11

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

AI?THIIAA ?aaai?y Ieaenaiae??aia

OAeE 323.325 (1-924.71)

NIOe?AEUeII-IIE?OE*I? I?IOeANE A NAE?

E?EINUeEI? A?N? 1920-o ?IE?A

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?in?enueei? ?noi??? Oaa??enueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai (i. N?ioa?iiieue)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

AeAIAIOUe?A IEEIEA
?AI?IAE*, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e ?in?enueei?
?noi??? ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

Oaa??enueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?

A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai
(i.N?ioa?iiieue)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

IAI*AIEI IAO?I
IAIOAEAEIIIIAE*,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
no/anii? ?noi??? ?inoeoooo ?noi???

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie
(i.Ee?a)

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

A?EAI?’?A AAEA??E
A?EOI?IAE*, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
I?aaeaiii-Oe?a?inueeiai

?inoeoooo i?e Ee?anueeiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio

oi?aa?neoao? (i.
N?ioa?iiieue)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa

ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 13.00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 17. 051. 01 a Caii??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (330600,
i.Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai,55, ei?i.V, aoae.327)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (330600, i.Caii??aeaey, aoe.
AEoeianueeiai, 55, ei?i. ??)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “12” eenoiiaaea 1999a.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oei/aiei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ia??iaee ?aoi?i caaaeaee aoee ia?aeiiieie
a?oaie a ?noi??? aoaeue-yei? aea?aeaae, ? Oe?a?ia a aeaiiiio ?ac? ia ?
aeiyoeii. Iaoa aea?aeaaa noi?oue nueiaiaei? ia?aae na?eiciith
i?iaeaiith oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith yeeo ia? noaoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy naea.
A?ae oiai, ye? ci?ie a?aeaoaeooueny a n?euenuee?e aeiiii?oe?, ye? oi?ie
caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a?ae?a?aaaoeiooue ae??oaeueio ?ieue o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?, caeaaeeoue iaeaooi? iaoi?
iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, aeiey oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a XXI noie?oo?.
??ci? iie?oe/i? neee ii-??ciiio aa/aoue iaeaooi? e?a?ie,
i?iiiiothoue /eneaii? i?ia?aie aeoiaeo c e?ece. A?aeii ioe?ieoe ?o
iaiiaeeeai aac aiae?co ieioei? i?aeoeee ea??aieoeoaa
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie i?ioeanaie. Uia oieeiooe iiaoi?aiiy iaaaoeaieo
noi??i, iaiao?aeii ?iaeoe c ia? i?aaeeuei? aeniiaee aeey nueiaiaeaiiy ?
iaeaooiueiai. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo a eiioaeno?
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a no/aniino? ? aaeueie aeooaeueiei.

Iaea?eueo oe?iiei c oe??? oi/ee ci?o ? ia??iae 20-o ?ie?a iaoiai
noie?ooy, eiee a N?N?, aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeeea oiae? Oe?a?ia,
i?iaiaeeeenue ?aoi?ie, a iniiao yeeo aoei iieeaaeaii i?eioeeie iiai?
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. A o? ?iee cae?enithaaany iiai?io aei iiai?
aeiiii?ee, oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie yei? aoee aaaaoioeeaaei?noue, i?aiaea,
iaeiaia i?aoey, oi?a?aey ? ?eiie. Aea aa?oiaainoai a?eueoiaeoeueei?
?aeaieia?? ? oioaeueiee eiio?ieue aea?aeaae o noa?? aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei ia o?eueee iaiaaeoaaee iiaeeeaino? ?aoi?i, a e a?aoo?-?aoo
coiiaeee e?ao iaio. Oiio iie?oeeai no/anii? Oe?a?ie ne?ae a?aooaaoe
aeyaeai? a oiae? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiieeee ?aaeyinueeiai
ea??aieoeoaa a ieioeiio, uiae ia aeiionoeoe ?o iiaoi?aiiy.

Aaaeeeaith noi?iiith iie?oe/iiai aeeooy 20-o ?ie?a aoei canoinoaaiiy
iniiaieo i?eioeei?a a?eueoiaeoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee uiaei
ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a e?a?ie. Aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae E?einueei? A?N?
(a?eueoa 70 ia?iae?a i?iaeeaaei a oie ia??iae ia oa?eoi??? i?aino?iaa)
aeiaaaa iniaeeaiai i?aeoiaeo i?ae /an ?ica’ycaiiy caiaeueii? i?iaeaie.
Iaeiae ?aaeyinuee? i?aaie aeaaee, ia aeiaiaeo iaaiei iie?oe/iei oe?eyi,
i?iaiaeeee iie?oeeo iaaeaiiy cia/ieo i?euea o ieoaiiyo caieaono?ith aeey
ie?aieo iaoe?e, ia caa?oath/e oaaae ia iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei oeeo ae?e
c aieo aeayeeo e?einueeeo ea??aiee?a. Oey iie?oeea a?eueoiaee?a coiiaeea
c?inoaiiy iacaaeiaieaiiy na?aae aaaaoueio ia?iae?a E?eio, a oaeiae
ni?e/eieea aei aeieeiaiiy i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo eiioe?eo?a. Oe?a?i?, ye
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeuei?e aea?aeaa?, ne?ae a?aooaaoe oeae iaaaoeaiee
aeina?ae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o e?einueeiio nae? 20-o
?ie?a ia? aaee/acia cia/aiiy aeey ?noi?e/ii? iaoee, ine?eueee oey oaia
iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeaia a oe?a?inuee?e oa ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao??.
?ic?iaea oe??? i?iaeaie i?ioiaeeoue a caaaeueiiio ?one? oe?iei
?icai?iooiai a inoaii? ?iee aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie XX noie?ooy.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?
i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny o e?einueeiio nae?, i?e cae?eniaii?
a?eueoiaeoeueei? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? e?einueea naei 1920-o ?ie?a, yea caciaei
ei??iieo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?o ia?aoai?aiiue a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei? ?aeaieia??.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae 20-o ?ie?a XX
noie?ooy, eiee a e?a?i? i?iaiaeeeanue iie?oeea ?aoi?i, neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith yei? aoei ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai naea.
Ii/aoie oeueiio iieeaa O c’?cae ?EI(a) a 1921 ?ioe?, yeee i?iaieinea
ia?ao?ae aei iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Aea i?ioyaii 20-o ?ie?a
cae?enithaai? ?aaeyinueeith aeaaeith ia?aoai?aiiy noia?a/eee iniiaiei
i?eioeeiai a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?aeaieia?? uiaei naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy. Oiio
aaea o 1929 ?ioe? ia?o?eia ea??aieoeoai a?aeiiaeeiny a?ae iaio oa
iini?oeei iiaa?iooeny aei eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaoiae?a
ea??aieoeoaa, i?iaieineaoe eo?n ia nooe?eueio eieaeoea?caoe?th naea.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/athoue E?einueeo A?N?,
noai?aio o 1921 ?ioe?, oiaoi oa?eoi??th E?einueeiai i?aino?iaa,
?icoaoiaaiiai ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? c’?aeiaiiai c iaoa?eeii aocueeei
Ia?aeiinueeei ia?aoeeeii. O 1921 ?ioe? E?einueea A?N? aoea iiae?eaia ia
7 ie?oa?a ? 20 ?aeii?a. O 1923 ?ioe? ie?oae neanoaaee, a e?euee?noue
?aeii?a aoei nei?i/aii aei 15.

