Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia o?aiea

Aiaothe

Iaoae?y ?aai?aia

OAeE 65.01

NI?EUeIA I?AeI?E?IIEOeOAI A OIIAAO ?EIEIAI? O?AINOI?IAOe?? AEIIII?EE
OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.01.01 — aeiiii?/ia oai??y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a-1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

I a o e i a e e e a ? ? a i e e — Aaoaiaithe C?iia?e A?eai?iae/,
eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaeai aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

I o ? oe ? e i ? i i i i a i o e:

O?e?iaiei Aioii Na?a?eiae/, aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
Aaei?i?no?aoe?y I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie

Eoeue/eoeueeee ss?ineaa Aieiaeeie?iae/, eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I ? i a ? ae i a o n o a i i a a — Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea» I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a oai?aoe/ii? aeiiii?ee
oa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, i.Euea?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 ethoiai 1999 ?. i 13.10 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.01 Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290008, i.Euea?a, i?.
Naiaiaee, 18)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (i. Euea?a,
aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iai/eoei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. Aoaeoeaia aoiaeaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie o na?oiao aeiiii?eo ? e?eoe/ii-aaaeeeaith oiiaith iiaeieaiiy
caiaiaaeo oa ci?oeiaiiy aea?aeaaiino?. Oea aoiaeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/a?
oe?iea caeo/aiiy e aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo, ui coiiaeaii
iaaeinoaoi?i ianyaii aioo??oi?o caiuaaeaeaiue oa ?iaanoeoe?e, iniaeeai o
i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai, ui iii?oii nei?ioeeeny. Ca oeeo ianoaaei
i?aeianaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai ??aiy a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, caaacia/aiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?iaeoeoe?? ye ia aioo??oiueiio,
oae ? ia ciai?oiueiio ?eieao, ca?eueoaiiy aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie
aac oe?ieiianooaaiiai caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo c-ca ei?aeiio i?inoi
iaiiaeeeaa.

Ia?niaeoeae oni?oii? ?iaioe aaaaoueio a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa oa
aoaeoeai?noue iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee caaaeii cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeaoue a?ae ??aiy oa yeino? oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy. Iaiao?aeii aeae?aoe iaeaoaeoeai?o? oa iaeia?niaeoeai?o?
oi?ie ? iaoiaee caeo/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e. Iaei??th
c oaeeo oi?i, ye na?ae/eoue aeina?ae e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, ?
ni?euei? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith iiai? i?ia?aneaii?
no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee, iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia i?ioeane ?eieiai? i???ioaoe??,
ni?ey? ?ioaa?aoe?? e?a?ie o na?oiao nenoaio ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aiaeii/an
ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai e?ioa caaeia?eueiy? iio?aae ae?iaieoeoaa oa
ianaeaiiy o iaaieo aeaeao i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??, ne?iaeiieo ?
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa?ao, ni?ey? iaaeoiaeaeaiith aei e?a?ie no/anii?
ia?aaeiai? oaoi?ee e oaoiieia?e, iio??aieo iaoa??aeueieo ? o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a, ?icoe?th? aenii?oio aaco e?a?ie oiui.

Ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ?icaeaa?oueny a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie. I?ioa c ia?aa?aii /ano noa? aeaaeae? i/aaeaei?oa, ui o
a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe? ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ia i?eiineoue oeo
?acoeueoao?a, ia ye? iiaeia niiae?aaoeny. ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa caeeoa?oueny ana ua iecueeith ?
i?aeoe/ii ia ?iaeoeo? ?iioeuen?a aei c?inoaiiy aeiiii?ee.

Ca oeeo ianoaaei aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue c’ynoaaiiy i?e/ei iaaeinoaoiuei?
aoaeoeaiino? oa aeyaeaiiy ?aca?a?a ? oeyo?a iie?ioaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.

I?iaeaia ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?
aeine?aeaeaia ua iaaeinoaoiuei. A?eueo?noue i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a
c oe??? i?iaeaie, cie?aia ?iaioe N.Aeai/aiea, N.Ino?iae/a,
I.Caaei?iaeiiai, A.I?eethea, ?.?oeueea oa ?ioeo, iaienai? ua ia ii/aoeo
1990-o ?ie?a. Iei? i?inoaaeo?oueny aeayea iineaaeaiiy ?ioa?ano
oe?a?inueeeo aeiiii?no?a aei oe??? i?iaeaie. O a?eueoino?
aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia a ?iaioao A.Aaeue/einueeiai, ?.Aeaiea,
I.Aaa?eethea, A.Aieiaaothea, A.Aoanueeiai, I.Eieiniaa, Ae.Eoe’yiaiea,
TH.Iaoiiiaa, O.Eoceie, TH.Iaeiaiia, A.O?e?iaiea, N.TH??y oa ?ioeo,
aeeaiei aiae?cothoueny i?iaeaie ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ? eeoa
ieiio?aeue ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Caeeoathoueny ua neaai aea/aieie
ieoaiiy iioeaaoe?? ?iicaiieo i?aei?e?ioe?a i?e ?iaanooaaii? o ia?ao?aeio
aeiiii?eo, cie?aia noiniaii ooai?aiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, i?iaeaie,
c yeeie aiie noeeathoueny, ia aeae?eai? eeaneo?eaoe?ei? iciaee ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ia aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? oa oaiaeaioe?? ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

Na?aae ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a, ye? aianee cia/iee aeeaae o ?icaeoie
oai??? i?aeia?iaeieo ?iaanoeoe?e, cie?aia o oi?i? ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe ?iaioe I.Ii?oa?a, ?.Aaeoa?a, ?.Eaeaca,
Aeae.Aeai?i?a, ?.E?i/a, I.E?ee?i?a, E.Oay, A.ssi?a?a, Aeae.Noiioi?aea,
E.Oaena oa ?ioeo. I?ioa o a?eueoino? ?ia?o cao?aeieo aeiiii?no?a
aeine?aeaeothoueny iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao aai e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny.
Iniaeeaino? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee aeiaaathoue iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a, ??oaiue oa aeniiae?a. Ca oeeo oiia iaiao?aei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i? ?
i/aaeaeiith.

Aaaeeea?noue oe??? i?iaeaie oa iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue ?? aea/aiiy o
a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ??
iaoo, iniiai? caaaeaiiy, i?aaeiao, ia’?eo oa iaoiaeieia?th
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? c’ynoaaiiy i?noey ? ?ie?
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a icaei?iaeaii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ??
?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

O ca’yceo c iacaaiith iaoith o aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

— c’ynoaaoe oai?aoe/io iniiao ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa,
aeie?aieoe iniiai? e?eoa??? oa /eiieee eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy;

— ocaaaeueieoe i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ooai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa, cie?aia a iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?iao;

— aecia/eoe iniiai? iae?iaeiiii?/i? oiiae ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy oa
?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia o?, ui
aaeueiothoue oe? i?ioeane;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ?iaanoeoe?eio oa ae?iaie/i-o?iainiao ae?yeuei?noue
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i? oi?iaeiaae inoaii?o ?ie?a;

— c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie iaaeinoaoiuei? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i? ? aeyaeoe ?aca?ae oa oeyoe iie?ioaiiy
?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?;

— c?iaeoe i?iaiic uiaei ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
a Oe?a?i?.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noa?a aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ye oi?ia caeo/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo /a?ac c’ynoaaiiy eiai i?e?iaee, iaoai?cio oa
iane?aee?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ni?euei? c ?iicaiieie ?iaanoi?aie
i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? ooieoe?iiothoue ia oa?eoi??? iaoi? e?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noaiiaeyoue iioe?ai? a
no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? iaoiaee ? caniae aiae?co ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? oa ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, cie?aia eeane/i? oa
iaieeane/i? oai??? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?, iiaeae? iaioaoiieia?/iiai
iai?yieo, oai??? ?ooo eai?oaeo oa ?eieiaeo no?oeoo?.

