?aoa?iaaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith niinia?a
aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a oaenoao aiae?enueei?
iiac?? OVIII-OO noie?oue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?th aeeiiaii a iaaeao
iaoeiai? oaie “Oeiieia?y oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaieo iaeeieoeue
oiiaoe/ii?, a?aiaoe/ii? oa eaene/ii? nenoai no/anieo aa?iainueeeo ?
?iiainueeeo iia: eiai?oeaiee, eiioi?eaoeaiee oa i?aaiaoe/iee aniaeoe”,
ui ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith eaeneeieia?? oa noee?noeee aiae?enueei?
iiae Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (oaia
caoaa?aeaeaia ?aaeith EAeEO, i?ioieie ? 5 a?ae 27 n?/iy 1997 ?ieo).

I?iaeaia a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa iaeaaeeoue aei ?ic?yaeo eeane/ieo oai,
a?ae?iaeaeaiith yeeo ni?eyee caaaeuei? ianoaiiae aio?iiioeaio?ecio oa
oaenoioeaio?ecio, ui aecia/athoue ni?yiiaai?noue no/anieo e?iaa?noe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aoaeo/e ?icaeyiooith c iiaeo iaoeiaeo iiceoe?e, i?iaeaia
noa’?eoa iaaoaa? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino?.

?niothoue aea? iniiai? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oa?i?ia “noa’?eo”: “noa’?eo” ye
iaeei c aeaio eiiiiiaio?a i?aaeeeaoeaii? no?oeoo?e ?a/aiiy ? “noa’?eo” o
cia/aii? “iin?e i?ciaaaeueii?, i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii? oa eiioi?eaoeaii?
ae?yeueiino?”, ui anioe?th?oueny c eiioeaioii “ethaeeia” (TH.N.
Noaiaiia; aeea. oaeiae Eeiaaenoe/aneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue
1990; Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue 1989). Oa?i?i “noa’?eo” o
ia?oiio cia/aii? o?aaeeoe?eii aeei?enoiao?oueny a e?iaa?noeoe? i?e
aiae?c? no?oeoo?e ?a/aiiy. Noa?a ae aeei?enoaiiy noa’?eoa o ae?oaiio
cia/aii? aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano iaiaaeoaaeany ?aieaie e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai
aiae?co ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o, aea iniiaieie noa’?eoaie aeciathoueny
aaoi?, ia?niiaae, a oaeiae /eoa/ (I.I. Aaoo?i). ? eeoa inoaii?i /anii, c
?ioaineo?eaoe??th i?aaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ii/aeinue “canai?iiy”
noa’?eoa o ae?oaiio cia/aii? e?iaa?noe/iith iaoeith. A i?aaiaoe/i?e
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? noa’?eo iinoa? ye iiaia iniaeno?noue, ?i?oe?aoi?
aa?aaeueii? eiioi?eaoe??. Neiii?i?/i?noue oa?i?i?a “noa’?eo” ?
“eiioi?eaio” aecia/aia aio?iiieia?/ii, ine?eueee naiaioeea aeaieo
oa?i?i?a aa?a na?e ii/aoie a?ae eiioeaioo “ethaeeia”.

Ni?a?nioaaiiy a e?iaa?noeoe? oaenoo aeaio iniiaieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e
noa’?eoa — neioaene/ii? oa i?aaiaoe/ii? — coiiaeaia oei, ui, aoaeo/e
neeaaeiei eiioi?eaoeaiei oe?eei, oaeno (oae naii, ye ? neooaoe?y oniiai
iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy) caa?iooee, c iaeiiai aieo, aei nenoaie iiaieo
eiinoeoooeaieo iaeeieoeue, a c ?ioiai aieo — aei eiioi?eaoeaiiai aeoo
(?.I. Nonia). Iniaeeaino? oaenoo ye eiioi?eaoeaiiai ooai?aiiy, ui
aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? iiae, aecia/athoue niaoeeo?eo eiai noa’?eoii?
no?oeoo?e, yea ?icai?oa?oueny o aeaio noa?ao, a?aeiia?aeii aei aeaio
aniaeo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oaenoo: a noa?? eiioi?eaoe??, aea noa’?eoo
iaaea?oueny eiioi?eaoeaiiai noaoono, ? a noa?? iiae, aea noa’?eo
ianaiia?aae ni?aa?aeiineoueny c iaaiei aeaiioaoii. Aio?iiieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeaiiy oaenoo aeicaiey? c?noaaeoe aea? iniiai?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? noa’?eoa, iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?ao ??cieoeth i?ae ieie.
Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an o oeueiio ieai? noaiiaeoue “ss”-noa’?eo. A?aeiii, ui
“…iaeia c iniiaieo e?i?e i?aaiaoe/ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeneiaethaaiiy —
oea “?icoa?oaaiiy” “ss” iiaoey: ia “ss” ye i?aeiao ?a/aiiy, “ss” ye
noa’?eoa iiaeaiiy, ia?aoo?, ia “ss” ye aioo??oi? “Aai”, ui eiio?ieth?
naiiai noa’?eoa” (TH.N. Noa-iaiia). A?aeiia?aeii, “ss” iinoa? ye
iie?noa’?eo, ui aae?a? a naaa oa?aeoa?enoeee noa’?eo?a ??cieo aniaeo?a:
neioaene/iiai oa eiioi?eaoeaiiai.

Iiaeeea?noue ii?aeiaiiy ??ciianiaeoieo iiiyoue i?ae caaaeueiei oa?i?iii
“noa’?eo” aei?aaaeaia aoeiieia?/iith iniaeea?noth naiaioeee oa?i?ia.
“Noa’?eo” (“subjectus”) a ia?aeeaae? c eaoeinueei? iiae icia/a? “oaeee,
ui eaaeeoue ianiiae?, oaeee, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a iniia?” a?ae “sub” —
“i?ae” ? “jacio” — “eeaeath, eeaaeo a iniiao” (Oeeinioneee
yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue 1989). Aiane?aeie oaei? naiaioeee oa?i?i
“noa’?eo” iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey iicia/aiiy ??ciianiaeoieo yaeu —
? oiai, ui eaaeeoue a iniia? ?a/aiiy-aeneiaethaaiiy ye eiiiiiaio
i?aaeeeaoeaii? no?oeoo?e, ? oiai, ooi caeeaaea? iniiao aeaniiai
aeneiaethaaiiy, oiaoi iiaii? iniaenoino?.