Oai?aoe/ii-iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith ?iaioe ? ii?aeiaiiy aeaio
eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a o aeine?aeaeaii? ?noi??/iiai i?ioeano:
oi?iaoe?eiiai oa oeea?e?caoe?eiiai. Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui an? yaeua
noni?eueiiai aeeooy ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye yaeua naiino?ei?, ui iathoue
nai? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo. ?acii c oei, aiie o?nii aca?iica’ycai? ?
aca?iiae?thoue iaeia c iaeiei. A ?acoeueoao? noai?th?oueny nenoaia, eiee
aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iiaea iaaooe iaeei ?c oeeo aeaiaio?a. A ianoaiiaoe?,
yea neeaeany a 20-o ?ieao, ?ieue oaeiai aeaiaioa a?ae?a?aea ?aeaieia?y
ia?o??, ui iaea iie?oe/io aeaaeo.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaith aeey ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue, iinoaaeaieo o
aeine?aeaeaii?, ? aeei?enoaiiy e?eueeio caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo i?eioeei?a
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? — ?noi??cio, ia’?eoeaiino? oa iaoeiaino? o ?o
ae?aeaeoe/i?e ?aeiino? oa aca?iiaeiiiaithaaiino?. ?noi??ci ia?aaeaa/a?
anaa?/io ioeaieo iiae?e ? oaeoia, a oaeiae a?aooaaiiy aaiethoe??
o?yaeiai? iie?oeee uiaei naeyinoaa. Ia’?eoeai?noue icia/a? ?icaeyae
?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai oaeei, yeei aiii aoei a ae?eniino?, aac
?aeaieia?/ieo noa?aioei?a. I?eioeei iaoeiaino? aeiiiiiaa? c?iaeoe
aeniiaee ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/iiai ? oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee ?noi?e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?noi??ei-ii??aiyeueiee, ?noi??ei-oeiieia?/iee ?
noaoenoe/iee.

Cacia/aiee eiiieaen iaoiae?a ?noi??/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey?
aaoi?ia? aeena?oaoe?? aeinyaoe iinoaaeaii? iaoe oa ae??oeoe iniiai?
caaaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o i?iaaaeaii? iaoeiaiai aiae?co oeo
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o e?einueeiio nae?, ye? aoee iaoiiaeai?
i?iaaaeaiiyi a aeeooy eai?inueei-noae?inueeeo a?eueoiaeoeueeeo i?ia?ai
aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiue i?ioyaii 1920-o ?ie?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoei aecia/aii oae? aeine?aeieoeuee?
caaaeaiiy:

1. E?eoe/ii inieneeoe iieeaaeaio a iniiao nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?o
ia?aoai?aiue e?einueeiai naea eai?inueeo oai?aoe/io niaaeueio uiaei
naeyinueei-caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy oa anoaiiaeoe nooi?iue a?aeiia?aeiino?
eai?inueei? aa?a?ii? i?ia?aie a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? i?aeoeoe?
ae??oaiiy naeyinueeeo i?iaeai o 20-? ?iee.

2. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o nae?
E?einueei? A?N? ni?aa?aeianoe eai?inueeo iie?oeeo uiaei naeyinoaa c?
noaeeinueeith iie?o?eith “nioe?ae?noe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy” naea oa
ai?iaoaaoe oaco uiaei «i?aei?ie eai?i?cio noae?i?ciii».

3. Aeiaanoe, ui e?ecia? yaeua n?euenueei? aeiiii?ee E?eio 1920-o
?ie?a aoee iaoiiaeai? iie?o?eith a?eueoiaee?a, yea ia a?aeiia?aeaea
?ioa?anai naeyinoaa.

4. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iie?oe/i? ? i?aaia? oiiae, ca’ycai? ?c caaeiaieaiiyi
aeiiii?/ieo iio?aa ??ciiiai?oieo aa?noa naeyinoaa.

5. I?inoaaeeoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy caiiaeieo aa?noa naea («eo?eoe?a») ?
c’ynoaaoe e?eoa??? ?o aecia/aiiy ?aaeyinueeith aeaaeith.

6. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo a?eueoiaee?a uiaei
e?einueeiai naea ? aeiaanoe, ui aiia ia ni?eyea a?aaoethaaiith
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei, a, iaaiaee, i?ecaiaeeea aei i?aeaoi?/ieo
noia?a/iinoae.

7. A?aeia?aceoe iie?oe/i? iano?i? ??ciiiai?oieo aa?noa naeyinoaa
E?eio i?ioyaii 20-o ?ie?a, ?oi? noaaeaiiy aei a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o??,
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ? cae?enithaaii? ieie iie?oeee aa?a?ieo
ia?aoai?aiue, a oaeiae ?ice?eoe ianooaae iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e o
e?einueeiio nae? o oie /an.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia naiith iinoaiiaeith caaaeaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iueiio aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaaaeaii
eiiieaeniee aiae?c iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ioean?a o e?einueeiio nae? i?ioyaii 20-o ?ie?a iaoaai noie?ooy.
Aecia/aii iniiai? i?e/eie aa?a?ii? e?ece e?einueeiai naea, yea noaea
iane?aeeii noia?a/e?ai? ? iaiine?aeiaii? iie?oeee a?eueoiaee?a.
Aeaoaeueii ioa?aeoa?eciaaii nioe?aeueiee neeaae n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy,
aeyaeaii aeia?euei? e?eoa??? aecia/aiiy caiiaeieo ainiiaea?noa, iieacaii
a?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? i?ae ?ici??ii caiaeueieo ae?eyiie oa ??aiai
aeeooy ??cieo eaoaai??e naeyinoaa. I?iaiae?ciaaii iaoe?iiaeuei?
a?aeiineie a e?einueeiio nae? ? aeyaeaii iayai?noue cia/ieo i?euea aeey
oaoa?nueeiai naeyinoaa, a caiaeii ? ia?anaeaioe?a-?a?a?a, ui ni?e/eiyei
aei i?iya?a iaoe?iiae?cio oa aioenai?oecio. A oiae? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua e?einueeiai naea aena?oeaii ?ai?an?? i?aai?a
aeaaee i?ioe iniiaii? naeyinueei? iane, yea cai?noue ia?oeyii?
a?eueoiaeeaie naiaiaee, io?eiaea iie?oe/ia aaci?aa’y. Aia?oa aaaaeaii
aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao /eneaii? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
??ciiiai?oieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ia?ai aeey n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie, i?e aeaeaii? «?noi??? E?eio», yea aioo?oueny
E?einueeei a?aeae?eii IAI Oe?a?ie, i?e iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeue c ?noi??? naeyinoaa Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
caaaeueieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ? E?eio aeey
nooaeaio?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/aia iaoiaeieia?/iith
oa oai?aoe/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai iieiaeaiiue; aeei?enoaiiyi
eiiieaeno aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo
iao?, i?aaeiaoo oa caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe; aeei?enoaiiyi /enaeueieo a?o?aieo
oa iioae?eiaaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeanue o oi?i?
aeiiia?aeae ia 3 iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo o N?ioa?iiieuenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue o 1995-1999 ?ieao.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e ?in?enueei? ?noi??? aeaiiai aoco, a oaeiae aoee ii?eethaeiai? a
6 aaoi?nueeeo ioae?eaoe?yo o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a o aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie iieyaa? a cai?? iaoa??aeo
oa eiiieaeniiio iaoeiaiio ocaaaeueiaii? i?iaeai nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo
ci?i o e?einueeiio nae?, ?o i?e/ei oa iane?aee?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia eia?eith i?iaeaie oa caaaeaiiyie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a ( 8
ia?aa?ao?a), aeniiae?a (caaaeueiee ianya oaenoo iniiaii? /anoeie
aeena?oaoe?? — 158 n.), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e ( 150
iaeiaioaaiiue ia 10 n. ) oa ia?ae?eo aeiinie ia 9 n. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 177 n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ?ice?eoi aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiao iiaecio,
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy; aecia/aii i?aaeiao, ia’?eo oa iaoo aeine?aeaeoaaii?
oaie; aena?oeaii o?iiieia?/i? oa oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee, iaoiaeieia?th
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «?noi??ia?ao?/ia oa aeaea?aeueia i?iaeaiaoeea
aeine?aeaeaiiy» c?iaeaii iaeyae caaaeueii? ? niaoe?aeueii? aeecueei?
aei oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?e, iieacaii nooi?iue aea/aiiy ?
aena?oeaiiy a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
aeaea?aea, a oaeiae aecia/aii iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa inieneaiiy i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny o
e?einueeiio nae?, a oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy iaio ii/aeiny aaea o 20-? ?iee,
iniaeeai a ia??iaee aioo??ia?o?eieo aeeneon?e, ye? noinoaaeeny aa?a?ieo
i?iaeai. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a o i?aoeyo ?.Ae.Aa?ieie/aaa,
N.I.Aeoa?ianueeiai, I.?.Eoaai?ia, E.I.E?eoeiaia aoei aecia/aii i?aeoiaee
aei ioe?iee noaio n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?aaeyinueei? ?in??. Aea
iiaeyaee oeeo aecia/ieo ?in?enueeeo aeiiii?no?a-aa?a?iee?a aoee
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? ye ao?aeoaci? ? iaiia?iaeieoeuee?. O a?ae?ioaeao,
a?o?aieo oiiaeao ? e?a?ciaa/eo iocayo caa?aaeeny ia/eneaii? aeaeaiiy,
ci?no yeeo ia noia?a/ea ia?o?eiei ianoaiiaai. Oe? i?aoe? ia ? iaoeiaeie,
ine?eueee nai? aieiaia caaaeaiiy ?o aaoi?e aaa/aee a ?ic’yniaii?
ianoaiia c’?cae?a ia?o?? ? ?aae, ??oaiue i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee c
ieoaiiue n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, iiioey?ecaoe?? eiie?aoieo caoiae?a
o aaeoc? caeieaono?ith, iiaeaoeiai? ? e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee, ia?aoiaeo aei
eieaeoeaieo oi?i caieaei?enooaaiiy. Oe?ii?noue oeeo i?aoeue o oiio, ui
a ieo i?noeoueny aaeeea e?euee?noue aeaieo i?i noai e?einueeiai naea
20-o ?ie?a. ?aeeoeeee I.I. Iaoa?eaeu ii yeiiiieea E?uia. I.-1926;
Eeaieiei I.I. Naeueneia oicyenoai E?uia.- Neioa?iiieue,1929; OniaN.A.
Enoi?eei-yeiiiie/aneee i/a?e E?uia. — Neioa?iiieue, 1929 e ae?.

