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I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea

Aeaaeea Ethaia TH???aia

OAeE 616.233-002.2-02

NOAI IA?IENEAeAOe?? E?I?Ae?A, AIOEIENEAeAIOII? NENOAIE CAOENOO,

CIAI?OIUeINAE?AOI?II? OOIEOe?? I?AeOEOIEIAI? CAEICE, UEOIAEAeII? CAEICE
OA IAAeIE?IEE?A O IANAEAIIss AEIEIA?*II IANI?EssOEEAIAI ?AA?IIO

*A?I?AAOeUeEI? IAEANO?

14.01.02 – aioo??oi? oai?iae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ee?i?/ii? ?aae?ieia?? Iaoeiaiai oeaio?o

?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie Aeaaeai?? iaaee/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie,

*a?i?aaoeueeiio iaeaniiio iaaee/iiio ae?aaiinoe/iiio oeaio?? IIC

Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaaaoei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/

?inoeooo ee?i?/ii? ?aae?ieia??

Iaoeiaiai oeaio?o ?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie

Aeaaeai?? iaaee/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aeeoy/i? aaiaoieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaaei?ia E?ae?y sse?aia

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie

eaoaae?a n?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiaeia? Iao?i Ieeieaeiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

IIC Oe?a?ie

eaoaae?a aiaeie?eiieia??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?aaii-O?aie?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a aiaeie?eiieia?? (i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee)

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 17 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 11 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 26.613.01 i?e Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie (254112,
i.Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9, aoae.?3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? aeaaeai?? (i.Ee?a,
aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ” 14 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? I.?.?iiaiaiei

?aaee, eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

ANOOI

A ia?oa aeanyoe??//y i?ney *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe na?aae
eiioeiaaioo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ui caciaei noi?niiai aieeao ??cieo
/eiiee?a, niinoa??aaeiny c?inoaiiy ieoiii? aaae oa aaaeeino? ia?aa?ao
aeayeeo caoai?thaaiue. Noeoii? oaoii- e aio?iiiaaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aeeoo?aa na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? aeyaeeeny o 15 ?ac?a aeueie, i?ae ia
oa?eoi??? ?ioeo aea?aeaa. A *a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeano? ca aeaieie ia
1.01.96. I?inoaoo Oe?a?ie, anueiai ia?aoiaoaaeinue 26470 iioa?i?eeo a?ae
aaa??? ia *AAN, a oiio /ene? o/aniee?a e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a aaa???
(EIA) – 3647.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Anac?inoath/? oaiie caa?oaeiaiiy a?inoa?e ??cieie
aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaeie /eiieeaie ia?aeiieeai aeiaaathoue aea/aiiy ?o
ae?? ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

I?ae /an *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe caciaee aieea?a ?aae?iioee?ae?a
eiaeo oa oeac?th iiiaae 5 iei. aeeoae?a Oe?a?ie, iaee i?noea ? /eiieee
o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee.

O ianaeaiiy E?oeiainueeiai, Canoaaiyinueeiai ?aeii?a *a?i?aaoeueei?
iaeano?, eiioai?iiaaiiai ?aae?iioee?aeaie, c eiaeiei ?ieii aeey ae?oae
oa aei?ineeo oeeo ?aa?ii?a ca?eueoo?oueny i?iaeaia noaio ?o caei?ia’y.

Aeicia? iaaaioaaeaiiy a on?o aeine?aeieo a?oiao ia ia?aaeuoaaee
ae?aiacii iaeeo aeic ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy (IAe?A) (aei 0,5 A?),
a iniiaiiio – 5-25 nA?.

A?aoiaoth/e a?ioii *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, iaoith iaoi? ?iaioe aoei
aeeiai?/ia ianoaaeaiiy eiioeiaaio?a ianaeaiiy, yea caciaei aieeao
noi?nii? ae?? iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano noi?nia ae?y ia i?aai?ci neaaeeo /eiiee?a ??cii?
i?e?iaee (o?i?/ii?, a?ieia?/ii?, o?ce/ii?, a oiio /ene? ?ii?coth/iai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy – ?A) aea/aia iaaeinoaoiuei.

Iaoeia? iaoa??aee c aeaii? i?iaeaie iaeiie/ai? ca inoaii? 12 ?ie?a i?ney
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe ? noinothoueny ia?aaaaeii i?iiaiaai
iaoiiaeaii? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice. (A.?.Ae?aeia, ?.?.Ae?aeia,
1993; I.Ae.O?iiueei, ?.A.A?oeiaa, A.A.Ie?eiee, 1994; A.E.*aaai, 1994;
A.TH.?iiaiaiei, 1998; A.Aa?aiianueeee, 1999).

A ca’yceo c oeei aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
i?aeoeoieiai? caeice o aca?iica’yceo c aeayeeie caeicaie aioo??oiuei?
nae?aoe?? (ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa iaaeie?iee?a) o ethaeae, eio??
iaoeathoue a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/i?e cii? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? ?
i?aeaeathoueny aieeao ?A oa iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee,
ciaoiaey/enue c oeeo i?e/ei a noai? o?ii?/iiai no?ano, ? aeooaeueiei.

Ca inoaii? 12 ?ie?a ii *a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeano? oaea iaaacia/ia ianoaiiaea
ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ca?eueoaii? caoai?thaaiue
oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo (OEO) oa ueoiaeaeii? caeice (UC) iaeaea a 2,3
?ace. Iaoiiaeaia o?ii?/iei no?anii aeoeaaoe?y IIE a naith /a?ao
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie caoenoo, ??
iai?oaeaiiy, ui ni?eyei aeieeiaiith a?ic?e ? ae?acie oeoieo,
aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee, c?inea /anoioa aeieeiaiiy caaino?aiue
o?ii?/ieo caoai?thaaiue oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo (aano?eoe, ae?aceiaa
oai?iaa), ia/?iee, i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, aeyaeaiiy o?a?icieo ci?i,
ia’?iieo ooai?aiue.

