I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea

Aeaaeea Ethaia TH???aia

OAeE 616.233-002.2-02

NOAI IA?IENEAeAOe?? E?I?Ae?A, AIOEIENEAeAIOII? NENOAIE CAOENOO,

CIAI?OIUeINAE?AOI?II? OOIEOe?? I?AeOEOIEIAI? CAEICE, UEOIAEAeII? CAEICE
OA IAAeIE?IEE?A O IANAEAIIss AEIEIA?*II IANI?EssOEEAIAI ?AA?IIO

*A?I?AAOeUeEI? IAEANO?

14.01.02 — aioo??oi? oai?iae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ee?i?/ii? ?aae?ieia?? Iaoeiaiai oeaio?o

?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie Aeaaeai?? iaaee/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie,

*a?i?aaoeueeiio iaeaniiio iaaee/iiio ae?aaiinoe/iiio oeaio?? IIC

Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaaaoei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/

?inoeooo ee?i?/ii? ?aae?ieia??

Iaoeiaiai oeaio?o ?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie

Aeaaeai?? iaaee/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aeeoy/i? aaiaoieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaaei?ia E?ae?y sse?aia

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie

eaoaae?a n?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiaeia? Iao?i Ieeieaeiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

IIC Oe?a?ie

eaoaae?a aiaeie?eiieia??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?aaii-O?aie?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a aiaeie?eiieia?? (i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee)

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 17 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 11 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 26.613.01 i?e Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie (254112,
i.Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9, aoae.?3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? aeaaeai?? (i.Ee?a,
aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 14 » o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? I.?.?iiaiaiei

?aaee, eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

ANOOI

A ia?oa aeanyoe??//y i?ney *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe na?aae
eiioeiaaioo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ui caciaei noi?niiai aieeao ??cieo
/eiiee?a, niinoa??aaeiny c?inoaiiy ieoiii? aaae oa aaaeeino? ia?aa?ao
aeayeeo caoai?thaaiue. Noeoii? oaoii- e aio?iiiaaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aeeoo?aa na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? aeyaeeeny o 15 ?ac?a aeueie, i?ae ia
oa?eoi??? ?ioeo aea?aeaa. A *a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeano? ca aeaieie ia
1.01.96. I?inoaoo Oe?a?ie, anueiai ia?aoiaoaaeinue 26470 iioa?i?eeo a?ae
aaa??? ia *AAN, a oiio /ene? o/aniee?a e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a aaa???
(EIA) – 3647.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Anac?inoath/? oaiie caa?oaeiaiiy a?inoa?e ??cieie
aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaeie /eiieeaie ia?aeiieeai aeiaaathoue aea/aiiy ?o
ae?? ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

I?ae /an *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe caciaee aieea?a ?aae?iioee?ae?a
eiaeo oa oeac?th iiiaae 5 iei. aeeoae?a Oe?a?ie, iaee i?noea ? /eiieee
o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee.

O ianaeaiiy E?oeiainueeiai, Canoaaiyinueeiai ?aeii?a *a?i?aaoeueei?
iaeano?, eiioai?iiaaiiai ?aae?iioee?aeaie, c eiaeiei ?ieii aeey ae?oae
oa aei?ineeo oeeo ?aa?ii?a ca?eueoo?oueny i?iaeaia noaio ?o caei?ia’y.

Aeicia? iaaaioaaeaiiy a on?o aeine?aeieo a?oiao ia ia?aaeuoaaee
ae?aiacii iaeeo aeic ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy (IAe?A) (aei 0,5 A?),
a iniiaiiio — 5-25 nA?.

A?aoiaoth/e a?ioii *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, iaoith iaoi? ?iaioe aoei
aeeiai?/ia ianoaaeaiiy eiioeiaaio?a ianaeaiiy, yea caciaei aieeao
noi?nii? ae?? iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano noi?nia ae?y ia i?aai?ci neaaeeo /eiiee?a ??cii?
i?e?iaee (o?i?/ii?, a?ieia?/ii?, o?ce/ii?, a oiio /ene? ?ii?coth/iai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy – ?A) aea/aia iaaeinoaoiuei.

Iaoeia? iaoa??aee c aeaii? i?iaeaie iaeiie/ai? ca inoaii? 12 ?ie?a i?ney
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe ? noinothoueny ia?aaaaeii i?iiaiaai
iaoiiaeaii? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice. (A.?.Ae?aeia, ?.?.Ae?aeia,
1993; I.Ae.O?iiueei, ?.A.A?oeiaa, A.A.Ie?eiee, 1994; A.E.*aaai, 1994;
A.TH.?iiaiaiei, 1998; A.Aa?aiianueeee, 1999).

A ca’yceo c oeei aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
i?aeoeoieiai? caeice o aca?iica’yceo c aeayeeie caeicaie aioo??oiuei?
nae?aoe?? (ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa iaaeie?iee?a) o ethaeae, eio??
iaoeathoue a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/i?e cii? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? ?
i?aeaeathoueny aieeao ?A oa iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee,
ciaoiaey/enue c oeeo i?e/ei a noai? o?ii?/iiai no?ano, ? aeooaeueiei.

Ca inoaii? 12 ?ie?a ii *a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeano? oaea iaaacia/ia ianoaiiaea
ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ca?eueoaii? caoai?thaaiue
oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo (OEO) oa ueoiaeaeii? caeice (UC) iaeaea a 2,3
?ace. Iaoiiaeaia o?ii?/iei no?anii aeoeaaoe?y IIE a naith /a?ao
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie caoenoo, ??
iai?oaeaiiy, ui ni?eyei aeieeiaiith a?ic?e ? ae?acie oeoieo,
aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee, c?inea /anoioa aeieeiaiiy caaino?aiue
o?ii?/ieo caoai?thaaiue oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo (aano?eoe, ae?aceiaa
oai?iaa), ia/?iee, i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, aeyaeaiiy o?a?icieo ci?i,
ia’?iieo ooai?aiue.

Oiio aea/aiiy aeayeeo eaiie ii?ooaiiy ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? o iino?aaeaeaeeo aeanoue ciiao ae?iaeoe
e?eoa??? aeey ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee a ieo iniiaieo aeae?a iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii?, i?aeoeoieiai? caeic oa iaaeie?iee?a (A.E.*aaai,
A.I.A?eaeueei, 1991-1992 ??.; A.I.Eiaaeaiei, 1995-1997 ??.).

A?aeiii, ui caeice aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? ? oi?aa?naeueiith /aniaith
nenoaiith ?ioaa?aoe?? neeaaeieo a?ieia?/ieo nenoai. An?i ??aiyi oe???
a?inenoaie aeanoea? aeiaia? ? naciii? ?eoie. I?aeoe/ii oey i?iaeaia iaei
?ic?iaeaia a Oe?a?i?. Oiio aaaeeeai aecia/eoe, ye ?aaaothoue caeice
aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? o ianaeaiiy a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo ?aeiiao
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao IAe?
IOe?I AII Oe?a?ie, ?a?no? ?01964 010101 — ?ic?iaea nenoaie caoiae?a
uiaei i?io?eaeoeee oa e?eoaaiiy in?a, ye? iino?aaeaeaee aiane?aeie
aaa???

ca o?aaiaioaie : Ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aea oa ?ioeo
caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice a o/aniee?a e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a
aaa??? ia *AAN. Noai?aiiy ?aeeii? nenoaie ae?aaiinoeee, e?eoaaiiy,
?aaa?e?oaoe?? o?oaeiai? oa nioe?aeueii? aenia?oece.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeaoe ioe?ieo noaio ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a oa
aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie caoenoo, aeynieoe ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie
i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii? caeic ? iaaeie?iee?a o ianaeaiiy oa o/aniee?a
EIA a aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaiio ?aa?ii? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? c
o?aooaaiiyi aeiaiaeo ? naciiieo ?eoi?a, a?ae?a?aoe iaea?eueo
?ioi?iaoeai? e?eoa??? aeey ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee caoai?thaaiue oeeo
i?aai?a, ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?o e?eoaaiiy.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

n aeaoe ioe?ieo noaio ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a oa aioeieneaeaioii?
nenoaie caoenoo c o?aooaaiiyi naciiieo ? aeiaiaeo ?eoi?a;

n aeynieoe ee?i?/iee ia?aa?a iniiaieo caoai?thaaiue caeic aioo??oiuei?
nae?aoe??;

n aea/eoe ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai i?aeoeoieiai? caeice oa aeayeeo caeic
aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae naciiieo ? aeiaiaeo ?eoi?a;

n aecia/eoe ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe??
(i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii? caeic, iaaeie?iee?a) o o/aniee?a EIA oa
ianaeaiiy eiioai?iiaaieo ?aa?ii?a;

n i?iaanoe a?aea?? e?eoa???a aeey ae?aaiinoeee ii?ooaiue i?aeoeoieiai?
caeice oa aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe??, aeaoe ioe?ieo
aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy ?o caoai?thaaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

Aia?oa iieacaia ?ieue aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaeo /eiiee?a a?ioiio
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, a oiio /ene? e ?A, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey
*i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa???, o ?icaeoeo iaoieia?? i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii?
caeic, iaaeie?iee?a o o/aniee?a EIA ia *AAN ? aeeoae?a E?oeiainueeiai oa
Canoaaiyinueeiai ?aeii?a *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ee?i?/iee ia?aa?a caoai?thaaiue i?aeoeoieiai? caeice oa
aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? o aeeoae?a ?aeii?a, ui
i?aeaeathoueny aieeao iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a ??cii? i?e?iaee, a oiio /ene?
e ?A, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oi?i?aei?noth i?io?eaiiy, ?acenoaioi?noth aei
e?eoaaiiy.