Aeeiiaia ?iaioa a?oioo?oueny ia eiiieaeniiio i?aeoiae? aei aea/aiiy
?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a canoiniaoaaeeny iaoiaee aiae?co ?
neioaco, aeeiai?/ieo ii??aiyiue, aiae?oe/i? ia/eneaiiy iieaciee?a,
a?ao?/ia cia?aaeaiiy aeaieo oiui.

Noaoenoe/io oa oaeoieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iaoa??aee
Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie,
Euea?anueeiai iaeaniiai noaoenoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aaainoaa c ieoaiue ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. O ?iaio? iaae
aeena?oaoe??th aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeai? I?aeia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaeo,
I?aeia?iaeiiai aaieo ?aeiino?oeoe?? oa ?icaeoeo, Aeie/-aaieo,
ioae?eaoe?? III, aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oao?aoe?a ?inoeoooo na?oiai?
aeiiii?ee oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, aenia?oi? ioe?iee Oeaio?o
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo ? ?noi??? iaoee ?i.
A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?a?ie ? nioe?aeia?/ii? neoaeae «Nioe?n-Aaeeai»,
i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeiiii?no?a, iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e, nai?ia??a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?aeia?iaeieo
aenia?o?a c ieoaiue caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e oa ooai?aiiy
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, aeia?aeeiaa, ia??iaee/ia e?oa?aoo?a oa ?io?
ioae?eaoe??.

Aei iniiaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ye? noaiiaeyoue iniaenoee caeiaooie
aeena?oaioa ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaeaaeaoue:

— eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei ioe?iee ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieo;

— aeie?aieaiiy iniiaieo eeaneo?eaoe?eieo iciae oa e?eoa???a aecia/aiiy
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ye aeaeo i?aeia?iaeii? ni?ai?aoe?;

— iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i? /a?ac
cai?iiiiiaaio nenoaio iieaciee?a;

— i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui c?iaeai? o i?e
aeniiaee ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy
ii?iaoeaii? aace ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, oa iie?ioaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ?o ae?iaie/i-o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino?. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace c ieoaiue ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy oa ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Io?eiai? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee oa iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, cie?aia i?e /eoaii?
niaoeeo?n?a c? ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a
«Iie?oe/ia aeiiii?y» oa «Iae?iaeiiii?ea», i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueieo
iin?aiee?a c i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oiui.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe oa iniiai? ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia?aeiieyeeny ia
i?aeia?iaei?e e?oi?e eiioa?aioe?? «?ioa?aei», O?oneaaaoeue, 1996 ?.; ia
Ainuei?e iaoeia?e nan?? Aeiiii?/ii? eii?n?? IOO, Euea?a, 1997 ?.; ia
Anaoe?a?inuee?e nooaeaionueei-ani??aionuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 30-??//th aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. O?aiea, Euea?a, 1998 ?.

C aeine?aeaeaii? oaie iioae?eiaaii 9 ioae?eaoe?e caaaeueiei ianyaii 2
ae?. a?e. O oiio /ene? 3 – o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 3 — o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 3 o ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?e, iaeia c yeeo o
ni?aaaoi?noa?.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii ia 169
noi??ieao iaoeiiieno. E??i oeueiai ?iaioa i?noeoue nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae (202 iaeiaioaaiiy) oa a?n?i aeiaeaoe?a. A iniiaiiio ci?no?
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii 17 oaaeeoeue, 2 a?ao?ee, 3 ae?aa?aie ? 3 noaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia? oaeo no?oeoo?o:

Anooi

?icae?e 1. Ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ye oi?ia caeo/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo

1.1.Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa

1.2.E?eoa???, /eiieee oa oi?ie ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa

1.3.Iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa o ia?ao?aeieo
aeiiii?eao

1.4.Aeniiaee aei 1-ai ?icae?eo

?icae?e 2. ?icaeoie ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo
Oe?a?ie aei ?eieo

2.1.Iae?iaeiiii?/ia na?aaeiaeua ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa

2.2.Aiae?c ?iaanoeoe?eii? oa ae?iaie/i-o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino?
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i?

Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?

2.4.Aeniiaee aei 2-ai ?icae?eo

Aeniiaee

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae

Aeiaeaoee

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/ai? eiai iaoa, iniiai? caaaeaiiy oa oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – Ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ye oi?ia caeo/aiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo – aena?oeththoueny oai?aoe/i? iniiae
?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, c’yniao?oueny eiai nooue, oa?aeoa?
oa no?oeoo?a, a oaeiae ocaaaeueith?oueny i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae
ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? – Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa – aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai
aenooia? eii?aoiith oi?iith aeyao i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?, ye
iai?io i?ae e?a?iaie oaeoi?aie ? ?acoeueoaoaie ae?iaieoeoaa o iaaieo
e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ? i?aeoe/iith ?aae?caoe??th
i?eioeeio ii??aiyeueieo ia?aaaa e?a?i-o/anieoeue. Ii?aeiaiiy a iaaeao
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ??ciiiai?oieo ?ano?n?a (iaoa??aeueieo, o?oaeiaeo,
o?iainiaeo, i?e?iaeieo, oaoiieia?e, ?ioi?iaoe?? oiui) ca i?eioeeiii
?oiuei? iaeaeui? ii??aiyeueii? aoaeoeaiino? aea? ciiao aeinyaoe noeoiii?
aeiiii?? aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa ye ie?aiei ia?oia?ai, oae ?
e?a?iai-o/anieoeyi a oe?eiio. I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei iiiaioii ? e oa, ui
aeaiaee a?ae ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa io?eiothoue ? e?a?ie, ui ca
??aiai aeiiii?/iiai e oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo a?aenoathoue a?ae nai?o
ia?oia??a.

Iaoai?ci io?eiaiiy ??cieie aea?aeaaaie a?aeiinieo ia?aaaa ciaeoia nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ua a eeane/ieo oai??yo i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? A.Ni?oa oa
Ae.??ea?aei. No/ania aeiiii?/ia iaoea a?ae?eoea a?ae oai??? o?oaeiai?
aa?oino?, ia iniia? yei? noi?ioeueiaai? oe? eiioeaioe??, ?
a?aeooiaoo?oueny a?ae oai??? oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa, iaeiae aecia?
oai??th ii??aiyeueieo ia?aaaa iniiaith i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oe? oai??? iaaeinoaoi? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ai a iniia? ii??aiyeueieo ia?aaaa ??cieo
e?a?i aiie ?icaeyaeathoue eeoa ?oi? iaoa??aeuei? aeoeae ? a?oioothoueny
ia i?eiouaii? aaniethoii? eiieo?aioe??. Oiio aeey aiae?co ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa noaiiaeyoue cia/iee ?ioa?an oai??? oae caaiiai
«iaioaoiieia?/iiai iai?yio», ye? a?aoiaothoue aeeiai?/i? ii??aiyeuei?
ia?aaaae o oi?i? iaiaoa??aeueieo aeoea?a, ui aeieeathoue ? cieeathoue c
ia?aa?aii /ano.

