15

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OE?A?IE

“EE?ANUeEEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO”

Aoiaae Ae? Aaaaae Aeue-Coa?

(Ei?aeai?y)

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 681.3

NIINIAE OA CANIAE I?AeAEUAIIss

I?IAeOEOEAIINO? EIEAEUeIEO IA?AAE,

I???IOIAAIEO IA IOEUeOEIAAe?EI? AeIAeAOEE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.13.13 — Ia/enethaaeuei? iaoeie, nenoaie oa ia?aae?

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio iie?oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? ia eaoaae??
ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: — eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eoeaeia TH??e Ieaen?eiae/,

Aeioeaio Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Iaai?iee Eaii?ae sseiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ia/enethaaeueieo iaoei, nen oai ? ia?aae
Ee?anueeiai I?aeia?iaeiiai Oi?aa?neoaoo Oeea?eueii? Aa?aoe??

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio,

Oaeoa?i Na?a?e Na?a?eiae/,

A/aiee nae?aoa? ?inoeoooo I?ia?aiieo nenoai IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — Oeaio? oaeia?ieo ia/enethaaeueieo i?eno?i?a
?inoeoooo e?aa?iaoeee ?i. A. I. Aeooeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15 ” “ eenoiiaaea” 1999 ?. o 14.30 aiaeei
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 26.002.02 o Ee?anueeiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? (i. Ee?a, i?. Ia?aiiae, 37, ei?i. 18, aoae.
306).

A?aeaoee ia aaoi?aoa?ao o aeaio i?ei??ieeao, caa??ai? ia/aoeith
onoaiiae, i?ineii iaaeneeaoe ca aae?anith: 252056, i. Ee?a, i?.
Ia?aiiae, 37, A/aiiio nae?aoa?th EI?.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 15 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
I. I. I?eiaa

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea niinia?a oa cania?a
oi?aae?iiy aeinooiii aei na?aaeiaeua, ui ia?aaea?, ye? aeicaieythoue
i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue eieaeueieo eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae i?e
ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? ae??oothoueny oae?
caaea/?:

1. Aiae?c a?aeiieo niinia?a oa cania?a oi?aae?iiy aeinooiii aei
na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/? aenieioaeaee?nieo eieaeueieo ia?aae, i???ioiaaieo
ia ia?aaea/o ?ioi?iaoe?? ??ciiiai?oiiai oeio, a ia?oo /a?ao
ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo.

2. ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ?ic?aooieo /aniaeo
ia?aiao??a i?ioeaaeo? aeinooio aei eiioi?eaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua
eieaeueieo ia?aae c iaoith aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo i?ioeaaeo?
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i??i?eoaoieo iaoiae?a aeinooio aei na?aaeiaeua
ia?aaea/? eieaeueieo ia?aae, ui caaacia/othoue iioeiaeueia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ia?aaea/ath ioeueoeiaae?eii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa
iioieaie aeaieo.

4. ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy niiniao i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?ioieie?a FDDI-II i?e ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo.

5. ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeo aeinooio a ia?aae?, ui
aeei?enoiao? aea? iioiaieieiii? oeie aeey ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??.

6. ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy “iaiieaaeeaiai” aeiaaeeiaiai iaoiaeo
aeinooio a ia?aaeao ?c ae?aaiaeaeiith oiiieia??th.

Aaoi? caoeua? oae? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe:

1. Aiae?oe/io iiaeaeue ioe?iee /aniaeo ia?aiao??a ia?aae? FDDI-II, yea
aeicaiey? a ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie aiae?oe/ieie iiaeaeyie a?eueo iiaii
a?aooaaoe iniaeeaino? aeaiiai noaiaea?oo, ui aeicaiey? i?aai?coaaoe
a?eueo aoaeoeaiee aeinooi aei na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/? ? i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? a oe?eiio.

2. Niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia?aae? FDDI-II i?e ia?aaea/?
ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo, caniiaaiee ia aeei?enoaii? aoaeoo ?aiiueiai
ca?eueiaiiy ia?ea?a ? aecia/aii? iioeiaeueiiai /ano iaa?oaiiy ia?ea?a.

3. Eiia?iiaaiee iaoiae aeinooio a ia?aae? c oeiiith oiiieia??th, ui
aeei?enoiao? aea? iioiaieieiii? oeie aeey ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue na?a?no ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo
aac cieaeaiiy o?ao?ea aeaieo.

4. Niin?a ioe?iee oi/ieo cia/aiue ieaeiuei? ? aa?oiuei? iaae cao?eiee
iaeao?a a ia?aaeao c ae?aaiaeaeiith oiiieia??th ? aeiaaeeiaei iaoiaeii
aeinooio c aeyaeaiiyi c?oeiaiiy (Tree/CD) i?e aaeeeiio ae?aiacii?
?ioaineaiinoae iaaeoiaeaeaiiy cayaie.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe

I?iaeoeoeai?noue eieaeueieo eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aia?aoieo ? i?ia?aiieo
cania?a IAN- i?ae??aiy. A ia?oo /a?ao oea noino?oueny i?ioieie?a ?
i?ioeaaeo? oi?aae?iiy aeinooiii aei caaaeueieo i?eno?i?a (?ano?n?a),
oaeei ye na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/? ? eiiooaoe?ei? i?eno?i?. sse i?aaeei,
a?eueo?noue a?aeiieo i?ioieie?a ? i?ioeaaeo? oi?aae?iiy aeinooiii aei
na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/?, a iniiaiiio i???ioiaai? ia ia?aaea/o aeaieo ? ia
aoaeoeai? aeey ia?aaea/? aoae?i ? a?aeai ?ioi?iaoe??. O ca’yceo ?c
c?inoath/i? /anoeith aoae?i ? a?aeai ?ioi?iaoe?? a caaaeueiiio
?ioi?iaoe?eiiio iioioe? aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o ?ic?iaoe? ?
aeine?aeaeaii? aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy iioieaie aeaieo, aoae?i ?
a?aeai ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aea?? aoaeoeaiiai iaoiaeo aeinooio aeey eiie?aoii? oiiieia?? eieaeueii?
ia?aae? ? aeinoaoiuei neeaaeiith caaea/ath, oiio ui ?? ??oaiiy
aecia/a?oueny ?yaeii /eiiee?a, a oiio /ene? oiiieia??th, niiniaii
oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath, ?ioaineai?noth ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iioieo. A neeo
?yaeo i?e/ei a aeaiee /an ia iiaeia iacaaoe yeee-iaaoaeue
oi?aa?naeueiee iaoiae aeinooio, aoaeoeaiee o an?o aeiaaeeao. Oeei
/anoeiai ? iiynith?oueny iiiaeeia ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a aeinooio a
eieaeueieo ia?aaeao, yea iino?eii ca?eueoo?oueny, ui oaeiae aeeeeea?
iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a ? cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino?.