Aia?oa i?ine?aeeiaaii aeiaia? oa naciii? ?eoie ai?iii?a oa aeayeeo
oa?iaio?a o e?ia? o aeeoae?a aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaeo ?aa?ii?a c ??ciith
iaoieia??th caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe??. Ia iniia? oeeo iieaciee?a
aia?oa i?iaeaiiino?iaaia iiaeeea?noue o?iiiae?aaiinoeee oa canoinoaaiiy
o?iiioa?ai?? o iaoe??io?a, ui caciaee aieeao iaeeo aeic ?A oa eiiieaeno
iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a; oa?iaioaoeaia ooieoe?y i?aeoeoieiai? caeice (IC)
caeaaeeoue a?ae o?eaaeino? noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue, oyaeeino? ?o
ia?aa?ao, a ia a?ae naciio ?ieo.

Aia?oa iieacaia caeaaei?noue ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a ? noaio
aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie o iino?aaeaeaeeo *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? i?e
ae?? ??cieo enaiia?ioee?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae naciiieo ?eoi?a.

Ia iniia? oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ieo ci?i oa ci?i aeayeeo iieaciee?a
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii? caeic oa iaaeie?iee?a
?ic?iaeai? oa a?ae?a?ai? iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeai? e?eoa??? ?aiiuei?
ae?aaiinoeee oa ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy ii?ooaiue i?aeoeoieiai?
caeice oa aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? i?e ae?? ??cieo /eiiee?a
a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo ?aeiiao *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui c a?aii
/ano ia iniia? aeyaeaiiai c?inoaiiy /anoioe ? ae?aaeaiino? nenoaiieo
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei?
nae?aoe?? oa iniaeeainoae ?o ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue o an?o eiioeiaaio?a ianaeaiiy, yea
i?iaeiaaeo? i?iaeeaaoe ia oa?eoi???, ui caciaea aieeao /eiiee?a i?ney
aaa??? ia *AAN, aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe ?aiith ae?aaiinoeeo ci?i
noaio caei?ia’y oa canoiniaoaaoe o?iiioa?ai?th aioeieneaeaioaie.

Ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo a?coaeuei? ae?aaiinoe/i? e?eoa???
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i noaio i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii? caeic oa
iaaeie?iee?a, a oaeiae iaoiae o?iiiae?aaiinoeee oa o?iiioa?ai??
ii?ooaiue aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe??. I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
, ui aacothoueny ia iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo aeena?oaoe??, ao?eai? a
i?aeoeeo a *a?i?aaoeueeiio iaeaniiio iaaee/iiio ae?aaiinoe/iiio oeaio??,
ie?oaeiiio oieoae? i.Iaeana ?411, iaeaniiio i?ioeooaa?eoeueiciiio
aeeniaina?? i.Iaeana, Aaeonuee?e Oe?E, i?i ui na?ae/aoue aeoe
ai?iaaaeaeaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? iniaenoi i?iaiaeeea i?aea??
aeine?aeiiai eiioeiaaioo, cae?enithaaea aiae?c ?noi??e oai?ia,
i?iaiaeeea oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiai?noth cae?enieea
aiae?c, noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo, ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
c?iaeea aeniiaee, ?ic?iaeea i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, i?iaaea
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/io ?iaioo ii ?o ao?eaiith a i?aeoeeo ioi?iie
caei?ia’y. Ai?iaaaeeea a ?iaioo a?aeae?eo oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee
ioieoe?eio a?iin?th ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Aiae?c oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th
iaoa??aeo, aeeeaaeaiiai a aeena?oaoe??, iaeaaeeoue aaoi?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
iieiaeeo a/aieo ? niaoe?ae?no?a (*a?i?aoe?, 1991); ieaioi? Anioe?aoe??
niaoe?ae?no?a oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee (Oa?e?a, 1992); eiioa?aioe??
aei 50-oe ??//y Aoeiaeinueei? Aeaaeai?? (*a?i?aoe?, 1994); ieaioi? ?aaee
Anioe?aoe?? “?aioaaiio??o?a?y iaa?aeeeaaeieo noai?a”, (*a?i?a?a, 1997),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i.Iaeana, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 ae?oeiaaieo
?ia?o, o?e c ieo naiino?ei?.

Ia’?i oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia 146 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno, neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, iaaiai?aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, aeniiae?a. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 14 oaaeeoeyie, 7 ?enoieaie.
Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 156 aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaie ianoaaeaii 259 iaoe??io?a ia i?ioyc? 1987-1996 ??., ?c ieo 85 —
i?aeoe/ii caei?ia?, a?e yeeo eieeaaany a?ae 15 aei 55 ?ie?a. E??i
oeueiai, i?iaiae?ciaaii a?aeoeeaiiy a noai? caei?ia’y aei?ineeo ? ae?oae
iino?aaeaeaeeo ?aa?ii?a.

?acoeueoaoe caa?iaiue ianaeaiiy a IIAeOe ?iciiae?eeeenue ca oaeeie
/aniaeie ia??iaeaie: ? — 1987-1989 ??., ?? — 1990-1992 ??., ??? —
1993-1996 ??. Aea?aii 174 iaoe??ioe. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy a ? ia??iae?
ianoaaeaii 49 iaoe??io?a, a ?? — 57, a ??? — 68. Oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaaii
?acoeueoaoe i?io?eaeoe/ieo iaeyae?a 11140 in?a (1994-1996 ??.).
Ianoaaeaiiy iaoe??io?a i?iaiaeeeinue eiiieaenii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, i?iaiaeeeenue, a iniiaiiio, ia
oeueo?acaoeiaiio aia?ao? AU-4 ciiaeii /anoioith 3,5 IAoe c canoinoaaiiyi
eieuei?iai? aeiiea?ia?ao??. Ianoaaeaii 89 in?a.

Oeueo?acaoeiaa ae?aaiinoeea ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeeiiaia ia aia?ao? AU4 o
54 in?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ciiae?a 7,5-12 IAoe oa eieuei?iai?
aeiiea?ia?ao?? o 27 in?a, i?e iaiao?aeiino? i?iaiaeeee oiieiaieeiao
ioieoe?eio a?iin?th (30).

A?coae?caoe?y iae?iiciae a?ia?ieac?e iaaeie?iee?a a aoaeue-ye?e a?eia?e
a?oi? i?iaiaeeeanue ca aeiiiiiaith OCAe oa o iaaaeeei? a?oie oai?eo —
eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao??. Ca aeaieie ?iicaiieo a/aieo, iaaeie?ieeiaa
a?ia?ieac?y ca aeiiiiiaith oeueo?acaoeiaiai iaoiaeo ia aeyaey?oueny.
O?eueee iae?iiiaeoey?ia oi?ia a?ia?ieac?? oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ii
a?coae?co?oueny ye /?oei iaiaaeaia a?iiaoiaaiia ooai?aiiy e?oaei? oi?ie,
i?aeoe/ii neeaaeia aeey aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a?ae aaeaiiie (Gunther R.W.,
Dobrinski W.).

Noai aaneoey?ecaoe?? ia?aio?ie ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
a?ii- ? a?ia?aaneoey?ieo aoce?a aea/aiee ca aeiiiiiaith aeiiea?ia?ao??.

Ani??aoe?eia oiieiaieeiaa a?iin?y ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeeiiaia o 30
iaoe??io?a c iaoith aa?eo?eaoe?? ae?aaiico oe?ai?aeeoo, a oaeiae i?e
iayaiino? ia’?iieo ooai?aiue (e?noe, aocee) aeey aeeeth/aiiy
iaiieanoe/ieo i?ioean?a.

Aea/aiiy ??aiy ai?iii?a o ieaci? e?ia? i?iaiaeeeenue 158 iniaai ca
aeiiiiiaith noaiaea?oieo iaai??a a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeey ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oe?ai?aeii? nenoaie o
92 ianoaaeaieo canoiniaoaaeinue aecia/aiiy ??aiy oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiio
ca aeiiiiiaith oano-iaai?o ?10 o??ie Becman, O?I; O3 ? O4 — iaai??a
?10-O3-IA, ?10-O4-IA, oe?ieneica’ycoth/iai aeiaoe?io (OCA) — ?10-OCA-IA
(Aaea?onue).

Ciai?oiueinae?aoi?io ooieoe?th IC aea/aee o 89 in?a iaoiaeii aiaeiaaiii?
noeioeyoe?? nae?aoeiii, iaie?aicei?iii i?e aaaaeaii? I,5% nieyii?
eeneioe (3I ie), ianeeiiai? ie?? (3I ie) a aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaeo eeoeo. Ca
caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith aecia/eee ia’?i nae?aoe??,
eiioeaio?aoe?th a?ea?aiiao?a, o?eineio, ai?eace, e?iace. I?ioaie?oe/io
aeoeai?noue i?aeoeoieiai? caeice o 82 in?a aea/aee ca A?eaiaa?ii (1965)
o iiaeeo?eaoe?? A.A.Oaoa?i?eiaa, e?iace ca Iioiaiii (1948), ai?eace ca
Ni?o-?io (1949), a?ae?iea?aiiaoio eoaei?noue — iaoiaeii cai?ioiiai
oeo?oaaiiy.