Oiio aea/aiiy aeayeeo eaiie ii?ooaiiy ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? o iino?aaeaeaeeo aeanoue ciiao ae?iaeoe
e?eoa??? aeey ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee a ieo iniiaieo aeae?a iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii?, i?aeoeoieiai? caeic oa iaaeie?iee?a (A.E.*aaai,
A.I.A?eaeueei, 1991-1992 ??.; A.I.Eiaaeaiei, 1995-1997 ??.).

A?aeiii, ui caeice aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? ? oi?aa?naeueiith /aniaith
nenoaiith ?ioaa?aoe?? neeaaeieo a?ieia?/ieo nenoai. An?i ??aiyi oe???
a?inenoaie aeanoea? aeiaia? ? naciii? ?eoie. I?aeoe/ii oey i?iaeaia iaei
?ic?iaeaia a Oe?a?i?. Oiio aaaeeeai aecia/eoe, ye ?aaaothoue caeice
aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? o ianaeaiiy a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo ?aeiiao
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao IAe?
IOe?I AII Oe?a?ie, ?a?no? ?01964 010101 – ?ic?iaea nenoaie caoiae?a
uiaei i?io?eaeoeee oa e?eoaaiiy in?a, ye? iino?aaeaeaee aiane?aeie
aaa???

ca o?aaiaioaie : Ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aea oa ?ioeo
caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice a o/aniee?a e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a
aaa??? ia *AAN. Noai?aiiy ?aeeii? nenoaie ae?aaiinoeee, e?eoaaiiy,
?aaa?e?oaoe?? o?oaeiai? oa nioe?aeueii? aenia?oece.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeaoe ioe?ieo noaio ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a oa
aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie caoenoo, aeynieoe ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie
i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii? caeic ? iaaeie?iee?a o ianaeaiiy oa o/aniee?a
EIA a aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaiio ?aa?ii? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? c
o?aooaaiiyi aeiaiaeo ? naciiieo ?eoi?a, a?ae?a?aoe iaea?eueo
?ioi?iaoeai? e?eoa??? aeey ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee caoai?thaaiue oeeo
i?aai?a, ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?o e?eoaaiiy.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

n aeaoe ioe?ieo noaio ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a oa aioeieneaeaioii?
nenoaie caoenoo c o?aooaaiiyi naciiieo ? aeiaiaeo ?eoi?a;

n aeynieoe ee?i?/iee ia?aa?a iniiaieo caoai?thaaiue caeic aioo??oiuei?
nae?aoe??;

n aea/eoe ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai i?aeoeoieiai? caeice oa aeayeeo caeic
aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae naciiieo ? aeiaiaeo ?eoi?a;

n aecia/eoe ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe??
(i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii? caeic, iaaeie?iee?a) o o/aniee?a EIA oa
ianaeaiiy eiioai?iiaaieo ?aa?ii?a;

n i?iaanoe a?aea?? e?eoa???a aeey ae?aaiinoeee ii?ooaiue i?aeoeoieiai?
caeice oa aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe??, aeaoe ioe?ieo
aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy ?o caoai?thaaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

Aia?oa iieacaia ?ieue aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaeo /eiiee?a a?ioiio
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, a oiio /ene? e ?A, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey
*i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa???, o ?icaeoeo iaoieia?? i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii?
caeic, iaaeie?iee?a o o/aniee?a EIA ia *AAN ? aeeoae?a E?oeiainueeiai oa
Canoaaiyinueeiai ?aeii?a *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ee?i?/iee ia?aa?a caoai?thaaiue i?aeoeoieiai? caeice oa
aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? o aeeoae?a ?aeii?a, ui
i?aeaeathoueny aieeao iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a ??cii? i?e?iaee, a oiio /ene?
e ?A, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oi?i?aei?noth i?io?eaiiy, ?acenoaioi?noth aei
e?eoaaiiy.

Aia?oa i?ine?aeeiaaii aeiaia? oa naciii? ?eoie ai?iii?a oa aeayeeo
oa?iaio?a o e?ia? o aeeoae?a aeieia?/ii iani?eyoeeaeo ?aa?ii?a c ??ciith
iaoieia??th caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe??. Ia iniia? oeeo iieaciee?a
aia?oa i?iaeaiiino?iaaia iiaeeea?noue o?iiiae?aaiinoeee oa canoinoaaiiy
o?iiioa?ai?? o iaoe??io?a, ui caciaee aieeao iaeeo aeic ?A oa eiiieaeno
iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a; oa?iaioaoeaia ooieoe?y i?aeoeoieiai? caeice (IC)
caeaaeeoue a?ae o?eaaeino? noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue, oyaeeino? ?o
ia?aa?ao, a ia a?ae naciio ?ieo.

Aia?oa iieacaia caeaaei?noue ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a ? noaio
aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie o iino?aaeaeaeeo *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? i?e
ae?? ??cieo enaiia?ioee?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae naciiieo ?eoi?a.

Ia iniia? oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ieo ci?i oa ci?i aeayeeo iieaciee?a
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii? caeic oa iaaeie?iee?a
?ic?iaeai? oa a?ae?a?ai? iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeai? e?eoa??? ?aiiuei?
ae?aaiinoeee oa ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy ii?ooaiue i?aeoeoieiai?
caeice oa aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe?? i?e ae?? ??cieo /eiiee?a
a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo ?aeiiao *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui c a?aii
/ano ia iniia? aeyaeaiiai c?inoaiiy /anoioe ? ae?aaeaiino? nenoaiieo
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei?
nae?aoe?? oa iniaeeainoae ?o ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue o an?o eiioeiaaio?a ianaeaiiy, yea
i?iaeiaaeo? i?iaeeaaoe ia oa?eoi???, ui caciaea aieeao /eiiee?a i?ney
aaa??? ia *AAN, aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe ?aiith ae?aaiinoeeo ci?i
noaio caei?ia’y oa canoiniaoaaoe o?iiioa?ai?th aioeieneaeaioaie.

Ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo a?coaeuei? ae?aaiinoe/i? e?eoa???
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i noaio i?aeoeoieiai?, ueoiaeaeii? caeic oa
iaaeie?iee?a, a oaeiae iaoiae o?iiiae?aaiinoeee oa o?iiioa?ai??
ii?ooaiue aeayeeo caeic aioo??oiuei? nae?aoe??. I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
, ui aacothoueny ia iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo aeena?oaoe??, ao?eai? a
i?aeoeeo a *a?i?aaoeueeiio iaeaniiio iaaee/iiio ae?aaiinoe/iiio oeaio??,
ie?oaeiiio oieoae? i.Iaeana ?411, iaeaniiio i?ioeooaa?eoeueiciiio
aeeniaina?? i.Iaeana, Aaeonuee?e Oe?E, i?i ui na?ae/aoue aeoe
ai?iaaaeaeaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? iniaenoi i?iaiaeeea i?aea??
aeine?aeiiai eiioeiaaioo, cae?enithaaea aiae?c ?noi??e oai?ia,
i?iaiaeeea oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiai?noth cae?enieea
aiae?c, noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo, ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
c?iaeea aeniiaee, ?ic?iaeea i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, i?iaaea
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/io ?iaioo ii ?o ao?eaiith a i?aeoeeo ioi?iie
caei?ia’y. Ai?iaaaeeea a ?iaioo a?aeae?eo oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee
ioieoe?eio a?iin?th ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Aiae?c oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th
iaoa??aeo, aeeeaaeaiiai a aeena?oaoe??, iaeaaeeoue aaoi?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
iieiaeeo a/aieo ? niaoe?ae?no?a (*a?i?aoe?, 1991); ieaioi? Anioe?aoe??
niaoe?ae?no?a oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee (Oa?e?a, 1992); eiioa?aioe??
aei 50-oe ??//y Aoeiaeinueei? Aeaaeai?? (*a?i?aoe?, 1994); ieaioi? ?aaee
Anioe?aoe?? “?aioaaiio??o?a?y iaa?aeeeaaeieo noai?a”, (*a?i?a?a, 1997),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i.Iaeana, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 ae?oeiaaieo
?ia?o, o?e c ieo naiino?ei?.

Ia’?i oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia 146 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno, neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, iaaiai?aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, aeniiae?a. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 14 oaaeeoeyie, 7 ?enoieaie.
Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 156 aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaie ianoaaeaii 259 iaoe??io?a ia i?ioyc? 1987-1996 ??., ?c ieo 85 –
i?aeoe/ii caei?ia?, a?e yeeo eieeaaany a?ae 15 aei 55 ?ie?a. E??i
oeueiai, i?iaiae?ciaaii a?aeoeeaiiy a noai? caei?ia’y aei?ineeo ? ae?oae
iino?aaeaeaeeo ?aa?ii?a.

?acoeueoaoe caa?iaiue ianaeaiiy a IIAeOe ?iciiae?eeeenue ca oaeeie
/aniaeie ia??iaeaie: ? – 1987-1989 ??., ?? – 1990-1992 ??., ??? –
1993-1996 ??. Aea?aii 174 iaoe??ioe. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy a ? ia??iae?
ianoaaeaii 49 iaoe??io?a, a ?? – 57, a ??? – 68. Oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaaii
?acoeueoaoe i?io?eaeoe/ieo iaeyae?a 11140 in?a (1994-1996 ??.).
Ianoaaeaiiy iaoe??io?a i?iaiaeeeinue eiiieaenii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, i?iaiaeeeenue, a iniiaiiio, ia
oeueo?acaoeiaiio aia?ao? AU-4 ciiaeii /anoioith 3,5 IAoe c canoinoaaiiyi
eieuei?iai? aeiiea?ia?ao??. Ianoaaeaii 89 in?a.

Oeueo?acaoeiaa ae?aaiinoeea ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeeiiaia ia aia?ao? AU4 o
54 in?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ciiae?a 7,5-12 IAoe oa eieuei?iai?
aeiiea?ia?ao?? o 27 in?a, i?e iaiao?aeiino? i?iaiaeeee oiieiaieeiao
ioieoe?eio a?iin?th (30).

A?coae?caoe?y iae?iiciae a?ia?ieac?e iaaeie?iee?a a aoaeue-ye?e a?eia?e
a?oi? i?iaiaeeeanue ca aeiiiiiaith OCAe oa o iaaaeeei? a?oie oai?eo –
eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao??. Ca aeaieie ?iicaiieo a/aieo, iaaeie?ieeiaa
a?ia?ieac?y ca aeiiiiiaith oeueo?acaoeiaiai iaoiaeo ia aeyaey?oueny.
O?eueee iae?iiiaeoey?ia oi?ia a?ia?ieac?? oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ii
a?coae?co?oueny ye /?oei iaiaaeaia a?iiaoiaaiia ooai?aiiy e?oaei? oi?ie,
i?aeoe/ii neeaaeia aeey aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a?ae aaeaiiie (Gunther R.W.,
Dobrinski W.).

Noai aaneoey?ecaoe?? ia?aio?ie ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
a?ii- ? a?ia?aaneoey?ieo aoce?a aea/aiee ca aeiiiiiaith aeiiea?ia?ao??.

Ani??aoe?eia oiieiaieeiaa a?iin?y ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeeiiaia o 30
iaoe??io?a c iaoith aa?eo?eaoe?? ae?aaiico oe?ai?aeeoo, a oaeiae i?e
iayaiino? ia’?iieo ooai?aiue (e?noe, aocee) aeey aeeeth/aiiy
iaiieanoe/ieo i?ioean?a.

Aea/aiiy ??aiy ai?iii?a o ieaci? e?ia? i?iaiaeeeenue 158 iniaai ca
aeiiiiiaith noaiaea?oieo iaai??a a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeey ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oe?ai?aeii? nenoaie o
92 ianoaaeaieo canoiniaoaaeinue aecia/aiiy ??aiy oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiio
ca aeiiiiiaith oano-iaai?o ?10 o??ie Becman, O?I; O3 ? O4 – iaai??a
?10-O3-IA, ?10-O4-IA, oe?ieneica’ycoth/iai aeiaoe?io (OCA) – ?10-OCA-IA
(Aaea?onue).

