14

OA?III?EUeNUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? AIEIAeEIE?A
AIAOTHEA

A?OOeUe AAEEIA IEOAEE?AIA

OAeE — 371 (09)

N.?ONIAA ? I?INA?OEOAEUeNUeEEE ?OO A OE?A?I?

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe

Oa?iii?eue — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaaeaaia?ee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?AAAOeUe
Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/, Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, ?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, Cae/aiei ?aai
Aaneeueiae/, *a?i?a?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieia??
oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy iaoaiaoeee;

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iaaa/aanueea C?iia?y ?aai?aia,
I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee oa oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, i.Oa?nii.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.58.053.01 i?e Oa?iii?euenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea ca
aae?anith: 282027, i. Oa?iii?eue, aoe. I.E?eaiiina, 2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea ca
aae?anith: 282027, i.Oa?iii?eue, aoe. I.E?eaiiina, 2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “28” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I.IAOI*OE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
yeee oaea aeio?a ia?aaeeaa? Oe?a?ia, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi
?ioa?ano aei ?noi???, eoeueoo?e, aeooiaieo aeoie?a ia?iaeo. Aeiei??iii
ci?iththoueny i?aeoiaee aei ina?oe oa nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee a
oe?eiio, C?inoa? iio?aaa o aaeineiiaeaii? ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, o ia?ai???ioaoe?? ina?oe ia ?icaeoie
iaoe?iiaeueia aecia/aii? iniaenoino? (ianaiia?aae, aeooiaii, oiaoi, eiee
aiia i?eeia? aeooiai?noue iaoe?? ye naith aeanio), yea caeaoia
aa?iii?eii ni?eeoaaoeny c iin?yie ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?, aooe
iiaiii?aaiei ? iiaiioe?iiei o/anieeii iie?oii?? ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaaeaaiue, aac yei? iaiiaeeeaa ?nioaaiiy na?oiai? caaaeueiiethaenueei?
eoeueoo?e. Oiio cia/ia i?noea o ?ica’ycaii? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o i?iaeai
a?aeaiaeeoueny oe?ieiio aeei?enoaiith iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?iiinoae,
o?aaeeoe?e, cae/a?a, i?ia?aneaiiai aeina?aeo ieioeiai; a?ae?iaeaeaiith
iacaneoaeaii caaooeo ?iai a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, ine?eueee
“eiaeia iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a ? ineo?/iith iio?aaith aeaii? iaoe??, ?
iaea?eueo oeiiaei, iaea?eueo neioacoth/ei aeeeaaeieeii aeooiaii?
niaaeueie iaoiai ia?iaeo”1 Aieoaie/ee A. Nooue oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ?
oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a a ae?anii??. — Oi?iioi, 1965. — N. 10. , yeee
i?iyaey?oueny o ae?yeueiino? oai?/eo ?iaeea?aeoaeueiinoae. Naia aiie ?
iin?yie ina?oe e i?ia?ano, ae?acieeaie iaoe?iiaeueieo ?aeae ? i?aaiaiue.
O Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa” (Oe?a?ia XXI noie?ooy)
cie?aia cacia/a?oueny, ui iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean iiaeiai
cae?enithaaoeny o iaa?aeae?eueiino? “ina?oe a?ae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?oioo,
e i?aai?/iiio ii?aeiaii? c iaoe?iiaeueiith ?noi???th ? ia?iaeieie
o?aaeeoe?yie, caa?aaeaii? oa caaaa/aii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”
Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia “Ina?oa”. — E., 1994. — N. 9. oa ??
iin??a.

Aei ae?y/?a, ye? iin?aeaee /?eueia i?noea a iaoe?iiaeueiiio
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiio ?on? ? aoee na?aeiii aeeo/ai? c iueiai
?aaeyinueeith iaoeith, iaeaaeeoue ? N.O.?oniaa (1856-1940) — aeaeaoiee
ae?y/ iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, aaeeeee iaaeaaia, aaoi? aaaaoueio
aeine?aeaeaiue c iaaeaaia?ee, ?noi???, aaia?ao??, ni?acaniiaiee
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeaaeai?? a Oe?a?i?, ni?a?ia?oiee /enaeueieo /aniien?a oa
aeo?iae?a. Ua aeiiaaeaaia I ie?aeia iaoeiaa niaaeueia oa
i?ina?oeoaeuenueea ae?yeuei?noue aoee iaa?aeii?. Iaaeaaia?/i? oa
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? i?aoe? ieneeoaeueee ia ia?aaeaeaaaeeny c 1922 ?ieo.
Y?oioiai? iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?yioaaiiy, o yeeo N.O.?oniaa nyaioea oai?/iai “aeia”— iaeaeuiai ??aiy
c??eino? — aoee iaae?oeiaai? a ai?a?aoe??. Oiio ia nueiaiaei? ia
aeine?aeaeaiith ? cia/ia niaaeueia N.?oniai?, aei yei? ia caa?oaeeny i?
no/ani? iaoeiaoe?, i? ?o iiia?aaeieee.

N.?oniaa ?ic?iaeea i?iaeaie ina?oe, eoeueoo?e, ye? ? aeooaeueieie ?
iei?. E??i oiai, oai?e iaaeaaiaa i?noyoue aaaaoi iaoiaee/ieo ii?aae,
iaaeaaia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue, aeniiae?a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai
oa?aeoa?o, ui ia canoa??ee ? aeey nueiaiaeaiiy. O i?aoeyo N.?oniai?
ciaoiaeeii inieneaiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy aaeeeiai aeina?aeo: i?i
nioe?ae?caoe?th, ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?th, aoiai?caoe?th aeoiaaiiy, i?i
aeeaeaeoe/i? i?eioeeie oa iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie aeoiaaiiy oa iaa/aiiy,
cie?aia i?i i?eioeei naiiae?yeueiino? o/i?a, i?i iaa/aiiy ye a?o, i?i
ae?aiaoecaoe?th. Inue /iio no/aniee ?icaeoie iaoee oa eoeueoo?e niiioea?
aei aea/aiiy oai?/i? niaaeueie a/aii?. Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiao?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ina?oeoaeuenueei? ae?yeueiino?, yea ?ai?oa ia aoea
i?aaeiaoii ?icaeyaeo.