I?ioa “iaoa?oaaiiy” ??ciianiaeoieo noa’?eoieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eoaiaiia
ia eeoa “ss”-noa’?eoo. Aeyaeaiiy iiae?aieo aa??aio?a noa? iiaeeeaei i?e
caa?iaii? aei a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa aeneiaethaaiiy. Iai?eeeaae, o
eiaeiiio c iaaaaeaieo ieae/a o?aaiaio?a aei ?aiao a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa
?a/aiiy i?aeiineoueny iiiyooy “ethaeeia”. Aeo?ae aea aeine?aeaeaiiy ca
?aiee ?a/aiiy — aei aeneiaethaaiiy — aea? iiaeeea?noue “iiaa/eoe” ca
iiiyooyi “ethaeeia” aeaui a?eueoa, a naia:

AAe?ANAIOA — “NAIIAI” IIAOess

In all my griefs — and God has given my share —

I still had hopes my latest hours to crown…(O. Goldsmith)

AAe?ANAIOA — “?IOIAI” IIAOess

“So what am I to do?” said the poet ( J. Heath-Stubbs)

AAe?ANAOA

And certainly at night you’ll sleep and dream,

Live through the day and bustle as you please…(R. Browning)

IAEIIOI?EAIOA (ia?niiaae, yeee ? o?eueee i?aaeiaoii

aeoiee)

When weary reapers quit the sultry field (A. Pope)

“Ceeooy” neioaene/iiai oa eiioi?eaoeaiiai eiiiiiaio?a oaenoiai?
naiaioeee coiiaeth?oueny ?aei?noth eiai?oeaiiai oa eiioi?eaoeaiiai
eiiiiiaio?a iiaeaii?aiai ieneaiiy (I.I. Ai?iaeiaa).

Aeae?eai? oeie a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa — “ss”-noa’?eo, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?
aae?anaioa — “naiiai” iiaoey, “a?i”-noa’?eo, ui ?aeaioeo?eo? aae?anaioa
— “?ioiai” iiaoey, “oe”-noa’?eo, yeee ?aeaioeo?eo? aae?anaoa, ? noa’?eo,
eio?ee ?aeaioeo?eo? iaeiioi?eaioa, — neeaee iniiao i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Caa?iaiiy aei a?aiaoe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a aeneiaethaaiiy noa? iiaeeeaei
aiane?aeie oiai, ui aeneiaethaaiiy ye nenoaia neeaaea?oueny ?c
noeoiiino? ci?noiaeo neioaene/ieo eaoaai??e — /eai?a ?a/aiiy (I.A.
Aaaeo?acaeia). Caa?iaiiy ae aei a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa aeneiaethaaiiy a
iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? coiiaeaia oei, ui iaoa??aeii aeey aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaee oaenoe iiac??. A, ye a?aeiii, neioaene/ia
niaoeeo?ea iiaoe/iiai iiaeaiiy ni?iiiaeia aeyaeoe naaa iiaiith i??ith
eeoa i?e aeoiae? neioaene/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ca iaae? ?a/aiiy (?.?.
Eiaooiiaa) — aei iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy.

?iaioa c iiaoe/iei oaenoii noaea oaeoi?ii, yeee aecia/ea caaaeueiee
?aeo?n aeine?aeaeaiiy, a naia: eiai ni?yiiaai?noue a iiaoe/ia ?onei,
a?aooaaiiy iniiaieo aeanoeainoae iiaoe/iiai iiaeaiiy ?, ianaiia?aae, —
aiioeaii? coiiaeaiino? iiaoe/iiai ci?noo. Ca?aeii c e?iaa?noe/iith
o?aaeeoe??th iiiyooy aiioeaiino? o?nii iia’yco?oueny c iiiyooyi
aeni?aneaiino?, i?ae yeith ?icoi??oueny noeoii?noue
naiaioeei-noee?noe/ieo iciae iaeeieoe? iiae, ui caaacia/othoue ??
cae?ai?noue aenooiaoe a eiioi?eaoeaiiio aeo? ye can?a ae?aaeaiiy
noaaeaiiy iiaoey aei ci?noo aai aei aae?anaoa iiaeaiiy” (Eeiaaenoe/aneee
yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue 1990). Oai?/ee ?icoi iiaoa aeiaoiaeeoue
oae? iiaeaii?a? aa??aioe, ye? ni?eythoue oe?eyi aaeaeaaoii? ia?aaea/?
iiaoe/iiai ci?noo. Oea noa? iiaeeeaei ianaiia?aae ca ?aooiie
naiaioe/ieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue iiaieo cania?a (?.?.
Eiaooiiaa). A iiaoe/iiio oaeno? icia/oaaia e icia/oaaeueia iiaiiai
ciaea aneiao?e/i?: “icia/oaaeueia ciaea i?aaia iaoe ?io? ooieoe??, i?ae
eiai aeania; icia/oaaia i?aaia aei oiai, uia ae?aceoe naaa ?ioeie
caniaaie, i?ae eiai aeaniee ciae” (N. Ea?oeaanueeee, ?.?. Eiaooiiaa).
Iaeiei c iniiaieo aeaea?ae aeni?an?? i?e ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai
noa’?eoa (“i?aeiaoa”) a iiaoe/iiio oaeno? ? aneiao??y oi?ie oa ci?noo,
ui noai?th? iaoaoi?o a ?aieao ni?aa?aeiioaiiy “Noa’?eo — I?aaeeeao”.

Ia’?eo aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee caniae aa?aaeueii? ?aae?caoe??
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa aeneiaethaaiiy a aiae?enueeeo iiaoe/ieo oaenoao
OVIII-OO noie?oue. I?aaeiao aiae?co — eaeneei-naiaioe/i?, neioaene/i?,
eiioi?eaoeai? oa eiiiiceoe?ei? iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? aeae?eaieo oei?a
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a oaenoao aiae?enueei? iiac??.

Iaoa ?iaioe — aeyaeaiiy niinia?a aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai
noa’?eoa aeneiaethaaiiy a aiae?enueeiio iiaoe/iiio oaeno?, a oaeiae
aecia/aiiy oaeoi??a, ye? iioeaothoue aeni?aneaii cia/ou? niiniae
?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoei ia?aaeaa/aii ae??oaiiy ?yaeo
caaaeaiue:

Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeni?an?? i?e
?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a aiae?enueeiio iiaoe/iiio oaeno?: a
ieai? icia/oaaiiai, a ieai? icia/oaaeueiiai ? a ieai? eiia?ioaaiiy
noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa oaeno?.

Eeaneo?eoaaiiy a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy ca oeiii
ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e noa’?eoa.

Aecia/aiiy aeni?aneaii cia/oueo niinia?a ?aae?caoe?? aeae?eaieo oei?a
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy: a ?iciaaeoaaii? cania?a
aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa (iiaieo oa iiaeaii?aeo)
? aeni?aneaii cia/oueo aa??aio?a eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa
oaeno?.

Aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a, ye? ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith ?ioaineaiino? aeni?an??
i?e ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a aiae?enueeiio iiaoe/iiio oaeno?

Iniiaieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iaoiaee eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai,
neioaene/iiai oa eiiiiceoe?eiiai aiae?co a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa
iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy, a oaeiae iaoiae aiae?co iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a
ieai? iiaoe/ii? eiioi?eaoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa i?iaiaeeeiny a aniaeoao eaene/ii?
naiaioeee, neioaeoeee oa i?aaiaoeee: o ?o niaoeeo?/iiio a?aeaeoo?,
coiiaeaiiio iniaeeainoyie iiaoe/ii? eiioi?eaoe??.

I?e iienaii? cania?a aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa
iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy ie iia?oaaee oa?i?iaie “aeane?eioe?y” oa
“oeeoaoe?y” (A. Aaaeaeoeueea, I.Ae. A?oothiiaa). ?iciaaeoaaiiy aeaio
aeae?a iieniaeo ae?ac?a — aeane?eioe?? oa oeeoaoe?? — i?iaiaeeeiny ia
iniia? oeio oa?aeoa?ecoth/i? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui cao?eniaaia o ae?ac?:
?ioi?iaoe?y, yea ??oioo?oueny ia ia’?eoeaieo aeaieo, i?eoaiaiia
aeane?eioe??, ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui ??oioo?oueny ia noa’?eoeai?e ioe?ioe?, — ?
niaoeeo?/iith iciaeith oeeoaoe?? (aei ?ic?yaeo oeeoaoe?e a?aeianaii
oaeiae ae?ace iaoaoi?e/iiai oeio).

A ?iaio? aeei?enoiao?oueny iiiyooy “?ioaineaiino? aeni?an??”, eio?a
o?aeoo?oueny ye e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeni?aneaiino?, ye i??a
aeni?aneaiino? (?.?. Oo?ainueeee).

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeiiaii ia iaoa??ae? oaeno?a aiae?enueei? iiac??
OVIII-OO noie?oue, caaaeueiee ianya yeeo noaiiaeoue 12000 noi??iie. A
oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiae?ciaaii 1800 i?eeeaae?a. Caa?iaiiy aei
oaeno?a ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo, eio?ee ioiieth? o?e e?oa?aoo?ieo iai?yiee
— eeaneoeecio, ?iiaioecio ? ?aae?cio — aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe
iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? aeae?eaieo oei?a a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa ia
o?eueee a ?one? ??cieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iiaoe/ieo nenoai, aea ? a ?one?
??cieo e?oa?aoo?ieo iai?yie?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ??ciei ?noi?e/iei
aiioai. A oea, c?aooith, ni?eyei aecia/aiith oaeoi??a, ui iioeaothoue
aeni?aneaii cia/ou? niiniae ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a
aiae?enueeiio iiaoe/iiio oaeno?.

Iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

I?aenoaaith aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa ?a/aiiy a
iiaoe/iiio oaeno? iiaea neoaeeoe oei ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e noa’?eoa, yeee
aecia/a?oueny a iaaeao aeneiaethaaiiy. Eeaneo?eaoe?y a?aiaoe/iiai
noa’?eoa iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy i?noeoue aea? iniiai? a?oie. Aei
ia?oi? a?oie a?aeianaii noa’?eoe, ye? ?aeaioeo?eothoue EIIOI?EAIOA:
noa’?eo ?c cia/aiiyi “Aae?anaio” (“ss”- noa’?eo, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?
“naiiai” iiaoey, “a?i”-noa’?eo, ui ?aeaioeo?eo? “?ioiai” iiaoey a
eiino?oeoe?yo c i?yiith iiaith, ae?aeiaao ? iie?eiaao); noa’?eo ?c
cia/aiiyi “Aae?anao” (“oe”- noa’?eo). Aei ae?oai? a?oie a?aeianaii
noa’?eoe, ye? ?aeaioeo?eothoue IAEIIOI?EAIOA (aoaeue-yeee i?aaeiao,
ia’?eo aai yaeua, ui ? eeoa i?aaeiaoii iia?aeiieaiiy).

2. ?aae?caoe?y a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a aiae?enueeiio iiaoe/iiio oaeno?
cae?enith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei “caeii?a” iiaoe/iiai iiaeaiiy, ui
iioeaothoue i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeni?an??. Oey caeiiii??i?noue
i?inoaaeo?oueny a ieai? icia/oaaiiai, a ieai? icia/oaaeueiiai ? a ieai?
eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa oaeno?. I?e oeueiio /?oei
aecia/a?oueny ?aeeia oaiaeaioe?y: iaeo?aeueiei aa??aioii o an?o
aeiaaeeao ? noa’?eo-i?ioioei (aai i?ioioei?/iee aa??aio eiia?ioaaiiy
noa’?eo?a), yeee ?aae?co? i?e?iaeii iaoiiaeai? niaoeeo?/i? noa’?eoi?
aeanoeaino? aai ooieoe?? a iaea?eueo /enoiio aeaeyae?, aac aeii?oee
?ioeo aeanoeainoae aai ooieoe?e. A i??o a?aeaeaeaiiy a?ae i?ioioeio aei
ia?eoa???, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny “?ic??aeaeoaaiiyi” niaoeeo?/ii?
aeanoeaino? aai i?e?inoii iaoa?aeoa?ieo aeey noa’?eoa aeanoeainoae aai
ooieoe?e, a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?iuaiiy aeni?aneaii? cia/ouino?
aeneiaethaaiiy. Iniiaia i?e/eia aeni?aneaiino? ia?eoa??eieo aa??aio?a
iieyaa? a iaoaoi?ecaoe?? nieneo.

3. O iiaoe/iiio oaeno?, yeiio aeanoeaa “caouaiiy” naiaioeee /a?ac
“u?euei?noue a??oiaiai ?yaeo”, ae?? oaiaeaioe?y aei ia?iuoaaiiy
?ioi?iaoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo oa neioaaiaoe/iiai ?icai?oaiiy aeneiaethaaiiy
i?e ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa. Iieacieeii oaiaeaioe?? ? a?eueo
oe?iea aaeeaaiiy iieniaeo ae?ac?a (aeane?eioe?e oa oeeoaoe?e) a iiceoe??
noa’?eoa ?a/aiiy. Ianya ? oa?aeoa? iieniaeo ae?ac?a coiiaeththoueny
oeiii ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e noa’?eoa. Iiaoe/ia oeeoaoe?y, ye noee?noe/ii
ia?eiaaiee neiii?i iaeo?aeueiiai aa??aioa, yaey? niaith can?a
aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa. Oey aeanoea?noue
oeeoaoe?? aeyaey?oueny i?e ?aae?caoe?? noa’?eo?a on?o aeae?eaieo oei?a.
Aeane?eioe?y iaaoaa? aeni?aneaii? cia/ouino? eeoa o aeiaaeeao “ss”- ?
“oe”-noa’?eo?a, a ci?noia?e no?oeoo?? eio?eo ocoaeueii cae??ieaia
cia/aiiy “eiioi?eaio” (a ci?noia?e no?oeoo?? “ss” — cia/aiiy
“ethaeeia-aae?anaio”, a ci?noia?e no?oeoo?? “oe” — cia/aiiy
“ethaeeia-aae?anao”).

