EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

NOOEE Iao?i Ieaen?eiae/

OAeE 911.3:63 (477.85).

NIAOe?AE?CAOe?ss N?EUeNUeEIAINIIAeA?NUeEIAI AE?IAIEOeOAA A OIIAAO
IA?AOIAeO AeI ?EIEO

(aaia?ao?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ia i?eeeaae? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 11.00.02 – aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aaia?ao?? ? ea?oia?ao?? Oe?a?ie
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? AEoiainueeee
ss?ineaa ?aaiiae/, *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y
Oaaeueeiae/a, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aaia?ao?? ? ea?oia?ao?? Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaae?e Ieaa
?aaiiae/, Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??;

aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Canoaaaoeueea Ieueaa
Aieiaeeie??aia, Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 19 » eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 10-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E. 35.051.05 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe o
Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290000,
i.Euea?a, aoe.I.Aei?ioaiea, 41, aoae.26).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290000,
i.Euea?a, aoe.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 12 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe E.O.Aeoa?n

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui aacaeueoa?iaoeai?noue ?
iaa?aeeeaaei?noue aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie noaea iano?eueee i/aaeaeiith, ui
caie?eaiiy c iath caa?iaeo? aaeeeeie nioe?aeueieie, aeiiii?/ieie ?
iie?oe/ieie ao?aoaie oa iaia?aaeaa/aieie iane?aeeaie. O i?ioean?
?aae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i ? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei aaaeeeaa
i?noea caeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??ciioeeaaeieo
oei?a ainiiaea?noa. Iacaaeainiaai?noue niiaeea/iai ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo
oiaa??a, iiooe ?aoe?iiaeueieo oeyo?a eiai oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? eiioeaioe??
cae?eniaiiy aeeaiei? ? anaioiiethth/i? aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie.

Ia ??ai? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iaeano? aeineoue /?oei i?iyaeythoueny ca’ycee
i?ae i?e?iaeieie, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa aeieia?/ieie /eiieeaie,
ye? iathoue aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia i?ioeane eiiieaeniooai?aiiy a AIE,
oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? niaoe?ae?caoe??
oa?eoi??? oa ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a. No?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa
noni?eueiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai naeoi?a, ui cae?enith?oueny
oeyoii ?ai?aai?caoe?? ?nioth/eo eieaeoeaieo i?aei?e?inoa o ia?aaeaa/ai?
/eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oi?ie i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? (aeoe?iia?i?, iiai?, eiiaiaeeoi? oiaa?enoaa, oiaa?enoaa c
iaiaaeaiith ? aeiaeaoeiaith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth, oa?ia?nuee?
ainiiaea?noaa), i?eaaaea aei ci?ie ?nioth/i? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
niaoe?ae?caoe?? oa?eoi???, oiio ?ic?iaea i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ??
iioei?caoe?? ? iaeiei c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/ii?
iaoee.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia oaio aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeiioaaeenue ca?aeii iaoeiaeo ieai?a
eaoaae? aaia?ao?? ? ea?oia?ao?? Oe?a?ie, aeiiii?/ii? aaia?ao?? oa
eaai?aoi??? aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. ?iaioa oa?eoea neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith aei o?ueio aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oai ?
eaoaae?aeueieo iaoeiaeo oai. *anoeia ?iaioe aeeiioaaeanue ia caiiaeaiiy
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiaeeaeaiiy
?ic?iaie oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy niaoe?ae?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa
??ciioeeaaeieie oeiaie ainiiaea?noa a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

Aeoiaey/e c iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ice?eoe iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy niaoe?ae?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa;

— aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?eii? ia?aaoaeiae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ?ieue i?e?iaeieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a o
oi?ioaaii? ? ?icaeoeo niaoe?ae?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?;

— aea/eoe iniiai? iai?yie o?ainoi?iaoe?? caieaei?enooaaiiy a
??ciioeeaaeieo oeiao ainiiaea?noa;

— ?ice?eoe iniaeeaino? no/anii? aaeocaai-oa?eoi??aeueii? no?oeoo?e
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa neeaaeiaeo oi?ioaaiiy eiai
i?iaeoeoeaiino?;

— aecia/eoe ?ioaa?aeueio niaoe?ae?caoe?th n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oa?eoi??? oa aieea /eiiee?a ia oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo
i?iaeiaieuenoaa;