Aeey e?oa?aoo?e 30-40-o ?ie?a oa?aeoa?ia iaeiiiai?oi?noue a ioe?ieao,
?aeaieia?/ia caaiaaaeiaai?noue oa aeaeea?aoeaia e?eoeea
iaia?enenonueeeo iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy
?aaeyinueeiai naea aac aeeaieiai aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo canaae iiaeyae?a ?o
i?aaenoaaiee?a. sseui oaia aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiue o ?aaeyinueeiio nae? ia
aoea cae?eoa aeey aeine?aeiee?a, oi eeoa c iaeyaeo ia ?aeaieia?/io
iio?aao i?aeoaa?aeeoe i?aaeeuei?noue a?eueoia?oeei? iie?oeee a i?ioean?
iiaoaeiae nioe?ae?cio ia nae? ? ooaa?aeeoe oi?aeanoai eieaeoeaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa. E?oa?aoo?a oeueiai ia??iaeo, yea aeaeaaaeany aaee/acieie
oe?aaeaie, oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue eeaniaeie i?aeoiaeaie aei ioe?iee an?o
yaeu ? iiae?e naeyinueeiai aeeooy, ci?no ?? iiai?noth a?aeiia?aeaa
ia?o?eiei aeiiaai, ui ia ni?eyei ia’?eoeaiiio aena?oeaiith noaio ni?aa.
?iaeea?aeoaeueia naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai caciaaaei ??cei? ? ia caaaeaee
iaa?oioiaaii? e?eoeee, a iie?oeea aeaaeieo i?aai?a a?aeiinii caiiaeieo
naeyi iaceaaeany a??iith oa iaiao?aeiith. A iaoeiaee iai?io iaeaea ia
aaiaeeeenue a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe. Iiiiia?aa A.A. Ai?ueaa Eiiioienoe/aneie
ia?oee ca inouanoaeaiea eaieinei-noaeeineeo eaeae eiiia?e?iaaiey
e?anoueyineeo iann.-I.,1948; Aaieeia Y.A. Ia?aoiae Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa e iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea (1921-1922aa.).-I.,1954 e
ae?.

A E?eio a oie /an aeaeaaaeeny tha?eaei? ca??ieee, iniiaiith iaoith yeeo
aoei cia?aaeaiiy cia/ieo oni?o?a nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o
e?einueeiio nae?.Aeanyoue eao Niaaoneiai E?uia.1920-1930.-
Neioa?iiieue,1930; Niaaoneiio E?uio 20 eao.-Neioa?iiieue,1940.

?iioeuen aei iaoeiaeo ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
noaiiaeua naea 20-o ?ie?a aeaee ??oaiiy OO ? OO? c’?cae?a EI?N, ye?
canoaeeee eoeueo iniae Noae?ia ? iaoe?eeee noni?euenoaiciaaoe?a ia
iiaeieaiiy eiai iane?aee?a o noa?? iaoeiai-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee.
Aeine?aeiee?a caeeeeaee anaa?/ii ? aeeaoa aea/aoe eai?inueeo oai?aoe/io
niaaeueio ? i?iiaaoaaoe ??, i?ioenoaaeyth/e noae?i?ciia?.

*eneaiia e?oa?aoo?a c i?iaeai ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ia??iaeo iaio aoea
noai?aia a 60-80-o? ?iee. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy o i?e iaaeaaaeiny ?ice?eooth
eai?inueeeo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue i?i n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo
eiiia?aoe?th, nioe?aeueio iaiaeii??aei?noue ?aaeyinueeiai naeyinoaa.
Aeii?ioaaea oaca i?i oa, ui nioe?ae?noe/ia n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai ia
iiaea aooe aaaaoioeeaaeiei, ui aei?aaiethoe?eia naeyinoai ye eean
ae??aieo aeaniee?a ? nioe?ae?ci ianoi?ni?. Iinooiaeueiee ?icaeoie
eieainiii-?aaeainiii? nenoaie o oeae ia??iae ca’ycoaaany c ?ica?iiii
iii?ooi?no?a ? ae??aiiao?aeoacieo oai?aoee?a, c oi?aeanoaii eai?inueeeo
?aeae c aa?a?ii-naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy. Aeey e?oa?aoo?e 60-80-o ?ie?a aoea
oeiiaith aaniethoecaoe?y eeaniaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ioe?iee i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaaeeny o ?aaeyinueeiio nae?. Aeaaaeany aciaee iaiaaeai?noue
aeaea?aeueii? aace. Iiai?noth ?aii?oaaeenue ioe?iee ? aeniiaee
ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a. Oaeei /eiii, ?noi??ia?ao?y 60-80-o ?ie?a
?icaeyaeaea ?noi??th e?a?ie o 20-30-? ?iee ye i?ioean iiaoaeiae
nioe?ae?cio a N?N? ?aeeii i?aaeeueiei oeyoii, oeacaiei Eai?iei ?
noai?aiith iei ia?o??th. *ei/eeia A.I. Niaaoneay enoi?eia?aoey ia?auo
aa?a?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee e ia/aeueiiai yoaia eieoiciiai no?ieoaeuenoaa
(1917-1973).- I.,1979; ?acaeoea aa?a?iie oai?ee a NNN? (20-30-a
aiaeu).-I.,1983; Iieyeia TH.A. Ia?aoiae e iyio e niaaoneia
e?anoueyinoai.-I.,1967; I/a?ee ii enoi?ee E?uia.-
Neioa?iiieue,1964.-O.3; I/a?ee enoi?ee E?uineie iaeanoiie ia?oeeiie
i?aaiecaoeee,-Neioa?iiieue,1981 e ae?.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a ?yaeo e?oa?aoo?e oe?o ?ie?a caeiathoue i?aoe?
?in?eneeo ?noi??e?a A.A. Eaaaiiaa oa A.I. Aeaieeiaa. Iniaeeai oe?iia
iiiia?ao?y A.I. Aeaieeiaa, i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai ?aaeyinueeiai naea
iaia?aaeiaei? eieaeoea?caoe??, a ye?e i?iaiae?ciaaii aeaiia?ao?/io,
eeanniao ? nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eio no?oeoo?o naeyinoaa, aena?oeaii
iniiai? oi?ie naeyinueeiai caieaei?enooaaiiy oa ?o aeeiai?ea oi?iaeiaae
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.Aeaieeia A.I. Niaaoneay aeieieoiciay
aea?aaiy: ianaeaiea, caieaiieueciaaiea, oicyenoai.-I.,1978.