Aeioaia? ye i?aaeei, aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a?aeiinii iecueeioaeaee?ni?
eieaeuei? ia?aae?. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo cao?eiea ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? a
iniiaiiio aecia/aeany eaiaeaie ca’yceo ? ia?aaeieie eiio?iea?aie, a ia
eiiooaoe?eieie aoceaie. Ia?ao?ae aei aenieioaeaee?nieo eieaeueieo ia?aae
( ?c oaeaee?noth ia?aaea/? iiiaae 100 ia?o/n) cieaeo? cao?eiee a ia?oeo,
oei naiei ca?eueoo? ?ieue eiiooaoe?eieo aoce?a. Oaeei /eiii, i?e
?ic?iaoe? niinia?a oa cania?a oi?aae?iiy iioieaie aeaieo iniiaia oaaaa
iiaeiia aooe i?eae?eaia nei?i/aiith /ano cao?eiee ?ioi?iaoe?? a
eiiooaoe?eieo aoceao.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaea ? aeine?aeaeaiiy niinia?a ? cania?a oi?aae?iiy
aeinooiii aei na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/? aenieioaeaee?nieo eieaeueieo
ia?aae ? aeooaeueiei ? ia? oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia

1. ?ic?iaeaii i?aeo?ae aei ioe?iee iioeiaeueii? nioae i?iioneaiiy
ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ioaineaiino? ao?aeiiai
o?ao?ea aeaieo a eieaeueieo ia?aaeao.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ioe?iee /aniaeo ia?aiao??a ia?aae?
FDDI-II, yea aeicaiey? a ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie aiae?oe/ieie iiaeaeyie
a?eueo iiaii a?aooaaoe iniaeeaino? aeaiiai noaiaea?oo, ui aeicaiey?
i?aai?coaaoe a?eueo aoaeoeaiee aeinooi aei na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/? ?
i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? a oe?eiio.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa i?ioeaaeo?a ?aae?caoe?? i?ioieieo FDDI-II,
caniiaaia ia iaoai?ci? ?aiiueiai ca?eueiaiiy ia?ea?a.

4. Ia iniia? aiae?co a?aeiieo iaoiae?a aeinooio cai?iiiiiaaiee ?
iaa?oioiaaiee eiia?iiaaiee iaoiae aeinooio a ia?aae? c oeiiith
oiiieia??th, yeee aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue na?a?no ia?aaea/?
ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo aac cieaeaiiy o?ao?ea aeaieo.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a ioe?iee oi/ieo cia/aiue ieaeiuei? oa
aa?oiuei? iaae cao?eiee iaeao?a a ia?aaeao c ae?aaiaeaeiith oiiieia??th
? aeiaaeeiaei iaoiaeii aeinooio c aeyaeaiiyi c?oeiaiiy (Tree/CD) i?e
aaeeeiio ae?aiacii? ?ioaineaiinoae iaaeoiaeaeaiiy cayaie.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny
oei, ui cai?iiiiiaai? niiniae ? i?ioeaaeo?e oi?aae?iiy aeinooiii
aeicaieythoue nooo?ai i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy
eieaeueieo eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae, caaacia/oth/e i?e oeueiio iaiao?aeiee
??aaiue na?a?no aeey ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeiaeaoe?a. Cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, niiniae ? i?ioeaaeo?e aeiaaaeai? aei i?aeoe/ii?
?aae?caoe?? o aeaeyae? i?ia?ai ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a eiie?aoieo
eieaeueieo ia?aaeao.

Aeinoia??i?noue oai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeieacaie
iniiaieo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ?o aenia?eiaioaeueiith
ia?aa??eith.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia:

1. V — iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia
oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao” (16-19 /a?aiy 1998, i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee).

2. II — i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiii’thoa?i? nenoaie ?
ia?aae?”, (26-27 /a?aiy 1998 ?. , ?aeaoaa, Iieueua).

Ioae?eaoe?? Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a
10 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a. Ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 120 noi?. iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ?
aeeth/a? 22 iae., 3 oaae., a?ae?ia?ao?y aeeth/a? 97 iaeiaioaaiue.

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
oi?io?oueny iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny iaeanoue ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny iniiai? aeiiae aei ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eii?
?ioi?iaoe??. A?aoiaoth/e oe? aeiiae, i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c aoaeoeaiino?
a?aeiieo iaoiae?a ? i?ioeaaeo? aeinooio aei na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/?
eieaeueieo ia?aae. Oi?iothoueny iniiai? oe?e? ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?eaiaeeoueny aiae?oe/ia iiaeaeue, ca aeiiiiiaith
yei? iiaeia ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeo aeinooio ? aecia/eoe oa?aeoa?
iioieo aeaieo a ia?aaeao FDDI, i?eaaaeaiee aiae?c /aniaeo ia?aiao??a
i?ioieieo MAC — ??aiy ia?aae? FDDI. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c neio?iiiiai
ia?ea?iiai i?ioieieo aeey eiioi?eaoe?? a ?aaeueiiio /an?, cai?iiiiiaai?
niiniae aecia/aiiy eiai iioeiaeueiiai aaaeaiiai /ano iaa?oaiiy ia?ea?a
(TTRT) oa neio?iiii? nioae i?iioneaiiy.

?ic?iaea ? aeine?aeaeaiiy niiniao i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioieie?a
FDDI-II i?e ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? aeiaaeeiaeo
iaoiae?a aeinooio o aenieioaeaee?nieo eieaeueieo ia?aaeao, i???ioiaaieo
ia ioeueoeiaae?ei? aeiaeaoee. ?icaeyaea?oueny no?oeoo?a
aenieioaeaee?nii? eieaeueii? ia?aae?, yea ?aae?ciaaia ia iniia? aeaio
iioiaieieiiieo oei aeey ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??. ?icaeyaea?oueny
eiia?iiaaiee iaoiae aeinooio, yeee aieiae?? ia?aaaaaie aeaoa?i?iiaaiiai
? aeiaaeeiaiai iaoiae?a aeinooio.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?icaeyaeathoueny
ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy “iaiieaaeeaiai” aeiaaeeiaiai iaoiaeo
aeinooio a ia?aaeao c ae?aaiaeaeiith oiiieia??th.

Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ioe?iee oi/ieo cia/aiue ieaeiuei? oa aa?oiuei? iaae
cao?eiee iaeao?a a ia?aaeao c ae?aaiaeaeiith oiiieia??th ? aeiaaeeiaei
iaoiaeii aeinooio c aeyaeaiiyi c?oeiaiiy (Tree/CD) i?e aaeeeiio
ae?aiacii? ?ioaineaiinoae iaaeoiaeaeaiiy cayaie. ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy
?aae?caoe?? “iaiieaaeeaiai” aeiaaeeiaiai iaoiaeo aeinooio a ia?aaeao c
ae?aaiaeaeiith oiiieia??th.

O aeniiaeao i?eaaaeai? iniiai? oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?o aeei?enoaiith.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

A inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie ia?aaeieo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, iia’ycaieo c ia?aaea/ath ioeueoeiaae?eieo
aeaieo o eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aaeao. Ua aeae?eueea ?ie?a oiio, eiii’thoa?i?
ia?aae? ia i?aeaeaaaeeny oaeei cia/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi, iia’ycaiei c
ia?aaea/ath ioeueoeiaae?eii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Ia?aaea/a ioeueoeiaae?eieo
aeaieo, oaeeo ye aoae?i oa a?aeai ?ioi?iaoe?y cia/iith i??ith
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ia?aaea/? ?ioi? oeeo?iai? ?ioi?iaoe??. sse i?aaeei,
aeey ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo aeei?enoiaothoueny iaeaoe
iaaaeeeiai ?ici??o (ii?yaeeo 64 aaeo). Aei ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo
aeaieo i?iiiiothoueny iniaeea? aeiiae, iia’ycai? c? niaoeeo?eith oeueiai
aeaeo ?ioi?iaoe??, cie?aia cia/i? aeiiae ii oaeaeeino? ia?aaea/?
?ioi?iaoe??, cao?eioe? ia?aaea/? iaeaoa a?ae i?eeia/a aei aeaea?aea, a
oaeiae ii niioai?aiiyi ? i?eionoeiei ao?aoai ?ioi?iaoe??. Oe? aeiiae
iienothoueny ia?aiao?ii “oei na?a?no” — Quality of Service (QoS).
Oeiia? iioiee aeaieo ? aeiiae aei oeio na?a?no aeey ioeueoeiaae?eieo
aeiaeaoe?a i?eaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

I?eiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy Iii?iaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy I?eionoei? ao?aoe iaeao?a
Aieinia? aeai? 32 Ea/n 11,2 Ea/n 0,05 A?aeai aeai? 11,6 Ia/n 3,85 Ia/n
10**(-5) Cao?eiea a iaeiiio iai?yieo Oa?aeoa?enoeea yeino? a?ae 0 aei
150 in “i?eeiyoii aeey a?eueoino? aeiaeaoe?a ei?enooaa/?a” a?ae 150 aei
400 in “iiaea aieeaaoe ia ye?noue aeayeeo aeiaeaoe?a” a?eueo 400 in
“iai?eeiyoii aeey caaaeueieo oe?eae ieaioaaiiy ia?aae?”

Ioeueoeiaae?ei? nan?? aeiaaathoue, uia ia?aaea iaaeaaaea aeayeee
aa?aioiaaiee oei na?a?no aeey ei?enooaa/?a. A aeaiee /an a?ae/oaa?oueny
iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/eoe i?aeo?eieo aeey ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeiaeaoe?a a
?nioth/eo eieaeueieo ia?aaeao, ye? ia aoee niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeai? aeey
ia?aaea/? oaeiai oeio o?ao?ea. Iiaiee o?ao?e — iioieiaee o?ao?e aeiaaa?
ia?aaea/? a ?aaeueiiio ianooaa? /ano, oiio ui aoaeue-ye? o?eaae?
cao?eiee, ye? i?enooi? a eieaeueieo eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aaeao iiaeooue
neeueii aieeaaoe ia ye?noue iiae. O?ao?e aeaieo, c ?ioiai aieo, ?
o?ao?eii, » ui ?icaeaa?oueny», ? oiio, ia ia? i?yeeo noai?eo aeiia aei
cao?eiie. Oaeei /eiii, ?ioaa?aoe?y aieino ? o?ao?ea aeaieo iiaeeeaa,
yeui iiaiee o?ao?e ia? a?eueo aenieee i??i?eoao, i?ae o?ao?e aeaieo. I?e
oeueiio aeey caaacia/aiiy ia?aaea/? aeaieo iaiao?aeii, uia iiaiee o?ao?e
ia neeueii aeii?ioaaa iaae o?ao?eii aeaieo. Aeuacaaaeai? aeiiae aeey
?ioaa?aoe?? aieino ? o?ao?ea aeaieo aeeiiai? yaii ? iayaii — MAC
i?ioieieaie. Iaeei ?c yaieo i?ioieie?a ia?ea?ii? ia?aaea/? MAC, ui
oe?iei iioe?aiee aeey ?ioaa?aoe?? iiiaeeiieo oei?a o?ao?ea, — i?ioieie
FDDI -II.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo
aeiaaeeiaeo ? aeaoa?i?iiaaieo iaoiae?a aeinooio. O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo
aeiaaeeia? iaoiaee aeinooio i?ino?o? a ?aae?caoe??, oiio ui ia
aeiaaathoue ia?aaea/? niaoe?aeueii? oi?aaeyth/i? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aiie
a?eueo aoaeoeai? i?e iecueeiio caaaioaaeaii? iiiieaiaeo. A naith /a?ao,
i?e i?aeaeuaii? /anoioe caa?iaiiy aaiiaio?a aei iiiieaiaeo
i?aeaeuo?oueny iiaeeea?noue c?oeiaiiy iaeao?a. Oae, iai?eeeaae,
?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aae? Ethernet ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? ?iaioe
iieacaee, ui i?e eiao?oe??io? iaaaioaaeaiiy iiiaae 0,5 /enei eie?c?e
oaeaeei ca?eueoo?oueny, oiio oaea iaaaioaaeaiiy aaaaea?oueny ii?iaiaei.
E??i oiai, o oeeo i?ioieieao ?aae?co?oueny iaeiii??i?eoaoiee iaoiae
aeinooio, ui oneeaaeith? i?aai?caoe?th aoaeoeaii? ia?aaea/?
ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeiaeaoe?a ? oaee?a aeaieo.

A naith /a?ao aeaoa?i?iiaai? iaoiaee aeinooio oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iayai?noth oi/ii? aa?oiuei? iaae? /ano aeinooio, a oaeiae aeicaieythoue
a?eueo i?inoi i?aai?coaaoe i??i?eoaoiee aeinooi.