— ?ic?iaeoe ia?niaeoeaio iiaeaeue ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa oa iioeiaeueii?
niaoe?ae?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaeieia?/i? oa i?aeoe/i?
iniiae ?icaeoeo niaoe?ae?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
oa oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ??ciioeeaaei? oeie ainiiaea?noa oa ?eiie
i?iaeiaieuenoaa aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iaeano?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eeiyoee nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee
i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy i?e?iaei-nioe?i-aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, aea?aeaai?
aeoe, i?eeiyo? Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie o i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo aeiiii?ee
ia iia? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ?eieia? a?aeiineie. Ca
oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy acyoi iaoeia? ?ic?iaee
A.A.Aea?aa, A.A.Aaeaaaiiaa, I.I.Ai?uaanueeiai, I.?.Aeie?oiueiai,
ss.?.AEoiainueeiai, O.Ae.Canoaaiiai, I.A.Canoaaaoeueei?,
A.I.Cieianueeiai, ?.A.?aaiooa, N.?.?uoea, I.?.Eiiiaaeiai?,
?.TH.Eaaeoeueeiai, E.I.Ia?ioeue, A.I.Iaa??ii?, I.I.Iaeaia?/oea,
I.Ae.I?nooia, N.I.Iena?aiei, TH.?.I?oth?aiea, ?.I.Iooea?a, A.I.?oaeaiea,
E.A.?oaeaiea, I.A.Oii/??aa, I.A.Oauaanueeiai, I.O.Oii?e, I.?.Oaae?y,
?.A.sscei?ii? oa ?ioeo o/aieo i?i caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ?
oa?eoi??aeueio i?aai?caoe?th aaeocae ainiiaea?noaa,
ae?iaie/i-oa?eoi??aeueieo eiiieaen?a ? nenoai. O ?iaio? aeei?enoai?
ii??aiyeueii-aaia?ao?/iee, aaeainiaee, noaoenoe/iee, oeiieia?/iee,
ea?oia?aooaaiiy, ?aeiioaaiiy oa ?io? iaoiaee aaia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia iniia? aiae?co ia?aeiieo
noaoenoe/ieo ? a?aeii/eo iaoa??ae?a Aea?aeeii?oaoo ii noaoenoeoe?
Oe?a?ie, *a?i?aaoeueeiai iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee,
oi?aae?iiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno *a?i?aaoeueei?
iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?? oa ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa?: o aecia/aii?
iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a oa iniiaieo /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy
niaoe?ae?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa; aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ie?
??ciioeeaaeieo oei?a i?aei?e?inoa o oi?ioaaii? ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa;
?ic?iaoe? i?eioeei?a oa aeae?eaii? ae?iaie/i-oa?eoi??aeueieo oei?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iaeano?;
aecia/aii? iniiaieo iai?yi?a iioeiaeueii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue aeniiae?a oa ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeinyaiooa ca
aeiiiiiaith aiae?co cia/iiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, canoinoaaiiyi
no/anieo iaoiaeee (aieaoiee iaoiae, iaoaiaoeei-ea?oia?ao?/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy oa ?i.), cai?o oa ii?aoethaaiiy ia?aeiieo aeaieo o ?ic??c?
??ciioeiieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, canoinoaaiiyi
no/anieo ?a?iiaenueeeo iieaciee?a e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa niaoe?ae?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, aeei?enoaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa ianaeaiiy *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy
nioe?iathaeaeaoieo aeine?aeaeaiue iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa
ianaeaiiy (IIAI) ca ?ic?iaeaiith aaoi?ii aieaoith, ocaiaeaeaiith c
iaeaniei oi?aae?iiyi aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee, iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a ?ioeo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie, a
oaeiae iaeanieie aaei?i?no?aoe?yie aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
ia?aaoaeiaith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ca?o?a c
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oai: ?50-82 «Aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?
a?aeoai?aiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ?aa?iio I?eea?iaooy» (iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 019 U 028037), ?50-83 «?ic?iaea eaaeano?o eaaeii- ?
naeaiaaacia/ieo ?aeii?a Aoeiaeinueeeo Ea?iao» (iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 0194 U 028037), ?48-86 «Aeieiai-aeiiii?/ia oa ea?oia?ao?/ia
ioe?iea i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie ia aac? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
nenoai» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0197 U 144413).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aeey nooaeaio?a aaia?ao?/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo
niaoe?aeueiinoae a eo?nao «Aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y Oe?a?ie»,
«?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee oa aeiiii?ea ?aa?ii?a»,
«Ae?iaie/i-oa?eoi??aeuei? eiiieaene Oe?a?ie», «Aaia?ao?y
Ea?iaoi-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aeiio ? iaoiaeeea ?? aeeeaaeaiiy»,
«Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ea?oia?ao?y».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o cai??, ii?aoethaaii? c?a?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, neeaaeaii? oaaeeoeue, ea?o aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a
a iaeanoyo Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio; o aecia/aii? iniiaieo oeyo?a
o?ainoi?iaoe?? eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a
oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ?ioaa?aeueii? niaoe?ae?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa iaeano?; aeae?eaii? ?aeii?a niaoe?ae?caoe?? ?
ae?iaie/i-oa?eoi??aeueieo oei?a ??ciioeeaaeieo ainiiaea?noa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny
e iaaiai?thaaeeny ia: V? ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«Ea?oia?aoe/aneia iaania/aiea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey Oe?aeineie NN? e aa ?aaeiiia» (*a?i?aoe?, 1987);
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «50 ?ie?a aicc’?aeiaiiy
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie c Oe?a?inueeith ?aaeyinueeith Nioe?ae?noe/iith
?anioae?eith o neeaae? Nithco ?N?» (Euea?a, 1989); ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie aeieia?? Iiae?eey»
(Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1989); iaeani?e iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/?e
eiioa?aioe?? «50 ?ie?a aicc’?aeiaiiy I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie ? Oioeinueeiai
iia?oo Aanna?aa?? c ?aaeyinueeith Oe?a?iith o neeaae? N?N?» (*a?i?aoe?,
1990); ? ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?inueei? ?N?» (*a?i?aoe?, 1991); V?? c’?cae?
Oe?a?inueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Ee?a, 1995); iaoeiaiio nai?ia??
Aano??enueeiai ?inoeoooo No?aeii? ? I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie (A?aeaiue,
1995); I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?ainoi?iaoe?ei?
i?ioeane a ainiiaea?noa? ?aa?ii?a No?aeii? ?a?iie» (??i?iue, 1997);
iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e aaia?ao?? ? ea?oia?ao?? Oe?a?ie
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo (1991-1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 9 iaoeiaeo
noaooyo, 6 oacao aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? c’?caeao.
Onueiai aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii 15 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, o oiio /ene? 6
iiiia?ao?e, i?ae?o/iee?a, iin?aiee?a (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia 147
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (141 iaeiaioaaiiy),
aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaiee iaoa??ae aeeeaaeaiee ia 139 noi??ieao, a oaeiae o
11 oaaeeoeyo ? 5 ea?oao ? noaiao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeeeaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ??
aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiao ? i?aeoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue.

1. Aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoe?ae?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa

N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie a?ae?a?aaaei ? iaaeae? aoaea
a?ae?a?aaaoe aaeeeo ?ieue o iaeaooiueiio ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae. No?aoaa?y
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee iiaeiia aooe ni?yiiaaia ia yeiaeoaeaeoa iiaeieaiiy
e?eciaeo i?ioean?a, caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? aaeaioaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno aei oiia ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e, ci?oeiaiiy
o?iainiaiai noaio, ooaa?aeaeaiiy a ia?niaeoea? Oe?a?ie ye aea?aeaae c
aenieiaoaeoeaiei aenii?oiini?iiiaeiei n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii.
Ia?aaoaeiaa aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oa
caaacia/aiiy eiai i?enei?aiiai c?inoaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii aei no?aoaa??
?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ia?aaeaa/a? ?yae ae?e, na?aae yeeo oeaio?aeueia
i?noea iiaeiia iin?aeaoe caiaeueia ?aoi?ia ? no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa
ainiiaea?noa. Oaea ia?aaoaeiaa iieyaa? o noai?aii? ??cieo aeae?a
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia: aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa, oiaa?enoa c ??ciith oi?iith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, eiiaiaeeoieo
ainiiaea?noa, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eiiia?aoea?a, oa?ia?nueeeo
ainiiaea?noa, iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa ianaeaiiy.

Caiaeueia ?aoi?ia, no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa (ENI), ooai?aiiy naeoi?o
iacaeaaeieo oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa, a oaeiae i?eaaoecaoe?y ?
iathaaiiy ? aaaeeeaeie ia?aaeoiiaaie c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ia?aeiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iie?ioaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy
oa ?ioi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??. Aa?a?ii-?ano?niee
iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue ae?iaieoeoaa
eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ?
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy ii??aiyii c ?ioeie iinonioe?ae?noe/ieie e?a?iaie
(iniaeeai ca?iiaeo, oaoi?/ieo, cie?aia ie?eieo, iai/aaeo eoeueoo? ?
o?oeo?a).

A iniiao iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii aoaeoeai?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa i?e oiia? caa?aaeaiiy aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae,
?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy. Aieiaiei iieacieeii
i?iaeoeoeaiino? a ??ciioeeaaeieo oeiao ainiiaea?noa ia?aii iieaciee
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? c iaeeieoe? ieiu? i?e a?aeiia?aeieo cao?aoao.
Aei??ieeii iieacieea ia?aii ia a?ioiaee ae?ac, yeee a oiiaao e?ece ?
ae?ae ianoaa?eueiei, a ae?ac o ca?iiaeo iaeeieoeyo, iei? aeciaiee a
?a?iiaenuee?e iaooe? ye iae?ai?acaioaoeai?oee.

2. *eiieee oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo niaoe?ae?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?

Aieiaiei /eiieeii oi?ioaaiiy, ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa aenooia? aa?a?ii-?ano?niee
iioaioe?ae oa?eoi???, neeaaeiaeie yeiai ? i?e?iaeii-?ano?niee iioaioe?ae
– ye oiiaa ?ioaineaiino? caiea?ianoaa ? ?aca?a ia?iuoaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoe??, a oaeiae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae ? ?ano?ne. Aiie
oi?iothoue aaia?aoi-aeiiii?/i? iniaeeaino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, ?acoeueoaoaie yeiai ? aa?ieaiaeoaooia no?oeoo?a oa?eoi???
ye oa?eoi??aeueia aaca n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? niaoe?ae?caoe??.