*eiaeee ?ioa?an aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
noaiiaeyoue oai??? i?yieo caei?aeiiieo ?iaanoeoe?e. A aeena?oaoe??
aeoeaioo?oueny ia oiio, ui oe? oai??? aeicaieythoue a?aeiia?noe ia oae?
aaaeeea? caieoaiiy, ye ? /iio o??ie ?icoe?ththoue naith ae?yeuei?noue ca
ei?aeiiii; /iio aiie aeae?athoue ca?oa?aei? e?a?ie ye i?noea
ae?iaieoeoaa, a ia aenii?oo /e i?iaeaaeo e?oeaic?e, ? /iio ?iicaiia
?iaanooaaiiy a?ae??ciy?oueny o ??cieo e?a?iao. Aiaeii/an, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, ocaaaeueiaiiyi on?o iiia?aaei?o oai??e ? aeeaeoe/ia oai??y, yea
aeei?enoiaoth/e iieiaeaiiy oai??e i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? (ii??aiyeueii?
ia?aaaae), a oaeiae oai??e iiiiiie?noe/ii? ia?aaaae oa ?ioa?iae?caoe??,
iaeaeeaoa iaa?oioiao? aeioe?euei?noue ooai?aiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa o
??cieo e?a?iao oa aeai?o aoaeoeaieo aeae?a ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? caeaaeii
a?ae niaoeeo?/ieo iaaeaaiue o??ie-?iaanoi?a oa iniaeeainoae i?eeiath/i?
e?a?ie.

C’yniaoth/e ieoaiiy /iio i?e ?iaanooaaii? eai?oaeo ca ei?aeiiii o??ie
/anoi a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao oi?i? ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa, a ia
ooai?aiith aei/??iuei? eiiiai??, aeena?oaio a?aecia/a?, ui ni?eueia
i?aei?e?iieoeoai aea? ciiao oieeiooe oaeeo iani?eyoeeaeo iane?aee?a i?e
canoinoaaii? oaoiieia?/ieo aeoea?a o??ie, ye aeo?eaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? /e
iineaaeaiiy eiio?ieth iaae aeei?enoaiiyi ?iiiaaoe?e; aaaii?oa cieaeo?
nooi?iue ?eceeo oa aeo?aoe, ai oaia? aiie ?iciiae?eythoueny i?ae aeaiia
/e a?eueoa ia?oia?aie.

Aeena?oaio a?aecia/a?, ui nooue, iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? oa iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa aecia/a? ia?aaeian?i ci?no
aeaniino?, yea eaaeeoue a eiai iniia?.

Ni?eueia i?aei?e?inoai – oea iniaeeaa oi?ia ni?ai?aoe?, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
ia’?aeiaiiy oa ni?eueia aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueii-o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
ia?oia??a ? ooieoe?iio? ye ?aeeiee aeiiii?/iee i?aai?ci. O ?acoeueoao?
ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ? cia?yaeaeyi aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iaoe, ui
aeoiaeeoue ca iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? eiaeiiai c o/anie?ea cie?aia. Oea
? aieiaiith ia?aaaaith oa aecia/aeueiith ?enith ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? ?iaioe – E?eoa???, /eiieee oa oi?ie ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa – aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui oa?i?i «ni?eueia
i?aei?e?iieoeoai» ? neiii?iii iiiyooy «ni?eueia i?aei?e?inoai». C
a?aooaaiiyi oe??? ianoaaeie aeae?eaii e?eoa??? ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ye?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, /?oei aeie?aieththoue eiai
na?aae ?ioeo oi?i i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Oeeie
e?eoa??yie ?: 1) aeiaaino?ieia?noue oaiaee; 2) iayai?noue ?iicaiiiai oa
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eai?oaeo; 3) ooai?aiiy iiaiai naiino?eiiai noa’?eoa,
ae?yeuei?noue yeiai ?aaoeth? ? eiio?ieth? caeiiiaeaanoai i?eeiath/i?
e?a?ie; 4) ooai?aiiy ni?eueii? aeaniino? aiane?aeie ia’?aeiaiiy aeoea?a
o/aniee?a.

Ooo oaeiae ?icaeyaeathoueny ia?aaeoiiae ooai?aiiy ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
ca?oa?aeieie aeiiii?noaie, cie?aia A. ssi?a?ii, I. E?ee?i?ii, ?.
Eaeacii, Aeae. Noiioi?aeii oa ?ioeie, aeyaey?, ui noaaeaiiy o??i
?icaeiooeo e?a?i aei i?iaeai o/ano? o ni?eueiiio i?aei?e?inoa?
caeaaeeoue a?ae iecee /eiiee?a. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie c ieo ?: 1) c??e?noue,
neea ? aeina?ae o??ie o i?aeia?iaeiiio a?cian?; 2) iniaeeaino? aaeoc?, a
ye?e aiia caeiyoa; 3) no?aoaa?y o??ie, ui, a naith /a?ao, caeaaeeoue
a?ae aaeocaaeo iniaeeainoae; 4) i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueea no?oeoo?a
o??ie; 5) iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? e?a?ie iioiaeaeaiiy o??ie.

O ?aoa?iaaiiio ia?aa?ao? iaaieioo?oueny, ui iaeaaaii?oeie ? aaeocaa?
/eiieee. Ine?eueee o ?aaeuei?e ae?eniino? iniaeeaino? aaeoc?
aca?iiia?aie?oathoueny, i?iaiic iiaaae?iee o??ie noiniaii o/ano? o
ni?eueiiio i?aei?e?inoa? oneeaaeith?oueny. O oeueiio ca’yceo aaoi?
cacia/a?, ui na?aae aaeocaaeo /eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue noaaeaiiy o??ie
aei o/ano? o «joint ventures», ?nio? iaaia ???a?o?y. Iniaeeai aaaiio
?ieue a?ae?a?a? ie?aiiieueia no?oeoo?a aaeoc?.

Ii?yae ?c caaaeueieie ia?aaeoiiaaie ooai?aiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa,
ooo c’yniaothoueny ? aaciina?aaei? iioeae o/ano? o??i o ni?eueiiio
i?aei?e?iieoeoa?. O aeena?oaoe?? aeae?eaii o?e a?oie iioea?a: aioo??oi?,
ciai?oi? oa no?aoaa?/i?.

Aioo??oi? iioeae iia’ycai? ?c ?icoe?aiiy eaiae?a caooo, noai?aiiyi
ni?eyoeeaiai ?aaeeio aeey ?iiiaaoe?e ? iieaaoaiiyi aeinooio aei
ne?iaeiieo ?ano?n?a. Ciai?oi? iioeae, oae? ye iineaaeaiiy iie?oe/ii?
iai?oae ? iaaei??ii? aino?ioe o?ainiaoe?iiaeueii? eiieo?aioe??, oaeiae
ni?eythoue i?aai?caoe?? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa. E??i oiai, inoaii?
iiaeooue neoaoaaoe caniaii aeey ae??oaiiy no?aoaa?/ieo caaaeaiue
eiiiai?e, iai?eeeaae, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, ia?aaea/?
oaoiieia??.

Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui aeiaeai c ia?ae?/aieo iioea?a ia iiaea
aooe ?aeeiith aeinoaoiueith oiiaith noai?aiiy ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa.
Ii?aeiaiiy aeae?eueeio /eiiee?a cacae/ae ni?e/eiy? ooai?aiiy ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa ye iioeiaeueii? iiaeae? i?aeia?iaeiiai a?ciano.

Aeae? o aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii ni?iao aeae?eeoe iniiai? e?eoa???
eeaneo?eaoe?? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa. O a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? oea ieoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii iaaeinoaoiuei. Ca?oa?aei? aeiiii?noe
aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa caeaa?eueoiai aeei?enoiaothoue
/ioe?e iniiai? iciaee: 1) i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa;
2) no?oeoo?a eai?oaeo; 3) /anoea o/ano? ia?oia??a oa 4) aeae
ae?yeueiino?.

Aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui oe? e?eoa??? eeaneo?eaoe? ?
iaaeinoaoi?ie aeey e?a?i ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. I?aai?caoe?y ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o oeeo e?a?iao iio?aao? ia eeoa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaaooeo
ciaiue, aea ? ?ic?iaeaiiy i?iiiceoe?e uiaei iaeaoaeoeai?oeo iai?yie?a
oaei? ae?yeueiino? a eiie?aoi?e aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe??. Ca oeeo oiia
iaaaeyea cia/aiiy, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaaoaathoue oae? iciaee ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ye noa?a ae?yeueiino?, aaee/eia noaoooiiai oiiaeo, oi?ie
i?aai?caoe??, ??aaiue ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o e?a?iao-o/anieoeyo
oa aeeaeia ?oiuei? o/ano? o i?aeia?iaeiiio iiae?e? i?aoe? oiui.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/aii, ui cai?iiiiiaai? e?eoa??? eeaneo?eaoe??
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ia ? aaniethoieie. A ?aaeuei?e ae?eniino?
ni?eueia i?aei?e?inoai oa?aeoa?ecothoue iae?aco ca aeae?eueeiia
iciaeaie. A?aooaaiiy eiaeii? eiie?aoii? iciaee iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai
cia/aiiy i?e ioe?ioe? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa, iaa?oiooaaii? iaeia?niaeoeai?oeo iai?yie?a ?o aeei?enoaiiy
aeey ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee o??? /e ?ioi? e?a?ie.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? – Iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa o ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?eao – ocaaaeueith?oueny aeina?ae
ooai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa o iinoeiioi?noe/ieo
e?a?iao. O nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui
noeioethaaiiy o?yaeaie oeeo e?a?i ?iicaiieo aeeaaeiee?a, o oiio /ene? ?
o oi?i? ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ? niiniaii iiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ?
i?aeaeuaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai ??aiy i?iieneiaino?, iineeaiiy eiieo?aioieo
iiceoe?e ia na?oiaeo ?eieao, noai?aiiy oiia aeey caaaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaeieeuei?oi? oaaae uiaei ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa caneoaiao? aeina?ae Eeoath. Iei?oi? eeoaenueea
ea??aieoeoai aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui a oiiaao iaaei?icaeiaiino?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?iaie/i? aace ?aeeiei ?aaeueiei oeyoii i?enei?aiiy
aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano ? aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ?ioeo e?a?i.
Caaaeyee ni?eueiei i?aei?e?inoaai o EI? aoei iaeaaiaeaeaii ianiaee
aeione eiii’thoa??a, ??cieo oei?a ?ioaa?aeueieo noai, no/anieo cania?a
ca’yceo oa aaaaoi ?ioeo aeae?a eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui aecia/aeueio ?ieue o c?inoaii?
cia/aiiy ? e?eueeino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa o Eeoa? a?ae?a?a? aeaaaeaia
iae?iaeiiii?/ia iie?oeea aea?aeaae. Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiao?
iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea, yea c iaoith caeo/aiiy cia/ieo ? o?eaaeeo ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e ia?aaeaa/a? ieceo i?euea aeey ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa.
Aiaeii/an o?yae Eeoath aei?noei eiio?ieth? i?ioean ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Oaeaeea c?inoaiiy
e?eueeino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa oa ianya?a caeo/aieo ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e i?aeo?eiothoue aaei?i?no?aoeai?, o?iainia? ?
i?ioaeoe?ii?nonuee? caoiaee eeoaenueeiai o?yaeo.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa eeoaenueeiio o?yaeia? iiee ui oni?oii aaea?oueny
i?aeo?eioaaoe caaaeii aca?iiaea?aeiee aaeain ?c ca?oa?aeieie ia?oia?aie,
ciaoiaeeoe eiii?ii?n i?ae iaoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?anaie ? ?ioa?anaie
?iicaiieo o??i.

O oeueiio ia?aa?ao? oaeiae i?inoaaeaii aeina?ae caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai
eai?oaeo o oi?i? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa o iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie. ?icaeoie ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a
Oai?uei?, *ao??, Iieueu?, iieaco?, ui ?iicaii? o??ie ia iae?aco ia?aee
?o ye «oe?iea ?iaanoeoe?eia iiea» aeey nai?? ae?yeueiino?. Aaoi?
cacia/a?, ui ?iicaii? ?iaanoi?e ia?o i?ae ia?aeoe aei aeoeaii?
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, aea/athoue noai ni?aa a e?a?i?-?aoeei??io?,
a a?aeoae, i?ney ooaaeaiiy ni?eyoeeaeo caeii?a i?i ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??
oa i?iaaaeaiiy oe?iei? i?eaaoecaoe??, ii/eiathoue aeoeaii i?iieeaoe a
aeiiii?eo e?a?ie.

E??i oiai, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?icoe?aii? iioieo a
iinoeiioi?noe/i? e?a?ie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie ?iaanoeoe?e a?ae?a?athoue
aeia?a ii?ioi?iiaai?noue ?iicaiieo aeeaaeiee?a i?i iiaeeeaino?
?iaanooaaiiy, a?aeiinii oaeaeea ?o aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy
eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? ianaeaiiy, aenieieaae?o?eiaaia ? a?aeiinii
aeaoaaa ?iai/a neea oa aeaye? ?io?.

Iaeiae a aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui ia an? iinoeiioi?noe/i? e?a?ie
iiaeooue ieoaoeny oaeeie cia/ieie oni?oaie, ye Iieueua /e Oai?ueia. Oae,
aeoaea a?aenoa? a?ae ?ioeo oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i uiaei
caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e Aieaa??y. Oi?iaeiaae 1989-1996 ??. o
oeth e?a?io aoei ?iaanoiaaii eeoa aeecueei 800 iei.aeie., o oie /an ye a
Oai?ueio 13 ie?ae.aeie. Iecuee? oaiie aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo o
iinoeiioi?noe/i?e Aieaa??? oa ciaioaiiy ? aac oiai iaaeniei?
eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? ianaeaiiy, ca ioe?ieaie aenia?o?a,
oiaiiaeeeaeththoue aaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai a?ciano.

Ia iaaaaaoi e?au? ni?aae c? ni?eueiei i?aei?e?iieoeoaii a ?oioi??.
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a ia i?eaaaeth? iae?iaeiiii?/ia na?aaeiaeua oe???
e?a?ie, aiane?aeie /iai i?eieea eai?oaeo a ?oioi?th a?aeaoaa?oueny ae?ae
iia?eueieie oaiiaie.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?icaeoie ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieo – i?enay/aiee
aiae?co oiia, aaia?ao?? oa ianooaa?a ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa oa
i?iaiicoaaiith ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a
Oe?a?i?.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? oeueiai ?icae?eo – Iae?iaeiiii?/ia na?aaeiaeua
?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? – aeena?oaio a?aecia/a?,
ui ae??oaeueiee aieea ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ni?aaey?
aca?iiae?y aeaio i?aenenoai aeiiii?ee – iae?i- oa i?e?i??aiy.

O ?aoa?iaaiiio ia?aa?ao? i?aee?aneaii, ui ?aae?caoe?y iaoai?cio
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ia i?e?i??ai? o iianyeaeaii?e i?aeoeoe?
aeiaaa? ae?iaeaiiy e canoinoaaiiy aio/eeo ? ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i
(ia?ao?aeieo, i?ii?aeieo) ni?eueii? i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Aiaeii/an noeoii?noue i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo ? i?aaiaeo ii?i
iae?i??aiy noaiiaeoue iaiao?aeia ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua, ye?ni? e
e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee yeiai aecia/athoue nooi?iue ?aae?caoe??
ia’?eoeaieo iioaioe?e iaoai?cio ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa i?e?i??aiy.