Ciai?oiueinae?aoi?io ooieoe?th IC aea/aee o 89 in?a iaoiaeii aiaeiaaiii?
noeioeyoe?? nae?aoeiii, iaie?aicei?iii i?e aaaaeaii? I,5% nieyii?
eeneioe (3I ie), ianeeiiai? ie?? (3I ie) a aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaeo eeoeo. Ca
caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith aecia/eee ia’?i nae?aoe??,
eiioeaio?aoe?th a?ea?aiiao?a, o?eineio, ai?eace, e?iace. I?ioaie?oe/io
aeoeai?noue i?aeoeoieiai? caeice o 82 in?a aea/aee ca A?eaiaa?ii (1965)
o iiaeeo?eaoe?? A.A.Oaoa?i?eiaa, e?iace ca Iioiaiii (1948), ai?eace ca
Ni?o-?io (1949), a?ae?iea?aiiaoio eoaei?noue – iaoiaeii cai?ioiiai
oeo?oaaiiy.

Eeneioiooai?thth/o ooieoe?th oeoiea aecia/aee ia aia?ao? AEOA-2
i?e?iciiaeaie eiino?oeoe?? A.I.*i?iia?iaiai (1988) c a?ao?/iith
?a?no?aoe??th aacaeueii? nae?aoi?ii? e?eai?, ui aeaaaea iiaeeea?noue
ioe?ieoe ?I a ??cieo a?aeae?eao oeoieo.

Ai?no i?iaeoeo?a a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a aea/aee ca
iaoiaeii ?.A.Aie/aai?nueeiai (1989). I?eioeei iaoiaeo caniiaaiee ia
ieeneaii? a?aeiiaeaiiai aeooao?iio (AA) eiaeiaaoieeneei eae??i.
I?enooi?e a na?aaeiaeu? eiaeenoee eae?e i?e iaaeeeoeo eiaeiaaoieeneiai
eae?th ieeney?oueny c aeae?eaiiyi a?eueiiai eiaeo, yeee aea? c ?ic/eiii
e?ioiaeth eieuei?iao ?aaeoe?th, ui neoaeeoue iieacieeii e?ioey
oeo?oaaiiy.

A?aeiiaeaiee aeooao?ii aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii I.A.O?aa?ii? (1955),
aeoeai?noue aeooao?iio?ainoa?ace ca ?.O.Iaueoaiei (1989). Iaoiaeeea
a?oioo?oueny ia ciaoiaeaeaii? e?eueeino? a?aeiiaeaiiai aeooao?iio, yeee
i?oia ia eii’thaaoe?th c 1-oei?-2,4-aeei?o?iaaicieii i?ae ae??th
oa?iaioo e?ia?.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeany iaoiaeii aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee c
aecia/aiiyi na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii? aaee/eie, na?aaeiuei? iioeaee
na?aaeiueiai a?aoiaioiiai oa na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai a?aeoeeaiiy
aa??aoe?eiiai ?yaeo. ?iia??i?noue ??cieoeue na?aaei?o aaee/ei aecia/aee
ia i?aenoaa? e?eoa??th No’thaeaioa. *anoeio ?acoeueoao?a ia?iaeyee
iaia?aiao?e/ieie iaoiaeaie.

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?iaiae?ciaai? ee?i?/i? aeai? iieacaee, ui ia?aa?a o?ii?/iiai
iaie?aaoeoo o ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? ia caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??yo,
ci?ieany a a?e aieueiaiai neiae?iio oa ca?eueoaiiy /enea ?aoeeaeea?a.
Ee?i?/ii c?inea e?euee?noue oai?eo c noiooiueith ae?aceiaith oai?iaith
AeIE, oeoieo, ye? noaee ?a?no?oaaoeny ia?aaaaeii c 1987 ?ieo. Ai?iaeiaae
1990-1993 ??. ca?eueoeeanue e?euee?noue noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue –
o?ii?/iee aaiaoeo, o?ii?/iee iaie?aaoeo, niinoa?aaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue
iiaoaiii a aeeiai?oe?.

Iniaeeainoyie ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiue aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? oa
iaie?aaoia?e?a?ii? cii ?: ??no oneeaaeiaiue, oi?i?aei?noue ia?aa?ao,
?acenoaioi?noue aei e?eoaaiiy, /anoi iiyaa ae?acie o in?a iieiaeiai ?
na?aaeiueiai a?eo.

Na?aae oai?ia i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy o in?a, ui caciaee aieeao ?A,
ia?aaaaeaee caiaeuei? ci?ie aa?oi?o a?aeae?e?a oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai
o?aeoo, a?ic??, ae?acee oeoieo.

Ca /an niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ianaeaiiyi, ui caciaei noi?niiai aieeao ie?aieo
/eiiee?a, caoai?thaaiiy OEO ca?eueoeeenue o 2,3 ?ace. O oe?eiio, c a?aii
/ano i?ney aaa??? ia *AAN niinoa??aaeinue c?inoaiiy /anoioe oai?ia on?o
iniiaieo nenoai i?aai?cio, c ia?aaaaeiei ii?ooaiiyi caeic aioo??oiuei?
nae?aoe?? oa o?aaii? nenoaie. Aiii a?eueo iii?oia na?aae aei?ineeo ?
ae?oae, ye? i?iaeiaaeothoue i?iaeeaaoe a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai no?ano.
Aeaiee i?ioean noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi aeyaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii
caei?iaeo in?a oa c?inoaiiyi /anoioe ii?aeiaii? iaoieia??. A aeieia?/ii
iani?eyoeeaiio ?aa?ii? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? oai?? ia?oi/a?aiai
caa?oaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith o ca’yceo c iiae?aciaiiyi
aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ciie. O 71,3% oai?eo aieueiaee neiae?ii ia iinea
eeane/iiai oa?aeoa?o aeey o?ii?/iiai iaie?aaoeoo (OI), a nei??oa
na?ae/ea i?i ci?ie a AeIE. A ne?iaaooe? e?ia? o 29,3% ianoaaeaieo
a?aei?/aeinue i?aeaeuaiiy an?o o?ueio oa?iaio?a, iniaeeai ai?eace, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i oaiiiai “a?aeoeeaiiy oa?iaio?a o e?ia”, iaa?ye
i?aeoeoieiai? caeice ?a?no?oaaany ca aeaieie OCAe o 31,3% aeiaaee?a.Oeae
oaiiiai, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeaco? ia ?aaeoeaiee oa?aeoa? ci?i, ye a
ia?aioei? ia/?iee, oae e o i?aeoeoieia?e caeic?.