Aaciina?aaei?i i?iyaii iniaeeainoae ?aeue?oo ? no?oeoo?a caiaeueieo
oa?aeue o ??cieo i?noeaainoyo. Ca oa?aeoa?ii ee?iaoe/ieo oiia ?
ee?iaoe/ieie ?ano?naie oa?eoi??y *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? aaaaea?oueny
ni?eyoeeaith aeey ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo aaeocae ?
ae?iaieoeoa AIE. ??aieiia /anoeia oa?eoi??? ye aa?iee?iaoe/iee ?aeii ia?
iii??ii caieiaeaiee ? caieiaeaiee i?ae?aeiie. Ooo ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
ae?iuoaaiiy ca?iiaeo, ca?iiaiaiaeo, oaoi?/ieo eoeueoo?, ea?oiie? oa
iai/?a. Ia?aaea??iee aa?iee?iaoe/iee ?aeii – iaaeeeoeiai caieiaeaiee,
oiio ia?aaaaeath/ei oeiii oiaa?iiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
iiei/ii-i’ynia neioa?noai oa a?a/a?noai, ca?iiai-ao?yeiaa ainiiaea?noai,
ea?oiiey?noai ? eueiia?noai. A??nueeee aa?iee?iaoe/iee ?aeii oaeiae
iaaeeeoeiai caieiaeaiee, c iaaenieeie oaiia?aoo?aie caaaeii ? ia ia?
?ioaineaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, yea ooo
niaoe?ae?co?oueny ia i’yni-iiei/iiio oaa?eiieoeoa? e a?a/a?noa? c
ae?iaieoeoaii ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? ia i?e?iaeieo n?iiaeaoyo. Caeaaeii a?ae
iniaeeainoae iiaa?oi? ? ee?iaoe/ieo oiia ia oa?eoi??? iaeano?
noi?ioaaany aeiaie? no?ieaoee a?oioiaee iie?ea, ui ia? /?oei ae?aaeai?
oa?eoi??aeuei? a?aei?iiino?. Cie?aia, a Ea?iaoao iioe?ai? a?oioe
ao?icaiiiai, o Ia?aaeea?iaoo? – a?oioe i?aecieenoiai, a ia
I?oo-Aei?no?ianueeiio ??aieiiiio iaaee??//? ia?aaaaeathoue a?oioe
/i?iicaiiiai oeio. Oaea ??ciiiai?oi?noue a?oioiaiai iie?eao aecia/a?
no?oeoo?o caiaeueieo oa?aeue, iin?aieo ieiu, i?iaeoeoeai?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aiaei? ?ano?ne iniaeeai iicia/athoueny ia oa?aeoa??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa o no?aeieo ? i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao
iaeano?, aea canoiniao?oueny c?ioaiiy, a a ia?aaea??’yo oa a??nueeeo
?aeiiao noeo?ei? a?ae?ieia?/i? yaeua caaaeathoue ?noioieo caeoe?a
ainiiaea?noaai. I?e?iaeiee ?ineeiiee iie?ea a?ae?a?a? iaaio ?ieue o
no?oeoo?? i?e?iaeieo ei?iiaeo oa?aeue ? iicia/a?oueny oaeei /eiii ia
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?eiieoeoaa.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? /eiieee ? ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ca?oiiaai? a i?ae?icae?ee, a
naia: caaaeueii-aeiiii?/i? (aa?iaaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy, aea?aeaaia
iie?oeea oa ?iaanoeoe?? a AIE, ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo
oa?eoi???, aeina?ae aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa),
aeaiia?ao?/i? oa iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i? (/enaeuei?noue ? iaoe?iiaeueiee
neeaae ianaeaiiy, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca AIE, o?ainii?oia
aeinooii?noue oa?eoi??? oa oiiae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??,
?io?ano?oeoo?ia caaacia/ai?noue, ??aaiue ainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy
oa?eoi???), niiaeea/? (iio?aae ianaeaiiy a i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy, ?ici??
?eieo oiaa??a, eiieo?aioiini?iiiaei?noue i?iaeoeoe??, ?aioaaaeuei?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??, ??aaiue aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy, noa’?eoeai? niaee
iieoioe?a, ineoieia?y i?eaeaaiiy oiaa??a).

Noeoii?noue aieeao i?e?iaeii-?ano?nieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
/eiiee?a aaciina?aaeiuei iicia/a?oueny ia no/ani?e aa?ieaiaeoaooi?e
no?oeoo?? oa?eoi???. Iei? oa?eoi??y *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, yea iaeaea
iaiieiaeio caeiyoa ai?aie oa ia?aaea??’yie, ia? 43% ?ici?aiino? on???
oa?eoi??? ? 73% ?ici?aiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, a a
i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao /anoea oaeeo aeae?a oa?aeue nyaa? 80%, iaeaea iieiaeia
c yeeo cacia? aieeao aiaeii? a?ic??.

3. Iniaeeaino? niaoe?ae?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei

I?aai?caoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a ??ciioeeaaeieo
oeiao ainiiaea?noa ia? nai?i ae?acii iniaeeaino? caieaei?enooaaiiy,
aaeocaai? no?oeoo?e, oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??. Caaaeii caiaeueiee
oiiae o iaaeao *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei nooiaiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy, cie?aia eiai /anoea a ??aieiieo
I?oo-Aei?no?ianueeeo ?aeiiao nyaa? 66-86%. Oe? ae ?aeiie iathoue
iaeaeuee iieaciee ?ici?aiino?, oiio ia aeiaaeeiai, ui ooo ae?iuo?oueny
iiiaae 2/3 ca?iiaeo ? ca?iiaiaiaeo eoeueoo?, 90% oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, 75%
iai/?a ? o?oeo?a. O ia?aaea??’yo, ye? caeiathoue 1/3 ieiu? iaeano?,
aeniea /anoea n?iiaeaoae (aei 40%) ? ianiaeu (iiiaae 21%). Aeey
a??nueeeo oa?eoi??e iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? n?iiaeao? oa ianiaeua (iaeaea ii 40%
o no?oeoo?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue), a e?ne ia?aaeuothoue 21%
ieiu?. A ia?aaea??’yo ae?iuothoue ia?aaaaeii ea?oiieth, eueii, ei?iia? e
ca?iia? eoeueoo?e, a a ai?ao caiea?ianoai i?aaenoaaeaia iaaaeeeeie
a?aaeaie.

Iaea?eueo? ieiu? caiaeueieo oa?aeue neiioeaio?iaai? a eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noaao (ia?an?/ii ?o ?ici?? neeaaea? iiiaae 1800 aa), a oeeo aea
ainiiaea?noaao /anoea ??ee? nyaa? 80% n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue.
Iaea?eueo? ieiu? i?ieo caiaeue o ENI cina?aaeaeai? a i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao
iaeano?, a iaeiaio? – a i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo a??nueeeo. O no?aeieo
??aieiieo ?aeiiao neiioeaio?iaai? iniiai? ieiu? aaaaoi??/ieo
ianaaeaeaiue. Iaaiaee, a oeeo ?aeiiao iaeiaio? ieiu? a?aeaaaeaii i?ae
n?iiaeao? oa ianiaeua, ca yeeie i?ia?aeieie ? a??nuee? ?aeiie. Oi/a
inoaii?i /anii ieiua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue o ieo aeaui
ciaioeeanue, aiie a?aecia/athoueny aenieei ??aiai ononi?eueiaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ca ieiuath caieaei?enooaaiiy iaeaaeaoue aei eaoaai???
aaeeeeo.