Na?aae i?eaeeoo?aeo ioae?eaoe?e i?i eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueith oa
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue N.?oniai? ne?ae aeae?eeoe e?eoe/i?
noaoo?, ?aoeaic??, iaeyaee E.Aaeainueei?, I.Aei?ioeaae/a,
I.Aei?ioaieiai?, ye? aoee iaae?oeiaai? ia noi??ieao aeo?iae?a “Na?oei”,
“A?eueia oe?a?inueea oeiea” oa ?ioeo. O oeeo i?aoeyo aia?oa c?iaeaia
ni?iaa aena?oeeoe noni?euei? iiaeyaee i?ina?oeoaeueee ? aeayeith i??ith
ie?aneeoe ie?ai? aniaeoe ?? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? o?eueee ii/aee c’yaeyoeny
??oioiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeeo o nenoaiaoeciaaiiio e ocaaaeueiaiiio
aeaeyae? aiae?cothoueny iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee,
e?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/ia oai?/?noue, ina?oiy e a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue N.?oniai?. Ie?ai? aniaeoe aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino? aeaeaoii?
i?ina?oeoaeueee aena?oethaaeeny o e?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaooyo,
ia noi??ieao oaeeo aeo?iae?a oa /aniien?a, ye “??aeia oeiea”,
“Aeioe?eueia aeoiaaiiy”, “Ii/aoeiaa oeiea”, “Oe?a?ia”, “Iaaeaaia?ea ?
ineoieia?y”. O ieo ae?oeoaaeeny noaoo? I.Aoaea, A.Aeaoethe,
I.Eaeaie/aiei, E.E?iae?anue, O.Iia?aaaieea, I.I?ineo?e, A.Na?a??ai?,
TH.Oi?oiaeiai oa ?ioeo. O Ee?a? oa *a?i?aia? c iaaiaee 135-??//y ?
140-??//y c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? tha?eaei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai? aeeoo?aiio ? oai?/iio oeyoo
i?ina?oeoaeueee.

Aea/aiiy aei?iaeo N.?oniai? aeeth/aii aei i?ia?aie “Iaaeaaia?ea
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee” (aeea. I?ia?aia. ?noi??y iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee e
ina?oe Oe?a?ie. — E., 1992. — N.44); o 1996 ?ioe? c’yaeeeny ae?oeii
“Aea?ai? oai?e” a/aii? c? anooiiith noaooath I.I?ineo?e, C.Iaaa/aanueea
oii?yaeeoaaea ca??iee noaoae ? iaoa??ae?a “Nio?y ?oniaa ? Aaee/eia”. O
oeueiio ae ?ioe? aeaeaia iiiia?ao?y ?.Cae/aiea “Iaaeaaia?/ia eiioeaioe?y
N.O.?oniai?”, ca ni?eyiiy oeaio?o aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? aeeoee c ae?oeo “Ii? niiieie” N.?oniai?, caoeuaia
eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y ?.I?i/oe “Ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue ?
iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee N.?oniai? (1856-1940)”, o 1997 ?ioe? aeeoee
“Aea?ai? iaaeaaia?/i? oai?e” N.?oniai? o 2-o eieaao ?c ia?aaeiiaith
?.Eiaaeaiei oa ?.I?i/oe, caoeuaia eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y
A.Na?a??ai? “I?iaeaie aeioe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy o iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei?
Nio?? ?oniai?”.

Caaaeii ?oniaiciaanoai ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue noaiiaeoue iacia/io
e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, o yeeo iaaieioo?oueny ia oiio, ui
N.?oniaa aia?oa a Oe?a?i? noai?eea eiioeaioe?th iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe,
?icaeaaea ieoaiiy aeoiaaiiy e iaa/aiiy ??aeiith iiaith, nie?ath/enue ia
naiiae?yeuei?noue oa oai?/?noue o/i?a, noai?eea nenoaio aeioe?eueiiai
aeoiaaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, o yeiio a i?inoaaeoaaeany i?ina?oeoaeuenueea
ae?yeuei?noue N.?oniai? o ?? aaaaoia?aiieo aeyaao oa o eiioeaiooaeuei?e
?aeiino?, iaia?. I?ioa iaoeiaee aiae?c i?ina?oeoaeuenueei? ae?yeueiino?
ia? aaaeeeao oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue a no/anieo oiiaao,
ine?eueee a ?? ?aeayo caeeaaeaiee aaee/aciee iaoin oai?aiiy,
i?ciaaaeueii-aeoiaiee eiae, aeoo i?ina?oieoeoaa, ye? ni?acao/i? aeeaie?e
ia?aaoaeia? nenoaie ina?oe oa eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?. E??i oiai,
i?ina?oeoaeuenoai N.?oniai? — oaiiiai, ui ?ethno?o? iaoiaee, i?eioeeie,
i?eeiie ? caniae ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? a Oe?a?i?.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoiy ?? iaoeiaa ?ic?iaeai?noue
coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “N.?oniaa ?
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeee ?oo a Oe?a?i?”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie, i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie.

Aeaia oaia ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith i?ia?aie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? oa
iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino? Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea c ieoaiue a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioean ?icaeoeo i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i? a e?ioe? XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX no.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ina?oeoaeuenueea ae?yeuei?noue N.?oniai? oa
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie i oai?/i? niaaeueie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, uia aecia/eoe iniiai? aniaeoe
i?ina?oeoaeuenueei? ae?yeueiino? ? oai?/i? niaaeueie N.?oniai? /a?ac
i?ecio aeooaeueieo ieoaiue ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i?, i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th oa ocaaaeueieoe iaoeiai-ina?oi?
iiaeyaee ieneeoaeueee.

?aae?caoe?y ie?aneaii? iaoe coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy oaeeo
caaaeaiue:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo ?
ae/eaieoe eiai iniiai? aoaie oa ?ene;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oai?/ee oaiiiai N.?oniai? a eiioaeno? oe?a?inueeiai
i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa e?ioey XIX — ia?oi? iieiaeie XX no.;

— aeaoe ocaaaeueithth/o oa?aeoa?enoeeo e?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/ii?,
iaoeiai-ina?oiuei? oa a?iiaaenueei-noni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? N.?oniai? ye
neeaaeiaeo O? i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa, ie?aneeaoe e a?aoiaiooaaaoe iniiai?
?ene i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa a/aii?;

— ?ice?eoe i?iaeaio aeoiaiiai ?aeaaeo o iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei?
N.?oniai?’ /a?ac i?ecio I i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue: oai??y iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy c ?? i?eioeeiaie ia’?eoeaiino?, anaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ?noi?ecio;

caaaeueiio?einionuee? iieiaeaiiy i?i aca?iica’ycie oa
aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue yaeu o noni?euenoa?, ?o aeei?enoaiiy caaacia/eei
oe?e?niee i?aeo?ae aei aena?oethaaieo ieoaiue, aeaei iiaeeea?noue
aecia/eoe /?eueio aeoieo aeine?aeaeaiiy — a?ae ie?aneaiiy ci?noo ? oi?i
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo aei i?iya?a eiai o ae?yeueiino? eiie?aoii?
iniaenoino?.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy i?i
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e ?oo, i?i ethaeeio ye iaoo ?noi?e/iiai i?ia?ano, i?i
caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino?, aeooiai?noue ye i?ia?aeio ?eno
na?oiaeyaeieo iniia iaaeaaia?ee, i?i ca’ycie ?noi??? c nueiaiaeaiiyi ?
aeioe?euei?noue oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy niaaeueie aeaeaoieo a?o/eciyieo
i?ina?oeoae?a o no/ani?e eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e oai??? oa i?aeoeoe?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith noaee oaeiae i?aoe? iniiaiiieiaeiee?a
oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao??, ?noi??inio??, iaaeaaia?ee, cie?aia ?iaioe
A.A??i/aiea, I.A?ooaanueeiai, Ae.Aei?ioaiea, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ?.Ia??iea
oa ?ioeo.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: iieniaee, iaoeiai-?noi?e/iee, i?iaeaiiee ?
eia?/iee aiae?c; ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c canoiniaoaaany o
aeine?aeaeaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoeue N.?oniai?, ?? no/aniee?a oa
iiia?aaeiee?a, o aea/aii? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, iaioa??a, iia’ycaieo c ??
aeeoo?aei ? oai?/ei oeyoii. sse iniiaiee iaoiae canoiniaoaaany
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c o?einionueei?, ?noi?e/ii?, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?,
ooaeiaeiuei?, iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a. Aaeeea cia/aiiy iaee nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee
iaoiae oa iaoiae ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co, a oaeiae iaoiae eeaneo?eaoe??
oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaea?ae.