Eeneioiooai?thth/o ooieoe?th oeoiea aecia/aee ia aia?ao? AEOA-2
i?e?iciiaeaie eiino?oeoe?? A.I.*i?iia?iaiai (1988) c a?ao?/iith
?a?no?aoe??th aacaeueii? nae?aoi?ii? e?eai?, ui aeaaaea iiaeeea?noue
ioe?ieoe ?I a ??cieo a?aeae?eao oeoieo.

Ai?no i?iaeoeo?a a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a aea/aee ca
iaoiaeii ?.A.Aie/aai?nueeiai (1989). I?eioeei iaoiaeo caniiaaiee ia
ieeneaii? a?aeiiaeaiiai aeooao?iio (AA) eiaeiaaoieeneei eae??i.
I?enooi?e a na?aaeiaeu? eiaeenoee eae?e i?e iaaeeeoeo eiaeiaaoieeneiai
eae?th ieeney?oueny c aeae?eaiiyi a?eueiiai eiaeo, yeee aea? c ?ic/eiii
e?ioiaeth eieuei?iao ?aaeoe?th, ui neoaeeoue iieacieeii e?ioey
oeo?oaaiiy.

A?aeiiaeaiee aeooao?ii aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii I.A.O?aa?ii? (1955),
aeoeai?noue aeooao?iio?ainoa?ace ca ?.O.Iaueoaiei (1989). Iaoiaeeea
a?oioo?oueny ia ciaoiaeaeaii? e?eueeino? a?aeiiaeaiiai aeooao?iio, yeee
i?oia ia eii’thaaoe?th c 1-oei?-2,4-aeei?o?iaaicieii i?ae ae??th
oa?iaioo e?ia?.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeany iaoiaeii aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee c
aecia/aiiyi na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii? aaee/eie, na?aaeiuei? iioeaee
na?aaeiueiai a?aoiaioiiai oa na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai a?aeoeeaiiy
aa??aoe?eiiai ?yaeo. ?iia??i?noue ??cieoeue na?aaei?o aaee/ei aecia/aee
ia i?aenoaa? e?eoa??th No’thaeaioa. *anoeio ?acoeueoao?a ia?iaeyee
iaia?aiao?e/ieie iaoiaeaie.

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?iaiae?ciaai? ee?i?/i? aeai? iieacaee, ui ia?aa?a o?ii?/iiai
iaie?aaoeoo o ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? ia caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??yo,
ci?ieany a a?e aieueiaiai neiae?iio oa ca?eueoaiiy /enea ?aoeeaeea?a.
Ee?i?/ii c?inea e?euee?noue oai?eo c noiooiueith ae?aceiaith oai?iaith
AeIE, oeoieo, ye? noaee ?a?no?oaaoeny ia?aaaaeii c 1987 ?ieo. Ai?iaeiaae
1990-1993 ??. ca?eueoeeanue e?euee?noue noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue —
o?ii?/iee aaiaoeo, o?ii?/iee iaie?aaoeo, niinoa?aaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue
iiaoaiii a aeeiai?oe?.

Iniaeeainoyie ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiue aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? oa
iaie?aaoia?e?a?ii? cii ?: ??no oneeaaeiaiue, oi?i?aei?noue ia?aa?ao,
?acenoaioi?noue aei e?eoaaiiy, /anoi iiyaa ae?acie o in?a iieiaeiai ?
na?aaeiueiai a?eo.

Na?aae oai?ia i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy o in?a, ui caciaee aieeao ?A,
ia?aaaaeaee caiaeuei? ci?ie aa?oi?o a?aeae?e?a oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai
o?aeoo, a?ic??, ae?acee oeoieo.

Ca /an niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ianaeaiiyi, ui caciaei noi?niiai aieeao ie?aieo
/eiiee?a, caoai?thaaiiy OEO ca?eueoeeenue o 2,3 ?ace. O oe?eiio, c a?aii
/ano i?ney aaa??? ia *AAN niinoa??aaeinue c?inoaiiy /anoioe oai?ia on?o
iniiaieo nenoai i?aai?cio, c ia?aaaaeiei ii?ooaiiyi caeic aioo??oiuei?
nae?aoe?? oa o?aaii? nenoaie. Aiii a?eueo iii?oia na?aae aei?ineeo ?
ae?oae, ye? i?iaeiaaeothoue i?iaeeaaoe a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai no?ano.
Aeaiee i?ioean noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi aeyaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii
caei?iaeo in?a oa c?inoaiiyi /anoioe ii?aeiaii? iaoieia??. A aeieia?/ii
iani?eyoeeaiio ?aa?ii? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? oai?? ia?oi/a?aiai
caa?oaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith o ca’yceo c iiae?aciaiiyi
aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ciie. O 71,3% oai?eo aieueiaee neiae?ii ia iinea
eeane/iiai oa?aeoa?o aeey o?ii?/iiai iaie?aaoeoo (OI), a nei??oa
na?ae/ea i?i ci?ie a AeIE. A ne?iaaooe? e?ia? o 29,3% ianoaaeaieo
a?aei?/aeinue i?aeaeuaiiy an?o o?ueio oa?iaio?a, iniaeeai ai?eace, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i oaiiiai “a?aeoeeaiiy oa?iaio?a o e?ia”, iaa?ye
i?aeoeoieiai? caeice ?a?no?oaaany ca aeaieie OCAe o 31,3% aeiaaee?a.Oeae
oaiiiai, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeaco? ia ?aaeoeaiee oa?aeoa? ci?i, ye a
ia?aioei? ia/?iee, oae e o i?aeoeoieia?e caeic?.

O 1993-1995 ??. ia caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??yo a?aei?/aia noaa?e?caoe?y
iieaciee?a caoai?thaaiino? ia OI. Iaeiae, o 27,3% ianoaaeaieo
niiia?ao?/iei iaoiaeii aoee a?aei?/ai? ?iaeo?aoeai? ci?ie IC,
aiaeineii?/ii cono??/aeeny o?aaeaiiy aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ciie, ye?
iineee noa- oa ao?io?/iee oa?aeoa?. I?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaaoe??
oa?iaioaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? IC o 1987-1989 ??. ie ?icoe?ieee ye
aaeaioaoe?eiee iiiaio i?enoinoaaiiy aei ae?? iecueeeo aeic ?aae?aoe?? oa
?ioeo /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. A oie aea /an, a?aeaoeinue
i?ia?anoth/a cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? iaie?aaoe/ii? e?iace. Oae, yeui a
1989-1994 ??. ?? aeoeai?noue i?aeaeuoaaeanue ia 43,9%, oi a 1995 ?.
ciaioeeanue ia 22%, ii??aithth/e ?c caei?iaeie. Cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino?
iaie?aaoe/ii? e?iace aeaco? ia aeniaaeaiiy aaeaioaoe?? neeciai? iaieiiee
AeIE, yea aieeaa? ia aeoeai?noue iaie?aaoe/ii? e?iace. A iiaeaeueo? ?iee
a?aeaoaa?oueny noaa?e?caoe?y ooieoe?iiaeueii? iai?oae IC uiaei
i?ioaie?oe/ii? oa ai?eie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aiae?coth/e aeoeai?noue
i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? o oai?eo c OI oa noiooi?ie
caoai?thaaiiyie OEO, a?aei?/aii nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioaie?oe/ii?
aeoeaiino? o in?a ?c noiooi?ie ae?aceiaith oai?iaith oa
aano?iaeoiaeai?oii. I?aeaeuaiiy oa?iaio?a niinoa??aaeinue i?ioyaii
anueiai ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy c oaiaeaioe??th aei ii?iae?caoe?? a
o?aoueiio ia??iae?. Oae, yeui o 1992 ?. aeoeai?noue o?eineio noaiiaeea
12,20,4 iae.aeo., oi a 1996 ?. — 10,90,6 iae.aeo. Aeoeai?noue ai?eace
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue aiaeia?/ieie ci?iaie, iaea?eueo ae?aaeaia e no?eea
i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? a?aei?/aii i?e OI c ae?aceiaith oai?iaith, a 1992
?. — 1375,0 iae.aeo., a a 1995 ?. — 1185,0 iae.aeo. A oie aea /an,
aeoeai?noue e?iace ciaiooaaeanue, a 1987-1995 ??. — 0,870,003 aei
0,680,04 iae.aeo.

Iniaeeainoyie ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? ceice ?: aeoeaaoe?y
ooieoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice a ia?o? o?e ?iee i?ney aaa??? ia *AAN c
i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a (O3, O4) a ne?iaaooe? e?ia?. A
1990-1992 ??. c’yaey?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ii?iae?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueai
noaio ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aea ?? ooieoe?y caeeoa?oueny i?aeaeuaiith. A
1993-1995 ??. ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ueoiaeaeii? caeice ni?yiiaaiee aei
noaa?e?caoe??, aea c?inea e?euee?noue e?no oa aoce?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice.

O ca’yceo ?c cia/ieie ii?ooaiiyie iae?iaiaeie?eiii? ?aaoeyoe??
i?aai?cio ia oii? aieeao iane?aee?a aaa??? ia *AAN, ianoaaeoaaany noai
ueoiaeaeii? caeice. I?iaiae?ciaaii aiaoeaoi?i? ea?oe iaoe??io?a o 1994
?. — 8305, o 1995 ?. — 7108, o 1996 ?. — 5901, c a?aii /ano ana /ano?oa
aeyaeyeanue e?euee?noue in?a c iciaeaie oe?ai?aeeoo. Oae, ca ia??iae c
1993 ii 1996 ??. a?aei?/aii c?inoaiiy iaeaea a aeaa ?ace oe?ai?aeeo?a (c
14,5 aei 27%), iniaeeai aooi?ioiiiai aaiaco, aoceiaeo ooai?aiue
ueoiaeaeii? caeice — c 3,1 aei 5,2% a?aeiia?aeii. Ia aeeeae o ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua ?cioii?a eiaeo ueoiaeaeia caeica a?ae?aaaoaaea
a?ia?ieac??th, i?e yei? i?eeoiany ia 1993 ??e ? neeaaeaa 29,2%
ianoaaeaieo.