Ia oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa i?eiaaea? 10% a?ae ieiu?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, na?aae yeeo
ia?aaaaeathoue i?i? caie? – 82%, n?iiaeao? oa ianiaeua – 8-9%. Aeey
iaeano? oeiiaeie ? ae??aiicaiaeuei? oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa.
A?eueo?noue ainiiaea?noa iathoue ?ici??e caiaeueieo iaae?e?a a?ae 2 aei
10aa, a eeoa 16 ?c 674 – iiiaae 25aa. Na?oiaith i?aeoeeith aeiaaaeaii,
ui aoaeoeaiei ainiiaea?noai ?ineeiieoeueeiai iai?yio iiaea aooe i?e
caiaeueiiio iaae?e? ia iaioa i?ae 10-15aa.

Aieiaieie ae?iaieeaie i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a
*a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeano? aeiiaaeaaia aoee ENI. Aiie ? aeae? caeiathoue
i?ia?aeia i?noea o ae?iaieoeoa? ca?iiaeo ? oaoi?/ieo eoeueoo?, a
oaa?eiieoeoai ooo ia?anoaei aooe i?ia?aeiith aaeoccth. Ia ca?iia? oa
ca?iiaiaia? i?eiaaea? 1/5 /anoeia aaeiaiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ? iaeaea iieiaeia ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa.
Iaea?eueoa /anoea ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? cina?aaeaeaia o ??aieiieo ?aeiiao
e?ninoaio ? ia iaae? ia?aaea??’y. Na?aae ca?iiaeo ia?aaaaea? eoeo?oaeca
(iiiaae 12%). O oeeo aea ?aeiiao neiioeaio?iaai? iniiai? iin?ae
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, a oaeiae niiyoieeo. Ea?oiiey ae?iuo?oueny i?aeoe/ii
iianthaee, aea iaea?eueoa eiioeaio?aoe?y ieiu i?ae aeaiith eoeueoo?ith
oa iaeaeua a?iaeaei?noue i?eiaaea? ia i?ai?/i? ??aieii? oa no?aei?
ia?aaea??i? ?aeiie. Iaea?eueoa eiioeaio?aoe?y iai/aaeo eoeueoo? o
oeaio?aeueieo (i?ei?nueeeo, ii a?aeiioaiith aei iaeaniiai oeaio?o)
?aeiiao. E?aei? i?ai?/i? ?aeiie, iniaeeai no?aei?, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
?icaeoeii naae?aieoeoaa ? ya?aeieoeoaa.

Ei?iiae?iaieoeoai a a??nueeeo ? /anoeiai ia?aaea??ieo ?aeiiao aaco?oueny
ia i?e?iaeieo ianiaeuao ? n?iiaeaoyo, a a ??aieiieo ?aeiiao ia?aaaaea?
iieueiaa ei?iiae?iaieoeoai. Aei aeayei? i??e ianoa/a ei?i?a aeey
oaa?eiieoeoaa eiiiaino?oueny eiioeaio?iaaieie eiia?ei?iaie. Aeecueei
iieiaeie oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aeiiaaeaaia
i?eiaaeaei ia ae?iaieoeoai iieiea oa yeiae/eie. Iaeaeua u?euei?noue
iiaie?a’y aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae o oeaio?aeueieo ??aieiieo ?aeiiao
iaeano?. C ae?iaieoeoaii ca?ia ? ei?iiaeo ao?ye?a oa?eoi??aeueii
ni?aiaaea? oaea aaeocue oaa?eiieoeoaa ye naeia?noai, ui iaea?eueoa
?icaeiooi a ??aieiieo ?aeiiao.

Iaeaea a on?o ?aeiiao iaeano? ?icaeioo? a?a/a?noai ? ioao?aieoeoai,
ie?ai? ainiiaea?noaa ??aieiieo ?aeii?a iaeano? niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia
?eaieoeoa? oa aaeae?eueieoeoa?.

Inoaii?i /anii aaaeeeaei ae?iaieeii i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa noaee oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa. Aiie ae?iaeythoue iaeei
/e aeae?eueea aeae?a i?iaeoeoe??, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey oeueiai
ianeeaaei? cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, oaoiieia??, i?aai?caoe?th ae?iaie/eo
i?ioean?a. O no?oeoo?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa ia?aaaaea?
?ineeiieoeoai (77% a?ae i?aenoieo). A ??aieiieo ?aeiiao ia ?ineeiieoeoai
i?eiaaea? 70-80% caaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??, a ia?aaea??’yo –
65%, o ai?ao – 32%. Oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa ae?iuothoue ca?iia?
eoeueoo?e, oeoe?ia? ao?yee, iai/?, ea?oiieth. Oaa?eiieoeoai oa?ia?nueeeo
ainiiaea?noa i?aaenoaaeaii neioa?noaii, naeia?noaii, a?a/a?noaii ?
ioao?aieoeoaii.

O a?eueoino? ?aeii?a iaeano? inoaii?i /anii i?ia?aeiei oeiii ae?iaiee?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ? iniaeno? i?aeniai? ainiiaea?noaa
ianaeaiiy. Aiie iathoue aaeeeee aeina?ae ? iaae/ee a i?aai?caoe?? oa
aaaeaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Iei? oea ? iaea?eueo
ianiaa, aio/ea ? aeeiai?/ia oi?ia a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? AIE. IIAI oaeaeei
?aaaothoue ? i?enoiniaothoueny aei ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e, caieo?a
niiaeeaa/?a. Ooo caae?yia cia/ia /anoeia o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, ye? a
?acoeueoao? aac?ia?ooy a ?ioeo aaeocyo iiaa?ioeenue aei caie? ? aaaeooue
ainiiaea?noai aeey aeanieo iio?aa ? ?aae?caoe?? iaaeeeoe?a i?iaeoeoe??
ia ?eieo. Ca?eueoaiiy iaeaea aaea?/? caiaeueieo iaae?e?a o oe?e
eaoaai??? ainiiaea?noa inoaii?i /anii ni?eyei cia/iiio c?inoaiith
ae?iaieoeoaa iniiaieo i?iaeiaieue/eo eoeueoo? ? i?iaeoeoe??
oaa?eiieoeoaa. IIAI ia?aaaaeii caaacia/othoue iio?aae o cia/ieo ianyaao
o ea?oiie? (an? ?aeiie iaeano?), iai/ao (e??i a??nueeeo oa?eoi??e),
o?oeoao ? yaiaeao (??aieii? ?aeiie), yeoeyo (e??i a??nueeeo ?aeii?a),
iieioe? (on? ?aeiie), i’yn? (a ia?aaea??ieo ?aeiiao).