Iaei??th c aieiaieo ia?aoeiae aeey ia’?eoeaiiai aena?oeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o ?aaeyinueeiio nae? 20-o ?ie?a aoei
oa, ui aaaaoi «a?eeo ieyi» iaoi? ?noi??? aoee ca’ycai? c ?iaiaie
?noi?ee?a, aeiiii?no?a, nioe?ieia?a, th?eno?a, ae?y/?a aa?a?ii? noa?e,
iacaneoaeaii iaiiaeaieo ? canoaeaeaieo. Neeaeany noia?a/i?noue: c
iaeiiai aieo c’yaeeanue a?aeiinia iiaeeea?noue aea/aoe a?o?ai?
aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, caaaa/oaaoeny ciaiiyie noaio ni?aa o
?aaeyinueeiio nae? 20-o ?ie?a, c ?ioiai aieo, i?iaeiaaeoaaea iaoe i?noea
iaiiaeeea?noue a?aee?eoi ioae?eoaaoe o i?an? ioe?iee oa aeniiaee, ye? ia
a?aeiia?aeaee ia?o?eiei aeiaiaoai.

O e?ioe? 80-o ?ie?a ii/aea oi?ioaaoeny iiaa oaiaeaioe?y a ?noi??ia?ao??,
eiee aeine?aeieee i?iyaeee oe?eaa?noue aei ni?aaaeii? ?noi???
?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. I?ioeane ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a,
a?aee?eooy nae?aoieo oiiae?a a?o?a?a iaaeaee aeine?aeieeai iia?
iiaeeeaino? aena?oeaiiy ?aaeueii? iie?oeee ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo. O oeae ia??iae noni?euenoaiciaaoe? ni?iaoaaee
noi?ioethaaoe iiaeeea? aeueoa?iaoeae ?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
o ?aieao eiai nioe?ae?noe/i?ai aeai?o. C??n ?ioa?an aei niaaeueie A.A.
*ayiiaa oa I.Ae.Eiiae?aoue?aa, ?o eiioeaioe?e nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Aeaieeia A.I. Aa?a?iay iieeoeea
?EI(a)-AEI(a) a 20-30-a aiaeu.//Eiiioieno.-1990.-?16.-N.16-18;
Aeaiaioueaa I.E. E ioeaiea caiaeueiie e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie iieeoeee
Niaaoneie aeanoe a 1917-1918 aiaeao.// Aii?inu
enoi?ee.-1991.-?4.-N.11-13.-?5.-N.15-16; Oeao?ianeay I.E. Aa?a?iay
noa?a a eiioeaioeee I.Ae. Eiiae?aoueaaa.-I.,1991;

90-? ?iee iciaiaioaaee ii/aoie iiaiai aoaio o aea/aii? noaio
?aaeyinueeiai naea 20-o ?ie?a. A Oe?a?i? oa ?in?? aoei caoeuaii ?yae
aeieoi?nueeeo oa eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?e. ?aa?iaa I.I. Noaeueau
naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?innee a eioa?i?aoaoeee iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo
nee 20-o aiaeia.: Aaoi?aoa?ao aeen… eaiae. eno. iaoe.-
?inoia-ia-Aeiio,1993; Aeeeaiyi A.A. ?uii/iua ioiioaiey a oai?ee e
i?aeoeea aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee a oneiaeyo iaia.: Aeen… ae-?a eno.
iaoe.-Eeaa, 1992; Nayoaoe TH.A. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia oeiieia?y
naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie o ?iee iaio.: Aeen… eaiae. ?no.
iaoe.-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,1993. Iaeaea an? aeine?aeieee 90-o ?ie?a ?aeei?
a aeoioe?, ui aieiaiith iaae??oaiith i?iaeaiith 20-o ?ie?a aoea i?iaeaia
ia?niaeoea iaio. Eiai cai?oaiiy aeyaeeiny ni?aaith ianeeaaeiith,
ine?eueee ia aoei iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa ?aeaieia?/ieo
aa?aio?e oiai, ui ia a?aeaoaeaoueny a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ai?iii-eiioi?noe/ii?
?aeaieia?? oa i?aeoeee. C?inoaiiy a e?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a ?aoeeaeea?a
ai?iiiai eiioi?cio caeiiii??ii aecia/eei e?ao iiai? aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee.

Iniaeea?noth iaoeiaeo i?aoeue 90-o ?ie?a noaa iiooe iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a
?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa iica eiai nioe?ae?noe/iith
i???ioaoe??th. sse?ac ia oeueiio aoai? iaieio/a iinoaei ieoaiiy i?i
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeiiii?ee oa ?aeaieia?? o 20-? ?iee. Aeine?aeieee
aeioiaeeee aeniiae?a i?i oa, ui ia??aeei a a?eueoiaeoeuee?e ia?o??
?aeaieia?/i? i??eoaaiiy a?aee ai?o iaae aeiiii?/iith aeioe?euei?noth.
Iai?eeeaae, I.I.?aa?iaa aaaaea?, ui i?eoeeuei?noue aei ia?enenonueeeo
aeiai, iaai?iiy oa iaaaaeaiiy a?aeiiaeyoeny a?ae ooii?/ieo noa?aioei?a
neiaoaaee ?icaeoie iaoeiai? aeoiee acaaae?, ? o noa?? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee,
cie?aia. I?iaiae?coaaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee ?in?enueei? aa?a?ii? aeoiee
uiaei oeyo?a iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, aaoi?
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i ia?aiiao a??oiai aeey e?a?ie aa??aioo
ia?aoai?aiue aa?a?iiai naeoi?a. O aeena?oaoe?? I.A. Aeeeaiyia
i?inoaaeo?oueny aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? ia ?eieia?
a?aeiineie. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui inieneaiiy iaiao?aeiino? a?aeiiae a?ae
eiiaiaeoaaiiy oa aaei?i?no?oaaiiy, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey aiioe ai?iiiai
eiioi?cio, ? ia?aoiaeo aei aio/eiai ainiiaea?nueeiai iaiaa?oaaiiy
i?eeoei aei ea??aiee?a e?a?ie ia a?ae?aco, a i?ae aieeaii
ainiiaea?nueei? i?aeoeee, ianiaiai iacaaeiaieaiiy c aieo naeyinoaa
caiaeueiith oa i?iaeiaieue/ith iie?oeeith, yea i?iaiaeeeany
a?eueoiaeeaie. I?ioa, ia?aeoiaoe aei iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, ia?o?y
oa aea?aeaaa ia ciiaee aei e?ioey iaieiae?oe aeiiii?/ieie iaoiaeaie
ea??aieoeoaa, ui aieeioei ia aeieth iaio.

Iniaeeai oe?iiith c iaoeiai? oi/ee ci?o ? iiiia?ao?y N.?. Eyoa, Eyo N.?.
Iaeiaia i?aoey o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie a oiiaao iaio.-E.:
Aeua oeiea, 1990. a ye?e i?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioean ?icoe?aiiy iaeiaii?
i?aoe? o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie 20-o ?ie?a, eiai iniiai?
aeaea?aea, nioe?aeueiee neeaae ?ia?oiee?a ?aaeaini?a oa aao?ae?a a
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noaao, oiiae i?aoe? oa iiaooo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?oiee?a, ?o caeo/aiiy i?aaiaie aeaaee aei
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia nae?. O iiiia?ao?? iaaaaeaii aeai?
i?i /enaeuei?noue iaeiaieo ?ia?oiee?a o naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noaao oa
caiaeueieo oiaa?enoaao, i?i ?oi? iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua.