Iniiai? aeaea?aea aeena?oaoe??:

— iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao (I.Ee?a);

— a?o?ai? iaoa??aee ?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai?
a?ae?ioaee IAI Oe?a?ie ?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai;

— oiiaee Oeaio?aeueiiai Aea?aeaaiiai A?o?ao — iocath e?oa?aoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie;

— oiiaee Oeaio?aeueiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao (I.Euea?a);

— iaoa??aee Aea?aeaaiiai iaeaniiai a?o?ao (I.Oa?iii?eue);

— i?aoe? N.?oniai?: iaaeaaia?/i? oai?e, e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? oa
ioae?oeenoe/i? noaoo?, eieae, aeo?iaeuei? ioae?eaoe??, ?aoeaic??,
a?ioo?e;

— e?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/i? noaoo? i?i iaaeaaiaa-i?ina?oeoaey;

— oe?a?inueea oa ca?oa?aeia ia??iaee/ia i?ana;

— aeia?aeieeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a;

— aaoi?aoa?aoe aeena?oaoe?e oa aeena?oaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— ca?oa?aeia e?oa?aoo?a c ieoaiue aeoiaaiiy oa ina?oe;

— i?aoe? aeaeaoieo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo iaaeaaia?a: A.Aauaiea,
Ae.Aeueth?, A.AEa?nueeiai, A.Ea?oaiooaeia?a, ss.A.Eiiainueeiai,
A.Iaea?aiea, ss. Iaiiioiaa, A.Ianeio, I.Iiioanni??, I.Iaoi?ia,
E.A.Ianoaeioeoe?, N.?iaeaea?na, I.?oa?iooaeia, AE.-AE.?onni,
A.Neiai?iaee, A.Nooiieeinueeiai, E.Oienoiai, E.Ooeinueeiai, ss.*ai?ae,
O.Oaa/aiea, A.ssi?aa oa ?ioeo, i?enay/ai? ??ciei aniaeoai oai??? ?
i?aeoeee aeoiaaiiy oa iaa/aiiy ae?oae ? iieiae?; i?aaenoaaiee?a
i?iaoeueei? iaaeaaia?ee iniaenoino?: A.Aaaa?a, O.Aaicaa?aa, A.E?iaea,
A.Oa??aeueiaia oa ?ioeo; o?einio?a I.Aiaaeueiae??a, O.I?oeoa,
A.Nieiaeiaa, ?.Oeeea?a. Iniaeeai ?aoaeueii aea/aeanue e?oa?aoo?a oa
ia??iaee/ia i?ana, ia noi??ieao yei? ioae?eoaaeenue niiaaaee no/aniee?a
N.?oniai?, ioe?iee oai?/iai oeyoo iaaeaaiaa ? i?ina?oeoaey.

O i?ioean? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie N.?oniai? ie
ea?oaaeeny caaaeueieie iaoeiaeie iieiaeaiiyie oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a,
ye? aecia/aee ?ieue iniaeeai yne?aaeo oai?/eo iniaenoinoae o
noni?eueiiio e eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiio i?ioean?: I.A?ooaanueeiai,
Ae.Aei?ioaiea, ?.E?ei’yeaae/a, I.Noaoaeueiiai, I.Eaooae; aiae?coaaee
e?oa?aoo?o c ieoaiue eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie: I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
N.?o?aiiaa, A.Eeieinueeiai, ?.Ia??iea, ?.O?aiea; ea?oaaeeny
aeine?aeaeaiiyie iaoeiaoe?a a aaeoc? oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee,
ye? aeeee ? oai?eee ia ceai? XIX ? XX no.: ?.Aa?oioaanueeiai, A.Aauaiea,
A.Aieioeia, A.A??i/aiea, TH.Aeca?iae/a, ?.Ea?aoeeoeueeiai, A.N?iiae/a,
N.N??iiieea, N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai, ?.Noaoaiea, ?.*eeaeaiea;
aeei?enoiaoaaee i?aoe? no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a i?i ?aoe?iiaeueiee
i?aeo?ae o aena?oeaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo ia?niiae?e: N.Aaaeoeia, E.Aieea,
A.Aanueeiae/a, I.?aoooa, I.Eaeaie/aiei, E.Eiaaeue, I.Iaooaea?a,
A.I?oth?iaa, A.Niaey, A.Nooia?eea, I.Nooiieeinueei?, I.ss?ia/aiea.

Aea/aiiy i?ina?oeoaeuenueei? ae?yeueiino? N.?oniai? c iaoith ia’?eoeaii?
ioe?iee e aecia/aiiy ?? aaaiiino?, aeyao aca?iica’yce?a iniiaieo
eiiiiiaio?a ? iiaeeeainoae canoinoaaiiy o no/aniino? cae?enithaaeiny
e??cue i?ecio iaeiia?oeo caeiaooe?a no/anii? iaaeaaia?ee. ?acoeueoaoe
i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa a/aii? ie ioe?ithaaee c iiceoe?e iaaeaaia?/ieo
iieiaeaiue, aeeeaaeaieo o i?aoeyo A.Aiaeia?y, N.Aii/a?aiea, A.Aeaoethe,
?.Cae/aiea, I.Ee?e/oea, I.E?/oe, A.E?aaoey, C.Iaaa/aanueei?, I.I?ineo?e,
ss.Naiioaea, I.O?oeoee, Ae.*a?aaeie/aiea.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e iaaeaaia?/i?e
iaooe? oe?e?nii ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ina?oeoaeuenueea ae?yeuei?noue
N.?oniai? /a?ac aeyaeaiiy ? eiie?aoecaoe?th iniiaieo aoai?a oai?/iai
oeyoo a/aii?. O eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa ?icaeyiooi ?? ae?yeuei?noue, aeyaeaii /?euei? ?ene
i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa a ae?yeueiino? eiie?aoii? iniaenoino?.

Y?oioiaii i?iaiae?ciaaii ?aea? ?oniai? uiaei ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai
iaoiaeo a iaaeaaia?oe? caaaeii, a ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee cie?aia. O
aeena?oaoe?? ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aianie
N.?oniai? o ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e, ina?oe, iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?;
aecia/ai? e a?aoiaioiaai? ia?niaeoeai? oeyoe aeei?enoaiiy ?? niaaeueie.

O iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? iaa?aeii? oa iaeia?aeii?
i?aoe?, ye? cia/ii ?icoe?ththoue oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee a Oe?a?i? ia ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy. Caaaeyee oeueiio caaaa/aii
iaoe?iiaeueio ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/io iaoeo iiaeie ocaaaeueiaiiyie,
?aeayie, i?aoeyie.