O 1993-1995 ??. ia caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??yo a?aei?/aia noaa?e?caoe?y
iieaciee?a caoai?thaaiino? ia OI. Iaeiae, o 27,3% ianoaaeaieo
niiia?ao?/iei iaoiaeii aoee a?aei?/ai? ?iaeo?aoeai? ci?ie IC,
aiaeineii?/ii cono??/aeeny o?aaeaiiy aano?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ciie, ye?
iineee noa- oa ao?io?/iee oa?aeoa?. I?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaaoe??
oa?iaioaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? IC o 1987-1989 ??. ie ?icoe?ieee ye
aaeaioaoe?eiee iiiaio i?enoinoaaiiy aei ae?? iecueeeo aeic ?aae?aoe?? oa
?ioeo /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. A oie aea /an, a?aeaoeinue
i?ia?anoth/a cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? iaie?aaoe/ii? e?iace. Oae, yeui a
1989-1994 ??. ?? aeoeai?noue i?aeaeuoaaeanue ia 43,9%, oi a 1995 ?.
ciaioeeanue ia 22%, ii??aithth/e ?c caei?iaeie. Cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino?
iaie?aaoe/ii? e?iace aeaco? ia aeniaaeaiiy aaeaioaoe?? neeciai? iaieiiee
AeIE, yea aieeaa? ia aeoeai?noue iaie?aaoe/ii? e?iace. A iiaeaeueo? ?iee
a?aeaoaa?oueny noaa?e?caoe?y ooieoe?iiaeueii? iai?oae IC uiaei
i?ioaie?oe/ii? oa ai?eie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aiae?coth/e aeoeai?noue
i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? o oai?eo c OI oa noiooi?ie
caoai?thaaiiyie OEO, a?aei?/aii nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioaie?oe/ii?
aeoeaiino? o in?a ?c noiooi?ie ae?aceiaith oai?iaith oa
aano?iaeoiaeai?oii. I?aeaeuaiiy oa?iaio?a niinoa??aaeinue i?ioyaii
anueiai ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy c oaiaeaioe??th aei ii?iae?caoe?? a
o?aoueiio ia??iae?. Oae, yeui o 1992 ?. aeoeai?noue o?eineio noaiiaeea
12,20,4 iae.aeo., oi a 1996 ?. – 10,90,6 iae.aeo. Aeoeai?noue ai?eace
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue aiaeia?/ieie ci?iaie, iaea?eueo ae?aaeaia e no?eea
i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? a?aei?/aii i?e OI c ae?aceiaith oai?iaith, a 1992
?. – 1375,0 iae.aeo., a a 1995 ?. – 1185,0 iae.aeo. A oie aea /an,
aeoeai?noue e?iace ciaiooaaeanue, a 1987-1995 ??. – 0,870,003 aei
0,680,04 iae.aeo.

Iniaeeainoyie ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? ceice ?: aeoeaaoe?y
ooieoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice a ia?o? o?e ?iee i?ney aaa??? ia *AAN c
i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a (O3, O4) a ne?iaaooe? e?ia?. A
1990-1992 ??. c’yaey?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ii?iae?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueai
noaio ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aea ?? ooieoe?y caeeoa?oueny i?aeaeuaiith. A
1993-1995 ??. ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ueoiaeaeii? caeice ni?yiiaaiee aei
noaa?e?caoe??, aea c?inea e?euee?noue e?no oa aoce?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice.

O ca’yceo ?c cia/ieie ii?ooaiiyie iae?iaiaeie?eiii? ?aaoeyoe??
i?aai?cio ia oii? aieeao iane?aee?a aaa??? ia *AAN, ianoaaeoaaany noai
ueoiaeaeii? caeice. I?iaiae?ciaaii aiaoeaoi?i? ea?oe iaoe??io?a o 1994
?. – 8305, o 1995 ?. – 7108, o 1996 ?. – 5901, c a?aii /ano ana /ano?oa
aeyaeyeanue e?euee?noue in?a c iciaeaie oe?ai?aeeoo. Oae, ca ia??iae c
1993 ii 1996 ??. a?aei?/aii c?inoaiiy iaeaea a aeaa ?ace oe?ai?aeeo?a (c
14,5 aei 27%), iniaeeai aooi?ioiiiai aaiaco, aoceiaeo ooai?aiue
ueoiaeaeii? caeice – c 3,1 aei 5,2% a?aeiia?aeii. Ia aeeeae o ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua ?cioii?a eiaeo ueoiaeaeia caeica a?ae?aaaoaaea
a?ia?ieac??th, i?e yei? i?eeoiany ia 1993 ??e ? neeaaeaa 29,2%
ianoaaeaieo.

Aeaiee i?ioean noi?iaiaeaeoaaany nooo?aei ciaioaiiyi e?eueeino?
i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo in?a. Oae, yeui a 1995 ?. iniae, a yeeo ia aeyaeaii
ci?i c aieo ueoiaeaeii? caeice, noaiiaeee 41,3%, oi a 1996 ?. ?o
e?euee?noue ciaioeeanue aei 33,1%.