Iaeiae i?e an?o aeinoi?inoaao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo ? ?in?eneeo
?noi?ee?a o ieo aeineoue iaei iaoa??ae?a i?i noai ni?aa o nae?
E?einueei? A?N?. A ae?oa?e iieiaei? XX noie?ooy E?ei iieieany ia
ia?ao?ano? i?ae Oe?a?iith oa ?in??th: oe?a?inuee? ?noi?eee ia caeiaeeny
?noi???th E?eio 20-o ?ie?a, ine?eueee i?aino?ia o oie ia??iae aoiaeea
aei neeaaeo ??ON?, a ?in?enuee? ?noi?eee ia caa?oaeeny aei e?einueei?
oaie oiio, ui c 1954 ?ieo E?ei aoei aeeth/aii aei neeaaeo Oe?a?inueei?
?N?. Oea icia/a?, ui i?iaeaia nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o
E?einuee?e A?N? caeeoeoaeany iica oaaaith oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a, iaei aea/aeanue, ? oiio aiia noaea i?aaeiaoii
niaoe?aeueiiai eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue iioae?eiaai? aeieoiaioe oa
a?o?ai? iaoa??aee. Iioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aeae?eueea
a?oi.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie ne?ae a?aeianoe aeieoiaioe ea??aieo i?aai?a N?N?, ??ON?
oa E?einueei? A?N?: ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a ananithciiai oa ana?in?enueeiai
oa?aeoa?o, ye? ae?oeoaaeeny i?ioyaii 20-80-o ?ie?a (Caiaee caeii?a,
iaoa??aee c’?cae?a ?aae N?N?, ??ON? ? E?eio, iinoaiiae oa ca?oe, iaeyaee
ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeeo, ?aeiiieo, i?nueeeo oa anae?einueeeo i?aai?a
aeaaee, ia?o?eieo i?aai?caoe?e E?eio). Iniaeeao oe?ii?noue aeey aea/aiiy
iinoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue yaeythoue ca??ieee «Nia?aiea
ocaeiiaiee e ?anii?yaeaiee ?aai/aai e E?anoueyineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
E?uineie Nioeeaeenoe/aneie Niaaoneie ?anioaeeee» ca 1922-1930 ?iee. O
oeeo aeaeaiiyo i?noyoueny io?oe?ei? ianoaiiae i?aai?a aeaaee c
eiie?aoieo ieoaiiue caiaeueii? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee o ianooaaao
an??? aea?aeaae, a oaeiae ie?aieo ?? ?aa?ii?a. Cia/ia /anoeia
aeieoiaio?a oeeo aeaeaiue aia?oa aaiaeeoueny aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao.

Ae?oao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue atheaoai?, ye? aeaeaaaeeny
E?einueeei iaeiiii ?EI(a) — AEI(a), OeAE ?aae ?ia?oie/eo, naeyinueeeo ?
/a?aiiioeionueeeo aeaiooao?a, ?IE E?einueei? A?N?, E?einueeiai
Oeaio?aeueiiai noaoenoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy. Aiie i?noyoue oe?ieee oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae c ?noi??? e?einueeiai naea oiai /ano, aeiiiiaaathoue neeanoe
/?oea oyaeaiiy i?i aeeiai?eo cae?enithaaieo i?ioean?a.

Ie?aii ne?ae neacaoe i?i oaeo a?oio aeaea?ae, ye cae?eo? eenoe OeE
?EI(a) — AEI(a) aoaa?inueeei oa iaeaniei eii?oaoai ia?o??, a oaeiae
eieeoi? nae?aoi? iie?ocaaaeaiiy E?einueeiai iaeaniiai eii?oaoo ia?o??,
ye? iai?aaeyeeny aei OeE. O ieo i?noeeeny iaaenae?aoi? a?aeiiino? i?i
ainiiaea?nueea ? iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua E?einueei? A?N?. Aiie a?eueo
?aaeueii, i?ae io?oe?eia i?ana, a?aeia?aaeaee ae?eniee noai ni?aa.
Ciyooy c oeeo aeieoiaio?a a?aeiia?aeiiai a?eoo aeicaieeei noai?eoe
a?eueo iiaio ? i?aaaeeao ea?oeio iie?oe/ieo iano?i?a naeyinueeeo ian ?
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei o ?anioae?oe?.

Aei o?aouei? a?oie aeaea?ae iaiao?aeii a?aeianoe ca?oe, ?ino?oeoe??,
aeai? ia?aien?a, a oaeiae iniaeeai oe?ii? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??aee
aea??eiaeo ianoaaeaiue athaeaeao?a naeyinueeeo aeai??a ? noaio ?o
oa?/oaaiiy o ni?anoaaeaii? c ?o ae?iaie/ith iiooaei?noth. Oe? aeieoiaioe
aeiiiiiaee aeena?oaioia? c?iaeoe i?eioeeiiai aaaeeea? aeniiaee i?i
iane?aeee ?aaeyinueei? iie?oeee ia nae?.

*aoaa?oo a?oio aeaea?ae, ye? i?noyoue oe?ieo ?ioi?iaoe?th c aeaii?
i?iaeaie, noaiiaeoue ia??iaee/ia i?ana E?eio ca 1920-? ?iee.
Aeena?oaioii i?iaiae?ciaaii aacaoe «E?aniue E?ui», «E?uineay aea?aaiy»,
«Iaye eiiioiu», «E?aniay Ea?/ue», «E?anoueyiei e ?aai/ee» ca 1921-1929
?iee. Oeeo?e ? oaeoe, ye? ooo iaaiaeeeenue, ioe?ithaaeeny ca na?aeeie
ne?aeaie iiae?e iae/ano?oa naieie ?o o/anieeaie. A?eueoino? aacaoieo ?
aeo?iaeueieo ioae?eaoe?e i?eoaiaiiee aa?oaoe?eii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueeee
oa?aeoa?.

Aaaeeeaeie aeaea?aeaie aeena?oaoe?? ? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee ?in?enueeeo
? e?einueeiai a?o?a?a — ?in?enueeiai oeaio?o caa??aaiiy ? aea/aiiy
aeieoiaio?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? (?OeCAAeI?), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? (OeAeA ?O), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao ?anioae?ee E?ei (OeAeA?E). I?e oeueiio aoee aeei?enoai? 17
a?o?aieo oiiae?a, o oiio /ene? oiiaee i?a?ino?oeoi?nueeiai a?aeae?eo OeE
AEI(a), ?aaee ia?iaeieo eii?na??a ??ON?, Ia?eiiaoo caieaai?ianoaa ??ON?,
Ia?eiiaoo o ni?aaao iaoe?iiaeueiinoae ??ON?, Oaaea?aeueiiai eii?oaoo ?c
caiaeueii? ni?aae i?e i?aceae?? AOeAE, E?einueeiai iaeaniiai eii?oaoo
ia?o??, E?ei OeAE, E?ei ?IE, Ia?eiiaoo caieaai?ianoaa E?einueei? A?N?.
A?o?ai? iaoa??aee noaee iniiaiei aeaea?aeii aeey aena?oeaiiy iie?oe/ieo
iano?i?a naeyinoaa o 20-? ?iee, oa?aeoa?enoeee iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e i?ioe
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ?inoeoooo
«iicaaaeaioe?a». Aiie cia/iith i??ith aeiiiiiaee aeena?oaioia?
i?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? noia?a/iino? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ia
i?aino?ia? o ca’yceo c i?aeoe/ieie caoiaeaie EIICAOo uiaei ia?anaeaiiy a
E?ei ?a?a?a c ?in??, Oe?a?ie oa A?ei?on??.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeeneon?e, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny iaaeiei eai?inueei?
oai?aoe/ii? niaaeueie c aa?a?ii-naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy, aoei i?iaaaeaii
aiae?c ?yaeo eai?inueeeo i?aoeue aeiaeiaoiaaiai ia??iaeo, eiai
aeiiia?ae? i?i caieth ia ?? c’?cae? ?aae ? ia?o? i?aeoe/i? caoiae?
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee uiaei cae?eniaiiy eai?inueeeo i?ia?aiieo ianoaiia.
Eaiei A.E. I?iaeo ?a/e a IV Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia i?aaenoaaeoaey
o?aeoeee ?NAe?I ii caiaeueiiio aii?ino. — Ni/eiaiey a 20
oiiao.-I.-E.,1926.-O.9.-N.122-134. Oea aeiiiiiaei aaoi?ia? aeeiiaoe
aeaye? ?c noi?ioeueiaaieo aeua caaaeaiue. I?ae /an ?iaioe c
eai?inueeeie i?aoeyie aoei aeyaeaii na?aeiia i?eoiaoaaiiy a?ae
aeine?aeiee?a /anoeie c ieo. I?i oea na?ae/eoue ia?oa aeaeaiiy oai??a
A.?. Eai?ia, yea caa??aa?oueny ca?ac o eieeoi?e «Eai?ioe?». Aiii
aeei?enoiaoaaeinue i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeena?oaoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane a e?einueeiio nae?»
aena?oeaii caoiaee i?aai?a aeaaee uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy iicaiaeueieo
a?aeiinei ia nae? oa a?aeaoaeiae n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, a oaeiae
aiae?cothoueny i?ioeane nioe?aeueiiai ?icoa?oaaiiy a naeyinueeiio
na?aaeiaeu? a oiiaao cae?eniaiiy iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.