Oai?aoe/io cia/ou?noue noaiiaeyoue iaoeia? oaeoe, ye? aia?oa ae/eaiai? c
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano, i?iaiae?ciaai? e aeeth/ai? a
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/io iaoeo. Aei iaeaaaeeea?oeo ?c ieo iaeaaeaoue: iaoa
aaoi?nueea ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y i?ina?oeoaeuenueei? ae?yeueiino? N.?oniai? o
an?o ?? aaaaoia?aiieo aeyaao; iaoeiaee aiae?c N.?oniaith iaaeaaia?/ieo
oa/?e, ui ?nioaaee a e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee o
e?ioe? XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy, eaae?o?eo?oueny a aeena?oaoe?? ye
ia?oa ni?iaa iiioey?ecaoe?? ia?aaeiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae o
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, ui a i?ioean? ?iaioe
io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe oe?e?niiai aiae?co i?ina?oeoaeuenueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ui aeeth/a? a naaa e?eoeeo aioeaeaiie?aoe/ii? iie?oeee
oea?nueeiai o?yaeo o aaeoc? ina?oe, eoeueoo?e, i?ina?oe ia?iaeo,
iieiaeaiiy i?i i??i?eoaoia cia/aiiy ??aeii? iiae o oi?ioaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?, i?i iaoe?iiaeueiee aeoiaiee ?aeaae,
ia?iaei?noue o aeoiaaii?, i?i oi?ioaaiiy ae?oe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny oei, ui io?eiai? a
?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoa??aee ni?eyoeiooue caaaa/aiith oa ooi/iaiith ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo
ciaiue, a?ae?iaeaeaiith niaaeueie N.?oniai?, oai?/iio aeei?enoaiith
ie?aieo iaoeiai-ina?oi?o iaaeaaia?/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieo caeiaooe?a e?ioey
XIX — ii/aoeo XX no. o no/ani?e oai??? oa i?aeoeoe?; o caeo/aii? iieiae?
aei iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, e?aueo ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e; o aeoiaaii?
ia yne?aaeo i?eeeaaeao oai?/eo ?iaeea?aeoaeueiinoae; a iciaeiiethaaii? c
?acoeueoaoaie ae?yeueiino? aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a iaoee oa eoeueoo?e —
i?ea?iaeueieie iaoeiaeie ? ioae?oeenoe/ieie oai?aie — ye o??oioii,
ia?aiiaith ?iaeea?aea iaae /anii.

C?a?ai? e ocaaaeueiai? iaoeia? aeai? caaaaoyoue ci?no eo?no ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee aeey iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a, aeiiiiiaeooue o ?ic?iaoe?
niaoeeo?n?a oa niaoenai?ia??a. Aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
?noi?eeaie, iaaeaaiaaie oa ina?oyiaie o i?aeaioiaoe? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a
oa o ?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe; o?einioaie,
nioe?ieiaaie o ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeai eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i?.

Oai?/ee niaaeie aeaeaoii? i?ina?oeoaeueee, iaaeaaiaa iiaiai /ano
a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ii? aeoiee, i?aeoeee; caeia
iaeaaeia i?noea a aeeoo? oeiee, aoco, a aeeoo? Oe?a?ie;
i?ina?oeoaeuenuee? ?aeaaee ieneeoaeueee aa?eaeooue o aeooiaiee na?o
iaoe??, c?eethoueny ?c caaaeueiiethaenueeeie ?aeaaeaie.

Ia??oioiaai?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/o?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo iao? oa caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy; iii?ith ia i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio, ia’?eoeaiino?, iaoeiaei
aiae?cii oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo a ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iiio,
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiio, eia?/iiio ? i?iaeaiiiio aniaeoao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia eaoaae?? iaaeaaia?ee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ania ii/aoeiaa oeiea: i?iaeaie,
iiooee, ciao?aeee” (Oa?iii?eue, 1996), a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aeiiia?aeyo ? aenooiao ia?aae
a/eoaeyie oa o/iyie caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e iaeano?.

I?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? ia noi??ieao aeo?iaeo
“Ina?oyiei”, o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue (1998-1999), oacao aeiiia?aeae
oa aenooiao. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii i?i/eoaiee
oeeee eaeoe?e ia oaio “I?ina?oeoaeuenueea ae?yeuei?noue N.?oniai?”.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui ia?aoiao? 270 aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya ?iaioe— 193 noi??iee, aeiaeaoee neeaaeathoue 165
noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie,
aecia/aii o?iiieia?/i? oa oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao, oai?aoe/io oa
i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue ?iaioe, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo
a Oe?a?i?” — ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee oa
?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?ooo a e?ioe? XIX — ia
ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy, a ioaea, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? ia?aaeoiiae oa
iaoeiai-ina?oi? iniiae, ui coiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa ye
?noi?e/iiai oaiiiaio; ae/eaiiaothoueny aoaie oi?ioaaiiy
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo oa eiai /?euei? ?ene.

Aea/aiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace aeaei iiaeeea?noue ia??oiooaaoe iieiaeaiiy
i?i oa, ui iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa a Oe?a?i? noaee ?aea?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai, cie?aia o?aioeocueeiai i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo, a
oaeiae aeaiie?aoe/i? i?ioeane a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, ye?
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny i?aai?caoe??th ? ?icaeoeii eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai
?ooo ye neeaaeiai? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
caii/aoeiaaiiai ia oa?aiao e?ath oe?a?inueeeie i?ina?oieeaie iai?ee?ioe?
XVIII noie?ooy (A.Eaii?noii, A.Ea?ac?iei, ss.Eicaeuenueeei, A.
Neiai?iaeith oa ?ioeie).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeieeiaiiy i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa aoei coiiaeaii ia’?eoeaieie
i?e/eiaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai (?icaeoie eai?oae?noe/ieo a?aeiinei),
iie?oe/iiai (ni?iae aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy c aieo
?in?enueeiai o?yaeo), eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai (ianiaa iaienueiaii?noue
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue oe?a?inueeeo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, iio?aaa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, iaoee,
ina?oe a iaoe?iiaeuei?e oi?i?) oa?aeoa?o.