Aeaiee i?ioean noi?iaiaeaeoaaany nooo?aei ciaioaiiyi e?eueeino?
i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo in?a. Oae, yeui a 1995 ?. iniae, a yeeo ia aeyaeaii
ci?i c aieo ueoiaeaeii? caeice, noaiiaeee 41,3%, oi a 1996 ?. ?o
e?euee?noue ciaioeeanue aei 33,1%.

A?ia?ieac?y ueoiaeaeii? caeice ?? no. o iaoe??io?a E?oeiainueeiai,
Canoaaiyinueeiai ?aeii?a niinoa??aaeanue o 5,7 ?ac?a /ano?oa, i?ae o
iaoe??io?a c ?aei?a, ye? ia caciaee aieeao iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a, ??? no.
— o 5,5 ?ac?a /ano?oa.

A iiaeaeueo? ?iee oey iaoieia?y cono??/aeanue ??aeoa (o 1995 ?. — 24%, o
1996 ?. — 23%), ui iiaea na?ae/eoe c iaeiiai aieo i?i ciaioaiiy
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia caeico, a c ?ioiai —
ia aeniaaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae i?aaio c oaiaeaioe??th aei
?icaeoeo a?ia?ieanoe/ieo i?ioean?a ? a?iioe?aico, ui ia?aeeeea?oueny c
aeaieie I.Ae.O?iiueei (1993), Ae.A.Oee? (1995).

Iaie ia a?aei?/aii ca inoaii? ?iee i?e?inoo a?iioe?aico ueoiaeaeii?
caeice. Ca aeaieie aeayeeo aaoi??a, ca?eueoaiiy aeaii? iaoieia?? ne?ae
i/?eoaaoe /a?ac 15-20 ?ie?a (O.I.A?caaeiaa ? ni?aaaoi?e, 1993).

Ianoaaeaiiy ??aiy oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a o in?a c a?ia?ieac??th
ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeyaeei a ia?o? o?e ?iee i?ney aaa??? ia *AAN
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?
(eiioeaio?aoe?y O3 noaiiaeea 1,660,12 iiieue/e, eiioeaio?aoe?y O4 —
97,68,2 iiieue/e). Iaeii/anii a?aeaoaaeinue cieaeaiiy ??aiy OOA, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i caa?aaeaiiy a?iioaeaii-a?iio?ca?ii-oe?ai?aeieo
aca?iica’yce?a (o caei?iaeo: O3 – 1,310,2 iiieue/e, O4 – 82,17,35
iiieue/e, OOA – 11,290,87 iiieue/e, a 1993-1995 ??. OOA noaiiaea 9,91,6
iiieue/e).

A 1990-1992 ??. noi?ioaaeanue oaiaeaioe?y aei ii?iae?caoe??
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aea ?? ooieoe?y caeeoaeanue
i?aeaeuaiith a?aeiinii O3, iieacieee OOA iaaeeaeaeenue aei eiio?ieueii?
a?oie. Ie ?icoe?ieee oea ye ni?yiiaai?noue aei noaa?e?caoe?? ye ooieoe??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, oae ? a?iio?ca?ii? ?aaoeyoe?? ?? ae?yeueiino?.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? a??ia?aei? ci?ie aeoeaiino?
noinoaaeeny o?eeiaeoe?ii?io, a oie /an ye eieeaaiiy O4 ? OOA aoee
iaa??ia?aeieie. Oea iiaea aeacoaaoe ia aeinoaoith eiiiainaoe?th
a?iio?ca?ii-oe?ai?aeieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue, a oaeiae ia caa?aaeaiiy
ia?eoa?e/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy O4 a O3. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c noaio oe?ai?aeii?
ooieoe?? o oai?eo c a?ia?ieac??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeyaea, ui ??aaiue
oeeo ai?iii?a o ia?o? ?iee niinoa?aaeaiiy aoa a??ia?aeii aeuei ii??aiyii
?c caei?iaeie. O iaoe??io?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie a ia?o? o?e ?iee
niinoa?aaeaiiy iaei i?noea ca?eueoaiiy nae?aoe?? O3, O4 c ianooiiei
cieaeaiiyi ?o aei iieaciee?a caei?iaeo. Ce?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ??aaiue
OOA o oeeo in?a noaa?euei?oee, i?ae o in?a c a?ia?ieac??th ueoiaeaeii?
caeice. Iaeiae, o a?eueoino? ianoaaeaieo ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a?iio?ca?ii-oe?ai?aeii? nenoaie caeeoa?oueny eii?aeeiiaaiei ?
noaa?eueiei, ui aeaco? ia ?? aaeee? aaeaioaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino?.

Aeey ooi/iaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i a UC, c iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy
aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee, a oaeiae aeey aecia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiino?
i?ae ee?i?/iei ia?aa?aii caoai?thaaiiy oa oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ieie ci?iaie
iaie i?iaaaeaia oiieiaieeiaa ani??aoe?eia ioieoe?eia a?iin?y (OAIA) o 30
oai?eo c iiiaeeiieeie aoceaie, ia’?iieie ooai?aiiyie, ye? iio?aaoaaee
aeiaeaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui
i?aeaino?ee oe?ai?aeeo cono??/aany o 16% aeiaaee?a, oiene/iee cia — o
6,6%, eiei?aeiee cia — o 30%, ia ceiye?ni? iiaiooai?aiiy i?eoiaeeeinue
6,6%.

Oae, i?e i?aeaino?iio oe?ai?aeeo? oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ii a?aei?/aee
ia/?oe?noue eiioo??a i?aaio, cieaeaiiy aoiaaiiino?, iayai?noue
aoiiiceoeaieo ? aoiiaaaoeaieo neaiae?a. I?e cia/iiio ca?eueoaii?
?ici???a UC, iayaiino? iaeiiai aai aeae?eueeio aoceiaeo ooai?aiue,
?ica?aeiinoyo i?ae aeaieie ee?i?/iiai oa oeueo?aniiia?ao?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae aeey ooi/iaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ioeano o 5 oai?eo
i?iaiaeeeinue OAIA.

Oeeoieia?/ieie iciaeaie i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeoo aoee iayai?noue
iae?ioaa?a (ye i?iyao caiaeaiiy), a?aaionueeeo aaaaoiyaea?ieo ee?oei,
aeaaaia?aoeaii ci?iaieo ee?oei oie?eoey?iiai ai?oae?th, ai?oae?i?aeieo
ee?oei, a oaeiae i?aoeei?oao?a i?ioa?io ? ee?oeiieo oeaie?a.

O ianaeaiiy ?aa?ii?a, eiioai?iiaaiiai ?aae?iioee?aeaie e ?ioeie
iaaaoeaieie /eiieeaie, aea/aee ia?ieneaeaoe?th e?i?ae?a. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeeiai?oe? niinoa?aaeaiiy aeyaeee a??ia?aeia
i?aeaeuaiiy ??ai?a iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo (IAeA). Iaea?eueo aaaiia
i?aeaeuaiiy niinoa??aaeinue o 1990-1992 ??. — 10,290,30 iiieue/ie, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i nooo?ao aeoeaaoe?th ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (IIE)
i?ae aieeaii iaeeo aeic ?aae?aoe?? oa ?ioeo iaaaoeaieo aeieia?/ieo
/eiiee?a. C a?aii /ano ??aaiue IAeA cieaeoaaany, aea aoa a??ia?aeii
i?aeaeuaiei ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueiith a?oiith. Ioaea, o in?a, ui
i?iaeiaaeothoue ia?aaoaaoe ia oa?eoi??yo caa?oaeiaiiy, o aeeiai?oe?
niinoa?aaeaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa cieaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae
aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie (AIN). Aiae?coth/e ??aaiue ai?noo a ne?iaaooe?
e?ia? a?aeiiaeaiiai aeooao?iio (AA), ie ia a?aei?oeee aeoeaaoe?? AIN
caoenoo. O oai?eo c OI o ia?o? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aaiue AA aoa
ciaioaiei aei 0,680,04 iiieue/e. Oey oaiaeaioe?y caa??aa?oueny ? a
ianooii? ?iee niinoa?aaeaiiy, a 1993-1995 ??. ??aaiue AA o oai?eo ia OI
noaiiaea 0,590,03 iiieue/ie. Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i ii?ooaiiy
??aiiaaae i?ae IIE oa aeoeaaoe??th AIN a a?e aeoeaaoe?? i?ioean?a
a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy ia oii? cieaeaiiy caoenieo iaoai?ci?a.
Aeooao?iiiaa eaiea AIN caoenoo neaai ?aaaoaaea ia e?eoaaiiy
aioeieneaeaioieie caniaaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa?ao o?ii?/iiai iaie?aaoeoo, o oiio /ene? ?c
noiooi?ie caoai?thaaiiyie o?aaii? nenoaie, oa noaio IIE a caeaaeiino?
a?ae nacii?a aeyaeei, ui i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a i?aeoeoieiai?
caeice ia?aaeo? aaniyii-in?ii?i caaino?aiiyi. I?e noiooi?o
caoai?thaaiiyo ia/?iee (aaiaoeo) ?icaeoie caaino?aiue ei?aeth? ?c IIE ?
aioeieneaeaioiith nenoaiith caoenoo, ciai?oiueinae?aoi?ia ooieoe?y — ?c
aaaee?noth oa o?eaae?noth noiooi?o oai?ia, aea ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
naciio ?ieo. I?io?eaiiy i?ioean?a i?e aeeiai?/iiio ianoaaeaii?
eiioai?iiaaiiai ?aae?iioee?aeaie ianaeaiiy i?e caoai?thaaii? OI oa
noiooi?ie caoai?thaaiiyie o?aaii? nenoaie iaaoaa? ?aoeeaeeaoth/iai
oa?aeoa?o ?c caa?aaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? i?ioean?a IIE ca ai?noii IAeA ?
?icaeoeii iiiioiiiiai ?aaeeio ae?yeueiino? AIN ca ai?noii AA.