4. Aeni?aneaii cia/ou? aa??aioe eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa
oaeno? ?ai?acaioiaaii aeaiia a?oiaie. Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeianaii
aa??aioe eiia?ioaaiiy, ui aacothoueny ia ii?aeiaii? ianoi?niiai ? ia
i?eioeei? “??cii??aeiino?” (c?noaaeaiiy aai i?ioenoaaeaiiy naiaioe/ii
??cii??aeieo iiiyoue, ye? i?aeianaii aei ?aiao noa’?eoa). Aei ae?oai?
a?oie a?aeianaii aa??aioe eiia?ioaaiiy, ui ??oioothoueny ia ia?iuoaaii?
caaaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo aeneiaethaaiiy (aiaoi?e/iee
iiaoi? o ia?aeaeueieo eiino?oeoe?yo, i?eeeaaeea, neioaene/ia
oaaoieia?y). Niaoeeo?ea aeni?aneaii cia/oueo aa??aio?a eiia?ioaaiiy
noa’?eo?a coiiaeaia oeiii ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e noa’?eo?a.

5. Nooo?aee aieea ia aea?? niinia?a ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a
aiae?enueeeo iiaoe/ieo oaenoao OVIII-OO noie?oue a?ae?a?athoue,
ianaiia?aae, oaeoi?e e?oa?aoo?iiai iai?yieo oa ?iaeo e?oa?aoo?e.
Iaeaeua /anoioa aeiaaee?a aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? an?o aeae?eaieo oei?a
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa niinoa??aa?oueny a aiae?enueeeo iiaoe/ieo oaenoao
aiioe ?iiaioecio. I?e oeueiio aeiaaeee aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? “ss”-
? “oe”- noa’?eo?a aeyaeythoueny iaea?eueo /anoioieie o oaenoao e??e/ii?
iiac?? aiioe ?iiaioecio. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o ieai? iioeaaoe?? aeni?aneaii
cia/oueo niinia?a ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa o oaenoao
aiae?enueei? iiac?? OVIII-OO noie?oue a?ae?a?a? oaeiae oaeoi?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noeeth.

A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa
iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy ca eiioi?eaoeaiei e?eoa???i. Aeni?aneai?noue
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a iiaoe/iiio oaeno? aeine?aeaeaii a ?aeo?n?
“I?ioioei (oeaio?) — Ia?eoa??y”, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe
ca’ycie i?ae aeni?aneaiith cia/ou?noth a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa (aai
aa??aioa eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a) oa eiai ia?eoa??eiei noaoonii.
Aeuacaaaeaia coiiaeth? iaoeiao iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e ?ic?iaeaii
oai??th a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa ia iiaoe/iiio iaoa??ae?, aeine?aeaeaii
ieoaiiy aeni?aneaiino? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy,
anoaiiaeaii oaeoi?e, ye? ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith ?ioaineaiino? aeni?an??
i?e ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a iiaoe/iiio oaeno?. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe iiaeooue noaoe iioeaii aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue
o oe?e aaeoc?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny iiaeeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy ??
?acoeueoao?a o eo?n? noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae i?e aea/aii? oai
“Noee?noe/iee neioaenen”, “Noee?noe/ia ii?oieia?y”, “Noee?noe/ia
naian?ieia?y”, “Noee?noe/ia oiiaoeea”, a oaeiae o niaoeeo?nao ?c
noee?noeee oa a?aiaoeee.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a.
Ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 183 noi??iee. O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny oaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? oeiieia??
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy, a oaeiae
aeine?aeaeaiith iniiaieo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeni?an?? i?e
?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a iiaoe/iiio oaeno? (a ieai?
icia/oaaiiai, a ieai? icia/oaaeueiiai ? a ieai? eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a o
?a/aii? oa oaeno?). O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny niiniae
aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? noa’?eoa, yeee ?aeaioeo?eo? eiioi?eaioa, o
o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — niiniae aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? noa’?eoa, yeee
?aeaioeo?eo? iaeiioi?eaioa. O aeniiaeao i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae ie?aneaii ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue c aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee. Iniiaiee oaeno ?iaioe
aeiiiaith?oueny nieneii e?oa?aoo?e oa nieneii aeaea?ae oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo. A aeiaeaoeao iaaaaeaii o?aaiaioe oaeno?a, ui ?ethno?othoue
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aoa i?aaeiaoii iaaiai?aiiy ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e eaeneeieia?? oa noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a oaeiae ia
/aoaa?o?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “sscue e eoeueoo?a” (Ee?a, 1995).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?aeia?aaeaii o 4 noaooyo aaoi?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

?aae?caoe?y a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a aiae?enueeiio iiaoe/iiio oaeno?
cae?enith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei caeii?a iiaoe/iiai iiaeaiiy, ui
iioeaothoue ia?iuoaaiiy aeni?aneaiiai iioaioe?aeo aeneiaethaaiiy. Oey
caeiiii??i?noue i?inoaaeo?oueny a ieai? icia/oaaiiai, a ieai?
icia/oaaeueiiai ? a ieai? eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa oaeno?.
?ioeie neiaaie, aeni?anea?caoe?y niinoa??aa?oueny ia an?o ??aiyo,
aecia/aieo ooieoe?iiaeueiith niaoeeo?eith noa’?eoa: i?e ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
i?aaeiaoa ae?eniino?, iiiyooy i?i eio?ee i?aeianaii aei ?aiao noa’?eoa,
i?e noai?aii? naiaioe/iiai oiio aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? i?aaeeeaoa ? i?e
aecia/aii? oaiaoe/ii? ca’yciino? ?a/aiiy oa oaenoo. Iniiao aeni?aneaii?
?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa neeaaeathoue naiaioe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy
oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?uaiiy, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei iaoaoi?ecaoe?? nieneo.