?icaeyiaii iiaoaeiao iiaeae? ia?ea?iiai aeinooio aei iiiieaiaeo.

Iaeiei ?c aecia/aeueieo ia?aiao??a ? aa?aioiaaia cao?eiea aeinooio
(Td) aaiiaionueeeo nenoai aei na?aaeiaeua , ui ia?aaea?. Aecia/aiiy
aeaiiai ia?aiao?a iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe i?e iaea??oiio aeiaaeeo
iiaiaeaeaiiy nenoaie.

C oe??th iaoith iaiao?aeii aaanoe ?yae iaiaaeaiue ia oa?aeoa?
ia?aaea/? aeaieo. Cie?aia, aecia/eii Od ca oiiae: Li , oiaoi eiaeia
aaiiaionueea nenoaia ca naain iai?io ia?aaea? ii iaeiiio iaeaoo; di,j
D — /an ia?aaea/? (aeiaaeeia) iaeao?a iaiaaeaiee ?ici??ii D; i= —
const, oiiaa aeio?eio?oueny i?e iaeii??aeiiio na?aaeiaeu? ia?aaea/?,
ui aeanoeai eieaeueiei ia/enethaaeueiei ia?aaeai.

A yeino? e?eoa??th, yeee iaea?eueo /anoi aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e
ii??aiyii? ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a aeinooio a eieaeueieo ia?aaeao,
aenooia? na?aaei?e /an aeinooio , ui aei??aith? na?aaeiueiio cia/aiith
(On?) ia?aaea/? ia?ea?a ii eia?/iiio e?eueoeth.

Oae c a?aooaaiiyi ?iia??iino? (pi) iiyae caieoo ia ia?aaea/o aeaieo c
aieo i-i? aaiiaionueei? nenoaie na?aaei? cia/aiiy (On?) ia?aaea/?
ia?ea?a ii eia?/iiio e?eueoeth:
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 ,

aea: i — /an ia?aaea/? ia?ea?a i?ae non?aei?ie aaiiaionueeeie
nenoaiaie, cia/aiiy yeiai caeaaeeoue a?ae aeiaaeeie e?i?? ca’yceo i?ae
noi?aeieie aaiiaionueeeie nenoaiaie, oaeaeeino? ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??,
aeiaaeeie eaae?o ia?ea?a ? /ano oo?eiaiiy (ia?iaee) ia?ea?a
aaiiaionueeith nenoaiith;

dij-/an ia?aaea/? j-ai iaeaoa aeaieo i-ith aaiiaionueeith nenoaiith,
oey aaee/eia caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeaeeino? ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
aeiaaeeie eaae?a aeaieo;

C -/an, ui aeo?a/a?oueny ia ia?aaea/o oi?aaeyth/eo eaae??a ca N
ia?aaea/ ia?ea?a, caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeaeeino? ia?aaea/?, e?eueeino? ?
aeiaaeeie oi?aaeyth/iai eaae?a; iaeneiaeueia aa?aioiaaia cao?eiea
aeinooio (Td ) neeaaea?:

Td=Tk+C+ND .

Ia iniia? aiae?co i?ioieie?a eaiaeueiiai ??aiy iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe,
ui aaee/eia ia?aiao?a N ia ia?aaeuo? 0,1 a?ae N . C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai:

Td=N(1,1+D).

A aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?aaeueia cia/aiiy /ano iioe?aiiy ia?ea?a ii
e?eueoeth (Tr) eaaeeoue o iaaeao:

N(1,1+1)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(1,1+D).

Inoaii?i /anii c?inea caoe?eaaeai?noue aei iioiaieieiiieo eaiae?a
ia?aaea/? aeaieo ye iniiae na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/? aenieioaeaee?nieo
eieaeueieo ia?aae. sse a?aeiii, iioiaieieiii? eaiaee ia?aaea/? aeaieo ?
iaeiini?yiiaaieie, ia ?o iniia? aoaeothoueny a iniiaiiio e?eueoeaa?
ia?aae? c ia?ea?iei iaoiaeii aeinooio.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny o?e iniiai? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ia?ea?iiai iaoiaeo
aeinooio: aaaaoiia?ea?iee, iaeiiia?ea?iee oa iaeiiiaeaoiee.

Aaaaoiia?ea?iee iaoiae aeinooio i?eionea?, ui iiaee ia?ea? aoaea
aaia?oaaoeny a?ae?aco i?ney a?aei?aaeaiiy inoaiiueiai a?oa iaeaoa c?
noaioe?? , ui ia?aaea?.

Na?aaeiy cao?eiea ia?aaea/? aeey aaaaoiia?ea?iiai iaoiaeo:

aea: D -cao?eiea a ia?aae?, N — oaeaee?noue ia?aaea/? eaiaeo, L
-aeiaaeeia eaae?o,

I— /enei noaioe?e, R — ?ioaineai?noue a?o?a a eaiae?, a?o/nae.

B — eaoaioi?noue noaioe?e. D’ — eaoaioi?noue e?eueoey. L/R— na?aaei?e
/an ia?aaea/? iaeiiai iaeaoa, W- /an /aeaiiy.

Aeey iaeao?a c o?eniaaiith aeiaaeeiith:

Iaeaoe c aeniiiaioe?eii ?iciiae?eaiith aeiaaeeiith:

Iaeiiia?ea?iee iaoiae aeinooio.

Na?aaeiy cao?eiea ia?aaea/? aeey iaeiiia?ea?iiai iaoiaeo c iaeaoii
o?eniaaii? aeiaaeeie ? a>1:

O aeiaaeeo c iaeaoaie c aeniiiaioe?eii ?iciiae?eaiith aeiaaeeiith
?acoeueoao oneeaaeith?oueny oiio, ui aeiaaeeia iaeaoa L, noa?
aeiaaeeiaith.

Na?aaeiy cao?eiea ia?aaea/?:

Iaeneiaeueia aeinyaeia i?iioneia ni?iiiaei?noue aeaia ca
aeiiiiiaith 1/(a-a+a).

Iaeiiiaeaoiee iaoiae aeinooio

A oeueiio iaoiae? aeinooio, iiaee a?eueiee ia?ea? ia aoaea
aaia?iaaiee, iiee noaioe?y , ui ia?aaea? , ia iaea?aeeoue iacaae ?
cieueoue oaanue na?e iaeao, ui ia?aaeaea, oaeei /eiii o e?eueoe?
o?eueee iaeei iaeao oee?eoeth?.