Ia naiiio ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a aeaaei? no?oeoo?e E?eio iinoaaeee ia?aae
caiaeueieie i?aaiaie E?einueei? A?N? caaaeaiiy ia o?eueee a?aeiiaeaiiy
c?oeiiaaiiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, a e ?icaeoie aa?a?iiai naeoi?a
ia iia?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e iniia? aei ??aiy, yeee ae ia?aaa?oea
iieacieee eai?oae?noe/ieo ainiiaea?noa uiaei i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?,
eoeueoo?e caiea?ianoaa oa iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua o?oaeyueo naea.
Iniiaieie oeyoaie aeinyaiaiiy oeeo oe?eae aoee i?iaieioai? eeania?
i?aeoiaee a aea?aeaaiiio ?aaoethaaii? iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei ia nae?,
iaiaaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae caiiaeieo, iaeneiaeueia ni?eyiiy
a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeueeei ianai, iaaeaiiy naeyinueeei ainiiaea?noaai
iaaieo iiaeeeainoae a?aeiinii caea/? caie? a i?aiaeo oa aeei?enoaiiy
iaeiaii? i?aoe?.

Aei na?aaeeie 20-o ?ie?a aeyaeeinue, ui aeiaeia ?c iinoaaeaieo
caaaeaiue ia aeeiioaaeinue oni?oii. A?eueoa oiai, a?aeaoeiny cieaeaiiy
iieaciee?a ii??aiyii c 1914-1917 ?ieaie. I?e/ei oeueiio aoei aaaaoi.

Ii-ia?oa, ia i?eeeaae? e?einueeiai naea aeaeii, ui i?iaieineaoe ia
VIII c’?cae? ?EI(a) o 1919 ?ioe? nithc ?ia?oie/iai eeano ?c na?aaei?i
naeyinoaii, ?aaeyinueea aeaaea i?iaeiaaeoaaea a ?aaeuei?e i?aeoeoe?
nie?aoeny ia a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeuee? iane, ye? ia ?icoe?thaaee nai?o
iin?aieo ieiu, ia caeiaeeny i?aeaeuaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?,
ine?eueee iaea?aeoaaee a?ae/ooio aeiiiiiao c aieo aea?aeaae.

Ii-ae?oaa, iniiaiee oyaa? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iiaeaoeo, iniaeeai
o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a, ia?aeeaaeaany ia caiiaei? aa?noae
e?einueeiai naea. Ca oaeeo oiiaao a?eueo?noue caiiaeieo naeyinueeeo
ainiiaea?noa, ia aa/a/e noeioeo a ?icoe?aii? iin?aieo ieiu oa
i?aeaeuaii? o?iaeaeiino?, aai iiai?noth ia?anoaaaee i?aoethaaoe o
nai?io ainiiaea?noa?, aai aaee eiai aac aoaeue-yei? caoe?eaaeaiino? a
iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo.

Ii-o?ao?, i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo ?c oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a
oa e?einueei? noieeoe? ia i?noey aeaaaeeny noia?a/eea? aeac?aee
a?aeiinii o?oaeiaeo ii?i caieaei?enooaaiiy. Iie?oeea ia?anaeaiiy naeyi
aei E?eio c ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a e?a?ie oa ?icnaeaiiy ana?aaeei? ?anioae?ee
c a??nueeeo ? ia?aaea??ieo ?aeii?a o noaiiao /anoeio i?aino?iaa,
noai?aiiy iiaeo ca?iiaeo ainiiaea?noa (?aaeaini?a) — ana oea a?aeaeaaei
o naeyi aaaeaiiy ii-ainiiaea?nueeiio noaaeoeny aei caie?, yea
ia?aaeaaaeanue a?ae iaeieo ainiiaea??a aei ?ioeo.

Ioaea, n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai E?eio ia o?eueee ia iieacaei c?ace?a
aeey iane?aeoaaiiy oa?ia?ai eai?oae?noe/ieo e?a?i oa ia?iaeai Noiaeo,
ye ieaioaaee a?eueoiaeee, a e iieieeinue o noai? aei?noei?
aeiiii?/ii? e?ece.

Aeey aeoiaeo c oaei? neooaoe?? aoei ae??oaii noeioethaaoe i?aeianaiiy
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa iiaeaeueoei ?icoe?aiiyi ianooaa?a i?aiaeieo
a?aeiinei oa iaeiaii? i?aoe?. Oe? caoiaee oaeaeei aeaee iiceoeaiee
?acoeueoao. Aeiiii?/i? iieacieee cia/ii iie?aueeenue, a oie aea /an
iineeeeinue nioe?aeueia ?icoa?oaaiiy a naeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeu?: c
iaeiiai aieo, c?inea e?euee?noue a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeueeeo aeaiaio?a, c
ae?oaiai — caiiaeieo aa?noa naea. Caaino?eeany eeaniaa ai?ioueaa i?ae
ieie /a?ac i?ioeeaaei?noue ?o aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a. I?aaie aeaaee
iie?oe/ieie oa aeiiii?/ieie caoiaeaie i?aeo?eioaaee a?aeiioo o oe?e
ai?iouea?, i?yii ni?eyth/e oei naiei iiaeaeueoiio ?? ?iciaethaaiith.
Aieiaiei noaaeeiny ieoaiiy i?i nioe?ae?noe/iee ono??e naea oeyoii eiai
eieaeoea?caoe??. Ea??ai? i?aaie ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee N?N?, ??ON? ? E?eio
aeoiaeeee i?e oeueiio ?c eai?inueeeo ianoaiia i?i iaoe?iiae?caoe?th
an??? caie? a e?a?i? oa noai?aiiy ia aac? iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oe?a cia/ieo
?aaeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa i?ae eiio?ieai ?aae a?aeiyoeueeeo ?
aao?aoeueeeo aeaiooao?a. Aeoeaia ae?yeuei?noue o oeueiio iai?yi? aaeany
oi?iaeiaae 20-o ?ie?a, aea aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia caaacia/eea.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a noaaeaiiy aeanoae aei naea noaei
aei?noe?oei, aei caiiaeieo ? eo?eoeuenueeeo aa?noa canoinoaaeenue
aaei?i?no?aoeai? caoiaee aeey i?ae?eao aeiiii?ee ?oi?o ainiiaea?noa.
I?e oeueiio aoei aeei?enoaii a?euei? e?eoa??? aecia/aiiy iii?uee?a ?
eo?eoe?a, ui ia iaei i?/iai ni?eueiiai c iaoeiaeie o?aeooaaiiyie oaeeo
iiiyoue. C oe??? i?e/eie aei ?ic?yaeo iii?uee?a ? eo?eoe?a, ye?
i?aeaeaaaeeny ?ai?an?yi, iio?aieyee ia o?eueee caiiaei? naeyinuee?
ia?enoy, a e na?aaeiyoeuee?, a ia??aeei ? a?aei?, ui aoei iiaiei
naaa?eeyi aeaaee a?aeiinii naea ? i?ecaaei aei cieuaiiy iaea?eueo
i?oeieo a aeiiii?/iiio a?aeiioaii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo naeyinueeeo
ainiiaea?noa. Oaea ae naaa?eey niinoa??aaeiny i?e iaae?e? e?einueeiai
naeyinoaa caieath, ine?eueee ii?ie iaae?e?a iino?eii ia?aaeyaeaeeny ia
ei?enoue aea?aeaae.