I?e aea/aii? iniaeeainoae aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa
a iiaoe/iiio oaeno? aniaeo “icia/oaaia” aeyaey?oueny iaaeinoaoi?i,
ine?eueee niaoeeo?ea niinia?a aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? noa’?eoa
coiiaeaia, ianaiia?aae, ?ieeth nooiino?, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?oueny noa’?eoii,
o ieai? iiaoe/ii? eiioi?eaoe??. Aeaiee oaeo noaa i?e/eiith aeoiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiy ca iaae? ?a/aiiy — a iaeanoue aeneiaethaaiiy — ?
caa?iaiiy aei ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa, yea
aecia/a?oueny a iaaeao iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy. Ci?noiaa no?oeoo?a
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa aeneiaethaaiiy ? cia/ii oe?oith, i?ae i?inoa
icia/oaaia noa’?eoa ?a/aiiy, ine?eueee aeeth/a? ia o?eueee naiaioe/iee
eiiiiiaio, aea ? eiioi?eaoeaiee, yeee aecia/a? noaoon eiioi?eaioa
(aae?anaioa aai aae?anaoa). Ca a?aiaoe/iei noa’?eoii iiaoe/iiai
aeneiaethaaiiy “noi?oue” ia eeoa iiiyooy i?i i?aaeiao aai ia’?eo, ui
iaaoaa? noaoono noa’?eoa, a iiaoe/ia yaeua, yeiio iaaea?oueny iaaia
cia/ou?noue o caaaeueiiio ieai? iiaoe/ii? eiioi?eaoe??.. Eeaneo?eaoe?y
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa iiaoe/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy i?noeoue aea? iniiai?
a?oie. Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeianaii noa’?eoe, ui ?aeaioeo?eothoue
EIIOI?EAIOA: noa’?eo ?c cia/aiiyi “Aae?anaio” (“ss”-noa’?eo, ui
?aeaioeo?eo? “naiiai” iiaoey, “a?i”-noa’?eo, ui ?aeaioeo?eo? “?ioiai”
iiaoey a eiino?oeoe?yo c i?yiith iiaith, ae?aeiaao ? iie?eiaao); noa’?eo
?c cia/aiiyi “Aae?anao” (“oe”- noa’?eo). Aei ae?oai? a?oie a?aeianaii
noa’?eoe, ui ?aeaioeo?eothoue IAEIIOI?EAIOA (aoaeue-yeee i?aaeiao,
ia’?eo aai iiiyooy, ui ? o?eueee i?aaeiaoii iia?aeiieaiiy).

Naiaioe/ia iaiiaiaiiy eiaeiiai c aeae?eaieo oei?a noa’?eoa a
aiae?enueeiio iiaoe/iiio oaeno? iiaea aa??thaaoe. “ss” iiaea aooe
aaoiiiiiei aaoi?nueeei, ocaaaeueiaiei, ia?niiaaeiei (iaeiae o eiaeiiio
aeiaaeeo aiii iaiiaiaia ci?noii aaoi?nueeiai “ss”). “Oe” iiaea aooe
iaei??th c oi?i ?aae?caoe?? cia/aiiy “ss”, iiaea aooe a?aeianaii aei
iaaecia/aiiai aae?anaoa, aei eiie?aoii? iniaenoino?, aei aoaeue-yeiai
i?aaeiaoa, ia’?eoa /e yaeua ?aaeueii? aai eaac??aaeueii? ae?eniino?.
Iiaoeai o iiaoe/iiio oaeno? iiaea noaoe ia o?eueee ethaeeia — iiaeaeue
iiaii? iniaenoino?, aea ? aoaeue-yeee i?aaeiao, ia’?eo, yaeua aai
aano?aeoia iiiyooy, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?oueny “a?i”-noa’?eoii. Ieoiia aaaa
ooaeiaei?o a?aenooi?a a?ae ii?ie, eiee noaoono noa’?eoa (i?e
i?aaeeeao? — ae??neia? ae?? aai noaio) iaaoaa? iiiyooy i?i iaaeeao
?noioo, aeyaey?oueny cia/ii oe?oith o aeiaaeeo noa’?eoa, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?
iaeiioi?eaioa.

Aeoiaey/e c iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? i?ioioei?a (aeea. E?aoeee
neiaa?ue eiaieoeaiuo oa?ieiia 1996; Naiaioeea e eaoaai?ecaoeey 1991), ie
?icaeyioee noa’?eo ye i?ioioei?/io eaoaai??th: noa’?eo-i?ioioei
aecia/aii ye /eai eaoaai???, ui ?aae?co? niaoeeo?/i? noa’?eoi?
aeanoeaino? aai ooieoe?? “a iaea?eueo /enoiio aeaeyae?”, “aac aeii?oee
?ioeo aeanoeainoae” aai ooieoe?e. Aeyaeaiiy i?ioioeio cae?enithaaeiny a
ieai? icia/oaaiiai, a ieai? icia/oaaeueiiai ? a ieai? eiia?ioaaiiy
noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa oaeno?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy niinia?a aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a
iiaoe/iiio oaeno? (a ieai? icia/oaaiiai, a ieai? icia/oaaeueiiai ? a
ieai? eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa oaeno?) cana?ae/o? iayai?noue
?aeeii? oaiaeaioe??: iaeo?aeueiei aa??aioii o an?o aeiaaeeao ?
noa’?eo-i?ioioei (aai i?ioioei?/iee aa??aio eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a),
eio?ee ?aae?co? i?e?iaeii iaoiiaeai? niaoeeo?/i? noa’?eoi? aeanoeaino?
aai ooieoe?? a iaea?eueo /enoiio aeaeyae?, aac aeii?oee ?ioeo
aeanoeainoae aai ooieoe?e. C a?aeaeaeai-iyi a?ae i?ioioeio aei
ia?eoa???, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny “?ic??aeaeoaai-iyi” niaoeeo?/ii?
aeanoeaino? aai i?e?inoii iaoa?aeoa?ieo aeey noa’?eoa aeanoeainoae aai
ooieoe?e, niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy aeni?aneaii? cia/ouino?
aeneiaethaaiiy.

Niaoeeo?ea noa’?eoa a ieai? icia/oaaiiai iaoiiaeaia aeanoea?noth
aaaioeaiino?. I?ioioei ?ai?acaioiaaii noa’?eoii ?c cia/aiiyi aeeai?
?noioe ?, ianaiia?aae, ?c cia/aiiyi “ethaeeia”: iiiyooth “ethaeeia”
i?eoaiaiiee iaeaeuee “nooi?iue ?iaeea?aeiino?” (TH.N. Noaiaiia). C
a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae i?ioioeio aei ia?eoa???, oiaoi a i??o ciaioaiiy
nooiaiy ?iaeea?aeiino?, ca?eueoo?oueny iiaeeea?noue i?eienoaaiiy
iiiyooth-noa’?eoo ae?e, ye? eiio ia aeanoea?. A?aeiia?aeii,
ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue ae??ne?a-i?aaeeeao?a, c yeeie noa’?eo
anoaiiaeth? iaoaoi?e/i? ca’ycee. Iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue aeni?aneaii?
oe?iiino? i?eoaiaiiee iaea?aeaeaeai?o?e ia?eoa??? — noa’?eoo c
aano?aeoiei cia/aiiyi, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiaiith a?aenooi?noth
i?e?iaeii? aeanoeaino? aaaioeaiino?: i?eienoaaiiy oaeiio noa’?eoo
aoaeue-yeiai ae??neiaa-i?aaeeeaoa iaaoaa? aeni?aneaii? cia/ouino?,
ine?eueee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaoaoi?ecaoe??th ii e?i?? “Noa’?eo —
I?aaeeeao”.