Na?aaeiuey cao?eiea ia?aaea/? iaeiiiaeaoii? iia?aoe??:

Aeey iaeao?a c aeniiiaioe?eii ?iciiae?eaiith aeiaaeeiith aa?oiy iaaea
i?iioneii? ni?iiiaeiino? eaiaeo ? 1/(1+a).

?icaeyiaii iiaeeo?eiaaio i?ioeaaeo?o ?aae?caoe?? i?ioieieo FDDI — II.

A no/anieo eieaeueieo ia?aaeao o a?aeiia?aeiino? c? noaiaea?oii IEEE
802.2 aeei?enoiaothoueny aeaa eeane oi?aae?iiy eia?/iei eaiaeii: Class
I, ui i?aeo?eio? ia?aaea/o aeaieo oeio 1 o ?aaeei? aac anoaiiaeaiiy
c’?aeiaiiy, aac i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?eeiio aai Class II, ui i?aeo?eio?
ia?aaea/o aeaieo oeio 2 a ?aaeei? c? anoaiiaeaiiyi c’?aeiaiiy. C
ia?aoiaeii ia aenieioaeaee?ni? ? iaae?ei? ia?aae? ana a?eueoa
canoinoaaiiy ciaoiaeeoue Class I. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?aeiaaea?
iaiao?aei?noue iiaa?iaiiy eaae?o aeaieo eiai a?aei?aaieeo, a eaae?
aeaieo iiaea aooe cieuaiee iaea?aeoaa/ai (?aii? ca?eueiaiiy ia?ea?a). A
?acoeueoao? oeueiai a iine?aeiaiino? eaae??a ooai?eoueny a?eueiee
/aniaee ?ioa?aae, a yeee noaioe?y, ui aeaeaeeea eaae? aeaieo iiaea
iii?noeoe na?e eaae? aeaieo aai iaaeaoe oaeo iiaeeea?noue ianooiiei
noaioe?yi. sseui ?ici?? eaae?o, ui anoaaey?oueny a?eueoa a?eueiiai
?ioa?aaeo /ano, on? ianooii? eaae?e cao?eiothoueny ia a?aeiia?aeiee
?ioa?aae /ano. Ia a?aei?io a?ae noaiaea?oiiai i?ioieieo FDDI-II i?e
iiya? i?ciueiai ia?ea?a eaae? neio?iiieo aeaieo anoaaey?oueny o?eueee a
oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui a?i ia aoa anoaaeaiee ?ai?o. Oey i?ioeaaeo?a
aeicaiey? a na?aaeiueiio a aeaa ?ace ca?eueoeoe ?ioaineai?noue ia?aaea/?
neio?iiieo aeaieo.

A yeino? e?eoa??th aoaeoeaiino? CSMA/CD – iaoiaeo ?icaeyaea?oueny
eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy eaiaeo ia?aaea/? aeaieo:
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 ,

aea U- na?aaei?e /an caeiyoino? eaiaeo aac c?oeiaiiy,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-
na?aaei?e /an caeiyoino? eaiaeo, I – na?aaei?e /an iacaeiyoino?
eaiaeo.

Oni?oia ia?aaea/a iaeaoo aecia/a?oueny ?iia??i?noth ?s. O?eaae?noue
aoaeue-yei? ia?aaea/? (oni?oii? aai iaoni?oii?) iaeaoa aei??aith? ?
nae., ioaea, na?aaei?e /an oeeeeo oni?oii? ia?aaea/?, U, aeaia: U= pps
. ?iia??i?noue oiai, ui iaeao oni?oii ia?aaeaiee aei??aith? ?iia??iino?
oiai, ui ca /an eiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeiaeiee ?ioee iaeao ia aoaea
iaaeoiaeeoe (?ioa?aae a?aceeaino?) [t, t+]. Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iaeao?a
?iciiae?eaia ii Ioanniiianueee c na?aaei?i cia/aiiyi (iiaeo ? iiaoi?ieo
iaeao?a) G/p iaeao?a , aea G-/enei ni?ia ia?aaea/?, oaeei /eiii:

?s = p . e-(G/P)/

aea — cao?eiea iioe?aiiy neaiaeo i?ae aeaiia noaioe?yie, ? ioaea,

U = p e-G/P .

Ia??iae caeiyoino? ia? aeiaaeeiao aeiaaeeio B ? aei??aith?:

B=Y+p+ ,

aea: Y- aeiaaeeiaee /an = 0 i?e a?aenooiino? c?oeiaiue.

Na?aaei?e /an caeiyoino?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,
aei??aith?:
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 = P+
+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,

aea: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-
na?aaeiy aaee/eia a?ae Y

aeei?enoiaoth/e noaiaea?oio oaoi?eo,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,
iiaeia aecia/eoe oaeei /eiii :
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 .

Ia??iae caeiyoino?:
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 .

Oaeei /eiii :
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.

Ia ?en. 4 iiaeaia caeaaei?noue S a?ae G.

O ca’yceo c oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi iioiaieieiiieo eaiae?a ia?aaea/?
aeaieo a ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy iiaoaeiae ia aac? aeaiiai na?aaeiaeua
ia?aaea/? ia?aae c oeiiith oiiieia??th oa CSMA/CD – iaoiaeii aeinooio. C
a?aooaaiiyi iaeiini?yiiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??
i?iiiio?oueny ianooiia no?oeoo?a ia?aae? (?en. 5 ).

A caeaaeiino? a?ae aae?ano i?ecia/aiiy noaioe?y iiaea ia?aaeaaaoe aeai?
ii eaiaeo A /e eaiaeo A, aeae?ath/e iaea?eueo ei?ioeee oeyo.

Aeei?enoaiiy iaeiini?yiiaaieo oei ia?aaea/? aeicaiey? nooo?ai nei?ioeoe
?ici?? “a?eia eiioe?eo?a”, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeai aeey aenieioaeaee?nieo
ia?aae. Iiae?aia no?oeoo?a ia?aae? aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaeaoe
i?i?iaeueii? aeiaaeeie, oiio ui a?aeiaaea? iaiao?aei?noue eiio?ieth
c?oeiaiue. Oea aeicaiey? ia?aaeaaaoe ei?ioe? (64 aaeoa) ioeueoeiaae?ei?
eaae?e. A ?aieao aeaii? no?oeoo?e iiaeeeaa i?aai?caoe?y i??i?eoaoiiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy eaae??a aeaieo, iai?eeeaae, c aaniethoiei i??i?eoaoii.
Oea cae?enith?oueny oaeei /eiii: i?e ??aiiio i??i?eoao? eaae?o aeaieo,
ui ia?aaea?oueny, oa eaae?o aeaieo, ui iinooiea, inoaii?e
caiai’yoiao?oueny a noaioe??, a iio?i ia?aaea?oueny;

yeui i??i?eoao eaae?o, ui iinooiea aeua i??i?eoaoo eaae?o aeaieo, ui
ia?aaea?oueny, oi ia?aaea/a inoaiiueiai eaae?o ia?a?eaa?oueny ?
?ao?aineth?oueny ao?aeiee eaae? aeaieo. I?iaaaeai? a ?aieao
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee aoaeoeai?noue
cai?iiiiiaaii? no?oeoo?e ia?aae? oa iaoiaeo aeinooio, ui a i?e
aeei?enoiao?oueny.