C iaeyaeo ia oea a nenoai? aca?iica’yce?a iae?i??aiy aaoi? aeae?ey?
/ioe?e iniiaieo aeiee, ye? aeaoa?i?iothoue oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino?, niin?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e nooi?iue ainiiaea?nueei? naiaiaee noa’?eo?a ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Iiaa eaea i?i iie?oeei-i?aaia?, ?inoeoooe?ei?,
aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? ia?aiao?e iae?ina?aaeiaeua
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Ianaiia?aae ?icaeoie ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy
iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? a aea?aeaa?. Oeae ??aaiue a Oe?a?i?
aecia/athoue, c iaeiiai aieo, ianooaae ? oaiie iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue o eiioaeno? noai?aiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae, a
c ?ioiai – iecea ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a.

Aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui iei?oi?e noai iie?oe/iiai na?aaeiaeua a
Oe?a?i? aeinoaoiuei i?eaaaeeaee aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?aeia?iaeieo
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a. Aiaeii/an aenia?oe i?iaiicothoue caa?aaeaiiy
caaaeii ni?eyoeeaeo aeey i?aeia?iaeiiai a?ciano iie?oe/ieo oiia e
iaaeae?.

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii cia/aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua
aeey ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Iniiaiei /eiieeii oi?ioaaiiy
inoaiiueiai ? iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?euei?noue. Aeena?oaio a?aecia/a?, ui
ia iiaeia niiae?aaoeny ia ?icaeoie ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ye iaei??? c
oi?i caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo aei iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ca oiia
aeeaiei? ? caoyaeii? aeai?an??.

Noaoenoe/i? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i iaaaeyeo ?icaaeainiaai?noue a?o/eciyii?
aeiiii?ee, ui ii?iaeaeo? iae?iaeiiii?/io ianoaa?euei?noue. ? oi/a ca
inoaii? aeaa-o?e ?iee aeinyaiooi iaaieo oni?o?a o iiaeieaiiy
iae?iaeiiii?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? – ??cea cieaeaiiy ??aiy ?ioeyoe??,
a?aeiinia o?iainiaa noaa?e?caoe?y. I?ioa i?iaeaia aeinyaiaiiy
iae?iaeiiii?/ii? noaa?eueiino?, cie?aia ae?iaie/i?, caeeoa?oueny ana ua
aeoaea aino?ith.

Aeae? a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co?oueny aieea ?inoeoooe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua ia
?icaeoie ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Aaoi? iieaco?, ui o i?ioean? eiai
oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? iio??aii, c iaeiiai aieo, iiaeieaoe a?ae??aai?noue
a?ae i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?, a c ?ioiai – ?ioaineaii
?icaeaaoe aioo??oi? ?eieia? no?oeoo?e oa ?inoeoooe. Aeena?oaio
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue a?aeiia?aeieo
aenia?o?a, aoaeeoi??a, eiinoeueoaio?a no?eio? ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? a
Oe?a?io, o oiio /ene? ? o oi?i? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Aiaeii/an, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iio??ai? niaoe?aeuei? coneeey c aieo
aea?aeaae oa ?? ?inoeooo?a, ni?yiiaai? ia oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoiiai
i?aeia?iaeiiio a?ciania? oa ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? caaaeii
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui iani?eyoeeaee ?icaeoie ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a
Oe?a?i? cia/iith i??ith iia’ycaiee ?c iani?eyoeeaei i?aaiaei
na?aaeiaeuai, yea, ia aeaeue, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaia?aaeaa/eea?noth oa
noia?a/eea?noth. sse ia aeeaii, aea ca o?noue ?ie?a iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?ie oaea n?i ?ac?a ci?ithaaeeny oiiae ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.
Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui iaa?oue i?e iiaa?oiaaiio aiae?c?
oe?a?inueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o iioaioe?eieo ?iaanoi??a aeieeathoue
/eneaii? caieoaiiy, ai ie?ai? caeiie i?inoi aca?iiaeeeth/athoue iaeei
iaeiiai.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? – Aiae?c ?iaanoeoe?eii? oa ae?iaie/i-o?iainiai?
ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i? – aaoi? c’yniao? ?oi?e
aeeaae o ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee a oiiaao ?? ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe??.

O ?aoa?iaaiiio ia?aa?ao? cacia/aii, ui aeey aeyaeaiiy ia?aaaa /e
iaaeie?e?a ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ii??aiyii c ?ioeie aeaeaie a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoa aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe? iaoiaee ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co. Iaeiae ne?ae iai’yoaoe, ui iei? a i?aeoeoe? ainiiaea?thaaiiy
aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ci? i?aeoiaee, ui oneeaaeith? ni?anoaaeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ??cieo i?aei?e?inoa e cieaeo? aeinoia??i?noue
aiae?co. E??i oiai, a?eueo?noue ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ciaoiaeyoueny ia
ii/aoeia?e noaae?? naiai noaiiaeaiiy ? a?ae/ooii ia aieeaathoue ia noai
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, ui i?aeoe/ii oiaiiaeeeaeth? ii??aiyeueiee
iae?iaiae?c.

C iaeyaeo ia oea, aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ca yeeie
aa?oi i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?.
Ianaiia?aae oea iieacieee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue:

– ianooaae (e?euee?noue noai?aieo oa ae?th/eo ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa;
caaaeueiee ianya a?aeiia?aeieo ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e; ianya ae?iaeaii?
i?iaeoeoe??; e?euee?noue caeiyoeo ia ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoaao oiui);

– no?oeoo?o (aaia?ao?/io, ye ca e?a?iaie-ia?oia?aie, oae ? ca
?ici?uaiiyi ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie; aeaeiao oa ca
noa?aie ae?yeueiino?);

– aeeiai?eo (oaiie ?inoo ? i?e?inoo a?aeiia?aeieo iieaciee?a);

– ?acoeueoaoeai?noue (/anoea i?iaeoeoe?? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa o
aaeiaiio aioo??oiueiio i?iaeoeo?; i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? oa
?aioaaaeuei?noue ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa; a?aeiia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a
ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa io?oe?eii aeciaiei caaaeaiiyi oa
i??i?eoaoai).

O aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui ?icaeoie ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a
Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny ae?ae ia??aiii??ii ? no?eaeiiiae?aii. Iaeiae
caaaeueiee ianya ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e, caeo/aieo /a?ac iaoai?ci
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, iino?eii c?inoa?. Oae, ia aeeaey/enue ia
oa, ui e?euee?noue ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa i?ioyaii 1997 ?. ciaioeeany ia
10 a?aenioe?a, ianya ?iaanoeoe?e c-ca ei?aeiio ca?eueoeany ia 34% ? ia
ii/aoeo 1998 ?. noaiiaea 1233iei.aeie.

Aa?oi caoaaaeeoe e ?ioa: iii?e caaaeueia nei?i/aiiy caeiyoeo a
aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie, cie?aia i?ioyaii 1997 ?. ia 3 a?aenioee, e?euee?noue
i?aoethth/eo ia ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoaao ca oeae ia??iae c?inea aae ia
75%, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aaaiiee aianie ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa o
caaacia/aiiy a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee aeiaeaoeiaeie ?iai/eie i?noeyie, yeeo
oae a?aeo? nueiaiaei?.