IIAI, ia aeaeue, ua ia noaee ia’?eoii anaa?/iiai aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co,
oi/a oea ia nueiaiaei? iaenoaa?euei?oee naeoi?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui caeaoiee ooieoe?iioaaoe a
oiiaao caaaeueii? e?ece aeiiii?ee ? aeaa?aaeaoe?? i?iaeoeoeaieo nee.
I/aaeaeii, nooue iieyaa? a oiio, ui ooo ainiiaea?noai aaco?oueny
aieiaiei /eiii ia ?o/i?e i?aoe?, aaaeaoueny a ?ioa?anao eiie?aoii?
niiaeea/i? eaiee, aeeooy yei? i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth caeaaeeoue a?ae
?acoeueoao?a ?icaeoeo oeueiai ainiiaea?noaa.

I?iaeoeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a
*a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeano? aeineoue aeniea. A ?ic?aooieo ia 100 aa caie?
iaea?eueoa i?iaeoeoe?? (a oen.oe c.iae.) ae?iaey?oueny a ??aieiieo
Oioeinueeiio, E?oeiainueeiio, Iiainaeeoeueeiio, Niee?yinueeiio ?aeiiao
(a?ae 7,5 aei 10,0 i?e ia?an?/iiio iieacieeo ii iaeano? 7,02 oen. o
ca?i. iae.). Iaiieiaeio iaioa ae?iaey?oueny i?iaeoeoe?? a a??nueeiio
Iooeeuenueeiio ?aeii?. Iaea?eueo? eieeaaiiy iieacieea ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ia 100 aa a oen. o ca?i. iae.
niinoa??aathoueny a ?ineeiieoeoa? (a?ae 0,99 a ai?ao aei 5,47 o
I?eaei?no?ianueeeo ?aeiiao), a o oaa?eiieoeoa? oea eieeaaiiy iaioa (a?ae
2,01 a ia?aaea??’yo aei 4,58 o I?eaei?no?ia’?).

C?ooaiiy a ianyaao ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? a?aeaoeeny i?ae
??ciioeeaaeieie ainiiaea?noaaie. Ii an?o iieacieeao ciaioeany ianya
ae?iaieoeoaa a ENI (1,5-2,0 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a), a a IIAI ianyae c?inee
iaeaea a 1,5 ?ace. (Aeea. ea?oinoaio).

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? ooieoe?iio?
ia oa?eoi??? c aeiaie? a?aei?iieie ?enaie i?e?iaeieo ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia, oiio aiii ia? /?oei ae?aaeaio
oa?eoi??aeueio i?ea’ycai?noue aei ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a ?, ye iane?aeie,
aeae?eythoueny ??ci? ca niaoe?ae?caoe??th ae?iaie/i-oa?eoi??aeuei? oeie
(AOO) ainiiaea?noa.

Eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa ia oa?eoi??? iaeano?
oi?iothoue 11 oei?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ye?
aeeth/athoue 17 ae?iaie/eo i?aeoei?a ? 22 aa?iae?iaie/eo a?oie. Aiie
aecia/athoue /ioe?e aieiaieo ?aeiie niaoe?ae?caoe?? c a?aei?iieie
iieacieeaie ae?iaieoeoaa aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? (oen. oe ca?i. iae.)
caaaeii ? a ?ic?aooieo ia 100aa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, a
naia: Ea?iaonueeee a??nueeee ?aeii – i’yni-iiei/iiai neioa?noaa c
ae?iaieoeoaii ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? ia i?e?iaeieo n?iiaeaoyo (156,7 ? 0,6);
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee ?aeii iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa, ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa
? ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa (1758,7 ? 3,8); Oeaio?aeueiee (I?ei?nueeee)
?aeii i’yni-iiei/iiai neioa?noaa c aaaaoiaaeocaaei ?ineeiieoeoaii
(1889,0 ? 4,9); I?eaei?no?ianueeee ?aeii ?icaeiooiai ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa, ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa oa
ao?ye?aieoeoaa (10595,1 ? 5,2).

Aaia?ao?/i? caeiiii??iino? niaoe?ae?caoe?? oa i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa /?oei i?iyaeythoueny o ae?iaie/iio ?aeiioaaii? oa?ia?nueeeo
ainiiaea?noa oa IIAI. Cie?aia, oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa ia’?aeiothoueny
a 10 AOO, ui aeeth/athoue 22 i?aeoeie ? 24 aa?iae?iaie/? a?oie. Aiie
ooai?ththoue 3 aaeeeeo ?aeiie niaoe?ae?caoe??, ui a?ae??ciythoueny
i?iaeoeoeai?noth ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? (anueiai oen. ca?i. iae. ?
ca?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia 1 aa n?eueainioa?aeue), a naia:
I?oo-Aei?no?ianueeee ??aieiiee ?aeii ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa,
ao?ye?aieoeoaa, ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa, iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa ?
ioao?aieoeoaa (a?ae 13,2 aei 49,3 ? a?ae 32,4 aei 45,4);
I?oo-N??aonueeee Ia?aaea??iee ?aeii ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa, i’yni-iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa ? ea?oiiey?noaa c ae?iuoaaiiyi ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ?
ae?iaieoeoaii i?iaeoeoe?? a?a/a?noaa (a?ae 8,7 aei 45,2 ? a?ae 42,0 aei
48,7); Ea?iaonueeee a??nueeee ?aeii i’yni-iiei/iiai neioa?noaa,
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa ia i?e?iaeieo oa?aeaeyo c ae?iuoaaiiyi ea?oiie? (8,9 ?
23,2).

Iniaeno? i?aeniai? ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy ia’?aeiothoueny a 7
ae?iaie/i-oa?eoi??aeueieo oei?a, 19 ae?iaie/eo i?aeoei?a, 25
aa?iae?iaie/eo a?oi ? oi?iothoue 7 ?aeii?a niaoe?ae?caoe?? (c
ae?iaieoeoaii aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? a oen. oe ca?i. iae. onueiai ? a
?ic?aooieo ia 100 aa n?eueainioa?aeue), a naia: Ea?iaonueeee a??nueeee
?aeii i’yni-iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ? a?a/a?noaa (577,0 ? 5,4);
Ia?aaea??iee ?aeii iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa (3545,0 ? 16,4);
I?oo-N??aonueeee ?aeii ?ioaineaiiai iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ? naeia?noaa c
oiaa?iei caiea?ianoaii (1921,0 ? 19,4); Oeaio?aeueiee (I?ei?nueeee)
?aeii oiaa?iiai i’yni-iiei/iiai oaa?eiieoeoaa, iai/?aieoeoaa,
ea?oiiey?noaa oa naae?aieoeoaa (6034,7 ? 23,1); I?eaei?no?ianueeee ?aeii
iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ? naeia?noaa c aaaaoiaaeocaaei ?ineeiieoeoaii
(3955,5 ? 19,4); I?ai?/ii-Oeaio?aeueiee (Oioeinueeee) ?aeii oiaa?iiai
naae?aieoeoaa c ?icaeiooei oaa?eiieoeoaii ? ?ineeiieoeoaii (2505,6 ?
24,1); No?aeii-I?eaei?no?ianueeee ?aeii oiaa?iiai naae?aieoeoaa c
?icaeiooei oaa?eiieoeoaii ? ya?aeieoeoaii (2523,5 ? 19,1).