Niaoeeo?ea noa’?eoa a ieai? icia/oaaeueiiai iaoiiaeaia i?ecia/ai?noth
aei ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? i?aaeiaoa ae?eniino?, i?i yeee ?aeaoueny.
I?ioioei?/ieie ?: o aeiaaeeo “ss”- ? “oe”-noa’?eo?a — noa’?eo,
?aae?ciaaiee caeiaiieeii; o aeiaaeeo “a?i”-noa’?eoa, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?
eiioi?eaioa, ? o aeiaaeeo noa’?eoa, ui ?aeaioeo?eo? iaeiioi?eaioa —
noa’?eo, ?aae?ciaaiee ?iaiieeii, caeiaiieeii ? aeane?eioe??th
(aeiaeaoeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y, yea iaaiaeeoueny a aeane?eioe??,
aeei?enoiao?oueny c iaoith ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? i?aaeiaoa ae?eniino?, ca
aeiyoeii aeane?eioe?e, a yeeo caaaeueia cia/aiiy — ianaiia?aae, cia/aiiy
“ethaeeia” — ia?aaea?oueny /a?ac ?ioa, noi?aeia iiiyooy, yeiio aeanoeaee
iaioee aai ioeueiaee nooi?iue ?iaeea?aeiino?). Aei ia?eoa??eieo
aa??aio?a iaeaaeaoue: noa’?eo, ?aae?ciaaiee oeeoaoe??th, — aeey an?o
oei?a noa’?eo?a, ? noa’?eo, ?aae?ciaaiee aeane?eioe??th, — o aeiaaeeo
“ss”- ? “oe”- noa’?eo?a. Ia?eoa??ei?noue noa’?eoa, ?aae?ciaaiiai
oeeoaoiei ae?acii, iiynith?oueny oei, ui oa?aeoa?ecoth/a ?ioi?iaoe?y,
yea cao?eniaaia a oeeoaoe??, iaaiaeeoueny ia no?eueee c iaoith
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? i?aaeiaoa ae?eniino?, ne?eueee ca?aaee ae?aaeaiiy
noaaeaiiy iiaoey aei oeueiai i?aaeiaoa. Iiaoe/ia oeeoaoe?y
?ai?acaioiaaia ia?aaaaeii iaoaoi?e/ieie ae?acaie, ui iaoiiaeth? ??
aeni?aneaio cia/ou?noue. Ianya oeeoaoiiai ae?aco caeaaeeoue,
ianaiia?aae, a?ae oeio ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e noa’?eoa: iaea?eueo ia’?ii?
oeeoaoi? ae?ace aeei?enoiaothoueny a aiae?enueeeo iiaoe/ieo oaenoao aeey
?aae?caoe?? noa’?eoa, ui ?aeaioeo?eo? iaeiioi?eaioa. Noa’?eo,
?aae?ciaaiee aeane?eioe??th, iaaoaa? ia?eoa??eii? cia/ouino? eeoa o
aeiaaeeo “ss”- ? “oe”- noa’?eo?a: oa?aeoa?ecoth/a ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui
i?noeoueny a aeane?eioeaieo “ss” ? “oe”, iaiiaiaia ia ?aeaioeo?eoth/ei,
a aiioeaiei ci?noii. O iiae?aieo aa??aioao caaaeueia cia/aiiy —
ianaiia?aae, cia/aiiy “ethaeeia” — ia?aaea?oueny /a?ac ?ioa, noi?aeia
iiiyooy, yea caaea? iaioee nooi?iue ?iaeea?aeiino?, i?ae eiioeaio
“ethaeeia”, aai ioeueiaee nooi?iue ?iaeea?aeiino?, ui, a naith /a?ao,
noa? i?e/eiith iaoaoi?ecaoe?? ii e?i?? “Noa’?eo — I?aaeeeao”, a ioaea, ?
i?e/eiith aeni?aneaii? cia/ouino? aeane?eioeaieo “ss” ? “oe”.

?aeaioe/i?noue cania?a aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? “ss”- ? “oe”-
noa’?eo?a ?, iaaii, a?aeaeooyi aiaeia?? a ieai? ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e, a
naia: ocoaeueii? o?eniaaiino? cia/aiiy “eiioi?eaio” (a “ss” — cia/aiiy
“ethaeeia-aae?anaio”, a “oe” — “ethaeeia-aae?anao”). Aieiaieie
iiaoe/ieie neiii?iaie caeiaiieeiaeo “ss” ? “oe” ? aeane?eioe?? “iiy
aeooa /ii? na?oea”, “oaiy aeooa /oai? na?oea”, a iniia? yeeo — iiiyooy,
ui iaae?eai? aeanoea?noth iiaoe/ii? neiaie?ee. Iiaoe/ia neiaie?ea, a
naith /a?ao, aecia/a?oueny oaeoi?aie caaaeueiiethaenueeiai ianooaao.
Naia eiioeaioe “aeooa” ? “na?oea” ni?iiiaei? a iiaiiio ianyc? ioiieoe
oie ci?no, yeee o?aaeeoe?eii aeeaaea?oueny a iiiyooy “aioo??oi? Aai”:
“Aai” ye iniiaiee ?aaoeyoi? iiaaae?iee ethaeeie a ciai?oiueiio na?o?.
Nooue oeeoaoiiai “ss” (“iiy na?oea aeooa”, “ii? a?aeia na?oea”) iieyaa?
a oiio, ui nai? iiina?aaeeiaaia, aeane?eioeaia “ss” iiaaoeue
aeiaeaoeiai iai?oa? n?oeith iniaenoeo anioe?aoe?e, aiane?aeie /iai
naiiiii?iaoe?y ii?aeio?oueny c naiiioe?ieith. Nooue oeeoaoiiai “oe”
(“oai? eaa?aeia na?oea”, “oai? noiieaia na?oea”) — a oiio, ui
iiina?aaeeiaaia, aeane?eioeaia “oe” ia?aaea?oueny /a?ac noi?aeia
iiiyooy, yea iai?oa?oueny n?oeith anioe?aoe?e iiaoey, ui i?eionea?
ioe?ieo aae?anaoa c aieo aae?anaioa. Iaeiae ca /anoioith aaeeaaiiy
aeane?eioeaieo ? oeeoaoieo cania?a a aiae?enueeeo iiaoe/ieo oaenoao
ia??iaeo, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, “oe”-noa’?eo iii?oii iinooia?oueny
ia?aae “ss”-noa’?eoii. Ia iaoo aeoieo, aeii?ioth/a iieiaeaiiy
aeni?aneaiiai “ss”, ui aecia/a? iin?y e??e/iiai ia?aaeeaaiiy,
coiiaeth?oueny oe?eueiaith ianoaiiaith iiaoa-e??eea: ae?aceoe
aioo??oi?e noai e??e/iiai noa’?eoa.