O 71,2% oai?eo aeoea?coaaeeny i?ioeane IIE, /ano?oa a a?oaei?-n?/i?,
??aaiue AA o e?ia? i?e an?o aa??aioao o?ii?/iiai iaie?aaoeoo cieaeoaaany
a?aeiinii a?oi caei?iaeo, caeeoath/enue iecueeei i?ioyaii ?ieo,
iacaeaaeiei a?ae naciio ?ieo.

Aaaeeeaei aoei aea/eoe noai ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (ca aeaieie
IAeA) oa aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie caoenoo (ca aeaieie a?aeiiaeaiiai
aeooao?iio (AA)) o in?a c iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice i?ioyaii o?ueio
ia??iae?a.

A ? ia??iae? niinoa?aaeaiiy iaea?eueo? iieacieee ??aiy IAeA (10,170,25
iiieue/e) aoee o in?a c ii?iaeueieie ?ici??aie UC aai c i?i?iaeueii
ca?eueoaiith caeicith (ca aeaieie niiia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy).

A ?? ia??iae? niinoa?aaeaiiy a?aeaoaaeinue iinooiiaa i?eai?/aiiy IIE ia
oe? a??ia?aeiiai ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo AA a e?ia? ianoaaeaieo. Oae, ??aaiue
IAeA a 1990-1992 ??. neeaaeaa 7,890,42 iiieue/e, ui a??ia?aeii ieae/a
iieaciee?a ? ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy, ??aaiue AA — 0,680,04 iiieue/e, a
??? ia??iae? (1993-1995 ??.) IAeA 6,830,47 iiieue/e, AA 0,560,05
iiieue/e. Oe? aeai? iiaeooue na?ae/eoe i?i iia?e?caoe?th aaeaioaoe?eieo
iaoai?ci?a ye ia ai?iiiaeueiiio, oae ? ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai?.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaa, ui a ??? ia??iae?
niinoa?aaeaiiy ??aaiue IAeA a e?ia? a??ia?aeii c?inoaa ? nyaaa 10,170,25
iiieue/e i?e iieacieeao caei?iaeo 5,540,26 iiieue/e. A oie aea /an ai?no
AA a??ia?aeii cieaeoaaany aei 0,640,06 i?e ii?i? 0,90,03. Ioaea, iiaeaii
aeoiaoe i?i iayai?noue aeac?ioaa?aoe?? a aeoeaiino? i?ioean?a IIE oa
aeoeaaoe?? AIN caoenoo. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aeaieo ca ??? ia??iae, ia
iaoo aeoieo, aeacothoue ia aeniaaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae
i?aai?cio oa AIN caoenoo a oiiaao iino?eii? ae?? iaeeo aeic ?aae?aoe??,
ine?eueee ie niinoa??aaee iiaeaeueoa ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ioean?a IIE
(??aaiue IAeA 6,830,47 iiieue/e, i?e iaeii/aniiio ??ceiio iaae?ii?
??aith AA aei 0,560,05 iiieue/e.

Ui noino?oueny in?a c a?ia?ieac??th UC ??-??? nooiai?a, oi ii??aiyii c
iieacieeaie iiia?aaeiuei? a?oie ??aaiue IAeA aoa a??ia?aeii ciaioaiei
(7,830,25 iiieue/e), aea caeeoaany a??ia?aeii aenieei ii??aiyii ?c
caei?iaeie (5,540,26 iiieue/e). Io?eiai? aeai? iiaeooue aeacoaaoe ia oa,
ui o oe??? a?oie ianoaaeaieo aeoeao?oueny AIN caoenoo, aea ia
aeooao?iiiaa eaiea, ine?eueee ??aaiue AA aoa a??ia?aeii iecueeei. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeoeaaoe?y aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue
ca ?aooiie aeeeaeo o e?ia aetheiei?oeei?ae?a.

O ca’yceo ?c cia/iith “caoe?eaaeai?noth” a?iio?ca?ii-iaaeie?ieeiai?
nenoaie ia oe? ae?? iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a aaa??? ia *AAN, yea ?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiith ca noai aaeaioaoe??, aea/aany aca?iica’ycie i?ae
iieacieeaie ei?oecieo ? AEOA.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i iayai?noue i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
ei?oecieo o ianoaaeoaaieo a?oi in?a. Oae, o ia?o? ?iee (1987-1989 ??.)
ei?oecie i?aeaeuoaaany aei 108% (507,529,1 iiieue/e), o 1990-1992 ??. —
aei 144% (595,225,7 iiieue/e), o 1993-1995 ??. a?aeaoeinue a??ia?aeia
cieaeaiiy ??aiy ei?oecieo ii??aiyii c ia?oei ia??iaeii (347,014,9
iiieue/e), o caei?iaeo 243,016,1 iiieue/e. ??aaiue AEOA o 1987-1989 ??.
i?aeaeuoaaany ia 28% (71,76,7 ia/e), o 1990-1992 ??. — ia 12,6%
(62,710,5 ia/e), o 1993-1995 ??. — ia 6% (52,49,3 ia/e) ii??aiyii ?c
caei?iaeie (55,89,7 ia/e). Oiaoi o in?a, ye? i?iaeeaathoue ia
caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??yo, ca?a?no?iaaii i?aeaeuaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio ye a?iio?co, oae ? iaaeie?iee?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iai?oao eaiie
?aaoeyoe??, a oaeiae i?i ii?ooaiiy aioo??oiueiai nenoaiiiai iaoai?cio
cai?ioiiai ca’yceo. Iao? aeai? ia?aeeeeathoueny c aeaieie I.I.Eiaaeaiei
(1993) uiaei oi?ioaaiiy oaeiai aaeaioaoe?eiiai noaio i?aai?cio o
ianaeaiiy, yeee i?e a?aeiia?aeieo oiiaao iiaeia aaaaeaoe ye ?aaoeyoi?io
ia?aaeiaoieia?th.

C iaoith o?iiiiioei?caoe?? ae?aaiinoe/ieo iiaeeeainoae oa iie?auaiiy
e?eoaaiiy ianaeaiiy ?c caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??e aea/aii o?iii?eoie aeayeeo
ai?iii?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Eiaeiiio oai?iio i?iaiaeeee caa?? e?ia? a
6:00, 12:00, 18:00, 24:00. A?aoiaoth/e a?aenooi?noue iniaeeaeo
a?aei?iiinoae o i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cii? noao?, oea aeicaieeei ia’?aeiaoe
/ieia?e?a ? ae?iie a iaeio a?oio. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeaioe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiyi I.A.Aeaiea (1993) o iieieia?/ieo oai?eo. Aeey ioe?iee
a?i?eoio aoa aeei?enoaiee eineii?iee iaoiae.

Iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey in?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie aoee oaeeie: iaci?
O3 neeaaeaa 1,120,018 iiieue/e; aiie?ooaea — -0,290,004; ae?ioaca —
12:51; aaoeoaca — 23:48; iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue — c 8:00 aei 16:00;
i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue — c 20:00 aei 4:00.

Iaeaeu? iieacieee ??ai?a O4 ?a?no?oaaeeny c 2:00 aei 10:00, iaeieae/? —
c 14:00 aei 22:00. Aaee/eia iaci?o noaiiaeea 108,60,77 iiieue/e,
aiie?ooaea — 21,850,018 c ae?ioacith a 5:58 oa aaoeoacith a 16:00. Iaie
a?aei?/aii i?/iee i?e nae?aoe?? OOA, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeaiei e?oa?aoo?e
(A.A.Nianeaoeaaa, A.A.Ae?aeia, A.?.Ae?aeia, 1992), iani?aiaaeaiiy ca
/anii oaeeue iaeneiaeueii? nae?aoe?? OOA oa oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a,
ae?ioaca OOA ia ia?aaeo? ae?ioacai nae?aoe?? O3 ? O4. Iieacaii, ui
oee?eaae?aiiee ?eoi ai?noo a ieaci? e?ia? oe?ieneio ? o?eeiaeoe?ii?io
iaei caeaaeaoue a?ae aeoeaiino? OOA.