A?ia?ieac?y ueoiaeaeii? caeice ?? no. o iaoe??io?a E?oeiainueeiai,
Canoaaiyinueeiai ?aeii?a niinoa??aaeanue o 5,7 ?ac?a /ano?oa, i?ae o
iaoe??io?a c ?aei?a, ye? ia caciaee aieeao iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a, ??? no.
– o 5,5 ?ac?a /ano?oa.

A iiaeaeueo? ?iee oey iaoieia?y cono??/aeanue ??aeoa (o 1995 ?. – 24%, o
1996 ?. – 23%), ui iiaea na?ae/eoe c iaeiiai aieo i?i ciaioaiiy
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia caeico, a c ?ioiai –
ia aeniaaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae i?aaio c oaiaeaioe??th aei
?icaeoeo a?ia?ieanoe/ieo i?ioean?a ? a?iioe?aico, ui ia?aeeeea?oueny c
aeaieie I.Ae.O?iiueei (1993), Ae.A.Oee? (1995).

Iaie ia a?aei?/aii ca inoaii? ?iee i?e?inoo a?iioe?aico ueoiaeaeii?
caeice. Ca aeaieie aeayeeo aaoi??a, ca?eueoaiiy aeaii? iaoieia?? ne?ae
i/?eoaaoe /a?ac 15-20 ?ie?a (O.I.A?caaeiaa ? ni?aaaoi?e, 1993).

Ianoaaeaiiy ??aiy oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a o in?a c a?ia?ieac??th
ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeyaeei a ia?o? o?e ?iee i?ney aaa??? ia *AAN
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?
(eiioeaio?aoe?y O3 noaiiaeea 1,660,12 iiieue/e, eiioeaio?aoe?y O4 –
97,68,2 iiieue/e). Iaeii/anii a?aeaoaaeinue cieaeaiiy ??aiy OOA, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i caa?aaeaiiy a?iioaeaii-a?iio?ca?ii-oe?ai?aeieo
aca?iica’yce?a (o caei?iaeo: O3 – 1,310,2 iiieue/e, O4 – 82,17,35
iiieue/e, OOA – 11,290,87 iiieue/e, a 1993-1995 ??. OOA noaiiaea 9,91,6
iiieue/e).

A 1990-1992 ??. noi?ioaaeanue oaiaeaioe?y aei ii?iae?caoe??
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aea ?? ooieoe?y caeeoaeanue
i?aeaeuaiith a?aeiinii O3, iieacieee OOA iaaeeaeaeenue aei eiio?ieueii?
a?oie. Ie ?icoe?ieee oea ye ni?yiiaai?noue aei noaa?e?caoe?? ye ooieoe??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, oae ? a?iio?ca?ii? ?aaoeyoe?? ?? ae?yeueiino?.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? a??ia?aei? ci?ie aeoeaiino?
noinoaaeeny o?eeiaeoe?ii?io, a oie /an ye eieeaaiiy O4 ? OOA aoee
iaa??ia?aeieie. Oea iiaea aeacoaaoe ia aeinoaoith eiiiainaoe?th
a?iio?ca?ii-oe?ai?aeieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue, a oaeiae ia caa?aaeaiiy
ia?eoa?e/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy O4 a O3. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c noaio oe?ai?aeii?
ooieoe?? o oai?eo c a?ia?ieac??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeyaea, ui ??aaiue
oeeo ai?iii?a o ia?o? ?iee niinoa?aaeaiiy aoa a??ia?aeii aeuei ii??aiyii
?c caei?iaeie. O iaoe??io?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie a ia?o? o?e ?iee
niinoa?aaeaiiy iaei i?noea ca?eueoaiiy nae?aoe?? O3, O4 c ianooiiei
cieaeaiiyi ?o aei iieaciee?a caei?iaeo. Ce?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ??aaiue
OOA o oeeo in?a noaa?euei?oee, i?ae o in?a c a?ia?ieac??th ueoiaeaeii?
caeice. Iaeiae, o a?eueoino? ianoaaeaieo ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a?iio?ca?ii-oe?ai?aeii? nenoaie caeeoa?oueny eii?aeeiiaaiei ?
noaa?eueiei, ui aeaco? ia ?? aaeee? aaeaioaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino?.

Aeey ooi/iaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i a UC, c iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy
aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee, a oaeiae aeey aecia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiino?
i?ae ee?i?/iei ia?aa?aii caoai?thaaiiy oa oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ieie ci?iaie
iaie i?iaaaeaia oiieiaieeiaa ani??aoe?eia ioieoe?eia a?iin?y (OAIA) o 30
oai?eo c iiiaeeiieeie aoceaie, ia’?iieie ooai?aiiyie, ye? iio?aaoaaee
aeiaeaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui
i?aeaino?ee oe?ai?aeeo cono??/aany o 16% aeiaaee?a, oiene/iee cia – o
6,6%, eiei?aeiee cia – o 30%, ia ceiye?ni? iiaiooai?aiiy i?eoiaeeeinue
6,6%.

Oae, i?e i?aeaino?iio oe?ai?aeeo? oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ii a?aei?/aee
ia/?oe?noue eiioo??a i?aaio, cieaeaiiy aoiaaiiino?, iayai?noue
aoiiiceoeaieo ? aoiiaaaoeaieo neaiae?a. I?e cia/iiio ca?eueoaii?
?ici???a UC, iayaiino? iaeiiai aai aeae?eueeio aoceiaeo ooai?aiue,
?ica?aeiinoyo i?ae aeaieie ee?i?/iiai oa oeueo?aniiia?ao?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae aeey ooi/iaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ioeano o 5 oai?eo
i?iaiaeeeinue OAIA.

Oeeoieia?/ieie iciaeaie i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeoo aoee iayai?noue
iae?ioaa?a (ye i?iyao caiaeaiiy), a?aaionueeeo aaaaoiyaea?ieo ee?oei,
aeaaaia?aoeaii ci?iaieo ee?oei oie?eoey?iiai ai?oae?th, ai?oae?i?aeieo
ee?oei, a oaeiae i?aoeei?oao?a i?ioa?io ? ee?oeiieo oeaie?a.