Aiae?c ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa iieaco?, ui
iaea?eueoo ?o e?euee?noue – 626 – ooai?aii o Euea?anuee?e iaeano?.
Iaeiae e?aea?aie ca ianyaaie caeo/aieo eioo?a o ni?euei? i?aei?e?inoaa o
1997 ?. aoee Ee?anueea – 201,2 iei.aeie., *a?eanueea – 133,7 iei.aeie.,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea – 123,3 iei.aeie., Iaeanueea – 103,6 iei.aeie.
iaeano? oa Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei – 99,4 iei.aeie. Caaaeii ia ieo
i?eiaaeaei 54 a?aenioee ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e, caeo/aieo a Oe?a?io /a?ac
iaoai?ci ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a?o/eciyi? o??ie ooai?eee
c o??iaie I?ia//eie – 490, NOA – 463, ?in?? – 432, Iieueu? – 431,
Oai?ueie – 188. Ca ieie eaeooue o??ie oaeeo e?a?i, ye Aaeeeia?eoai?y,
*ao?y, Neiaa//eia, ssiii?y oa ?oae?y. Caaaeii ia aeanyoeo iaea?eueoeo
caniiaiee?a ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i? i?eiaaeaei 72,3% caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, ui ooieoe?iioaaee ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie ca noaiii ia ii/aoie 1998?. ? 50 a?aenioe?a ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e, caeo/aieo aei oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee /a?ac iaoai?ci
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Noaoenoe/i? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui iaei?eaaaeea?oith uiaei ?icaeoeo
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa noa?ith aei 1998 ?. aoea aioo??oiy oi?a?aey.
Ooo aoei ooai?aii 1348 ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, ui noaiiaeei 37%
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i?. *eiaei ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa ooai?aii o oa?/ia?e i?iieneiaino? – 339, o aaeoc?
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy e iaoaeiia?iaee – 295, o eaae?e i?iieneiaino? – 168.

Ioe?ithth/e caaaeii ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a
Oe?a?i? ca 1996-1997 ??., aaoi? a?aecia/a? ?o iaiaeiicia/i?noue, a
iiaeaeoaee ? noia?a/eea?noue. Ia?aaeian?i noaoenoe/i? aeai?
aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ni?euei? i?aei?e?inoaa ia /eiyoue
iiee ui a?ae/ooiiai aieeao ia aoaeoeai?noue ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Iaeiae, ia
aeoieo aeena?oaioa, aenie? oaiie ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo a oiiaao caaaeueiiai
niaaeo ?iaanoeoe?eii? aeoeaiino? i?aei?e?inoa, ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa,
nei?i/aiiy caeiyoino? oa cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? oiui aa?oi
?icaeyaeaoe ye iiceoeaiee i?ioean, yeee ia eeoa i?ioeae?? iiaeeaeaiith
e?eciaeo yaeu, aea ? ni?ey? ?ioaa?aoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie o na?oiaa
ainiiaea?noai, ci?oeithth/e oa ?icoe?thth/e aca?iia?aeiineie
i?aei?e?ioe?a c ??cieo e?a?i.

Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe e oa, ui i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ia ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoaao iaeaea oaea?/? aeua ca na?aaei?e ??aaiue aeey aeiiii?ee.
Caaaeii cia/ii aeuei aeyaeany o 1996 ?. ? ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?,
iniaeeai i?iieneiaeo ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa: 19% i?ioe 8,9 % a
na?aaeiueiio aeey i?iieneiaino?.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo – Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? – c?iaeaii i?iaiic uiaei ?icaeoeo
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe?. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
o iaeaooiueiio ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ia?aaaaeaoeia o no?oeoo??
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, ui coiiaeaii ia?aaaaaie ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa
ia ?eieao e?a?i c aenieei nooiaiai ?eceeo.

Ia iniia? i?iaiic?a a?o/eciyieo aenia?o?a uiaei aeeiai?ee
?acoeueoaoeaiino? ??cieo noa? aeiiii?ee aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo
i?i iaieio/a ae??aithaaiiy ianooaa?a ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o
i?iieneiaino? ? oi?a?ae? oaea a iaeaeeae/? ?iee. Oeae aeniiaie aeieeaa?
?c aeine?aeaeaiue aenia?oaie iieaciee?a yeino? ?iai/i? neee oa
iaoeii?noeino? i?iaeoeoe??. Iaeaeuee ??aaiue oeeo iieaciee?a na?aae on?o
aaeocae a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ia? naia i?iieneia?noue.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui ine?eueee ye?noue ?iai/i? neee oa iaoeii?noe?noue
i?iaeoeoe??, ? iaeieie ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, oi ca ?ioeo ni?eyoeeaeo oiia, iiaeia niiae?aaoeny
ca?eueoaiiy eiai ianooaa?a o i?iieneiaino?, a a?aeoae ? a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?.

Iaeiae aeey ia?aoai?aiiy oe??? iiaeeeaino? o ae?eni?noue iio??aii
aeae?eeoe o? aaeoc? /e ae?iaieoeoaa, ye? c o?aooaaiiyi iayaii?
eii’thieoo?e iiaeooue oa?eoe aei na?oiaiai iiae?eo i?aoe? oa caaacia/eoe
o a?aeiinii noene? no?iee iaiao?aeio a?aeaea/o.

A?aoiaoth/e oe? ianoaaeie, aaoi? aeae?ey? ieceo i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a,
ye?, ia eiai aeoieo, ? ia?niaeoeaieie a oeueiio ieai? a aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie. O aeena?oaoe?? aei ieo a?aeianaii aa?ii?iieneiaee eiiieaen,
aeiaoai? oa aeaye? iaoaeo?a?ei? aaeoc?. E??i oiai, oaeeie noa?aie o
a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe? ? ae?iaie/a ? nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneaii, ui iaeiei ?c caaaeaiue, ye? iei? noiyoue
ia?aae Oe?a?iith, ? aeo?ae ia ??aaiue oaoiieia?e ia?aaeiaeo iaoe?e. Aeey
nei?i/aiiy ?ic?eao o ??aiyo aeiiii?/iiai oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo
i?ae Oe?a?iith oa ?icaeiooeie e?a?iaie, ia ne?ae iacaeiaaiyoe inoaii? ca
on?ia iai?yieaie. Iaiao?aeia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia i???ioaoe?y ia i?ia?aei?
iai?yie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?aaiethoe?? ? caaacia/aiiy i?i?eao a ieo.

A?aoiaoth/e i?iaiice oao?ooe?a uiaei iaeaooiueiai oaoiieia?/iiai
?icaeoeo, «i?i?eaieie» aeey aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aaoi? aaaaea? oae? aaeoc?
ye: e?oaei-, ?aeaoi- oa aaoiiia?eaaoaeoaaiiy, a oaeiae i?aee?aneth?
aaaeeea?noue caioi/aiiy ?icaeoeo ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa c ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainii-aea?nueei? oaoi?ee, iaaeoaa?aeieo iaoa??ae?a, o aaeoc?
noaeii-, i?eeaaei- oa aa?noaoiaoaeoaaiiy, ii?ioeiai? iaoaeo?a?? oa a
aeaeo?icaa?thaaeuei?e aaeoc?. Ia i?iaeoeoe?th oeeo caeocae ? ae?iaieoeoa
?nio? iiieo ia ciai?oi?o ?eieao, a cia/eoue oe? aaeoc? caeaoi?
caaacia/eoe aaethoi? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei e?a?ie.

A e?ioe? ?iaioe ocaaaeueiai? iniiai? aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? c
noeioethaaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaioe ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i?.

AENIIAEE OA I?IIICEOe??

1. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith ooai?aiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ? aeinyaiaiiy
neia?aaoe/iiai aoaeoa, nooue yeiai iieyaa? o oiio, ui ii?aeiaiiy aeoea?a
aeaio /e a?eueoa i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo e?a?i caaacia/o? noeoiiee
?acoeueoao, yeee ?noioii ia?aaa?oo? noio ?acoeueoao?a ie?aieo ae?e oeeo
ia?oia??a.

2. Iioe?ai? a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?icaeiooeo e?a?i eeaneo?eaoe?ei?
iciaee ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, oae? ye: i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa; no?oeoo?a eai?oaeo; /anoea o/ano? ia?oia??a ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa oa aeae ae?yeueiino?, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? iaaeinoaoi?ie aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee. Ca oeeo oiia aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue oae? iciaee
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye noa?a ae?yeueiino?, aaee/eia noaoooiiai
oiiaeo, oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, ??aaiue ?icaeoeo
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o e?a?iao-o/anieoeyo oa aeeaeia ?oiuei? o/ano? o
i?aeia?iaeiiio iiae?e? i?aoe? oiui.