Caaaeii ii an?o ainiiaea?noaao ia oa?eoi??? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?
noi?ioaaeenue 10 AOO (iiei/iiai neioa?noaa, iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa,
i’yni-iiei/iiai neioa?noaa, naeia?noaa, ioao?aieoeoaa, ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ea?oiiey?noaa, naae?aieoeoaa, iai/?aieoeoaa,
ya?aeieoeoaa) c 20 ae?iaie/eie i?aeoeiaie ? 21 aa?iae?iaie/ith a?oiith.
Oe? ae?iaie/? oeie ainiiaea?noa noi?ioaaee 7 aieiaieo ?aeii?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ia oa?eoi??? iaeano?, a naia:
Ea?iaonueei-Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee ?aeii iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa,
naeia?noaa c ae?iaieoeoaii ei?iiaeo, ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ? ea?oiie?;
I?oo-N??aonueeee ?aeii iiei/iiai neioa?noaa, ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
naeia?noaa c aaaaoiaaeocaaei ?ineeiieoeoaii; Oeaio?aeueiee (I?ei?nueeee)
?aeii ?icaeiooiai naeia?noaa, iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa,
naae?aieoeoaa, iai/?aieoeoaa ? ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa;
Cao?aeii-I?eaei?no?ianueeee ?aeii oiaa?iiai ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa,
iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa, ao?ye?aieoeoaa ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa;
Oeaio?aeueii-I?eaei?no?ianueeee (Oioeinueeee) ?aeii oiaa?iiai
naae?aieoeoaa, iiei/ii-i’yniiai neioa?noaa, naeia?noaa c aaaaoiaaeocaaei
?ineeiieoeoaii; I?eaei?no?ianueei-Eaeueiaiaoeueeee ?aeii iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa, ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, naeia?noaa, naae?aieoeoaa ?
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa; No?aeii-I?eaei?no?ianueeee (Niee?yinueeee) ?aeii
?icaeiooiai naae?aieoeoaa, ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, iiei/ii-i’yniiai
neioa?noaa, naeia?noaa ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa. Eiaeai ?c aeae?eaieo ?aeii?a
niaoe?ae?caoe?? ae?iaey? a?ae 2739,7 (I?oo-N??aonueeee ?aeii) aei 9833,1
(Oeaio?aeueiee (I?ei?nueeee) ?aeii) oen. oe ca?iiaeo iaeeieoeue aaeiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? ? a?ae 5,7 (Ea?iaonueei-Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee ?aeii) aei 11,0
(Oeaio?aeueiee (I?ei?nueeee) ?aeii) oen. oe ca?iiaeo iaeeieoeue a
?ic?aooieo ia 100 aa n?eueainioa?aeue.

Iaeaeuo i?iaeoeoeai?noue oen. oe ca?i. iae. ia 100aa n?eueainioa?aeue
iathoue AOO ioao?aieoeoaa (50,2), iai/?aieoeoaa (13,2), ya?aeieoeoaa
(11,1), naeia?noaa (10,3), a iaeiaioo – i’yni-iiei/iiai neioa?noaa
(6,6).

Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aeiei??iii ci?ith? iaoo ? caaaeaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa. ?eieia? a?aeiineie oi?iothoueny ca o. ca. «caooiaith»
eiioeaioe??th, ui aeoiaeeoue ?c iaiao?aeiino? iaenei?caoe?? aeioiae?a
/a?ac caoo oiaa??a, a i??i?eoaoia cia/aiiy a?aeaiaeeoueny iiieoia?,
«ei?ieai» ?eieo noa? niiaeeaa/. Ioaea, yeui ?ai?oa aieiaiith iaoith
ae?iaieoeoaa aoei aeeiiaiiy ieaio, oi ca ?eieiaeo oiia – iaea?aeaiiy
iaeneiaeueiiai i?eaooeo. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ?eiie i?iaeiaieuenoaa
/a?ac eiai ?io?ano?oeoo?o ? oi?a?aeth, neeaaea?oueny c aeaio aaeeeeo
eiiiiiaio?a – iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe??. Aieiaieie neeaaeiaeie iiieoo
aaaaeathoueny: nioe?aeueia (/enaeuei?noue niiaeeaa/?a; noaoaai-a?eiaa
no?oeoo?a ianaeaiiy; iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae, cae/a?, o?aaeeoe??
ianaeaiiy), o?iainiai-ineoieia?/ia (??aaiue aeioiae?a ? eoi?aaeueia
ni?iiiaei?noue iieoioe?a, noa’?eoeai? niaee, ineoieia?y i?eaeaaiiy
oiaa??a, ?aeeaia), ae?iaie/a (oe?ie, ye?noue oa ani?oeiaio i?iaeoeoe??),
caaaeueii-aea?aeaaia (iio?aae aea?aeaae, caaacia/aiiy aenii?oo). O
ca’yceo c oeei ? neeaaeiaa i?iiiceoe?? oaae ia? e?eueea ??ai?a:
ainiiaea?nueeee (??aaiue ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi???, ianooaae
ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, ?aioaaaeuei?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa), i?aai?caoe?eiee (iaoa??aeueia caoe?eaaeai?noue
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, ??ciioeeaaei?noue oei?a ainiiaea?noa, ye?noue oa oiiae
caa??aaiiy i?iaeoeoe??, oaoiieia?y ia?a?iaee i?iaeoeoe??),
niiaeea/i-i?aai?caoe?eiee (oiaa?ia ia?iaea oa oiaeiaea, oiiae oa ye?noue
o?ainii?ooaaiiy i?iaeoeoe??), aea?aeaaii-i?aai?caoe?eiee (nenoaia
ia?eaoeiao, iaiao?aei?noue ?iii?oo).

Aaaeeeaei ca oiia noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? aea/aiiy ia eeoa
naiiai ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa, aea e oeyo?a eiai oi?ioaaiiy.

A oiiaao *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, ENI ia?aaaaeii oi?iothoue ?eiie
ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, oeoe?ine?iaeie, niiyoieeo, e?oi’yieo eoeueoo?. IIAI
iaeaaeeoue i?ia?aeia ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? ?eieo iai/?a, o?oeo?a, ya?ae,
ea?oiie?, i’yna, iieiea, y?oeue, aiaie. A ?ic?aooieo ia iaeiiai
iaoeaioey i?aeoe/ii a on?o ?aeiiao iaeano? (ca aeeeth/aiiyi
Iooeeuenueeiai oa Aa?oea?anueeiai) ae?iaey?oueny iaaeeeoie ea?oiie?, a
on?o ?aeiiao, ie??i a??nueeeo – iai/?a, a ??aieiieo ?aeiiao – o?oeo?a ?
ya?ae; a on?o ?aeiiao iaeano? a aeaiiio oei? ainiiaea?noa ae?iaey?oueny
iaaeeeoie iieiea, a on?o ?aeiiao, ie??i a??nueeeo, iaaeeeoie y?oeue ? a
aeayeeo ?aeiiao ia?aaea??’y – iaaeeeoie i’yna. Inoaii?i /anii o
oi?ioaaii? ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a c?inoa? /anoea oa?ia?nueeeo
ainiiaea?noa, aea ?o ??aaiue o caaaeueiiio ianyc? i?iaeoeoe?? ua ia
ia?aaeuo? 1% (ca aeeeth/aiiyi iai/?a ? oeoe?ine?iaeie).

Iniaeeao oaaao a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei noaiiaeoue
aecia/aiiy ii??aiyeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??ciioeeaaeieo
oei?a ainiiaea?noa. Iaeiei ?c no?aoaa?/ieo iai?yi?a aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie ?
?aoi?ioaaiiy ?? aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio, iia’ycaiiai c ia?aoai?aiiyi
nioe?aeueieo oei?a ainiiaea?noa ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiith
niaoe?ae?caoe??th n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa?eoi???.