Aeaii aiae?c ?icaeoeo i?ina?oieoeueeeo ?aeae a Oe?a?i?, aeacaii, ui
/a?ac ae?yeuei?noue ia?iaeiee?a a?aeaoeany o?ainoi?iaoe?y i?ina?oieoeoaa
o i?ina?oeoaeuenoai. C’yniaaii, ui i?ina?oeoaeuenoai ca nai?i
aeina?aeiei aeaea?aeii, ca nai?i oai?/ei ?eoiii ? ca nai???aei?noth
iaoe?iiaeueia. Eiai iiaeia aecia/eoe ye oe?e?nio eoeueoo?io nenoaio, yea
?ioaa?o? ai?aeeii ye eoeueoo?i? iaaeaaiiy ??cieo ?aa?ii?a oe?a?inueei?
caie?, oae ? aeeth/a? o naith no?oeoo?o an? oa?aeoa?i? aeey
aeniei?icaeiooeo iaoe?e aaeoc? eoeueoo?e: eoeueoo?o aeooiaio, ii?aeueio,
iaoeiao, ae?iaie/o, i?aaiao oa ?io?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ina?oeoaeuenoai ioi?ieeiny o oe?ieee
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeee ?oo, yeee aoa o?nii iia’ycaiee c
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiith ai?ioueaith. Iaioth/ith ?aea?th aeeooy aoea
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ia ?aeay i?i iaoe?iiaeueio, aoi?/io, ?noi?e/io ?
aeooiaio ?aei?noue ia?iaeo. ? oea a cia/i?e i??? aecia/eei
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeee oa?aeoa? na?oiaeyaeo oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??,
cie?aia N.?oniai?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? ?icaeoeo i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai
?ooo, ?ice?eooy aaaaoianiaeoieo oeyo?a eiai aoiaeaeaiiy a oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo aeaei iiaeeea?noue ae/eaieoe oa iaoeiai
ia??oiooaaoe aoaie ?icaeoeo i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa oa eiai /?euei? ?ene.
Ae/eaiai? iaie ?ene ia i?aoaiaeothoue ia aeinoaiaii?noue, iicaye
iiaeooue aooe aeiiiaiai? /e iiceoe?eii ?icoaoiaai? ii-?ioiio. Iaeiae,
aaaaea?ii, ui naia oe? ?ene ? iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieie aeey
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy; naia aiie
aoee canaaeie/eie o ae?yeueiino? N.?oniai?, a oaeiae o ae?yeueiino?
?ioeo i?ina?oeoae?a oa o ?iaio? i?ina?oeoaeuenueeeo oiaa?enoa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “N.?oniaa o eiioaeno? oe?a?inueeiai
i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa” — aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea na?oiaeyaeieo iniia
i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa N.?oniai?; ?icaeyaeathoueny aoaie oi?ioaaiiy
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai na?oiaeyaeo ye iinooiiaiai e c?inoath/iai
ona?aeiieaiiy iiaeaeaeieoeueei? i?n??; aiae?cothoueny i?ia?aei? iai?yie
ae?yeueiino? ieneeoaeueee ye caniae ?aae?caoe?? iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aie i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo.

Aoiai?noe/i? oa aeaiie?aoe/i? iiaeyaee e na?oiaeyaeia iiceoe?y N.?oniai?
ye i?ina?oeoaeueee oi?ioaaeeny a oiiaao i?aeianaiiy ?ooo ca oe?a?inueea
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

O i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo N.?oniai? iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea
aoai?a. Ia?oee c ieo i?eiaaea? ia aeeoeinoai e ciaoiaeeoue nai?
i?aai?/ia i?iaeiaaeaiiy oa ?ioaineaia ae?aaeaiiy a thiaoeuee? ?iee. A?i
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaieiae?iiyi iniiaaie iaoeiaeo ciaiue ? ia?iaeieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo /aniio.

Ae?oaee aoai oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ae?iaeaiiyi
aeaniiai noaaeaiiy aei caeiaooeo ciaiue, ?nioth/eo ii?i ? i?aaee
iiaaae?iee.

O?ao?e aoai o aa?oeiiiio nai?io aeya? — oea aoai oi?ioaaiiy aeanieo
iiaeyae?a ? ia?aeiiaiue, anueiai oiai, ui aoei ni?eeiyoi, canai?ii,
noaei aeaniei na?oiaeyaeii, yeee aecia/ea aeeoo?ao iiceoe?th e
iiaaae?ieo N.?oniai?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aea/aieo a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, e?oa?aoo?ii?
niaaeueie N.?oniai?, ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui ia oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo oe??? iinoao? oe?a?inueei? aaoaioe/ii? iaaeaaia?ee,
e?oa?aoo?e, eoeueoo?e aaaiiee aieea iaee o?e aieiai? /eiieee:

ia?oee — oea nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua, c yeiai aeeoea ? a yeiio aeeea
N.?oniaa, ?? ina?oa, nooae??, ?ioa?ane oa oiiaeiaaiiy; aeeooy na?aae
ia?iaeo, iiaei?iae? ??aeiei e?a?i oa aeaeaeei ca?oa?aeaeyi;
e?oa?aoo?ii-iaaeaaia?/i?, ienoaoeuee?, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i? ca’ycee c
i?ia?aneaieie eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?ie ae?y/aie oiai /ano (I.Ae?aaiiaiiaei,
?.*eeaeaieii, ?.Noaoaieii, N.Iaoeth?ith, ss.*ai?aith oa ?i.);

ae?oaee — oea i?e?iaea. Aeeaeiia a?ae/oooy i?e?iaee, yeo iaiaeithaaea ?
i?ae?anii ?icoi?ea N.?oniaa, oaae iaei cia/iee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ??
na?oiaeyaeo ye iaaeaaiaa-i?ina?oeoaey;

o?ao?e — iniaenoa aeeooy i?ina?oeoaeueee, iiaia aieth, no?aaeaeaiue ?
o?aa?cio.

An? iacaai? aeua /eiieee o nai?io neioac?, a o?e /e ?io?e i???, ni?eyee
aee?enoae?coaaiith na?oiaeyaeo N.?oniai?, yeee oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
iai?aeeia?i?noth, i?ia?aneai?noth, no?ee?noth iiaeyae?a.

Cae?eniaiee iaie aiae?c iayaieo iaoa??ae?a aea? i?aenoaao aeey aeniiaeo
i?i oa, ui oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo e oai?/i? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?
N.?oniai? ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ?cieueiaaii a?ae aieeao ia?aaeiai?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? iaoeiai? ? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee, iaeiae ? ia ne?ae
noaaeoe eiai a iiaio caeaaei?noue a?ae ia?. I?ina?oeoaeuenueea
ae?yeuei?noue, iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea?, oai?/a niaaeueia ?? iaeaaeaoue aei
yaeu oe?eeii i?ea?iaeueieo, naiiaooi?o, iaia?an?/ieo. Aiie aeeth/athoue
a naaa ?acii ?c i?ieiyoeie ?a?iia?ciii caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeie ?enaie
oaeiae eiiiiiaio nooi “?o-n?anueei? eoeueoo?e” c I niaoeeo?/iei
aaiaoe/iei eiaeii (ia oe?a?iea ca iioiaeaeaiiyi).