Iniiai? aeniiaee ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe

1. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c niinia?a oi?aae?iiy aeinooiii aei na?aaeiaeua
ia?aaea/?, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a no/anieo aenieioaeaee?nieo
eieaeueieo ia?aaeao. Aecia/ai? iniiai? /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia
/ania? ia?aiao?e ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??. Noi?ioeueiaaii caaea/?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeaaeo? IAN- i?ae??aiy aenieioaeaee?nieo
eieaeueieo ia?aae, i???ioiaaieo ia ia?aaea/o ?ioi?iaoe?? ??ciiiai?oiiai
oeio, a ia?oo /a?ao ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo.

2. Aeey iniiaieo iaoiae?a ia?ea?iiai aeinooio cai?iiiiiaai? caniae
ioe?iee /aniaeo ia?aiao??a aeinooio aei na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/?, ye?
a?aoiaothoue aca?iiee aieea iioie?a aeaieo, a oaeiae aieea cao?eiie,
iia’ycaieo c iaiao?aei?noth i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iaeao?a, ui aeicaieythoue
oei naiei i?aai?coaaoe a?eueo aoaeoeaio i?ioeaaeo?o aeinooio aei
na?aaeiaeua, ui ia?aaea?.

3. Aeey ia?aae? FDDI-II cai?iiiiiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? caniae aiae?co
caaaioaaeaiiy oa /ano aeinooio a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o e
?ioaineaiino? ao?aeiiai o?ao?ea. Canoinoaaiiy aeaieo cania?a aeicaieeei
a ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie caniaaie a?eueo iiaii a?aooaaoe iniaeeaino?
aiae?ciaaiiai noaiaea?oo, ui a naith /a?ao ni?ey? i?aai?caoe?? a?eueo
aoaeoeaiiai aeinooio aei na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/? ? i?aeaeuaiith
aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? a oe?eiio.

4. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co noaiaea?oiiai i?ioieieo IAN ??aiy
ia?aae? FDDI-II cai?iiiiiaaia ? aeine?aeaeaia iiaa i?ioeaaeo?a
?aae?caoe?? aeaiiai i?ioieieo, caniiaaia ia aeei?enoaii? iaoai?cio
?aiiueiai ca?eueiaiiy ia?ea?a ? aecia/aii? iioeiaeueiiai /ano iaa?oaiiy
ia?ea?a. Canoinoaaiiy aeaii? i?ioeaaeo?e aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe
eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/? i?e ia?aaea/?
ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo.

5. Ia iniia? aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? a?aeiieo aeaoa?i?iiaaieo ?
noioanoe/ieo iaoiae?a aeinooio a ia?aaeao c oeiiith oiiieia??th
cai?iiiiiaaiee ? iaa?oioiaaiee eiia?iiaaiee iaoiae aeinooio, ui
aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue na?a?no ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo
aac cieaeaiiy o?ao?ea aeaieo. A yeino? na?aaeiaeua, ui ia?aaea?, aeey
iiae?aieo ia?aae i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe aea? iaeiini?yiiaai?
oeie, iai?eeeaae, iioiaieieiii? oeie.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeo?ae ? ?ic?iaeai? caniae aecia/aiiy oi/ieo cia/aiue
ieaeiuei? ? aa?oiuei? iaae cao?eiee iaeao?a o ia?aaeao c ae?aaiaeaeiith
oiiieia??th ? aeiaaeeiaei iaoiaeii aeinooio c aeyaeaiiyi c?oeiaiiy i?e
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ?ioaineaiinoae iaaeoiaeaeaiiy cayaie.

7. Ia iniia? aiae?co /aniaeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeiaaeeiaiai iaoiaeo a
ia?aaeao c ae?aaiaeaeiith oiiieia??th cai?iiiiiaaia e iaa?oioiaaia
i?ioeaaeo?a ?aae?caoe?? “iaiieaaeeaiai” aeiaaeeiaiai iaoiaeo aeinooio,
ui caaacia/o? caaeaiee ??aaiue na?a?no i?e ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo
aeaieo.

Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe a?aeia?aaeai? a ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aoiaae Aee Aeue-Coae. Iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee ia?ea?iuo iaoiaeia
aeinooia a eieueoeaauo naoyo // A?niee iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “EIE”, ?ioi?iaoeea, oi?aae?iiy oa ia/enethaaeueia
oaoi?ea. — 1998. — ? 31. –N.120 –127.

(Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? e?eueoeaaeo ia?aae c
ia?ea?iei iaoiaeii aeinooio).

2. Aoiaae Aee Aeue-Coae. Iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
eieaeueiuo naoae n oeiiie oiiieiaeae // Aeii?thaaeueia oa
ia/enethaaeueia oaoiiea a oaoiieiai/ieo i?ioeanao. – 1998. — ? 1. –N.
126-129.

(Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaai? iia? noioanoe/i? iiaeae? ia?aae noaiaea?oo
802.3 oa 802.4).

3. Aoiaae Aee Aeue-Coae. Aiaeec i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eieueoeaauo naoae n
ia?ea?iuie iaoiaeaie aeinooia // Aeii?thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia
oaoiiea a oaoiieiai/ieo i?ioeanao. – 1998. — ? 2. –N. 164-165.

(Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? na?aaeiueiai /ano
cao?eiee ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a ia?ea?iiai iaoiaea
aeinooio).

4. Aoiaae Aeue-Coae. Iaoaiaoe/aneee aiaeec iioiea aeaiiuo
onoaiiaeaoaainy a nenoaiao n caieiooie a?aieoeae // Aeii?thaaeueia oa
ia/enethaaeueia oaoiiea a oaoiieiai/ieo i?ioeanao. – 1998. — ? 3. –N.
110-115.

(Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? iioie?a aeaieo a
eieaeueieo ia?aaeao).

