nai?io noaaeaii? aei oe?a?i?caoe?? oiiaii iiae?eyeinue ia i’youe
iniiaieo a?oi. Oeyoe ? iaoiaee ?aae?caoe?? ?aea? oe?a?i?caoe??
ii?iaeeee, c /anii, aeaa o?iioe: oe?a?inueeee ? aioeoe?a?inueeee, ye? a
i?ioean? i?ioenoiyiiy caaoaaee i?i iaaeaaia?/io aoeeo, aoyaoth/e a
i?ioenoiyiiy o/i?anueeo iano, ui i?ecaaei aei ?? i?aai?caoe?? (ao?oee,
nithce), c iaoith a?aenoithaaiiy nai?o iiceoe?e: i?ioe?a?inueeeo ?
i?i?in?enueeeo.

Oi?iaeiaae 1917-1919 ?ie?a oe?e?niee ia?aaeyae an??? nenoaie ina?oe
aeyaeany iaiiaeeeaei. Aeioe?eueia aeoiaaiiy oa
?inoeooonueei-oi?aa?neoaonueeee ??aaiue i?aeaeaaaeenue ?aoi?ioaaiith
/anoeiai. Anaioiiethth/? ia?aoai?aiiy aoee ni?yiiaai? ia “na?oeaaeio”
ina?oiuei? nenoaie — oe?eueio eaieo. A icia/aiee ia??iae i?aeoe/iiio
ao?eaiith ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe ia?aoeiaeaeaee:
iaiiaeieaia noaiia?noue noni?euenoaa, ineoieia?/ia iaaaeaioiaai?noue
ian, aeiiii?/iee niaae — caiaiaae, iino?ei? ci?ie aeaaee, ui i?ae?eaaee
aaoi?eoao iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

C anoaiiaeaiiyi aeaaee ?aae a Oe?a?i? o?eaa? i?ioean iai?aoethaaiiy
naiino?eii? caeiiiaeaa/i-?icii?yae/i? ?i?oe?aoeae. O noaiiaeaii?
ina?oiuei? ia?niaeoeae aecia/aeueio ?ieue a?ae?a?aea ??-aa
Anaoe?a?inueea ia?aaea c ieoaiue ina?oe. ?? ?acoeueoao — eiioeaiooaeueia
aecia/ai?noue (“Noaia”): oi?ioaaiiy iiai? ethaeeie /a?ac /a?ac aenieo
i?ioan?eio ina?oo. Ae?iaeaia ina?oiy iie?oeea, ia?aaeaa/aea
aeoea?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a o?ueio
iai?yieao: nioe?aeueia aeoiaaiiy, iicaoe?eueia oa i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia
ina?oa. Aea?? icia/aiiai eo?no iaoiiaeaiee ye aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaieie
iio?aaaie, oae ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieie i?aoaic?yie: eiai iaaeeeoiaoaaea
ae?eni?noue — iaeiio?ieueiaaiee ??no aaci?eooeueiino?, a?aenooi?noue
eaae?o?eiaaieo eaae??a, ui iineaaethaaei eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue Oe?a?ie ?
iicaaaeyei iiaeeeaino? caii/aoeoaaoe iiaee aeiiii?/iee eo?n. ?in?y a
nai?o ae?yo iaiaaaeanue “ae?aaoe” a Oe?a?ie ?i?oe?aoeao a ieoaiiyo
ina?oe. I?ioenoiyiiy o?eaaei aeanyoee?ooy: aenieoaoiaai? a ?in?? ?
Oe?a?i? nenoaie ina?oe iaee ?yae i?eioeeiiaeo a?aei?iiinoae.

IA?AE?E IAOEIAEO Ae?OEIAAIEO I?AOeUe:

Aaaoiiiaa I.A. Iniiai? aeoeaioe a ina?oi?e iie?oeoe? aeiae Aee?aeoi???
(ia a?o?aieo iaoa??aeao) // Caienee ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. — Aeione 5.
— Iaeana, 1997. — N.120-125.

Aaaoiiiaa I.A. I?aeianaiiy ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ia canaaeao
?aeeii? oeiee (1917-1929 ??.) // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. A?niee
Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe. — 1997. —

? 1. — N.239-243.

Aaaoiiiaa I.A. Eiioeaiooaeueia ? i?aeoe/ia ae??oaiiy ina?oiuei? iie?oeee
a Oe?a?i? (1919-1920 ??.) // ??aeia oeiea. Uii?ny/iee
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iee aeo?iae. — 1997. — ? 3-4. — N.76-79.

Aaaoiiiaa I.A. ?c ?noi??? ina?oiueiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?: Anaoe?a?inueea
o/eoaeuenueea ni?eea // Iaoa oeiea. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee aeo?iae. —
Iaeana, 1997. — ? 3. — N.4-5.

Aaaoiiiaa I.A. ?c ?noi??? ina?oiueiai ?ooo: Oiaa?enoai oe?eueii? ina?oe
// O iaoeiaiio ca??ieeo “?eieia? aaaeae? oa noeioee ?icaeoeo
ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoai”. — Iaeana: ??AIO, 1997. — N.87-92.

Aaaoiiiaa I.A. I?noea ? ?ieue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a Iaenayo?oiai
Neiiaeo oa i?aaeiaoo Caeii Aiaeee (na?onueea ina?oa) o i?aeoeoe?
?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oiuei? aaeoc? a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo ciaaaiue: 1917-1920
??. // A?niee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. — Aeione 1. —
Iaeana: AOCO ??AIOO, 1997. — N.226-232.

Aaaoiiiaa Iaae?y Aanee?aia.

?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie — Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1998.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaia ina?oe: ?? eiioeaiooaeueia ae??oaiiy
? iaiaeiicia/iee (o eiioaeno? ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e) i?ioean i?aeoe/iiai
ao?eaiiy. A ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oiuei?
aaeoc?, ?i?oe?eiaai? an?ia o?yaeiaeie no?oeoo?aie, ui ciaaaeenue ca
aeaaeo a Oe?a?i? oi?iaeiaae 1917-1920 ??.

Aaaoiiiaa I.A. Noaiiaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey a
Oe?aeia: 1917-1920 aa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu — Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei.E.E.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna, 1998.

I?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony nenoaia ia?aciaaiey: a?
eiioeaiooaeueiia ?aoaiea e iaiaeiicia/iue (a eiioaenoa ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
niauoee) i?ioean i?aeoe/aneiai aiieiuaiey. A ?aaioa ?anniio?aiu
i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii ?aoi?ie?iaaiey io?anee ia?aciaaiey,
eieoeee?iaaiiua anaie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie, eioi?ua ai?ieenue
ca aeanoue a Oe?aeia ia i?ioyaeaiee 1917-1920 aa.

. N.V.Agafonova. Formation of the National System of Education in the
Ukraine: 1917-1920. — Manuscript.

Master’s thesis on Histori Spesialiti 07.00.01 — Histori of the Ukraine
— The Mechnikov State University, Odessa, 1998.

The subject of investigation is the system of education: its
conceptional decision and non ordinary (in the context of revolutionari
events) process of practical realization. In the work were eamined
propositions concerning the reformation of the educational branch,
initiated by all legislative bodies which faught for authority in
1917-1920.

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