Ana oea caaaeaaaei oaea?o ii naeyinuee?e aeiiii?oe?, iicaaaeyei
caieaei?enooaa/?a noeioe?a aei ?icaeoeo nai?o ainiiaea?noa. Ia e?iaoeue
20-o ?ie?a n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai E?eio ia aeinyaei iaa?oue
aei?aaiethoe?eiiai ??aiy ca ?ici??aie iin?aieo ieiu ? aaeiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, caciaaaei aino?i? e?ece, yea a ia?oo /a?ao noaea iane?aeeii
i??i?eoaoo iie?oeee iaae aeiiii?eith.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea i?aai?a aeaaee ? ??
?aae?caoe?y o noa?? iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei» ?icaeyaea?oueny
a?aeia?aaeaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ?c caiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy e??cue i?ecio iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae E?einueei? A?N?,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iie?oeea i?eeo/aiiy aei aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ia oa?eoi??? i?aino?iaa ?a?a?a-ia?anaeaioe?a c ?ioeo
?aa?ii?a N?N?.

N?euenueea ianaeaiiy E?eio ae??ciyeinue iaoe?iiaeueiith no?ieao?noth
(ia ii??aiyii iaaaeee?e oa?eoi??? i?iaeeaaee i?aaenoaaieee 76
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae: ?in?yie, oe?a?ioe?, oaoa?e, i?ioe?, ?a?a?, a?aee,
aieaa?e, a??iaie oa ?io?), oiio caiaeueia ieoaiiy ooo o?nii
ia?aie?oaeiny c iaoe?iiaeueiei. A?ae iiaeeeainoae eiai ae??oaiiy
caeaaeaea aeiey i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei. ?ica’ycaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy a E?eio ia?o ca ana oie?aeiny a caieaono??e
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. Oni?oia i?iaaaeaiiy oe??? aeoe?? aeaaei?
no?oeoo?e E?eio iia’ycoaaee c ia?niaeoeaaie i?inoaaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ii?
?aaiethoe?? ia ionoeueiainueeee No?ae. I?eioneaeinue, ui ?aaeyinueea
aeaaea noai?eoue o E?eio oaeo ni?aae?oaei?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoee, yea aoaea c?aceii aeey iane?aeoaaiiy aeey non?aei?o
eai?oae?noe/ieo e?a?i. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeaaei? i?aaie iino?eii
aee?eaaee eieeoith ?in?enueeo ?iia??th, yea aeyaeeany iani?iiiaeiith
ae??oeoe i?iaeaie o noa?? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei, iiioey?ecoaaee
nai? nioe?ae?noe/i? i?aeoiaee aei caaacia/aiiy ??aiino? on?o iaoe?e ?
ia?iaeiinoae. Aea, i?enooieaoe aei i?aeoe/ieo ae?e o oeueiio iai?yi?,
e?einuee? aeaaei? no?oeoo?e, yeeie ea?oaaee oeaio?aeuei? i?aaie
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, ia ciiaee ae?iaeoe caaaeaieo iiceoe?e o
iaoe?iiaeuei?e iie?oeoe?, ye? a ni?eyee cae?eniaiith iinoaaeaieo
caaaeaiiue. Iai?ee?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a, e??i ?nioth/eo iaaaoeaieo yaeu o
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiineiao, c’yaeeenue iia?, ye? noaee iane?aeeii
i?aeoe/ieo ae?e ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.

C naiiai ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea a E?eio
i?iaiaeeeanue iaeiiaiei, iaaoaoe oi?ie oaoa?ecaoe?? anueiai
oi?aae?inueeiai aia?aoo ?anioae?ee. Oaiie aeaiiai i?ioeano c ?ieo a ??e
c?inoaee. Oaoa?nueea ianaeaiiy o?eiaei ?yae aea?aeaaieo ia?aaaa o
caieaono?i?, yeeo ia iaee ?io? iaoe?iiaeueiino?. A aaaaoueio i?noeyo oea
ni?e/eieei i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? iaii?icoi?iiy na?aae naeyinoaa.

Ianoaiiaea cia/ii oneeaaeieeany c i?eeiyooyi Iie?oath?i OeE AEI(a) ?
OeAE N?N? ?yaeo iinoaiia i?i ia?anaeaiiy aei E?eio c ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco 100.000 o?oaeyueo ?a?a?a c iaoith noai?aiiy
ia?anaeainueeeo eieaini?a. Iai??e aeanoae aeeeeeaee i?ioano c aieo
oaoa?nueei? iiiceoe?? a E?eio, i/iethaaii? aieiaith E?ei OeAE Aae?
?a?a?iiaei ? aieiaith E?ei ?IE Aea?ai-Ae??ee. Aiie i?iaoaaee aeiaanoe
oeaio?aeueiei i?aaiai aeaaee N?N? ? ??ON?, ui ia?anaeaiiy ?a?a?a aei
E?eio ca/aieoue caiaeuei? ?ioa?ane i?noeaaiai oaoa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy.
Iiae?aio iiceoe?th caeiya nii/aoeo ? nae?aoa? E?einueeiai iaeaniiai
eii?oaoo AEI(a) N.Ae.Iao?iiaaeianueeee. A iiaeaeueoiio a?i ii/aa
i?iaiaeeoe e?i?th Iineae, ui i?ecaaei aei i?ioenoiyiiy ath?i iaeiio ?
oaoa?nueei? iiiceoe??.

Iacaaaeath/e ia ii?? i?aaenoaaiee?a oaoa?nueei? iiiceoe??, i?ioyaii
ae?oai? iieiaeie 20-o ?ie?a ?a?aenueeei n?i’yi ?c i?no E?eio ?
ia?anaeaioeyi iaaeaaaeeny ana iia? caiaeuei? ae?eyiee ? aeiani?
oa?aeaey, ia yeeo noai?thaaeenue eieaeoeai? ainiiaea?noaa: eiioie,
a?o?e?, oiaa?enoaa. Cia/io aeiiiiiao a ?o noaiiaeaii? iaaeaaaee EIICAO
(eii?oao ?c caieaaii?yaeeoaaiiy o?oaeyueo ?a?a?a) ? aia?eeainueea
?a?aenueea aa?iiii?/ia ei?ii?aoe?y «Aa?iaeaeieio». Ianoaaeaiiy
?a?aenueeeo eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa iai?ee?ioe? 1929 ?ieo iieacaei ?o
ia?aioaaaeuei?noue ? caeoeia?noue. Oea noaei aeeoo?aei ae?ieii
ia?aaeueiei ieaiai i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. ?o ieaie uiaei
caeo/aiiy ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy aeey i?aeianaiiy n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa E?eio yaii i?iaaeeeeny. A ii?yaeie aeaiiee aeaaeieo
i?aai?a E?einueei? A?N? aenoaaeeny caaaeaiiy ai?ioueae ?c c?ineeie
i?iyaaie iaoe?iiae?cio, oia?i?cio oa aioenai?oecio. Aeaye? iaoe?iiaeuei?
iaioeie iinoaaeee ieoaiiy i?i ai?a?aoe?th ca ei?aeii. Ana oea icia/aei
iiyao aeooiai eooa, a yeee caaaea iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie E?eio
noia?a/eeaa ? iaiine?aeiaia iie?oeea ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua a e?einueeii nae? 20-o
?ie?a» aiae?cothoueny ci?ie, ui noaeenue o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio noai?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, oa?aeoa?ecothoue iie?oe/i? ?ai?an??, ye?
i?iaiaeeeeny o 20-? ?iee i?ioe e?einueeiai naeyinoaa, a oaeiae
ocaaaeueiththoueny eiai iano?i? oa noaaeaiiy aei a?eueoiaeoeueei?
ia?o??, ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ? iie?oeee, yea i?iaiaeeeany iath ia nae?.