Aeniiaee

1. ?ai?aai?caoe?y ?nioth/eo aaeeeeo ononi?eueiaieo ainiiaea?noa ? iaeiei
c iaeneeaaei?oeo caaaeaiue ?aoi?ie, ? ci?ie, ia iaoo aeoieo, a aeaiiio
naeoi?? iathoue aooe iine?aeiaii iinooiiaeie, ai oaeaeea o?ainoi?iaoe?y
eieainiii-?aaeainiii? nenoaie a ia/?oei aecia/ai? oiaa?enoaa, e??i
ao?aoe ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, oaoiieia?e, cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?,
i?ecaaaea i?inoi aei ?ice?aaeaiiy noni?eueiiai iaeia.

2. I?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ia?aeiio?, ui i?eaaoi? oa?ie aeinyaathoue
a?eueoi? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, i?ae eieaeoeai? ainiiaea?noaa,
aiie ? iia?euei?oeie, a i?iaeoeoe?y, ae?iaeaia a ieo,
eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiith.

3. Iniaeno? i?aeniai? ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy c ?o ?icoe?aieie
ae?eyieaie iiaeooue neoaeeoe noa?oiaei iaeaeai/eeii aeey
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?eaaoiiai oa?ia?noaa oa oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaie/eo nenoai
c aenieith ?ioaineai?noth i?aoe? oa aeoiaeii i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeieoeth
ieiu?.

4. Ia ia?niaeoeao iaeiioeiaeuei?oith ?ioaa?aeueiith niaoe?ae?caoe??th
aeey an??? oa?eoi??? iaeano?, ia iaoo aeoieo, ia? aooe: a Ia?aaea??i?e
cii? – iiei/ii-i’ynia neioa?noai, a Oeaio?aeueii-I?ei?oonuee?e –
naeia?noai, ca?iiaa ainiiaea?noai, iiei/ii-i’ynia neioa?noai, a
oeaio?aeueiiio ? no?aeiiio I?eaei?no?ia’? – naae?aieoeoai, ca?iiaa
ainiiaea?noai, naeia?noai, a cao?aeiiio I?eaei?no?ia’? – iiei/ia
neioa?noai ? ca?iiaa ainiiaea?noai.

5. ?eiie i?iaeiaieuenoaa iaeano? ia no/aniiio aoai? ? i?aeoe/ii
ia?aiane/aiei ii an?o iniiaieo aeaeao i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy (ie??i
i’yna), oiio aaaeeeaei aeey ainiiaea?noa on?o eaoaai??e ? iiooe ?eie?a
caooo i?iaeoeoe??. sse?niei ae??oaiiyi aeaiiai ieoaiiy ? noai?aiiy
ia?aae? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ii ia?a?iaoe? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie,
ianeoaiaoth/eo i?aei?e?inoa ? iie?ioaiiy ?o iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace.

Nienie i?aoeue iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Nooie I.A., AEoe I.A., ssnai/oe A.E. Eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia Ea?iaoneiai ?aaeiia e aii?inu io?aiu i?e?iaeu //
Iooe iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey e io?aia
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia Oe?aeineeo Ea?iao e I?eea?iaouey: Na. iao/. o?oaeia.
– E.: OIE AI, 1989. – N.14-21.

2. Nooee I.I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i noaiiaeaiiy ? oeyoe ?icaeoeo oa?ia?nueeeo
ainiiaea?noa a Oe?a?i? // ?aae?caoe?y nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a o
?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?: aeaye? ieoaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?. Ca.
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. – N.103-109.

3. Nooee I.I., AEoiainueeee ss.?. O?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane ? oa?ia?noai
a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie // O?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane a
ainiiaea?noa? ?aa?ii?a No?aeii? ?a?iie: Ca. iaoe. aeii. I?aeia?. iaoe.
eiio. – ??i?iue, 1997. – N.68-69.

4. Nooee I.I. Aeaye? aniaeoe aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? oa no?oeoo?ia
ia?aaoaeiaa ainiiaea?noa // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 19. Aaia?ao?y. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. – N.172-185.

5. Nooee I.I. Aa?a?ia ?aoi?ia a Oe?a?i? oa ia?aaoaeiaa ainiiaea?noa //
Oe?a?inueea Iie?nny: a/i?a, nueiaiaei?, caao?a. Ca. iaoe. i?. – Eooeuee:
Iaaenoe?’y, 1998. – N.141-143.

6. Nooee I.I., Cay/oe I.Ae. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea niaoe?ae?caoe?y
oa?eoi??? oa /eiieee ?? oi?ioaaiiy // Oe?a?inueea Iie?nny: a/i?a,
nueiaiaei?, caao?a. Ca. iaoe. i?. – Eooeuee: Iaaenoe?’y, 1998. –
N.138-139.

7. Nooee I.I. Iniaeeaino? ?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie a ?eieiaeo oiiaao // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 31. Aaia?ao?y. – *a?i?aoe?:
*AeO, 1998. – N.83-90.

8. Nooee I.I. Iiaeyae ia ?ieue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai naeoi?o o ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a no/anieo oiiaao // Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y Aaia?ao?y. – 1998.
– ?2 – N.120-125.

9. Nooie I.A., Eiiiaaeiaa I.E. Oa??eoi?eaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey naeueneiai
oicyenoaa *a?iiaeoeeie iaeanoe / Aeai. A Oe?IEEOE – ?44 AN-88. – 1988. –
30 n. // Aiiio. a aeo?. “Yeiiiieea e i?aaiecaoeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa”, 1988, ?1. – N.65.

10. Nooee I.I. Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei // ?aa?iiaeuei? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie: Ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Oa?iii?eue:
Aeiiii?/ia aeoiea, 1998. – N.325-328.

11. Nooie I.A. Eniieueciaaiea ea?oia?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea i?e auaeaeaiee
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo oeiia oicyenoa // Ea?oia?aoe/aneia
iaania/aiea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
O?N? e aa ?aaeiiia: Oac. aeiee. VI ?ani. iao/. eiio. – *a?iiaoeu, 1987.
– N.168-169.

12. Nooie I.A. Iiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai ?aeiie?iaaiey *a?iiaeoeeie
iaeanoe n eniieueciaaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeiecaoeee
oicyenoa // Eaoia?aoey e iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann: Oac. aeiee.
Ananithc. iao/. eiio. – E., 1988. – N.111-112.

13. Nooee I.I., Ee?iooei ss.A., Eiiiaaeiaa I.?. No?oeoo?i? ci?ie a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? ca
?aaeyinueeee ia??iae // 50 ?ie?a aicc’?aeiaiiy I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie ?
Oioeinueeiai iia?oo Aanna?aa?? c ?aaeyinueeith Oe?a?iith o neeaae? N?N?:
Oace aeii. iae. ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i? iaoe. eiio. – *a?i?aoe?, 1990. –
N.95.

14. Nooee I.I. Aei ieoaiiy iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?eaaoieo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa // I?iaeaie
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: Oace aeii. ? ?ani. iaoe. eiio. –
*a?i?aoe?, 1991. – N.41-42.