3. ?icaeoie ni?eueiiai c ?iicaiieie ia?oia?aie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ?, ia
iao iiaeyae, iaeiei ?c ?aaeueieo oeyo?a aeoiaeo a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee ?c
aeeaiei? e?ece ? iiaeaeueoi? ?? noaa?e?caoe??. I?enei?aiiy no?oeoo?ieo
c?ooaiue a aeiiii?oe? ca aeiiiiiaith ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa iiaeeeaa
eeoa ca oiiae aeaaaeaii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o oe?e aaeoc?, aea??aii? c
iaoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?anaie.

4. ?icaeoie ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? aaeueio?oueny
ia?aoeiaeaie, ui cieaeothoue ?iaanoeoe?eio aeoeai?noue ca?oa?aeieo o??i
o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe?. Aei oeeo ia?aoeiae, ia iao iiaeyae,
ia?aaeian?i iaeaaeaoue: iano?ee?noue o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua;
iaaei?icaeiai?noue ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e e a?aenooi?noue iaeaaeiiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?; iaaoaeoeaia
nenoaia o?iainiai? oa ainiiaea?nueei? ca?oiino? oa ath?ie?aoeci ia
??cieo uaaeyo aea?aeaaii? ???a?o??.

5. Iaiine?aeiai?noue iae?iaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee oa noia?a/eea?noue
ii?iaoeaii? aace oaeiae no?eiothoue ?icaeoie ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
a Oe?a?i?. Oaea aeiiii?/ia na?aaeiaeua aeanoaa?e?co? ae?yeuei?noue
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, ine?eueee iia? ooaaee /anoi caia?a/othoue
iiia?aaei?. Aeey ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee oa ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aeioe?eueii, ia iao iiaeyae, ooi/ieoe iaeaaaeeea?o?
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, cie?aia iiaeaoeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai, ia?aaeaa/eoe
ii?aoi??e ia iiaeaeueo? eiai ci?ie oi?iaeiaae aeayeiai ia??iaeo /ano,
aea ia iaioa i?ae 3-5 ?ie?a. Onoaeaia iiaeaoeiaa nenoaia ?c caaaeaiith
iiaeaoeiaith noaaeith, noai?eea ae ni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a, i?ae ei?ioeino?ieia? «iiaeaoeia? eai?eoee», ui iino?eii
ci?iththoueny.

6. Iaiaeiaeia? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ??cieo aeae?a
i?aei?e?inoa oa ii/aoeiaee aoai noaiiaeaiiy ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
a Oe?a?i? oiaiiaeeeaeththoue ?o ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c. O ca’yceo c oeei,
ia iao iiaeyae, aiae?c ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? aeioe?eueii
i?iaiaeeoe ca iieacieeaie, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue: ianooaae ?icaeoeo
ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa; aaia?ao?/io, aaeocaao oa ?aa?iiaeueio
no?oeoo?o; aeeiai?eo a?aeiia?aeieo iieaciee?a; ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa oa a?aeiia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? io?oe?eii aeciaiei caaaeaiiyi oa i??i?eoaoai.

7. Oiia?eueiai? oaiie c?inoaiiy ianya?a i?iaeoeoe?? ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa aaaaoi a /iio iiyniththoueny a?aenooi?noth /?oei?
no?oeoo?ii? iie?oeee oa aeae?eaiiy i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a ooai?aiiy
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa. Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ye iieaco?
aeina?ae aaaaoueio e?a?i, iaiiaeeeaee ii?yae c ?ioei aac i?ia?ai
ni?eyiiy ?iicaiiei ?iaanoeoe?yi c o?aooaaiiyi eiai iaei??i?eoaoi?oeo
iai?yie?a.

8. O iaaeao i?iieneiai? iie?oeee aeioe?eueii ?ic?iaeoe /?oeo
aeiaaino?ieiao no?aoaa?th caeo/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiiiai i?eaaoiiai
eai?oaeo, ianaiia?aae o ni?euei? i?aei?e?inoaa. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
noeioethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa aa?oi cae?enithaaoe c
o?aooaaiiyi i??i?eoaoieo aeey a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee iai?yi?a ??
?icaeoeo, cie?aia oeo, ui ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo
e?a?ie. ?iaanoeoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a aeioe?eueii
caioi/oaaoe /a?ac iaaeaiiy i?euea i?ae eiie?aoi? i?iaeoe, ye?
?aae?coaaeenue ae coneeeyie oe?a?inueeiai oa ?iicaiiiai i?eaaoiiai
eai?oaeo, /anoeiai ca o/anoth aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?.

9. Aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaioe ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?o ae?yeueiino? ia?aaeian?i iaiao?aeii, ia iaoo aeoieo,
iie?ioeoe ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, iniaeeai ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, uiaei i?aeia?iaeieo ? i?noeaaeo ?eie?a caooo,
o?iainiaiai noaio iiaeeeaeo ?iicaiieo ia?oia??a ? o??i, iioaioe?eieo
iinoa/aeueiee?a. E??i oiai, oaeineiiaeeoe aeiiii?/i? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo
o?iainiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ? i?eaanoe /eii?
iaoiaeeee o a?aeiia?aei?noue c i?aeia?iaeieie aeiiaaie. A yeiaeei?ioo?
no?iee ?ic?iaeoe aea?aeaai? ? ?aa?iiaeuei? i?ia?aie ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeia?
i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a i?aeia?iaeii? ni?ai?aoe? a Oe?a?i? oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iaoai?cie ?o ?aae?caoe??.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aiaothe I.?. Ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ye aeae i?aeia?iaeii? ni?ai?aoe?
oa oi?ia caeo/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo // Iaoe?iiaeueia
aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy, ia?niaeoeae. A?niee Euea?a.
oi-oo. Na?. aeiiii?/ia. 1997. — Euea?a, 1997. — Aei. 27. — N. 47-48.

Aiaothe I.?. ?iaanoeoe?ei? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
a Oe?a?i? // O?iaine Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?5. — N. 16-22.

Aiaothe I.?. ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie // Oe?a?ia ia
oeyoo aei ?eieo. A?niee Euea?a. oi-oo. — Na?. aeiiii?/ia. 1998. —
Euea?a, 1998. — Aei. 28. — N.139-142.

Aiaothe I.?. ?iaanoeoe?eia na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie:
no/ani? i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo. Iaoe. ca. — Euea?a, 1997. — N.
53-55.

Aiaothe I.?. ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??: ao?aoa aeiiii?/iiai noaa?ai?oaoo /e
aeiiii?/ia icaei?iaeaiiy e?a?ie ? // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie: no/ani? i?iaeaie
oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo. Iaoe. ca. — Euea?a, 1997. — N. 90-92.

Aiaothe I.?. No?aoaa?/ia ia?oia?noai Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee // Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i?. Iaoe. ca.
— Euea?a, 1997. — Aei.2. — N. 61-63.

Aiaothe I.?., Ea?aiaiee I.?. Ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee // Oai??y ? i?aeoeea i?aei?e?iieoeoaa: I?iaeaie
aea/aiiy oa aeiiii?/ii? i?ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee I?aeia?. e?oiueiai
aeii. naiano?o, O?oneaaaoeue, 29.07-21.08.1996 ?. — Euea?a, 1997. — N.
16-18.

Aiaothe I.?. Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie ia oeyoo ?ioaa?aoe?? aei na?oiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai i?inoi?o // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie: ieioea, no/ania, iaeaooi?.
Ca. aeiiia?aeae oa iia?aeiieaiue Ainueii? iaoe. nan?? Aeii. eii?n?? IOO,
Aa?acaiue, 1997. — N. 33-36.