O in?a c a?ia?ieac??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa oe?ai?aeeoii ??aaiue O3
c?inoaa c 17:00 aei 24:00. Iaci? a??ia?aeii ca?eueooaaany ? neeaaeaa
2,510,029 iiieue/e (?<0,0001), aiie?ooaea - 2,100,032 (?<0,001), ae?ioaca - 17:25, aaoeoaca - c 8:00 aei 20:00. Na?aaei?e ??aaiue O4 a??ia?aeii c?inoaa a?aeiinii eiio?ieth ? aei??aithaaa 151,441,618 iiieue/e (?<0,0001), ?iciao eieeaaiue aei??aithaaa 31,20,598 iiieue/e (?<0,001), ae?ioaca - 14:30, aaoeoaca - 7:32. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui ?eoi oeueiai iieacieea iiai?noth ?iaa?no?oueny ii??aiyii ?c eiio?ieai. Iaea?eueoee ??aaiue niinoa??aa?oueny c 13:55 aei 22:12, oiaoi a aiaeeie iaeiaioi? eiioeaio?aoe?? a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? o caei?iaeo in?a. I?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy iieaciee?a O4 ?a?no?oaaeeny c 00:02 aei 7:48, oiaoi a /an iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy eiio?ieth. Iaci? OOA aeinyaaa 1,410,324 iiieue/e (?<0,01). Ae?ioaca ? aaoeoaca i?eiaaeaee ia 1:20 oa 12:31 a?aeiia?aeii. Oaeei /eiii, o ianoaaeaieo oe??? a?oie a??ia?aeii ca?eueoai? iaci?e ? aiie?ooaee O3 ? O4. Iaci? OOA ciaioeany, aiie?ooaea ia caciaea ?noioieo ci?i a?aeiinii eiio?ieth. A?aei?/a?oueny cnoa ae?ioac O3 ia 4 aiae. 44 oa. oa O4 ia 9 aiae. 40 oa. o a?e aeaiieo oa aa/??i?o aiaeei; aaoeoac O3 ia 8 aiae. 34 oa. oa O4 ia 8 aiae. 40 oa. o a?e ?aieiaeo aiaeei; ae?ioaca oa aaoeoaca OOA nooo?ai ia i?iythoueny. Ca?eueoaiiy iaci??a O3 oa O4 oe?eeii caeiiii??ia, oae ye a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a. Ciaioaiiy iaci?o OOA iiaeia iiynieoe cieaeaiiyi ??aiy eiai o ieaci? e?ia? ca i?eioeeiii cai?ioiiai ca'yceo. O oai?eo ia a?iioe?aic iaci? O3 noaiiaea 1,060,022 iiieue/e (?<0,01), aiie?ooaea - 0,210,0006 (?<0,001), ae?ioaca c 5:00 aei 18:00, aaoeoaca - 15:55. Iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue ?a?no?oaaany c 4:00 aei 10:00, i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue ?a?no?oaaany c 12:00 aei 20:00. Na?aaei? cia/aiiy O4 - 55,740,972 iiieue/e (?<0,001), aiie?ooaea - 13,460,0016 iiieue/e (?<0,001), ae?ioaca - c 7:00 aei 19:00, aaoeoaca - 16:25. No?oeoo?a ?eoio iaeaea ia ci?ithaaeanue ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai. Iaeiaio? cia/aiiy OOA ?a?no?oaaeeny c 6:00 aei 12:00, iaea?eueo? - c 20:00 aei 4:00. Ciaioaiiy iaci??a ? aiie?ooae O3 oa O4 iiynith?oueny cieaeaiiyi ooieoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, i?aeaeuaiiy iaci?o ? aiie?ooaee OOA a?aeaoaa?oueny ca i?eioeeiii cai?ioiiai ca'yceo, ui aeaco? ia ii?ooaiiy aaeaioaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a, aea ia ia ?o aeniaaeaiiy (iaci? aei??aithaaa 6,480,454 iIA/e, p<0,01; aiie?ooaea 1,310,093 iIA/e, ?<0,001; . Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i iaaaoeaiee aieea ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia ueoiaeaeio caeico, yea ?aaao? a?ia?ieac??th, ai?iiiaeueiith aeenooieoe?th a?iioaeaii-a?iio?ca?ii? nenoaie. Aiaeie?eiiee aiiainoac ?aaao? cia/iei iai?oaeaiiyi ai?iii?a. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui i?aeaeuaiee aeeeae ei?oecieo ia? ca iaoo aaeaioaoe?th ye ia i?aaiiiio ??ai?, oae ? ia ee?oeiiiio. I?i i?aaiiee ??aaiue aaeaioaoe?? na?ae/eee ci?ie iieaciee?a ai?iii?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa iaaeie?iee?a. Aca?iiiaoiiaeaii?noue ?o ci?i iai?aaeaia ia i?aeo?eieo ??aiiaaae a?iioaeaii-a?iio?ca?ii-iaaeie?ieeiai? ?aaoeyoe??. I?i eiiiainaoi?ii-aaeaioeai? iaoai?cie ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai? na?ae/eee iieacieee IIE oa aeoeaiino? AIN caoenoo (aeooao?iiiaa eaiea). Iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oa? iiiioiii?noue iieaciee?a AA i?e cieaeaii? ??aiy IAeA, ui iiaea aeacoaaoe ia cia/io ?ieue ei?e iaaeie?iee?a (ca aeaieie ai?noo ei?oecieo) o eiiiainaoe?? AIN caoenoo. Ia caaa?oaiiy iaaiai?aiiy oio?einy a caa?iooe oaaao ia aeae?eueea iiiaio?a. I?ae aieeaii ae?? iaeeo aeic ?aae?aoe?? ?icaeaathoueny noaie ?c aca?iica'yceii ? aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noth o?aaeaiue nenoai i?aai?cio. Aea iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe e noiaoe?th ?ioeo /eiiee?a o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee ciaoiaeaeaiiy i?aai?cio a o?ii?/iiio no?an?, ??ci? ii?ooaiiy, ye a ?aoe?ii? oa?/oaaiiy, oae ? oe?aeeea? cae/ee, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeenaaeaino a i?aai?ci?, ia ui aeacothoue ?iaioe O.O.Oaee/ei (1994). A ia?o? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiiy ie niinoa??aaee i?aeaeuaiiy a e?ia? ??aiy ai?iii?a, ye? aeoea?coaaee aiaeie?eiio nenoaio, ui ia?aie?oa?oueny c aeaieie (N.A.Aiae?a?a, TH.?.Iineaeueia, 1991; I.I.Eiaaeaiei, 1996). Iaeiae, oey iia?e?caoe?y c /anii naaa ae/a?io?. Oiio i?aaeeueia, a/ania ae?aaiinoeea noai?a, ui iio?aaothoue ei?aeoe??, ? aaaeeeaei aniaeoii aeey caaacia/aiiy yeino? aeeooy cia/ieo ian ianaeaiiy ia oii? iani?eyoeeaiai aieeao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa?ao OI, o oiio /ene? ?c noiooi?ie caoai?thaaiiyie OEO, oa noaio IIE a caeaaeiino? a?ae nacii?a aeyaeee, ui i?aeaeuaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? i?aeoeoieiai? caeice ia?aaeo? aaniyii-in?ii?i caaino?aiiyi. I?e noiooi?o caoai?thaaiiyo ia/?iee (aaiaoeo) ?icaeoie caaino?aiue caeaaeeoue a?ae noaio IIE ? AIN caoenoo. Ciai?oiueinae?aoi?ia ooieoe?y i?aeoeoieiai? caeice caeaaeeoue a?ae oyaeeino? oa o?eaaeino? noiooi?o oai?ia, a ia a?ae naciio ?ieo. Caoai?thaaiiy iaaoaathoue ?aoeeaeeaoth/iai oa?aeoa?o ?c caa?aaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? i?ioean?a IIE ? ?icaeoeii iiiioiiiiai ?aaeeio ae?yeueiino? AIN. AENIIAEE 1. Aeiaaio?eaaea aeoeaaoe?y IIE, aeeeeeaia ae??th neaaeeo /eiiee?a, i?eaiaeeoue aei cai?ioii? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae eiioeaio?aoe??th IAeA oa AA, ??aaiue IAeA iinooiiai cieaeo?oueny, caeeoath/enue aenieei ii??aiyii ?c caei?iaeie, AA a??ia?aeii cieaeo?oueny, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aeniaaeoaaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae aeooao?iiiai? eaiee. 2. Ia?aa?a caoai?thaaiue aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ciie (ae?acee oeoieo, aano?iaeoiaeai?oe, o?ii?/i? iaie?aaoeoe) a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/i?e cii? iaaoaathoue ?aoeeaeeaoth/iai, ia?nenooth/iai oa?aeoa?o c ?acenoaioi?noth aei e?eoaaiiy; oea i?iaiinoe/ii iani?eyoeea? iciaee aeey ?aii?o ?aoeeaeea?a oa oneeaaeiaiue o aeiaaeeao ia?a?aaiiai e?eoaaiiy. 3. Ia aeyaeaii naciiii? caeaaeiino? oa?iaioaoeaii? aeoeaiino? i?aeoeoieiai? caeice o oai?eo c aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiith iaoieia??th, oa?iaioaoeaia ooieoe?y IC iiai?noth caeaaeeoue a?ae o?eaaeino? noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue, oyaeeino? ?o ia?aa?ao. 4. O aeeoae?a E?oeiainueeiai, Canoaaiyinueeiai ?aeii?a oa i?noa *a?i?aoe? a ii??aiyii? c aiaeai?/iei ?aeiiii ii ciao *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? a??ia?aeii ca?eueoo?oueny /enei oe?ai?aeeo?a o aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy, e?euee?noue a?ia?ieac?e oa aoceiaeo ooai?aiue o ae?oae, ui coiiaeaii aieeaii noi?nii? ae?? ie?aieo /eiiee?a ??cii? i?e?iaee. 5. O oai?eo c oe?aioieneeicii oa a?ia?ieac??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice ?? oa ??? nooiaiy a?aeaoaa?oueny cnoa ae?ioac O3 ? O4 a a?e aeaiieo oa aa/??i?o aiaeei, o iaoe??io?a c iciaeaie a?iioe?aico ?a?no?o?oueny ciaioaiiy iaci??a O3 ? O4, ca?eueoaiiy iaci??a OOA. 6. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai no?ano oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy ei?oecieo ia anueiio i?ioyc? niinoa?aaeaiiy, oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a c iaeii/aniei cieaeaiiyi AEOA oa OOA. 7. Iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie oeueo?acaoeiaeie e?eoa??yie a?aeai?o aeey iiaeaeueoi? ae?aaiinoeee caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice ? iayai?noue oeueo?acaoeiaeo iciae, aia?oa aeyaeaieo aoce?a, e?no, ooai?aiue c ia/?oeeie ia??aieie eiioo?aie oa aeiaeaoeiaeie aeeth/aiiyie; aeey caoai?thaaiue IC aeyaeaiiy ia'?iieo ooai?aiue oa ae?aaeaieo o?a?icieo ci?i i?aeoeoieiai? caeice. 8. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy a e?ia? ei?oecieo oa oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a, cieaeaiiy ??aiy AEOA oa ai?noo AA na?ae/aoue i?i ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy ia ee?oeiiiio ? i?aaiiiio ??aiyo ? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aa?ao oai?ia. 9. O ianaeaiiy, ui caciaei aieeao ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa ??cieo /eiiee?a, ii?ooo?oueny oee?eaae?aiiee ?eoi, a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ica?aei?noue ca /anii oaeeue iaeneiaeueii? nae?aoe?? OOA oa oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a. I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe?? 1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ai?noo IAeA oa AA o ianaeaiiy, yea caciaei aieeao ??cieo noi?nieo /eiiee?a, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe ?aii? iciaee iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, i?ine?aeeoaaoe ?o i?io?eaiiy. 2. Ia ciaioaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae i?aai?cio aeaco? cieaeaiiy AA, ui iio?aao? canoinoaaiiy aioeieneaeaioii? oa?ai?? aeey e?eoaaiiy iaoe??io?a oa in?a ?c caoai?thaaiiyie, ye? i?iaeeaathoue ia caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??yo. 3. Aeey aecia/aiiy ??aiy O3 ,O4 a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? oai?eo c iciaeaie a?iioe?aico aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe caa?? e?ia? aaeaiue, c 12-00 aei 16-00. 4. Ne??i?iaia? oeueo?acaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoeoieiai? oa ueoiaeaeii? caeic ? canoinoaaiiy i?eoe?eueii? ioieoe?eii? a?iin?? i?ae eiio?ieai oeueo?acaoeo aeyaeythoue caoai?thaaiiy caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? ia ?aii?o aeiee?i?/ieo noaae?yo. Ae?oeiaai? ?iaioe ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??. 1. Aeaaeea E.TH. Noai ueoiaeaeii? caeice a aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaiio ?aa?ii?//Aoeiaeinueeee iaaee/iee a?niee. - ?2. - 1998. - N.91-93. 2. Aeaaeea E.TH. Cia/aiiy oiieiaieeiai? ani??aoe?eii? ioieoe?eii? a?iin?? i?ae eiio?ieai oeueo?acaoeo aeey ae?aaiinoeee caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice//I?iiaiaaa ae?aaiinoeea. I?iiaiaaa oa?aiey. - Ca??ea iaoeiaeo ?ia?o Anioe?aoe?? ?aae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie (aeione 3). - Ee?a, “Iaaeeoeeia Oe?a?ie”, 1998. – N.90-93. 3. Aeaaeea E.TH. ?ieue ?ioa?aaioe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue ueoiaeaeii?, i?aeoeoieiai? caeic o ianaeaiiy a aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaiio ?aa?ii?// Ieaioi ?aaee Anioe?aoe??. Iia? oaoiieia?? aiaeiaaneoey?ii? o??o?a??. ?ioa?aaioe?eia ?aae?ieia?y a iieieia??, aaiaoieia?? oa aaiaoieia??. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Ee?a, 1999. – N.37-40. 4. Aeei?enoaiiy A?a?nieo a eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? ceiye?nieo iooeei/Oae?iia N.I., Aeaaeeee I.A., Eeoaeiaiei I.I., I?eiea?iei I.I., Aeaaeea E.TH. oa ?i. – Ee?a, Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue EIAII ?i.I.E.Ooieea, A.8, ei.1, 1999. – N.604-615. 5. Aeaaeea E.TH. Eiiieaenia ae?aaiinoeea caoai?thaaiue i?aeoeoieiai? caeice. Ae?aaiinoeea, e?eoaaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeea o?iiaiaiaie?? eaaaiaai? a?oa???. Iia? oaoiieia??, aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe aiaeiaaneoey?ii? o??o?a?? oa ?ioa?aaioe?eii? ?aae?ieia??. Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. 22-23 ea?oiy 1998, *a?i?a?a. - Ee?a, 1998. – N.36-37. 6. Aeaaeeee I.A., Eeoaeiaiei I.I., A?iieoeueea E.TH., *i?iee A.A. Ae?aaiinoeea oa e?eoaaiiy ?aeo i?aeoeoieiai? caeice. I?iiaiaaa ae?aaiinoeea ? oa?ai?y. Ca??ea iaoeiaeo ?ia?o Anioe?aoe?? ?aae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie (aeione 3). - Ee?a, “Iaaeeoeeia Oe?a?ie”, 1998. - N.93-96. 7. A?iieoeueea E.TH. ?ieue oeueo?acaoeiaeo ?ioa?aaioe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue a ae?aaiinoeoe? no?oeoo?ieo ci?i ueoiaeaeii? caeice//Ieaioi ?aaee Anioe?aoe??. ?aioaaiio??o?a?y iaa?aeeeaaeieo noai?a. Iiaa a ?ioa?aaioe?eiee ?aae?ieia??. - Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae. – 22-23 ea?oiy 1997 ?., *a?i?a?a. - Ee?a, 1997. – N.15-17. 8. A?iieoeueea E.TH., Aeaaeeee A.A. ?ioa?aaioe?eiee oeueo?acaoe i?e aea/aii? noaio ciai?oueiinae?aoi?ii? ooieoe?? i?aeoeoieiai? caeice//Ieaioi ?aaee Anioe?aoe??. ?aioaaiio??o?a?y iaa?aeeeaaeieo noai?a. Iiaa a ?ioa?aaioe?eiee ?aae?ieia??. - Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae. – 22-23 ea?oiy 1997 ?., *a?i?a?a. - Ee?a, 1997. – N.17-20. 9. Aeaaeea E.TH. Ae?aaiinoeea caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice o ianaeaiiy, yea caciaei ?aae?aoe?eiiai aieeao i?ney aaa??? ia *AAN. I?iiaiaaa ae?aaiinoeea ? oa?ai?y. Ca??ea iaoeiaeo ?ia?o Anioe?aoe?? ?aae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie (aeione 2). - Ee?a, “Iaaeeoeeia Oe?a?ie”, 1998. - N.24-25. 10. A?iieoeueea E.TH., Aoei?no? I.?. Oeueo?acaoeiaa ianoaaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice o ae?oae, ye? i?iaeeaathoue a oiiaao aeieia?/iiai iaaeaaiiieo//y//A/ai? aoeiaeie - ia?iaei?e ioi?ii? caei?ia'y. - Iaoa??aee eiioa?aioe??. 21-25 o?aaiy, *a?i?aoe?, 1994. – *a?i?aoe?, 1994. - N.69-70. 11. O?enoe/ O.I., A?iieoeueea E.TH. Aeaye? iniaeeaino? oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e o?ii?/iiio iaie?aaoeo?//Iiaa a ae?aaiinoeoe? oa e?eoaaii? i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy - Ia?oa Iiae?euenea iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. Aano?iaioa?ieia?a. Oac.aeii. 22-24 aa?aniy, A?iieoey, 1993. – A?iieoey, 1993. - N.220. 12. O?enoe/ O.I., A?iieoeueea E.TH. Noai i?aeoeoieiai? caeice i?e caoai?thaaiiyo i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy. A/ai? Aoeiaeie – ia?iaei?e ioi?ii? caei?ia’y. Iaoa??aee eiioa?aioe??. 21-25 o?aaiy, *a?i?aoe?, 1994. – *a?i?aoe?, aeae-ai *AeI?, 1994. – N.248. AIIOAOe?ss Aeaaeea E.TH. Noai ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a, aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie caoenoo, ciai?oiueinae?aoi?ii? ooieoe?? i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa iaaeie?iee?a o ianaeaiiy aeieieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaiai ?aa?iio /a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.02 - aioo??oi? oai?iae. Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999 ?. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi noaio IIE oa aeayeeo eaiie AIN caoenoo, iniaeeainoyi ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiue aaiaoia?e?a?ii? ciie a oiiaao ae?? iani?eyoeeaeo noi?nieo /eiiee?a, ieoaiiyi ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? (ueoiaeaeii?, i?aeoeoieiai? caeic, iaaeie?iee?a) o ianaeaiiy, ui caciaei aieeao iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a /i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe oa ?ioeo aiaeai?/ieo ?aaaaio?a. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? a oiiaao o?ii?/ii? ae?? ??cieo aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy ai?iii?a: ei?oecieo, oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a oa cieaeaiiyi ??aiy AEOA oa OOA. Oa?iaioaoeaia ooieoe?y i?aeoeoieiai? caeice ia aeyaey? naciiii? caeaaeiino?, a caeaaeeoue a?ae o?eaaeino? noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue ? oyaeeino? ia?aa?ao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aa?a caoai?thaaiue aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ciie a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/i?e cii? iaaoaa? ?aoeeaeeaoth/iai i?ioeano c ?acenoaioi?noth aei e?eoaaiiy. Aeyaeaiee aeaneio?iiic aeayeeo ai?iii?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice aea? iiaeeea?noue o?iiiiioei?coaaoe ae?aaiinoeeo oa i?iaaaeaiiy o?iiioa?ai??. I?iaaaeaiiy ne??i?iaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ueoiaeaeii?, i?aeoeoieiai? caeic ca aeiiiiiaith oeueo?acaoeiaeo i?eeaae?a oa canoinoaaiiy i?eoe?eueii? ioieoe?eii? a?iin?? i?ae eiio?ieai oeueo?acaoeo iieaaoo? aeyaeaiiy caoai?thaaiue caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? ia ?aii?o aeiee?i?