N.?oniaa — i?aaenoaaiee nai?? aiioe. Oeyo ?aeaeiiai ?icaeoeo
ieneeoaeueee neeaaeiee, na?oiaeyae — noia?a/eeaee, ai oaeei aea
noia?a/eeaei ? neeaaeiei aoa oeae ?noi?e/iee ia??iae. O na?oiaeyae?
N.?oniai?, ?? iiaeyaeao, ina?oi?e ae?yeueiino? a?aeaeoa noia?a/i?noue
oiai nioe?aeueiiai aeaea?aea, yea aeeaeei ?? oai?/?noue. Ioiae, ?aeaei?
ia?aeiiaiiy i?ina?oeoaeueee iiaeeo?eoaaeenue ?c ci?iith
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ianoaaei aeeooy: a?ae e?aa?ae?cio ? ia?iaeieoeoaa
— aei ?aoi?iaoi?nueei? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe (“aiinoie I?aaaee ?
Iaoee”).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aei i?ia?aeieo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino? N.?oniai?
iaeaaeaoue: e?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/ia, a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?ia,
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia. ?o ??oioiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiaeeeaeth?
cae?eniaiiy oe?e?niiai aiae?co i?ina?oeoaeuenueei? ae?yeueiino?
N.?oniai? oa i?inoaaeaiiy eiioeaiooaeueii? ?aeiino? on?o i?ia?aeieo
iai?yie?a ye i?aai?/ii iaa?aeae?eueieo neeaaeiaeo o no?oeoo?? ??
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

O ?icae?e? oaeiae iieacaii iai?aeeia?i?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a
N.?oniai?. Cie?aia aeacaii, ui caneoaith i?ina?oeoaeueee ye ?noi?eea
iaaeaaia?ee ? oa, ui aei aiae?co iaaeaaia?/ieo oa/?e aiia i?ae?eoea
oe?e?nii, aacoth/enue ia nooi iaaeaaia?/ieo oaiiiaiao ? aeyaao.
I?eioeeiiaith ? nooo?aith o ?? iiaeyaeao ? aeoiea i?i oa, ui
ii??aiyeueia iaaeaaia?ea iiaeiia caaeaaaoe aaeoi?e ae?yeueiino?, a
oaeiae ?aoe?iiaeueii aecia/aoe iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue
ca?oa?aeii? iaaeaaia?ee.

O aeine?aeaeaii? cae?eniaii aiae?c i?iaeaie aeoiaiiai ?aeaaeo o
iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? N.?oniai?, i?inoaaeaii, yeee i?aeo?ae
iiaeaethaaiiy e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo — noi?iiaaii? iniaenoino? —
cai?iiiioaaea a/aia. Oae, ?on?anueeee aeoiaiee ?aeaae — oea aeoiaaiiy
aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaii? ethaeeie ia canaaeao ethaia? e iioaie aei e?aueo
iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e. Noni?eueiith iaoith oeiee iaaeaaia aaaaeaea
aeoiaaiiy na?aeiieo a?iiaaeyi, ye? a na?aeiii noaaeeeny aei nai?o
noni?eueieo iaia’yce?a ? /anii ?o aeeiioaaee. E??i oiai, a iniiao
aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iieiae? i?ioani? N.?oniaa noaaeea
caaaeueiiethaenuee? oa iaoe?iiaeuei? aa?oino?, aeieaeai? oi?iaeiaae
a?e?a. Aei oeeo aa?oinoae iaeaaeaoue: 1) eoeueo nai?? iaoe?? ?
Aaouee?aueie; 2) ii?aeueiee caeii oai?aiiy aeia?a ? ai?ioueae c? ceii;
3) iiaoaeiaa a?eueii? iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae; 4) neoae?iiy aaniethoi?e
i?aaae?, e?an?, ni?aaaaeeeaino? e ethaia?.

O eiioaeno? ieoaiiy i?i aeoiaiee ?aeaae N.?oniaa ?icaeyaeaea i?iaeaio
e?a?ciaanoaa ye aaaeeeaiai caniao ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiiona?aeiieaiiy, o ?aae?caoe?? iaoiae?a aeoeaiiai, naii/eiiiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a.

I?aenoiiaoth/e, ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui N.?oniaa a?aecia/a?oueny
aeeaeii?noth i?aeoiaeo a iiooeao aeoiaiiai ?aeaaeo, e?eoe/i?noth oa
anaa?/i?noth o o?aeooaaii? aeoiaieo i?iaeai a oe?a?inuee?e ae?eniino?.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaae ia oae? aeniiaee ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy.

1. I?ina?oeoaeuenoai ye ?noi?e/iee oaiiiai aeieeei o ?one?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ? oi?ioaaeiny
iiaoaiii:

1) ?aii? I?ina?oieoeoai (ae?oaa iieiaeia XVII — ia?oa iieiaeia XVIII
no.);

2) iioe?aiiy ? ?icaeoie ?aeae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai I?ina?oieoeoaa oa
ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeaio oei?a ?aeaieia??: a) ?aeaieia?y aeai?yinueeiai
I?ina?oieoeoaa — iaoeiai-ina?oi?e iai?yi; a) ?aeaieia?y ia?iaeieo ian —
aoeei-aoiai?noe/iee iai?yi (ae?oaa iieiaeia XVIII no.);

3) noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? iiaeae? I?ina?oieoeoaa (e?iaoeue XVIII —
ii/aoie XIX no.);

4) o?ainoi?iaoe?y i?ina?oieoeueeeo ?aeae o i?ina?oeoaeuenueeee ?oo;

oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?ieoeueei? ae?oe — iin?y aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e (ae?oaa iieiaeia XIX no.);

5) ceeooy i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo c iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiei
(e?iaoeue XIX— ia?oa /aa?oue XX no.).

2. Oe?a?inueeiio i?ina?oeoaeuenoao aeanoea? oae? ?ene:

1) “ei?aeioeaio?e/i?noue” — i?ina?oeoaeuenueea ?aeay ii?aeueiiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy, ui aaaea aei aa?iii?caoe?? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei;

2) aaaaoiaaeocaa?noue — i?ina?oeoaeuenueeee ?oo ioiiea noa?e ina?oe,
eoeueoo?e, ?ae?a??, iie?oeee, ienoaoeoaa, iaoee;

3) aoiia?ao?/i?noue (ia?iaei?noue) — aeei?enoaiiy ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e,
ia?yae?a, cae/a?a, a??oaaiue o i?ina?o? ia?iaeo;

4) ?a?iia?ci — i?iiaaoaaiiy ?a?iiaenueeeo oi?i aeeooy; anaa?/ia
?a?iia?caoe?y Oe?a?ie;

5) iaoe?iiae?ci — aeoeaia iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue oa iao??ioeci;

6) aeaiie?aoe/i?noue — i?ina?oeoaeuenoai aaco?oueny ia aeaiie?aoe/ieo
canaaeao;

7) ?ioaa?aoeai?noue — caeaoi?noue ia’?aeioaaoe ye eoeueoo?i? iaaeaaiiy
??cieo ?aa?ii?a oe?a?inueei? caie?, oae ? aaeocae eoeueoo?e
aeniei?icaeiooeo iaoe?e;

8) aa?iii?ei?noue — ?aei?noue, oe?e?ni?noue, oi?aa?naeuei?noue
i?ina?oeoaeuenueei? ?aeaieia??;

9) naiceoeai?noue — i?aeaeuaia /ooeea?noue o iaai? ia??iaee aei
ia?iaeiciaa/iai iaoa??aeo;

10) aoiai?ci — eoeueo aeniei? aeooiaiino?, ieeueia oaaaa aei
aioo??oiueiai na?oo ethaeeie, i??i?eoao aoiai?noe/ieo ?aeaae?a iaae
ooee?oa?ii-ia?eaioeeueieie oe?iiinoyie oa ?ioa?anaie.