Aiaeia?y a caniaao aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? “a?i”-noa’?eoa, ui
?aeaioeo?eo? eiioi?eaioa — “?ioiai” iiaoey, ? noa’?eoa, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?
iaeiioi?eaioa, ?, iaiaaii, a?aeaeooyi aiaeia?? a naiaioe/iiio
iaiiaiaii?: i?aaeiaoii aeoiee a iaio aeiaaeeao ? yeeenue “a?i”. Iaeiae
oeeoaoe??, eio?? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ?aae?caoe?? noa’?eoa, ui
?aeaioeo?eo? iaeiioi?eaioa, ia?aaeuothoue a?aeiia?aei? oi?ie ?aae?caoe??
noa’?eoa, ui ?aeaioeo?eo? iiaoey-ia?niiaaea, ? a e?euee?niiio, ? a
ye?niiio a?aeiioaii? (ca ianyaii iieniaiai ae?aco). I?e/eio oaei?
neooaoe?? ie aaa/a?ii ia eeoa a iaeaeu?e /anoio? aeaiiai oeio noa’?eoa,
aea ? a niinia? oa?aeoa?ecaoe?? oiai, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?oueny. O aeiaaeeo
noa’?eoa, ui ?aeaioeo?eo? eiioi?eaioa, iiaeeeaino? oa?aeoa?ecaoe??
cia/ii oe?o?: oa?aeoa?enoeeith iiaoey-ia?niiaaea neoaeeoue, ianaiia?aae,
eiai i?iiiaa. I?e oeueiio ?ieue i?aaeeeaoa (ae??neiaa aiai??iiy) a ieai?
oa?aeoa?ecaoe?? ia ? nooo?aith. O aeiaaeeo ae noa’?eoa, ui ?aeaioeo?eo?
iaeiioi?eaioa, oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaenoaaeaia, aieiaiei /eiii, a
i?aaeeeao?. Ca oiia caouaiiy naiaioeee “o?niioith a??oiaiai ?yaeo” oea
iioeao? ?ici?uaiiy /anoeie oa?aeoa?ecoth/iai e ioe?ii/iiai aeaiaioa
nieneo a noa’?eoi?e iiceoe??, iaoiiaethth/e c’yaeaiiy oeeoaoiiai ae?aco.

Oaeei /eiii, aiaeia?y a ieai? ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e noa’?eo?a ni?e/eiy?
aiaeia?th cania?a ?o aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a iiaoe/iiio oaeno?. ?
iaaiaee: a?aei?ii?noue a ieai? ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e ? i?e/eiith
a?aei?iiino? a caniaao aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? noa’?eo?a ??cieo oei?a.
A?aenooi?noue eiioi?eaoeaiiai eiiiiiaioa a ci?noia?e no?oeoo?? noa’?eoa
? oaeoi?ii, ui aecia/a? oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? a ieai? iiaoe/iiai
icia/oaaeueiiai.

Niaoeeo?/ia iniaeea?noue a ieai? eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa
oaeno? aecia/a?oueny e?eoa???i i?e?iaeiiai c?noaaeaiiy (aai
i?ioenoaaeaiiy) a?aeiia?aeieo i?aaeiao?a, iiiyoue aai yaeu. Aa??aioe
eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue aeai?e oiia?, ?
i?ioioei?/ieie. Ia?eoa??ei? aa??aioe aacothoueny ia ii?aeiaii?
ianoi?niiai e ia eiia?ioaaii? naiaioe/ii ??cii??aeieo iiiyoue, ui
i?aeiinyoueny aei ?aiao noa’?eoa. Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an o ieai?
??cii??aeiino? noaiiaeoue eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a-neiii?i?a:
caeiaiieeiaiai ? aeane?eioeaiiai “ss”, ??aeoa — caeiaiieeiaiai ?
aeane?eioeaiiai “oe” aai caeiaiieeiaiai ? aeane?eioeaiiai “a?i”, ui
?aeaioeo?eo? iaeiioi?eaioa. A iniia? aeaiiai i?eeiio — i?eioeei
iiaoe/iiai ?icae?eaiiy “oe?eiai” ia “ciai?oi?” oa “aioo??oi?”: “ss” ye
i?aaeiao ciai?oiueiai na?oo ? “ii? ii/oooy” ye ci?no (iiai)
aioo??oiueiai na?oo, “oe” ye i?aaeiao ciai?oiueiai na?oo ? “oai?
ii/oooy” ye ci?no (oaiai) aioo??oiueiai na?oo, “a?i” ye i?aaeiao
ciai?oiueiai na?oo ? “eiai ii/oooy” ye ci?no (eiai) aioo??oiueiai na?oo.
??cii??aei?noue a iiae?aieo i?eeeaaeao ia? a?aeiiniee oa?aeoa?
aiane?aeie aeaiy?oniino? naiaioeee aeane?eioeaiiai ae?aco. I?ae-aeuaiith
?ioaineaiino? aeni?an?? ni?ey? c?noaaeaiiy ??cii??aeieo

iiiyoue-noa’?eo?a o iaaeao i?i?iaeueiiai eiioaenoo, a naia: a ?aieao
?aeeii? i?aaeeeaoe??.

Aa??aioe eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a, ui ??oioothoueny ia ii?aeiaii?
ianoi?niiai oa ia i?eioeei? “??cii??aeiino?”, neeaaeathoue ia?oo a?oio
aeni?aneaii cia/oueo aa??aio?a eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a o ?a/aii? oa
oaeno?. Aei ae?oai? a?oie iaeaaeaoue aa??aioe eiia?ioaaiiy, ui
aacothoueny ia ia?iuoaaii? ?ioi?iaoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo aeneiaethaaiiy
(aiaoi?e/iee iiaoi? o ia?aeaeueieo eiino?oeoe?yo, i?eeeaaeea,
neioaene/ia oaaoieia?y).