O ianaeaiiy ?aa?ii?a, eiioai?iiaaiiai ?aae?iioee?aeaie e ?ioeie
iaaaoeaieie /eiieeaie, aea/aee ia?ieneaeaoe?th e?i?ae?a. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeeiai?oe? niinoa?aaeaiiy aeyaeee a??ia?aeia
i?aeaeuaiiy ??ai?a iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo (IAeA). Iaea?eueo aaaiia
i?aeaeuaiiy niinoa??aaeinue o 1990-1992 ??. – 10,290,30 iiieue/ie, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i nooo?ao aeoeaaoe?th ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (IIE)
i?ae aieeaii iaeeo aeic ?aae?aoe?? oa ?ioeo iaaaoeaieo aeieia?/ieo
/eiiee?a. C a?aii /ano ??aaiue IAeA cieaeoaaany, aea aoa a??ia?aeii
i?aeaeuaiei ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueiith a?oiith. Ioaea, o in?a, ui
i?iaeiaaeothoue ia?aaoaaoe ia oa?eoi??yo caa?oaeiaiiy, o aeeiai?oe?
niinoa?aaeaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa cieaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae
aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie (AIN). Aiae?coth/e ??aaiue ai?noo a ne?iaaooe?
e?ia? a?aeiiaeaiiai aeooao?iio (AA), ie ia a?aei?oeee aeoeaaoe?? AIN
caoenoo. O oai?eo c OI o ia?o? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aaiue AA aoa
ciaioaiei aei 0,680,04 iiieue/e. Oey oaiaeaioe?y caa??aa?oueny ? a
ianooii? ?iee niinoa?aaeaiiy, a 1993-1995 ??. ??aaiue AA o oai?eo ia OI
noaiiaea 0,590,03 iiieue/ie. Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i ii?ooaiiy
??aiiaaae i?ae IIE oa aeoeaaoe??th AIN a a?e aeoeaaoe?? i?ioean?a
a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy ia oii? cieaeaiiy caoenieo iaoai?ci?a.
Aeooao?iiiaa eaiea AIN caoenoo neaai ?aaaoaaea ia e?eoaaiiy
aioeieneaeaioieie caniaaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa?ao o?ii?/iiai iaie?aaoeoo, o oiio /ene? ?c
noiooi?ie caoai?thaaiiyie o?aaii? nenoaie, oa noaio IIE a caeaaeiino?
a?ae nacii?a aeyaeei, ui i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a i?aeoeoieiai?
caeice ia?aaeo? aaniyii-in?ii?i caaino?aiiyi. I?e noiooi?o
caoai?thaaiiyo ia/?iee (aaiaoeo) ?icaeoie caaino?aiue ei?aeth? ?c IIE ?
aioeieneaeaioiith nenoaiith caoenoo, ciai?oiueinae?aoi?ia ooieoe?y – ?c
aaaee?noth oa o?eaae?noth noiooi?o oai?ia, aea ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
naciio ?ieo. I?io?eaiiy i?ioean?a i?e aeeiai?/iiio ianoaaeaii?
eiioai?iiaaiiai ?aae?iioee?aeaie ianaeaiiy i?e caoai?thaaii? OI oa
noiooi?ie caoai?thaaiiyie o?aaii? nenoaie iaaoaa? ?aoeeaeeaoth/iai
oa?aeoa?o ?c caa?aaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? i?ioean?a IIE ca ai?noii IAeA ?
?icaeoeii iiiioiiiiai ?aaeeio ae?yeueiino? AIN ca ai?noii AA.

O 71,2% oai?eo aeoea?coaaeeny i?ioeane IIE, /ano?oa a a?oaei?-n?/i?,
??aaiue AA o e?ia? i?e an?o aa??aioao o?ii?/iiai iaie?aaoeoo cieaeoaaany
a?aeiinii a?oi caei?iaeo, caeeoath/enue iecueeei i?ioyaii ?ieo,
iacaeaaeiei a?ae naciio ?ieo.

Aaaeeeaei aoei aea/eoe noai ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (ca aeaieie
IAeA) oa aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie caoenoo (ca aeaieie a?aeiiaeaiiai
aeooao?iio (AA)) o in?a c iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice i?ioyaii o?ueio
ia??iae?a.

A ? ia??iae? niinoa?aaeaiiy iaea?eueo? iieacieee ??aiy IAeA (10,170,25
iiieue/e) aoee o in?a c ii?iaeueieie ?ici??aie UC aai c i?i?iaeueii
ca?eueoaiith caeicith (ca aeaieie niiia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy).

A ?? ia??iae? niinoa?aaeaiiy a?aeaoaaeinue iinooiiaa i?eai?/aiiy IIE ia
oe? a??ia?aeiiai ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo AA a e?ia? ianoaaeaieo. Oae, ??aaiue
IAeA a 1990-1992 ??. neeaaeaa 7,890,42 iiieue/e, ui a??ia?aeii ieae/a
iieaciee?a ? ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy, ??aaiue AA – 0,680,04 iiieue/e, a
??? ia??iae? (1993-1995 ??.) IAeA 6,830,47 iiieue/e, AA 0,560,05
iiieue/e. Oe? aeai? iiaeooue na?ae/eoe i?i iia?e?caoe?th aaeaioaoe?eieo
iaoai?ci?a ye ia ai?iiiaeueiiio, oae ? ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai?.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaa, ui a ??? ia??iae?
niinoa?aaeaiiy ??aaiue IAeA a e?ia? a??ia?aeii c?inoaa ? nyaaa 10,170,25
iiieue/e i?e iieacieeao caei?iaeo 5,540,26 iiieue/e. A oie aea /an ai?no
AA a??ia?aeii cieaeoaaany aei 0,640,06 i?e ii?i? 0,90,03. Ioaea, iiaeaii
aeoiaoe i?i iayai?noue aeac?ioaa?aoe?? a aeoeaiino? i?ioean?a IIE oa
aeoeaaoe?? AIN caoenoo. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aeaieo ca ??? ia??iae, ia
iaoo aeoieo, aeacothoue ia aeniaaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae
i?aai?cio oa AIN caoenoo a oiiaao iino?eii? ae?? iaeeo aeic ?aae?aoe??,
ine?eueee ie niinoa??aaee iiaeaeueoa ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ioean?a IIE
(??aaiue IAeA 6,830,47 iiieue/e, i?e iaeii/aniiio ??ceiio iaae?ii?
??aith AA aei 0,560,05 iiieue/e.