/ieo noaae?yo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy o ianaeaiiy, yea caciaei aieeao ??cieo noi?nieo /eiiee?a, ai?noo IAeA oa AA aeyaey? ?aii? iciaee iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. ?ic?iaeai? oa ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeai? e?eoa??? ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee ? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa OEO. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeieia?y, ia?aeenia ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, aioeieneaeaioia nenoaia caoenoo, i?aeoeoieiaa caeica, oeoiaeaeia caeica. SYNOPSIS Liybov Gladkaya. The condition of peroxydation of lipids, antioxydational system of defense, exterosecretory function of pancreas, thyroid and adrenal gland in the population of ecologically unfavourable district of Chernivtsi region. - Manuscript. Thesis for a candidates of medical sciences degree by specialties: 14.01.02 - internal diseases. Kyiv Medical Academy of Post-graduated Education named after P.Shupyk, Health Ministry of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999. The dissertation is devoted to questions of endocrine glands (thyroid gland, pancreas and adrenal glands) on the territories where people were exposed to influence of different factors, as for example the consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe. Here are presented the selections of ultrasound criteria of some changes in blood of population from unfavorable regions of Ukraine, their further examination and treatment. It is established that the proceeding of the gastroduodenal zone in the ecologically unfavorable regions obtains the character of the relapsatic process, which hardly responds to treatment, fermental function of the pancreas gland depends on the proceeding of concomitant diseases, but seasonal dependence was not discovered. Functional changes of endocrine glands in the conditions of the chronic stress is characterized by increasing level of thyroid hormones, cortisole with the lowering of the ACTH and TTH level. Screening examination of the thyroid hormones and pancreas glands are represented in this work. These examinations were conducted with the help of ultrasonic devices with application of punctional biopsy under control of ultrasound, what makes the discovering of the diseases on the final stages easier. The examination of the population, which was exposed to influence of different factors showed that in the serum of their blood MDA and renovated glutation one can discovered signs of pathological processes and follow their proceeding. Key words: ecology, antioxydational system of defence, peroxydation of lipids, pancreas, thyroid gland. AIIIOAOeEss Aeaaeeay E.TH. Ninoiyiea ia?ieneaeaoeee eeieaeia e aioeieneaeaioiie nenoaiu caueou, aiaoianae?aoi?iay ooieoeey iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu, ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e iaaeii/a/ieeia o ianaeaiey yeieiae/anee iaaeaaii?eyoiiai ?aaeiia *a?iiaeoeeie iaeanoe. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.02 - aioo?aiiea aieacie. Eeaaneay iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey iineaaeeieiiiiai ia?aciaaiey ei.I.E.Ooieea IC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999 a. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ninoiyiey IIE e iaeioi?uo caaiueaa aioeieneaeaioiie nenoaiu (aeooaoeiiiaia caaii), iniaaiiinoyi i?ioaeaiey caaieaaaiee aaiaoiaeeea?iie ciiu a oneiaeyo aeaenoaey iaaeaaii?eyoiuo niaianoiuo oaeoi?ia, aii?inai ii?oi-ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey aeaeac aioo?aiiae nae?aoeee (ueoiaeaeiie, iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeac, iaaeii/a/ieeia) o ianaeaiey, eioi?ia iiaeaa?aaeinue aeeyieth ?acee/iuo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ia iineaaenoaee /a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou. Ooieoeeiiaeueiua eciaiaiey aeaeac aioo?aiiae nae?aoeee a oneiaeyo o?iie/aneiai no?anna oa?aeoa?ecothony iiauoaiiui o?iaiai ai?iiiia a e?iae: ei?oeciea, oe?aieaeiuo ai?iiiia, ni nieaeaieai AEOA e OOA. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?ioaeaiea caaieaaaiee aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiie ciiu a yeieiae/anee iaaeaaii?eyoiie ciia i?eia?aoaao oa?aeoa? ?aoeeaeeae?othuaai i?ioeanna n ?acenoaioiinoueth e ea/aieth. I?e o?iie/aneii iaie?aaoeoa ?aaeoeey aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueiie ciiu yiaeineiie/anee oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue y?iceaiuie eciaiaieyie aeaeoaeea, aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee, oeueo?aniiia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee i oea?iciuo eciaiaieyo. Oa?iaioaoeaiay ooieoeey iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu caaeneo io niioonoaothueo caaieaaaiee, naciiiie caaeneiinoe ia auyaeaii. I?iaaaeaiea ne?eieiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee ueoiaeaeiie, iiaeaeaeoaei/iuo aeaeac n iiiiuueth oeueo?acaoeiauo i?eai?ia n i?eiaiaieai i?eoeaeueiie ioieoeeiiiie aeiinee iiae eiio?ieai oeueo?acaoea iaeaa/aao auyaeaiea caaieaaaiee aeaeac aioo?aiiae nae?aoeee ia aeieeeie/aneeo noaaeeyo. Enneaaeiaaiea o ianaeaiey, eioi?ia iiaeaa?aaeinue aeaenoaeth ?aciuo oaeoi?ia, niaea?aeaiey a nuai?ioea e?iae IAeA e AA auyaeyao ?aiiea i?eciaee iaoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, i?ineaaeeaaao eo oa/aiea. Aeey o?iiiiioeiecaoeee aeeaaiinoe/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae e oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa ea/aiey ianaeaiey ec iino?aaeaaoeo oa??eoi?ee eco/aiu o?iii?eoiu iaeioi?uo ai?iiiia ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu. Enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeeeenue iaeiia?aiaiii o ioae/ei e aeaiuei, oae eae ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ieie ia auyaeaii. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi oee?eaaeeaiiue ?eoi niaea?aeaiey a ieacia e?iae oe?ieneia e o?eeiaeoe?iieia iaei caaeneo io aeoeaiinoe OOA. I?ienoiaeeo ianiioaaonoaea aiei iaeneiaeueiie nae?aoeee OOA e oe?aieaeiuo ai?iiiia, ae?ioaca OOA ia ianooiaao ?aiueoa ae?ioacu nae?aoeee O3 e O4. ?eoi nae?aoeee O4 iieiinoueth niioaaonoaoao eiaa?nee a n?aaiaiee n eiio?ieai e iaia?oaeeaaaony a /anu iaeiaiueoae eiioeaio?aoeee a nuai?ioea e?iae o caei?iauo eeoe, a ieieiaeueiua iieacaoaee niioaaonoaaiii ?aaeno?e?iaaeenue ai a?aiy iaeneiaeueiuo cia/aiee. Oaaee/aiea iaci?a O3 e O4 i?ienoiaeeei a nayce n oaaee/aieai o?iaiy oe?aieaeiuo ai?iiiia, oiaiueoaiea iaci?a OOA iauyniyaony oiaiueoaieai o?iaiy aai a ieacia e?iae ii i?eioeeio ia?aoiie nayce. Iiae aeeyieai ?acee/iuo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ia ?acaeaaaony ninoiyiea n acaeiinaycueth e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoueth ii?aaeaiee nenoai i?aaiecia. Enneaaeiaaiey i?ioaeaiey o?iie/aneiai iaie?aaoeoa, a oii /enea a ni/aoaiee n ae?oaeie caaieaaaieyie AEEO, e ninoiyiey IIE a caaeneiinoe io naciiia auyaeee, /oi iiauoaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeoeaiinoe iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu i?aaeoanoaoao aanaiia-inaiiei iaino?aieyi. I?e niioonoaothueo caaieaaaieyo ia/aie iaino?aiea caaeneo io ninoiyiey IIE e AIN caueou. Ioieoeeiiiay aeiiney iiae eiio?ieai oeueo?acaoea ueoiaeaeiie e iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeac aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aoeoue aii?inu aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie aeeaaiinoeee caaieaaaiee, iniaaiii a ieaia iauaiiuo ia?aciaaiee. ?ac?aaioaiu e aiaae?aiu a i?aeoeeo iaeaieaa eioi?iaoeaiua e?eoa?ee ?aiiae aeeaaiinoeee e ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ea/aiey caaieaaaiee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e AEEO. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeieiaey, ia?aeeniia ieeneaiea eeieaeia, aioeieneaeaioiay nenoaia caueou, iiaeaeaeoaei/iay aeaeaca, ueoiaeaeiay aeaeaca.

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