3. I?ina?oeoaeuenueea ae?yeuei?noue N.?oniai? ? ea?ioanaioe??th
oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ?ooo e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX
noie?ooy. AEeooy Nio?? ?oniai? ioiieth? ia??iae a?ae 60-o ??. XIX aei
40-o ??. XX no., o oiio /ene? iaeaea 70 ?ie?a aaciina?aaeiuei?
i?ina?oeoaeuenueei? i?aoe?, ui i?eiaaea? ia aeoaea neeaaeiee ?
noia?a/eeaee ia??iae a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, eiee iao ia?iae ia iaa aeanii?
aea?aeaae, iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee. Ioaea, any I ae?yeuei?noue caeiiii??ii
aeieeaaea c ia’?eoeaieo iio?aa oiae?oiueiai noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

4. Oai?/a ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue N.?oniai?-i?ina?oeoaey aeyaeeany /a?ac
naiiaooi?noue, ui ciaeoea nai? ae?aaeaiiy o ii?aeiaii? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae, a inieneaii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai iaaeaaiiy, yea ??oioo?oueny ia ?aeayo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai na?oiaeyaeo, o?einio??, ?aeaieia?? ? ? aeyaii
aoiai?noe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy; o ia??oiooaaii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ina?oe aeey inyaiaiiy caaaeueiina?oiaiai aeina?aeo; o oai?aii? aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo c iaoith aeooiaiiai ?aeiaiiy ? na?oiaiai ii?icoi?iiy
i?ae iaoe?yie; o ii??aiyeueiiio i?aeoiae? i?e aiae?c? ina?oi?o oa
eoeueoo?ieo i?iaeai.

5. E?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/ia oa a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?ia ae?yeuei?noue
N.?oniai? — eia?/i? oa caeiiii??i? oi?ie iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
i?ia?aneaiiai oe?a?inueeiai i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo. Oa?aeoa?
e?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/ii? oa a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino?
??oiooaaany ia iaoeiaeo i?eioeeiao oa i?ina?oeoaeuenueeeo canaaeao:
eiaeiee aeae ae?yeueiino? iaa /?oei ae?aaeaia iaoe?iiaeueia iaee//y, a
oaeiae nenoaio i?eioeei?a aeey aeanii? ?aae?caoe??: ia?iaei?noue,
aoiaii?noue, ?a?iia?ci, aeaiie?aoeci.

6. Ia iniia? aeanii? aeine?aeieoeueei? ia?aaeeaie N.?oniaa
i?iaiae?coaaea iaaeaaia?/i? oa/?? ?a?iie oa Aia?eee. Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi
?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee aaaaeaea i?ioan?eio i???ioaoe?th o/eoae?a, oiaoi
oi?ioaaiiy ?oiueiai iaaeaaia?/iiai na?oiaeyaeo.

7. Aei iaea?eueo aee?enoae?ciaaieo N.?oniaith oe?iiinoae ia?iaeii?
iaaeaaia?ee iaeaaeaoue:

a) ?aeay aa?oiaainoaa ??aeii? iiae o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino?;

a) ?aeay i??i?eoaoiino? ia?iaeii-aeoiaieo cania?a ye oaeeo, ui
iaea?eueoith i??ith a?aeiia?aeathoue iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaea/? oe?a?inueei?
aeeoeie;

a) ?aeay aa?iii?? ?iaeeiii-a?iiaaenueei-oe?eueii? aca?iiae??;

a) ?aeay aiinoieuenueei? i?n?? o/eoae?a o oi?ioaaii?
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo ? ia?iaeieo oe?iiinoae.

8. Na?oeaaeiith i?ina?oe ia?iaeo N.?oniaa aaaaeaea iaoe?iiaeueia
aeoiaaiiy, ui a ia?aaeeai? aaeoeaoe?eieo iai?yie?a iin?aea? i?ia?aeia
i?noea e i?yio? o nai?io ooieoe?iiaeueiiio ae?aaeaii? aei inyaiaiiy
iaoe?iiae?caoe?? iniaenoino? oa aei noai?aiiy a?c?? iiai? oe?a?inueei?
ethaeeie /a?ac iaoe?iiaeueiee aeoiaiee ?aeaae.

9. Aeoiaiee ?aeaae o N.?oniai?— oea a?aeia?aaeaiiy
aoiaiii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue ia?aaeiai? oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??
e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX no. i?i ?aeaae ethaeeie, ethaenueei? iniaenoino?
? i?iaiicoaaiiy oiai, yeith a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? iiaeiia noaoe
ethaeeia — iao??io nai?? Aaouee?aueie.

10. Ai?iaeiaae onueiai naiai oai?/iai aeeooy, i?ina?oeoaeuenueei?
ae?yeueiino? N.?oniaa caa?oaeany aei aeaea?ae oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee, yeo aeniei oe?ioaaea, ine?eueee aaaaeaea, ui
naia ia?iaeia iaaeaaia?/ia ioae??noue ye noia oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue oa
i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo, iaaooeo iiia?aaei?ie iieie?iiyie, aeiiiiiaea
?ic??ciyoe aeia?i e cei oa aecia/aoe aoiaii?noue a/eie?a ? ae?e
iniaenoino?.

11. Aeniiaee, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? e oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i?
ciao?aeee N.?oniai? ? oe?iiei ? iii?oiei aianeii o iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueei? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee. Aiie aeooaeuei? e aeioe?euei?
ye o oai?aoe/iiio, oae ? i?aeoe/iiio aniaeoao, a iniaeeai o ?ica’ycaii?
aoe/ii-anoaoe/ieo ieoaiue, ui ni?eythoue aoiai?caoe?? ina?oe;
ocaaaeueiaiiy N.?oniai? aeoea?ciaoaaoeiooue aoiaiio ae?yeuei?noue
ina?oi?o eieaeoea?a uiaei iiiaeaiiy ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?iaioe o
ci?oeiaii? ? noaiiaeaii? i?aeaaeei iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ina?oe. Naia
iaoe?iiaeueia ina?oa noaia iniiaith aeoiaaiiy ethaia? aei
aaouee?anueeiai ?iaeo, ??aeii? i?e?iaee, iaoa?einueei? iiae, aeiiiiiaea
oieeiooe aaciai’yonoaa oa aacaeooiaiino?, iaeii/anii neoaoaaoeia
i???ioe?ii o aoiaiii-?noi?e/iiio iaaeaaii?.

I?iaaaeaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia ae/a?io?oueny any iiaiioa aena?oeaiiy
niaaeueie N.?oniai?. Aeaye? iia?/i? aniaeoe i?ina?oeoaeuenueei?
ae?yeueiino? N.?oniai?’ caeeoeeeny ua ia aei e?ioey c’yniaaieie, oiio
ciaeaeooue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iiaeaeueoiio aea/aii? oai?/i? niaaeueie
? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? i?ina?oeoaeueee. Ie?aieie
iai?yieaie iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue noaoe aniaeoe ?? oai?/iai
aei?iaeo: aena?oeaiiy oai?/eo noinoie?a ? iniaenoeo eiioaeo?a ?c
i?ia?aneaieie oe?a?inueeeie ae?y/aie e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy:
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaei, ?.*eeaeaieii, I.Oaiiaaeii, ?.Noaoaieii, N.Iaoeth?ith oa
?i.; ca?oa?aeieie a/aieie; iaaeaaia?/ia ioae?oeenoeea; ieoaiiy aeoiaaiiy
ae?oae a aoiinoa?? ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino? (i?eioeei “ae?aiaoecaoe??”);
i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee oiui.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. N.?oniaa o eiioaeno? i?ina?oeoaeuenueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?// Iaoeia?
caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Na??y: iaaeaaia?ea. — Oa?iii?eue. — 1999. — ? 1. — N. 95-101.