Aiaothe I.?. ?iaanoeoe?eia na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? // Aeiiii?ea oa
aeieia?y. Ca. iaoa??ae?a iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??. — Euea?a, 1997. — N.
35-36.

Aiioaoe?y

Aiaothe I.?. Ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01 — aeiiii?/ia oai??y. — Euea?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii eiiieaeniiio aiae?co ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. A ?iaio? aecia/aii iniaeeaino? oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe??
ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ae??oaeueiee aieea ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ni?aaey? iae?ina?aaeiaeua e?a?ie /a?ac
noeoii?noue i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo oiia, ui
aecia/athoue oa?aeoa? oa niin?a ae?yeueiino?, nooi?iue aeiiii?/ii?
naiaiaee noa’?eo?a ni?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio
iieaciee?a ioe?iee ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. Ie?aneaii ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ni?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?. Aeacaii ia iiaeeea? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? oa aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa a
Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aeia?iaeia ni?ai?aoey, a?aeiini? ia?aaaae,
i?aei?e?iieoeoai, aeani?noue, i?yi? ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??, ?iaanoeoe?eiee
ee?iao, aoaeoeai?noue.

Aiiioaoeey

Aiaothe I.E. Niaianoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
o?ainoi?iaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 — yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. — Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio aiaeeco niaianoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. A ia?aii ?acaeaea ?aaiou aunaa/eaathony
oai?aoe/aneea iniiau ?acaeoey niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Naeaeaii iiiuoeo ?anniao?eaaoue yoio i?ioean /a?ac i?ecio oai?ee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee e i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. Ii?aaeaeaii
nooue, oa?aeoa? e yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee. A
/anoiinoe onoaiiaeaii, /oi niaianoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aunooiaao
eiie?aoiie oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa
o/anieeia, a iniiaiie i?e/eiie nicaeaiey niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey
yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiey oaeiai ?acoeueoaoa, eioi?ue i?aauoaao
iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe iaaeo noi?ii a ioaeaeueiinoe.

A ?aaioa oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua e?eoa?ee niaianoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, /oi iicaieyao ioee/eoue aeaiia iiiyoea io
iiiaeanoaa ae?oaeo. Aieaa oiai, aeiiieiaii iauai?eiyoua, iniaaiii a
caiaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a, e?eoa?ee eeanneoeeaoeee niaianoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Iaaeaeo oai caia/aii, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoea oa?aeoa?ece?oaony n?aco ii ianeieueeeo i?eciaeao, oioy
auaeaeaiea eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai iaae?aao iniaiai cia/aiey a oneiaeyo
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee.

Auaeaeaii ianeieueei iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua niaeaenoaotho nicaeaieth
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a /anoiinoe onoaiiaeaii, /oi iniiaiui n?aaee
ieo aunooiaao iaee/ea ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo no?oeoo?. A ?aaioa
?anniao?eaaaony iiuo nicaeaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee
a no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie. Auaeaeythony iieiaeeoaeueiua e
io?eoeaoaeueiua /a?ou yoiai iiuoa, a oaeaea ?anniao?eaathony
aiciiaeiinoe aai i?eiaiaiey a Oe?aeia. Naeaeai auaiae, /oi yooaeoeaiia
?acaeoea niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaee/ea
?yaea eueaio aeey niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ii oaeay iieeoeea aeieaeia
auoue ?acoiiie e ia i?ioeai?a/eoue iaoeeiiaeueiui eioa?anai.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey ?anniao?eaathony
iniaaiiinoe e iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi
?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee ieacuaaao
iae?in?aaea no?aiu /a?ac niaieoiiinoue i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo,
iieeoeei-i?aaiauo oneiaee, eioi?ua aeaoa?ieie?otho oa?aeoa? e niinia
aeayoaeueiinoe, noaiaiue yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu noauaeoia niaianoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iaaeaeo oai onoaiiaeaii, /oi iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai ?acaeoey niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a
Oe?aeia yaeyaony iae?iyeiiiie/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue e eciai/eainoue
oe?aeineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec eiaanoeoeeiiiie e i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
o?ainoi?iaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu /a?ac i?aaeeiaeaiioth nenoaio
iieacaoaeae. Naeaeai auaiae i aeaooniuneaiiinoe e i?ioeai?a/ee
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee a Oe?aeia. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, iie i?aauaatho ia ia?aiia/aeueiie noaaeee naiaai ?acaeoey, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai ia eiatho iuooeiiai aeeyiey ia yeiiiieeo iaoae no?aiu,
a n ae?oaie – iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e i?eaueueiinoe
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, nie?auaiea aac?aaioeoee i?ioeaiaeaenoaotho
yeiiiie/aneiio niaaeo no?aiu, ieacuaay iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiey ia
i?ioeannu yeiiiie/aneiai aic?inoaiey.

A ?aaioa auaeaeaiu iniiaiua i?iaeaiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey niaianoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Iaia/aiu ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey
niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a Oe?aeia, a /anoiinoe auaeaeaiu
?aaeiiaeueiua e io?aneaaua i?ei?eoaou yoiai ?acaeoey. Oeacaii ia
aiciiaeiua iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe e oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
o?ainoi?iaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai, n?aaieoaeueiua
i?aeiouanoaa, i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, nianoaaiiinoue, i?yiua eiino?aiiua
eiaanoeoeee, eiaanoeoeeiiiue eeeiao, yooaeoeaiinoue.

ANNOTATION

Hnatiuk N.I. Joint Ventures in Conditions of Market Transformation of
the Economy of Ukraine. — Manuscript.

This thesis for candidate of Science’s degree (in Economics) by
speciality 08.01.01 — Theory of Economics. — Ivan Franko L’viv State
University, L’viv, 1999.

This thesis is devoted to complex analysis of joint business. The
features and basic tendencies of joint ventures activity in conditions
of transitional economy of Ukraine are determined in the work. It is
ascertained, that the decisive influence functioning of joint ventures
renders macroenvironment of a country through set of organizing,
economic, political and legal conditions, which determine character and
way of activity, level of economic liberty of the subjects of joint
business. The system of parameters of an estimation of joint ventures
activity in conditions of transitional economy are proposed. The
prospects of development of joint business in Ukraine are determined.
The basic ways of increase of efficiency and improvement of joint
ventures activity in conditions of market transformation of the economy
of Ukraine are offered.

Key words: international cooperation, comparative advantages, business,
property, direct foreign investment, investment climate, efficiency.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 19.11.98. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai??. ae?oe. Ae?oe.
ionao. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100. Cai. 09.

Aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/iee a?aeae?e EaOeIOA?.

290058, i. Euea?a, aoe 700-??//y Eueaiaa, 57.

?iicaii? ?iaanoi?e eaeooue c Aieaa??? ? // Ae?ei. — 1996. — ?55 (473).
— N. 14.

Aeaea?aei: I?yi? ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? ca 1997 ?.: Aea?aeeiinoao
Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a: Aea?aeeiinoao Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N. 7-8.

Aeaea?aei: I?yi? ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? ca 1997 ?.: Aea?aeeiinoao
Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a: Aea?aeeiinoao Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N. 7-8.

Aeaea?aei: I?yi? ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? ca 1997 ?.: Aea?aeeiinoao
Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a: Aea?aeeiinoao Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N. 17-19.

Aeaea?aei: I?yi? ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? ca 1997 ?.: Aea?aeeiinoao
Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a: Aea?aeeiinoao Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N. 26-27.

Ia/eneaii ca aeaieie Aea?aeeiinoaoo Oe?a?ie oa Oe?a?ia o 1996 ?.: Noao.
ui??/iee. — Ee?a: Oe?a?inueea aioeeeeiiaae?y ?i. I.I.Aaaeaia, 1997. — N.
110.

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