15. Nooee I.I. Aecia/aiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? niaoe?ae?caoe??
oa?eoi??? // Iaoa??aee V?? c’?caeo Oe?a?inueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai
oiaa?enoaa. – E., 1995. – N.307-309.

Nooee I.I. Niaoe?ae?caoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo (aaia?ao?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ia i?eeeaae?
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.02 – Aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y.
– Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? ia?aaoaeiae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? iaoiaeeeo
aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a. I?iaiae?ciaaii
?ieue ? cia/aiiy i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a ? ia?aaeoiia o oi?ioaaii?
aa?a?ii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo ye no/anii? aa?ieaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e
oa?eoi??? – i?inoi?iai? oa?eoi??aeueii? aace ?ai?aai?caoe??
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno. Aeine?aeaeaii i?aai?caoe?eii-no?oeoo?io
aaia?ao?th n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia oa?eoi???
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, aea/aii iniaeeaino? aaeocaai? no?oeoo?e ?
oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaie/i-oa?eoi??aeueieo oei?a ??ciioeeaaeieo ainiiaea?noa
(eieaeoeaieo, iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa ianaeaiiy,
oa?ia?nueeeo). Aeyaeaii oa?eoi??aeuei? iniaeeaino? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeianiiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? a
??ciioeeaaeieo ainiiaea?noaao. ?ic?iaeaii noaio oi?ioaaiiy ?
caaacia/aiiy ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ca?iiaa iaeeieoey, aa?a?ii-?ano?niee iioaioe?ae,
oa?ia?nueea ainiiaea?noai, iniaeno? i?aeniai? ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa, ?aoe?iiaeueia ii?ia niiaeeaaiiy,
niaoe?ae?caoe?y.

Sukhyj P.O. The agricultural production specialization while turning to
the market economy (the geographical conditions of formation on the
example of Chernivtsi Region). – Manuscript.

The Candidate of Geography Science Degree Thesis. Speciality 11.00.02. –
Economic and Social Geography. – Lviv State University named after Ivan
Franko, Lviv, 1999.

The peculiarities of agricultural production under the market oriented
relations and the methodology of its economic and geographic
investigation have been under study in the present dissertation. The
role and importance of natural resources potential and socio-economic
factors and prerequisites of agrarian capacity as a present regional
agro-landscape structure basis reorganizing agro-industrial complex is
defined. The organizational structural geography of agricultural
production in Chernivtsi Region, Ukraine, is carried out by the author.
Some peculiarities of the industry structure and the formation of its
regional types of different kinds of ownership: collective and private
farms, are specified in the paper. The regional peculiarities of
specialization and production efficiency is revealed at enterprises of
different kinds of ownership. A new model of forming and supplying the
provision market is elaborated by the author.

Key words: grain unit, agro-resource potential, farm, private farm,
production efficiency, consuming ratio, specialization.

Nooie I.A. Niaoeeaeecaoeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a
oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uieo (aaia?aoe/aneea iniiau oi?ie?iaaiey ia
i?eia?a *a?iiaeoeeie iaeanoe). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.02 – Yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay
aaia?aoey. – Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei,
Eueaia, 1999.

?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe ia?ano?ieee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi e iaoiaeeea
yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey yoeo i?ioeannia. A iniiao
enneaaeiaaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie ia?ano?ieee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, aai niaoeeaeecaoeee iieiaeaia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a ?aciioeeaaeiuo oeiao
oicyenoa /a?ac iieacaoaeue i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee a ca?iiauo
aaeeieoeao (a oeaeii e a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee, iaeiiai
aeeoaey). Enneaaeiaaiu ?ieue e cia/aiea i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai
iioaioeeaea, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia e i?aaeiinueie
oi?ie?iaaiey aa?a?ii-?ano?niiai iioaioeeaea eae nia?aiaiiie
aa?ieaiaeoaooiie no?oeoo?u oa??eoi?ee – i?ino?ainoaaiiie aacu
?ai?aaiecaoeee aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena. Ia i?eia?a oa??eoi?ee
*a?iiaeoeeie iaeanoe ?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe ?aeueaoa, eeeiaoe/aneeo
oneiaee e ?ano?nia, ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa, aiaeiuo ?ano?nia eae oneiaee
eioaineaiinoe caieaaeaeey e ?aca?a i?e?auaiey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee
naeueneiai oicyenoaa. A ea/anoaa nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia e
i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a oneiaeyo
ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aa?iaaia?aoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea oa??eoi?ee e o?iaaiue aa oicyenoaaiiie inaiaiiinoe,
enoi?e/aneea iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
ianaeaiea e o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneay aaca AIE,
o?ainii?oiay aeinooiiinoue e eio?ano?oeoo?iay iaania/aiiinoue
oa??eoi?ee, eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue e ?uiie i?iaeoeoeee naeueneiai
oicyenoaa. Aeaoaeueiue aiaeec yoeo oaeoi?ia e oneiaee iicaieee auyaeoue
aaia?aoi-yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
e nia?aiaiioth aa?ieaiaeoaooioth no?oeoo?o oa??eoi?ee. Enneaaeiaaia
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-no?oeoo?iay aaia?aoey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe, iniaaiiinoe caieaiieueciaaiey a
?aciioeeaaeiuo oeiao oicyenoa, iniiaiua /a?ou naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, a /anoiinoe: io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a e oa??eoi?eaeueiay
i?aaiecaoeey eieeaeoeaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, io?aneaaay
no?oeoo?a e iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
oeiia oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa, ianoi eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai naeoi?a a ?acaeoee
naeueneiai oicyenoaa a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Auyaeaiu oa??eoi?eaeueiua
iniaaiiinoe niaoeeaeecaoeee e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a eieeaeoeaiuo, oa?ia?neeo,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oicyenoaao. Eieeaeoeaiua naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey ia oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe oi?ie?otho 11 oeiia, 17 iiaeoeiia e
22 aa?ii?iecaiaenoaaiiua a?oiiu, iauaaeeiaiiua a 4 ?aeiia
niaoeeaeecaoeee. Oa?ia?neeie oicyenoaaie oi?ie?oaony 10 oeiia, 22
iiaeoeia e 24 aa?ii?iecaiaenoaaiiua a?oiiu, aoiaeyuea a 3 ?aeiia
niaoeeaeecaoeee. Ee/iua iiaeniaiua oicyenoaa ianaeaiey iauaaeeiytho 7
oeiia, 19 iiaeoeiia e 25 aa?ii?iecaiaenoaaiiuo a?oii a ninoaaa 7 ?aeiiia
niaoeeaeecaoeee. A oeaeii ia oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe auaeaeaii 10
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeiia, 20 iiaeoeiia e 21 aa?ii?iecaiaenoaaiiay a?oiia
a ninoaaa 7 iniiaiuo ?aeiiia niaoeeaeecaoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa.
?ac?aaioaia noaia oi?ie?iaaiey e iaania/aiey ?uiea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo
oiaa?ia, iiae/a?eiooa ?ieue ?acee/iuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeiia oicyenoa a
oi?ie?iaaiee ?uiea e i?aaeeiaeaiu iooe eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ca?iiaay aaeeieoea, aa?a?ii-?ano?niue iioaioeeae,
oa?ia?neia oicyenoai, ee/iua iiaeniaiua oicyenoaa ianaeaiey,
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aoeeiiaeueiay ii?ia iio?aaeaiey,
niaoeeaeecaoeey.

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