Iaeaeua /anoioa aeiaaee?a aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? an?o aeae?eaieo oei?a
a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa niinoa??aa?oueny a aiae?enueeeo iiaoe/ieo oaenoao
aiioe ?iiaioecio (e?iaoeue OVIII — ii/aoie OO noie?oue). I?e oeueiio
aeiaaeee aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? “ss”- ? “oe”- noa’?eo?a aeyaeythoueny
iaea?eueo /anoioieie o oaenoao e??e/ii? iiac?? aiioe ?iiaioecio
aiane?aeie “ia?ao?auaiiy” noa? ?ioa?an?a ?iiaioecio (e?oa?aoo?iiai
iai?yieo) ? e??eee (?iaeo e?oa?aoo?e), ui aeyaey?oueny o ni?yiiaaiino?
oai?/i? aeoiee ia ?ice?eooy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ethaeeie,
neeaaeiino? “aioo??oiueiai na?oo”. Nooo?ao ?ieue o ieai? iioeaaoe??
aeni?aneaii cia/oueo niinia?a ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a
aiae?enueeeo iiaoe/ieo oaenoao OVIII-OO noie?oue a?ae?a?a? oaeoi?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noeeth.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iie?noa’?eo ? caniae eiai aa?aaeueiiai ao?eaiiy a iiaoe/iiio oaeno?
// A?niee Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieiaeeo a/aieo. Na??y “O?eieia?y”. Aei. 1. I?iaeaie
naiaioeee neiaa oa oaenoo. — E.: EAeEO, 1997. — N. 107 — 114.

2. ?ieue noa’?eoa ?a/aiiy a ieai? oaiaoe/ii? ca’yciino? oaenoo // A?niee
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieiaeeo a/aieo. Na??y “O?eieia?y”. Aei. 2. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
aea/aiiy iiae, iiaeaiiy ? ia?aeeaaeo. — E.: EAeEO, 1997. — N. 27 — 34.

3. “ss”- noauaeo e niiniau aai yeni?anneaiie ?aaeecaoeee a iiyoe/aneii
oaenoa (ia iaoa?eaea aiaeeeneie iiycee OVIII-OO aaeia) // Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? o?eieia??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieiaeeo a/aieo.
— AEeoiie?: Iie?a?ao?ea, 1997. — N. 152 — 161.

4. Oeeoaoi? ae?ace a iiceoe?? noa’?eoa ?a/aiiy (ia iaoa??ae?
aiae?enueei? iiac?? OVIII-OO noie?oue) // Iaoeia? caienee ani??aio?a.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aei. 4. — Eooeuee: Aieeinueeee Aeaaeai?/iee
Ae?i, 1997. — N. 95 — 98.

Oaaooi A.I. Niiniae aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a
iiaoe/iiio oaeno? (ia iaoa??ae? aiae?enueei? iiac?? OVIII-OO noie?oue).
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae. — Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith niinia?a aeni?aneaii?
?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa o oaenoao aiae?enueei? iiac??
OVIII-OO noie?oue, a oaeiae aeyaeaiith oaeoi??a, ui ni?eythoue
i?aeaeuaiith ?ioaineaiino? aeni?an?? i?e ?aae?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai
noa’?eoa a iiaoe/iiio oaeno?.

A ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa ca oeiii
eiai ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e, yea aecia/a?oueny a iaaeao iiaoe/iiai
aeneiaethaaiiy. Aecia/aii niiniae aeni?aneaii? ?aae?caoe?? eiaeiiai c
aeae?eaieo oei?a noa’?eoa.

Aeni?aneai?noue a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa a iiaoe/iiio oaeno? ?icaeyiooi a
?aeo?n? “I?ioioei (oeaio?) — Ia?eoa??y”. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeni?aneaia
cia/ou?noue a?aiaoe/iiai noa’?eoa (aai aa??aioa eiia?ioaaiiy noa’?eo?a)
iia’ycaia c eiai ia?eoa??eiei noaoonii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: “ss”-noa’?eo, “oe”-noa’?eo, “a?i”-noa’?eo, aeane?eioe?y,
oeeoaoe?y, icia/oaaia, icia/oaaeueia.

Oaaooi A.I. Niiniau yeni?anneaiie ?aaeecaoeee a?aiiaoe/aneiai noauaeoa
a iiyoe/aneii oaenoa (ia iaoa?eaea aiaeeeneie iiycee OVIII-OO aaeia). —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 — aa?iaineea ycuee. — Eeaaneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue eeiaaenoe/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth niiniaia yeni?anneaiie
?aaeecaoeee a?aiiaoe/aneiai noauaeoa a oaenoao aiaeeeneie iiycee
OVIII-OO aaeia, a oaeaea auyaeaieth oaeoi?ia, aeaaii?eyonoaothueo
iiauoaieth eioaineaiinoe yeni?annee i?e ?aaeecaoeee a?aiiaoe/aneiai
noauaeoa a iiyoe/aneii oaenoa.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey a?aiiaoe/aneiai noauaeoa ii oeio
aai niaea?aeaoaeueiie no?oeoo?u, ii?aaeaeythuaeny a ?aieao iiyoe/aneiai
auneacuaaiey. Auyaeaiu niiniau yeni?anneaiie ?aaeecaoeee eaaeaeiai ec
auaeaeaiiuo oeiia noauaeoa.

Yeni?anneaiinoue a?aiiaoe/aneiai noauaeoa a iiyoe/aneii oaenoa
?anniio?aia a ?aeo?na “I?ioioei (oeaio?) — Ia?eoa?ey”. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
yeni?anneaiay cia/eiinoue a?aiiaoe/aneiai noauaeoa (eee aa?eaioa
ni/aoaiey noauaeoia) naycaia n aai ia?eoa?eeiui noaoonii.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: “ss”-noauaeo, “ou”-noauaeo, “ii”-noauaeo, aeane?eioeey,
oeeoaoeey, icia/aaiia, icia/athuaa.

Khavkhun A.P. Ways of Expressive Realization of the Grammatical
Subject in English Poetic Texts of XVIII-XX Centuries. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate Degree in Philology, Speciality 10.02.04 —
Germanic Languages. — Kyiv State Linguistic University, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is focused on examining ways of expressive realization
of the grammatical subject in English poetic texts of the XVIII-XX
centuries as well as identifying factors which favour the enhancement of
its expressive potential.

The classification of grammatical subjects is based on the criterion of
content structure of subjects determined within a poetic utterance.
Ways of expressive realization are specified for each type of subject.

Expressiveness of the grammatical subject in a poetic text is viewed in
the ”Prototype (centre) — Periphery” perspective. It is established that
the expressive value of a grammatical subject (or a variant of
combining subjects ) is linked to its peripheral status.

Key words: “I”-subject, “you’-subject, “he”-subject, description,
quotation, signifier, signified.

1. Iaeia c cia/aiue oa?i?ia “noa’?eo” — “ii? ss aai Aai” (Webster’s
Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language 1994).

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