5. Aoiaae Aee Aeue-Coae, Aao-A’?a Iaoioae. Aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe
i?eiaiaiey i?ioieieia IA?/OI? a nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeie
i?ioeannaie // Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao, ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue (auione ?1.- 1998).
–N.132-135.

(Aeena?oaioii i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? i?ioieie?a MAP/TOP aeey
ia?aae oi?aae?iiy oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie).

6. Aoiaae Aee Aeue-Coae. Enneaaeiaaiea i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe nenoai
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo // A?niee iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
Oe?a?ie “EIE”, ?ioi?iaoeea, oi?aae?iiy oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea. —
1998. — ? 31. –N.251 –257.

(Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue oa i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iioneii? ni?iiiaeiino? nenoai ia?aaea/? aeaieo).

7. Aoiaae Aee Aeue-Coae. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioieieia MAP/TOP a
naoyo oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie // Aeii?thaaeueia oa
ia/enethaaeueia oaoiiea a oaoiieiai/ieo i?ioeanao. – 1998. — ? 2. –N.
99-104.

(Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ioe?iee oa i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a aeinooio a ia?aaeao oi?aae?iiy
oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie).

8. Eoeaeia TH. A., Aoiaae Aee Aeue-Coae ?aaeecaoeey i?ioieiea
iiiaeanoaaiiiai aeinooia a iioiaieieiiiuo naoyo. // Aei??thaaeueia oa
ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao.- 1998.- ?1. –N.
151-153.

(Aeena?oaioii aeeiiaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
iiiaeeiii ai aeinooio a iioiaieieiiieo ia?aaeao).

9. Kulakov Y. A., Ahmed Al-Zubi. Mathematical models of efficiency
evaluation of ring networks –“Systemy Komputerowe i Sieci”. –1998. -?6.
–N. 201 –209.

(Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aenieioaeaee?nieo
eieaeueieo ia?aae).

10. Eoeaeia TH. A., Aoiaae Aee Aeue-Coae. I?ioeaaeo?a aeinooia e
ia?aaeathuae n?aaea ia iniiaa i?aaiecaoeee eiae/aneeo eaiaeia. //
Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao.-
1999.- ?2. –N. 145-153.

(Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaia i?ioeaaeo?a aeinooio aei na?aaeiaeua ui
ia?aaea?).

Aoiaae Ae? Aaaaae Aeue-Coa?. Niiniae oa caniae i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? eieaeueieo ia?aae, i???ioiaaieo ia ioeueoeiaae?ei?
aeiaeaoee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca oaoii 05.13.13. — Ia/enethaaeuei? iaoeie, nenoaie oa ia?aae?. —
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? niinia?a oa cania?a oi?aae?iiy
aeinooiii aei na?aaeiaeua ia?aaea/?, ui aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe
i?iaeoeoeai?noue eieaeueieo eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae i?e ia?aaea/?
ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo. A ?aieao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?iaaaeaiee
aiae?c a?aeiieo niinia?a oa cania?a oi?aae?iiy aeinooiii aei na?aaeiaeua
ia?aaea/? aenieioaeaee?nieo eieaeueieo ia?aae, i???ioiaaieo ia ia?aaea/o
?ioi?iaoe?? ??ciiiai?oiiai oeio, a ia?oo /a?ao ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo.

?icaeyiooi iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ioe?iee /aniaeo ia?aiao??a ia?aae?
FDDI-II, ui aeicaiey? a ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie aiae?oe/ieie iiaeaeyie
a?eueo iiaii a?aooaaoe iniaeeaino? aeaiiai noaiaea?oo. Cai?iiiiiaaii
iiao i?ioeaaeo?o ?aae?caoe?? i?ioieieo FDDI-II, caniiaaio ia iaoai?ci?
?aiiueiai ca?eueiaiiy ia?ea?a. Ia iniia? aiae?co a?aeiieo iaoiae?a
aeinooio cai?iiiiiaaiee ? iaa?oioiaaiee eiia?iiaaiee iaoiae aeinooio a
ia?aae? c oeiiith oiiieia??th, ui aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue na?a?no
ia?aaea/? ioeueoeiaae?eieo aeaieo aac cieaeaiiy o?ao?ea aeaieo.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a ioe?iee oi/ieo cia/aiue ieaeiuei? oa
aa?oiuei? iaae cao?eiee iaeao?a a ia?aaeao c ae?aaiaeaeiith oiiieia??th
? aeiaaeeiaei iaoiaeii aeinooio c aeyaeaiiyi c?oeiaiiy i?e oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? ?ioaineaiinoae iaaeoiaeaeaiiy cayaie.

Eeth/iaa neiai: iaoiaee aeinooio, o?ao?e, ioeueoeiaae?eia ?ioi?iaoe?y,
i?ioieie, FDDI-II, IAN- ??aaiue.

Ahmad Ali Awwad Al-Zubi. Methods and means of enhancing the output of
local networks, orientated on multimedial appendix. – Manuscript.

The dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Science (Engineering)
in speciality 05.13.13. Computers, systems, and networks. – National
technical university of Ukraine “Kiev polytechnic institute”, Kiev,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to development of ways and means of access
control to transmitting medium, which allow to enhance the output of
local area networks when transmitting multimedial data. Analysis of
well-known ways and means of access control to transmitting medium of
high-speed networks orientated to transmitting deferent kinds of
information and at the first time multimedial data is made in this work.

Mathematical model of evaluation of time parameters of FDDI-II is
offered, which allows in comparison with well-known analytical models to
take into account more the peculiarity of this standard. A new
procedure of realization of FDDI-II protocol, based on mechanism of
token early release is offered. On the base of analysis of well-known
access methods, a combined method of access to network with bus topology
is offered and well-founded, which allows to rise service level of
multimedial data transmission without reducing data traffic. And also a
new way of evaluation of exact values of lower and upper bounds of
packets delay in tree networks with CSMA/CD protocol and wide band of
request arrival rates.

Key words: access method, traffic, multimedial information, protocol,
FDDI-II, MAC-level.