2. Cia/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie Nio?? ?oniai? aeey no/aniino? //
Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y: e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. — Oa?iii?eue. — 1998.—1(2).—N.
54-60.

3. Ieoaiiy ??aeii? iiae a iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? N.?oniai?// Iaoeia?
caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Na??y: iiaiciaanoai.— Oa?iii?eue.— 1998.— 1(8).— N. 33-35.

4. I?iaeaia aeoiaiiai ?aeaaeo o iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? N.?oniai?//
Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y: iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. — Oa?iii?eue. —
1998.—3(3).—N. 73-76.

5. I?iaeaie ii??aiyeueii? iaaeaaia?ee o iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? Nio??
Oaaei??aie ?oniai? // Ina?oyiei. — 1997. — ? 1. — N. 18-19.

6. N.?oniaa ? ii/aoeiaa oeiea// No/ania ii/aoeiaa oeiea: i?iaeaie,
iiooee, ciao?aeee. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. (18-19 ea?oiy).
— Oa?iii?eue, 1996. —N. 25-26.

A?ooe A.I. N.?oniaa e i?inaaoeoaeueneia aeaeaeaiea a Oe?aeia. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey a aeaea ?oeiiene ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01.— oai?ey e enoi?ey
iaaeaaiaeee. — Oa?iiiieueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Aeaaeeie?a Aiaothea, 1999.

Caueuaaony ?oeiienue, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiea i?iaeaiu
aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey i?inaaoeoaeueneiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia e
aeayoaeueiinoe N.?oniaie a eiioaenoa yoiai aeaeaeaiey.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea “Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?inaaoeoaeueneiai aeaeaeaiey a
Oe?aeia” ?anniao?eaathony iniaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee e
?acaeoea oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aeaeaeaiey a eiioea XIX
— ia/aea XX aaea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea
i?aaeiinueee e iao/ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiua iniiau oi?ie?iaaiey
i?inaaoeoaeuenoaa eae enoi?e/aneiai oaiiiaia; ii?aaeaeythony oa?aeoa?iua
/a?ou e yoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey i?inaaoeoaeueneiai aeaeaeaiey.

Aeoaiei i?iaiaeece?iaaii ?acaeoea i?inaaoeoaeueneeo eaeae a Oe?aeia.
Onoaiiaeaia oaniay naycue i?inaaoeoaeueneiai aeaeaeaiey n
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaie, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ii?aaeaeyei i?inaaoeoaeueneee oa?aeoa? ie?iaicc?aiey oe?aeineie
eioaeeeaaioeee, a /anoiinoe N.?oniaie.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea “N.?oniaa a eiioaenoa oe?aeineiai i?inaaoeoaeuenoaa”
aiaeece?othony ie?iaicc?ai/aneea iniiau i?inaaoeoaeuenoaa N.?oniaie:
?anniao?eaathony yoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey i?inaaoeoaeueneiai ie?iaicc?aiey eae
iinoaiaiiiai e aic?anoathuaai iniuneaiey iiaeaeaeie/aneie iennee;
inaauathony aeaaiua iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeaaiaa eae niiniau
?aaeecaoeee iieeooieoeeiiaeueiie i?ia?aiiu i?inaaoeoaeueneiai
aeaeaeaiey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi e iniiaiui iai?aaeaieyi aeayoaeueiinoe N.?oniaie
i?eiaaeeaaeao eeoa?aoo?ii-ioaeeoeenoe/aneay, iauanoaaiii-eoeueoo?iay,
iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneay. Eo aeoaeiiue aiaeec aeae aiciiaeiinoue
i?iecaanoe oeaeinoiia enneaaeiaaiea i?inaaoeoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
iaaeaaiaa e i?ineaaeeoue eiioeaiooaeueiia aaeeinoai anao iai?aaeaiee eae
i?aaie/anee iaioaeaeeiuo ninoaaiuo a no?oeoo?a iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeae
iuneeoaey.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaia i?iaeaia ainieoaoaeueiiai eaeaaea a
iaaeaaiae/aneii ianeaaeee N.?oniaie. ?anniio?aia iiaeaeue eiia/iiai
?acoeueoaoa — noi?ie?iaaiiie ee/iinoe, — i?aaeeiaeaiiay o/aiie. Oaeei
ia?acii, ?onianeee ainieoaoaeueiue eaeaae — yoi ainieoaiea
aa?iiie/ii-?acaeoiai /aeiaaea ia i?eioeeiao ethaae e oaaaeaiey e eo/oei
iaoeeiiaeueiui o?aaeeoeeyi. Iauanoaaiiie oeaeueth oeieu iaaeaaia n/eoaea
ainieoaiea niciaoaeueiuo a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua niciaoaeueii e /anoii
eniieiytho naie iaycaiiinoe. E?iia oiai, iniiaie ainieoaiey oe?aeineie
iieiaeaaee i?ioanni? N.?oniaa n/eoaea iaua/aeiaa/aneea e iaoeeiiaeueiua
oeaiiinoe, nicaeaiiua ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia. E iei i?eiaaeeaaeao: 1)
ii?aeueiue caeii niceaeaiey aeia?a e ai?ueau ni ceii; 2)iienee enoeiu;
3)iino?iaiea ni?aaaaeeeaiai iauanoaa; 4)niceaeaiea ethaae e e?aniou.

I?ia?anneaiua i?inaaoeoaeueneea eaeae N.O.?oniaie iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey ?ac?aaioee eiioeaiooaeueiuo iniia nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey
e ainieoaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey
io?aaeaiu aaoi?ii a 6 iao/iuo ioaeeeaoeeyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?inaaoeoaeuenoai, i?inaaoeoaeueneia aeaeaeaiea,
iaoeeiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea, i?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue,
ainieoaoaeueiue eaeaae, ?iaeiie ycue, oai?/aneia ianeaaeea, ?acaeoea,
iniaaiiinoe, n?aaieoaeueiay iaaeaaiaeea.

Qruts G.M. S.Rusova and enlightening movement in Ukraine.

Master’s dissertation: speciality 13.00.01 — Theory and History of
Pedagogic. Ternopol State Pedagogical University named after V.Gnatyuk,
1999.

The dissertation to be defended contains the research of the problem of
origin in Ukraine. Besides that it deals with S.Rusova’s activity in a
context of this movement. Theoretically it is established, that despite
of complicated socio-economical, political and cultural conditions, the
Ukrainian educational movement has become an integral part of the
national emancipator (liberatory) movement. In connection with this
S.Rusova’s activity and creation have become a phenomenon in the
development of an en lightening idea in Ukraine at the end of the XIX
and at the leginning of the XX centuries. Progressive enlightening ideas
by S.F.Rusova can be used for the development of conceptual bases of the
system of upbringing and education in modern conditions. The main
positions of this research are reflected by the author in 6 scientific
publications.

Key words: enlightenment, enlightening movement, national formation,
enlightening activity, educational an ideal, native language, creative
inheritance, development, feature, comparative pedagogics.

Похожие записи