Ui noino?oueny in?a c a?ia?ieac??th UC ??-??? nooiai?a, oi ii??aiyii c
iieacieeaie iiia?aaeiuei? a?oie ??aaiue IAeA aoa a??ia?aeii ciaioaiei
(7,830,25 iiieue/e), aea caeeoaany a??ia?aeii aenieei ii??aiyii ?c
caei?iaeie (5,540,26 iiieue/e). Io?eiai? aeai? iiaeooue aeacoaaoe ia oa,
ui o oe??? a?oie ianoaaeaieo aeoeao?oueny AIN caoenoo, aea ia
aeooao?iiiaa eaiea, ine?eueee ??aaiue AA aoa a??ia?aeii iecueeei. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeoeaaoe?y aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue
ca ?aooiie aeeeaeo o e?ia aetheiei?oeei?ae?a.

O ca’yceo ?c cia/iith “caoe?eaaeai?noth” a?iio?ca?ii-iaaeie?ieeiai?
nenoaie ia oe? ae?? iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a aaa??? ia *AAN, yea ?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiith ca noai aaeaioaoe??, aea/aany aca?iica’ycie i?ae
iieacieeaie ei?oecieo ? AEOA.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i iayai?noue i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
ei?oecieo o ianoaaeoaaieo a?oi in?a. Oae, o ia?o? ?iee (1987-1989 ??.)
ei?oecie i?aeaeuoaaany aei 108% (507,529,1 iiieue/e), o 1990-1992 ??. –
aei 144% (595,225,7 iiieue/e), o 1993-1995 ??. a?aeaoeinue a??ia?aeia
cieaeaiiy ??aiy ei?oecieo ii??aiyii c ia?oei ia??iaeii (347,014,9
iiieue/e), o caei?iaeo 243,016,1 iiieue/e. ??aaiue AEOA o 1987-1989 ??.
i?aeaeuoaaany ia 28% (71,76,7 ia/e), o 1990-1992 ??. – ia 12,6%
(62,710,5 ia/e), o 1993-1995 ??. – ia 6% (52,49,3 ia/e) ii??aiyii ?c
caei?iaeie (55,89,7 ia/e). Oiaoi o in?a, ye? i?iaeeaathoue ia
caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??yo, ca?a?no?iaaii i?aeaeuaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio ye a?iio?co, oae ? iaaeie?iee?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iai?oao eaiie
?aaoeyoe??, a oaeiae i?i ii?ooaiiy aioo??oiueiai nenoaiiiai iaoai?cio
cai?ioiiai ca’yceo. Iao? aeai? ia?aeeeeathoueny c aeaieie I.I.Eiaaeaiei
(1993) uiaei oi?ioaaiiy oaeiai aaeaioaoe?eiiai noaio i?aai?cio o
ianaeaiiy, yeee i?e a?aeiia?aeieo oiiaao iiaeia aaaaeaoe ye ?aaoeyoi?io
ia?aaeiaoieia?th.

C iaoith o?iiiiioei?caoe?? ae?aaiinoe/ieo iiaeeeainoae oa iie?auaiiy
e?eoaaiiy ianaeaiiy ?c caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??e aea/aii o?iii?eoie aeayeeo
ai?iii?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Eiaeiiio oai?iio i?iaiaeeee caa?? e?ia? a
6:00, 12:00, 18:00, 24:00. A?aoiaoth/e a?aenooi?noue iniaeeaeo
a?aei?iiinoae o i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cii? noao?, oea aeicaieeei ia’?aeiaoe
/ieia?e?a ? ae?iie a iaeio a?oio. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeaioe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiyi I.A.Aeaiea (1993) o iieieia?/ieo oai?eo. Aeey ioe?iee
a?i?eoio aoa aeei?enoaiee eineii?iee iaoiae.

Iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey in?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie aoee oaeeie: iaci?
O3 neeaaeaa 1,120,018 iiieue/e; aiie?ooaea – -0,290,004; ae?ioaca –
12:51; aaoeoaca – 23:48; iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue – c 8:00 aei 16:00;
i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue – c 20:00 aei 4:00.

Iaeaeu? iieacieee ??ai?a O4 ?a?no?oaaeeny c 2:00 aei 10:00, iaeieae/? –
c 14:00 aei 22:00. Aaee/eia iaci?o noaiiaeea 108,60,77 iiieue/e,
aiie?ooaea – 21,850,018 c ae?ioacith a 5:58 oa aaoeoacith a 16:00. Iaie
a?aei?/aii i?/iee i?e nae?aoe?? OOA, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeaiei e?oa?aoo?e
(A.A.Nianeaoeaaa, A.A.Ae?aeia, A.?.Ae?aeia, 1992), iani?aiaaeaiiy ca
/anii oaeeue iaeneiaeueii? nae?aoe?? OOA oa oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a,
ae?ioaca OOA ia ia?aaeo? ae?ioacai nae?aoe?? O3 ? O4. Iieacaii, ui
oee?eaae?aiiee ?eoi ai?noo a ieaci? e?ia? oe?ieneio ? o?eeiaeoe?ii?io
iaei caeaaeaoue a?ae aeoeaiino? OOA.

O in?a c a?ia?ieac??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa oe?ai?aeeoii ??aaiue O3
c?inoaa c 17:00 aei 24:00. Iaci? a??ia?aeii ca?eueooaaany ? neeaaeaa
2,510,029 iiieue/e (?

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