Aoiaae Aee Aaaaae Aeue-Coae. Niiniau e n?aaenoaa iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eieaeueiuo naoae, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia
ioeueoeiaaeeeiua i?eeiaeaiey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.13.13 — Au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu, nenoaiu e naoe.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu “Eeaaneee
iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo”, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea niiniaia e n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey
aeinooiii e ia?aaeathuae n?aaea, iicaieythueo iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eieaeueiuo naoae eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae i?e
ia?aaea/a ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo aeaiiuo. Iainiiauaaaony aeooaeueiinoue oaiu
aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou, oi?ie?oaony oeaeue e caaea/e enneaaeiaaiee,
iniiaiua iieiaeaiey, auiineiua ia caueoo. A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa
iaeanoue e iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey, ii?aaeaeythony iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e
ia?aaea/a ioeueoeiaaeeeiie eioi?iaoeee. N o/aoii yoeo o?aaiaaiee
i?iaiaeeony aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe ecaanoiuo iaoiaeia e i?ioeaaeo?
aeinooia e ia?aaeathuae n?aaea aunieinei?inoiuo eieaeueiuo naoae.
Oi?ie?othony iniiaiua oeaee e caaea/e enneaaeiaaiee.

A ?aieao aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou i?iaaaeai aiaeec ecaanoiuo niiniaia e
n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey aeinooiii e ia?aaeathuae n?aaea aunieinei?inoiuo
eieaeueiuo naoae, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee ?acee/iiai
oeia, a ia?aoth ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo aeaiiuo. I?iaaaeaia ?ac?aaioea e
enneaaeiaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae ?an/aoa a?aiaiiuo ia?aiao?ia
i?ioeaaeo? aeinooia e eiiioieeaoeeiiiie n?aaea eieaeueiuo naoae n
oeaeueth auai?a iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo i?ioeaaeo? ianeoaeeaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia.

I?eaiaeeony aiaeeoe/aneay iiaeaeue n iiiiuueth, eioi?ie iiaeii ioeaieoue
yooaeoeaiinoue iaoiaea aeinooia e ii?aaeaeeoue oa?aeoa? iioiea aeaiiuo a
naoyo FDDI, i?eaaaeai aiaeec a?aiaiiuo ia?aiao?ia i?ioieiea MAC — o?iaiy
naoe FDDI. I?iecaaaeai aiaeec neio?iiiiai ia?ea?iiai i?ioieiea aeey
eiiioieeaoeee a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie, i?aaeeiaeaiu niiniau ii?aaeaeaiey aai
iioeiaeueiiai aeaeaaiiai a?aiaie a?auaiey ia?ea?a (TTRT) e neio?iiiie
iieinu i?iioneaiey.

?ac?aaioea e enneaaeiaaiea niiniaa iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioieieia
FDDI-II i?e ia?aaea/a ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo aeaiiuo.

?anniao?eaathony aii?inu ?aaeecaoeee neo/aeiuo iaoiaeia aeinooia a
aunieinei?inoiuo eieaeueiuo naoyo, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ioeueoeiaaeeeiua
i?eeiaeaiey. I?aaeeaaaaony no?oeoo?a aunieinei?inoiie eieaeueiie naoe,
?aaeeciaaiiay ia iniiaa aeaoo iioiaieieiiiuo oei aeey ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee. ?anniao?eaaaony eiiaeie?iaaiiue iaoiae aeinooia,
iaeaaeathuee i?aeiouanoaaie aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiiai e neo/aeiiai iaoiaeia
aeinooia.

A ?aaioa i?iaiaeeony enneaaeiaaiea e ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu
?aaeecaoeee enneaaeiaaiea “ianoie/eaiai” neo/aeiiai iaoiaea aeinooia a
naoyo n ae?aaiaeaeiie oiiieiaeae. I?aaeeiaeai niinia ioeaiee oi/iuo
cia/aiee ieaeiae e aa?oiae a?aieoe caaea?aeee iaeaoia a naoyo n
ae?aaiaeaeiie oiiieiaeae e neo/aeiui iaoiaeii aeinooia n iaia?oaeaieai
noieeiiaaiey (Tree/CD) i?e aieueoii aeeaiaciia eioaineaiinoae
iinooieaiey cayaie. ?anniao?eaaaony aii?in ?aaeecaoeee “ianoie/eaiai”
neo/aeiiai iaoiaea aeinooia a naoyo n ae?aaiaeaeiie oiiieiaeae.

?anniio?aia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue ioeaiee a?aiaiiuo ia?aiao?ia naoe
FDDI-II, iicaieythuay ii n?aaiaieth n ecaanoiuie aiaeeoe/aneeie
iiaeaeyie aieaa iieii o/anoue iniaaiiinoe aeaiiiai noaiaea?oa.
I?aaeeiaeaia iiaay i?ioeaaeo?a ?aaeecaoeee i?ioieiea FDDI-II, iniiaaiiay
ia iaoaiecia ?aiiaai inaiaiaeaeaiey ia?ea?a. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca ecaanoiuo
iaoiaeia aeinooia i?aaeeiaeai e iainiiaai eiiaeie?iaaiiue iaoiae
aeinooia a naoe n oeiiie oiiieiaeae, iicaieythuee iiauneoue o?iaaiue
na?aena ia?aaea/e ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo aeaiiuo aac nieaeaiey o?aoeea
aeaiiuo. I?aaeeiaeai iiaue niinia ioeaiee oi/iuo cia/aiee ieaeiae e
aa?oiae a?aieoe caaea?aeee iaeaoia a naoyo n ae?aaiaeaeiie oiiieiaeae e
neo/aeiui iaoiaeii aeinooia n iaia?oaeaieai noieeiiaaiey i?e oe?ieii
aeeaiaciia eioaineaiinoae iinooieaiey cayaie.

I?aeoe/aneay oeaiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou
ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiiua niiniau e i?ioeaaeo?u oi?aaeaiey
aeinooiii iicaieytho nouanoaaiii iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eieaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae, iaania/eaay i?e yoii
o?aaoaiue o?iaaiue na?aena aeey ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo i?eeiaeaiee.
I?aaeeiaeaiiua iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee, niiniau e i?ioeaaeo?u aeiaaaeaiu
aei i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee a aeaea i?ia?aii e iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu a eiie?aoiuo eieaeueiuo naoyo.

Aeinoiaa?iinoue oai?aoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony
aeieacaoaeuenoaaie iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee, auaiaeia e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eo
yenia?eiaioaeueiie i?iaa?eie.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou ianoaeaeaeenue ia:

1. V — iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Aei??thaaeueia oa
ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao” (16-19 ethiy 1998,
a. Oiaeueieoeeee).

2. II — iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “Eiiiuethoa?iua nenoaiu e
naoe”, (26-27 ethiy 1998a. , ?aeaoaa, Iieueoa).

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou iioaeeeiaaiu a 10 iao/iuo
?aaioao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoiaeu aeinooia, o?aoee, ioeueoeiaaeeeiay eioi?iaoeey,
i?ioieie, FDDI-II, IAN-o?iaaiue.

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