Iaeiei c ia?oeo i?iya?a ianiaeo iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee
uiaei iaaieo a?oi ianaeaiiy aoei noai?aiiy ?inoeoooo «iicaaaeaioe?a»,
oiaoi in?a iicaaaeaieo i?aaa aieino ia aeai?ao i?aai?a aeaaee oa
oi?aae?iiy, a oaeiae i?aaa aooe ia?aieie aei ieo. Iaiaaeaiiy o/ano? o
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie i?aaenoaaiee?a eieeoi?o aenieoaoaoi?nueeeo
eeann?a ia aeeeeeaei iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy c aieo a?eueoino? o?oaeyueo,
oiio ui canoiniaoaaeiny a iniiaiiio aei iii?uee?a, ao?aeoac?? oa
aeooiaainoaa. Iaeiae, noaiiaeua ??cei ci?ieeiny c i?iaieioaiiyi iaio.
I?eaaoia i?aei?e?iieoeoai, oi?a?aey ? ?eieia? a?aeiineie ni?e/eiyee
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? «iicaaaeaioe?a». ?aaeyinueea aeaaea i?aaioea
iaaeiionoeoe aeiiii?/ii ci?oei?eeo i?eaaoiee?a aei iie?oe/ii? aeaaee.
O 1927-28 ?ieao i?e aeoea?caoe?? ianooio ia iaiiainuee? aeaiaioe i?noa ?
naea ?inoeooo «iicaaaeaioe?a» noaa ianiaei. A io?oe?ei?e i?iiaaaiae? ?
ia iiaooiaiio ??ai? iicaaaeai? aeai?/eo i?aa, a i?aeoe/ii an?o
a?iiaaeyinueeeo iiaeeeainoae, iaceaaeeny «/oaeeioeyie»,
«a?aeuaiaioeyie». Ieoiia aaaa ?o uiaei caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy E?eio aeinyaaea a iaai? iiiaioe 20-30%. A
iniiaiiio oea aoee na?aaeiyoeuee? aa?noae naea.

?aaeyinueea aeaaea, ea?iaaia ia?o??th a?eueoiaee?a, oe?eeii na?aeiii
iicaaaeyea naei iaea?eueo oacyeiiaeoeo naeyi, i?e??eath/e n?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai e?a?ie ia aeiiii?/iee caiaiaae. Ioaea, eaiiai??, iia’ycai?
c iicaaaeaiiyi aeai?/eo i?aa, aoee caniaii eiiee noa?iai niiniao
aeeooy, ia?oeie ianiaeie aeoe?yie iie?oe/iiai ia?ane?aeoaaiiy a N?N?.

Caeiiii??ii, ui oae? ae?? ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ii?iaeaeoaaee
iacaaeiaieaiiy a?eueoino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Iie?oe/iee noai
e?einueeiai naea o 20-? ?iee aoa iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiei, ui
coiiaethaaeiny noia?a/eeaith iie?oeeith a?eueoiaee?a. C iaeiiai aieo,
?aaeyinueea aeaaea o nai?io aeae?ao? «I?i caieth» iiaiaeeeanue ia
?iciiae?e i?ae naeyiaie iaoe?iiae?ciaaieo o e?a?i? caiaeue. Oiio
naeyinoai c iaae??th aeeaeeiny ia iiao aeaaeo, /aeath/e a?ae ia?
caoiae?a uiaei iaae?eo aaccaiaeueieo ? iaeicaiaeueieo naeyi caiaeueieie
ae?eyieaie. C ?ioiai aieo, aeaaea ia ae?e? ii/aea i?iaiaeeoe a aeeooy
eai?inueeo aa?a?io i?ia?aio, a?no?yi yei? noaei noai?aiiy ia aac?
iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oe?a aaeeeeo ?aaeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa. Oae? ae??
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a?aeooiaoioee a?ae ia? cia/i? aa?noae naeyinoaa.
Noaiiaeua iia??ooaaeiny iiaeaoeiaith iie?oeeith a?eueoiaee?a. Iniiaiee
oyaa? iiaeaoeo e?a ia na?aaeiyoeuee? ? caiiaei? aa?noae naea, ui
aeaaeae? a?eueoa i?ae?eaaei aeiiii?eo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ainiiaea?noa.

I?aaie AeIO oaaaeii noaaeeee ca iano?iyie naeyinoaa E?eio i?ioyaii 20-o
?ie?a ? aeiiineee E?einueeiio iaeiiia? ?EI(a) — AEI(a). Oe? nae?aoi?
iie?ocaaaeaiiy ni?inoiaoaaee oaco i?i ?aei?noue on?o naeyi a?aeiinii
nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiiue a aeiiii?oe?, ai eeoa
a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeuee? aa?noae e?einueeiai naeyinoaa a oe?eiio
iiceoeaii noaaeeeny aei iie?oeee a?eueoiaee?a.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeaia iaoeiaa ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iaeai
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?einueeiai naea 1920-o ?ie?a
aeaiiino?o? iani?iiiaei?noue iie?oeee ia?o?eieo ? ?aaeyinueeeo i?aai?a o
ae??oaii? aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy ye o E?einuee?e A?N?, oae ? o ianooaaao
an??? e?a?ie. Iniiai? c ieo oae?:

– Iie?oeea ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, yea i?iaiaeeeany a e?einueeiio nae?, ia
o?eueee ia a?aeiia?aeaea ?ioa?anai iaea?eueo oacyeiiaeoi? ?
i?aoeaethaii? /anoeie naeyinoaa, a aoea ?i a?aeaa?oi i?ioeeaaeia. Oea
iaoiiaeei iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy a?eueoino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy E?eio
aei caoiae?a, ye? i?iaiaeeeeny o i?iaeiaieue/?e, iiaeaoeia?e ?
caiaeuei?e noa?ao.

– Iniiaia aanei a?eueoiaee?a «caiey — naeyiai» ii noo? i?eiee ia aoei
eai?inueeei, ine?eueee eiai aenoioea ana??anueea ia?o?y.
Eai?inueei-a?eueoiaeoeueea i?ia?aia c aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy ia?aaeaa/aea
iaoe?iiae?caoe?th an??? caie? a e?a?i? ? ooai?aiiy ia aac? eiio?neiaaieo
iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oe?a aaeeeeo ?aaeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa i?ae eiio?ieai
a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeueeeo ?aae. Oeth i?ia?aiio a?eueoiaee? iieeaee a
iniiao nai?? iie?oeee uiaei naeyinoaa E?eio.

– Aiae?c nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua e?einueeiai naea na?ae/eoue,
ui ?icii/ao? Eai?iei ia?aoai?aiiy aeiiii?ee naea ia nioe?ae?noe/ieo
canaaeao aoee i?iaeiaaeai? Noae?iei, yeee ia ai?n a eai?inueeo oai??th ?
i?aeoeeo ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i, a eeoa aeia?a ?o aei eia?/iiai caaa?oaiiy:
e?ea?aeaoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa
noai?aiiy eieainiii-?aaeainiii? nenoaie.

– I?iaieineaoe ia VO c’?cae? ?EI(a) a 1919 ?ioe? iiaee eo?n ia
noai?aiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy nithco ?ia?oie/iai eeano c na?aaeiyeaie, a
?aaeuei?e i?aeoeoe?, ye na?ae/eoue aiae?c iaoa??ae?a E?eio, aei e?ioey
20-o ?ie?a a?eueoiaeci i?iaeiaaeoaaa nie?aoenue aieiaiei /eiii ia
a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeuee? aa?noae naea, ui aiineei a iie?oeeo ? a
i?aeoe/i? ae?? a?eueoiaee?a noia?a/eea?noue ? iaiine?aeiai?noue. Aiie
noaee aieiaiith i?e/eiith e?ece e?einueeiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
yea i?iyaeeany a 1928-1929 ?ieao. Ia i?eeeaae? E?eio aeaeii, ye
iacaaaeath/e ia ia?ao?ae aei iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, ia?o?eia ?
?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai iino?eii caeaaeinue ia oeyo eiiaiaeoaaiiy ?
aaei?i?no?oaaiiy a?aeiinii caiiaeieo naeyi ? an?o iaiiainueeeo
aeaiaio?a naea, ni?eyei iineeaiith i?ioeano eeaniai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ia
nae?, a?aeaeaaaei ia?aaaao iie?oe/iei ?ioa?anai aea?aeaae iaae
aeiiii?/ieie. ?icoe?eaoe iiaeeeaino? i?aiaee caie? oa canoinoaaiiy
iaeiaii? i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? a na?aaeei? 20-o ?ie?a,
aeaaei? no?oeoo?e a iiaeaeueoiio ??cei caoceee ?o aeiiii?/ieie ?
aaei?i?no?aoeaieie caoiaeaie.

– I?aai?coth/e ianooi a?aeiyoeueeeo aeaiaio?a naea i?ioe «eo?eoe?a»,
i?aaie aeaaee aeia?eueii oi?ioethaaee e?eoa??? ?o aecia/aiiy, ca iniiao
a?aeeny e?euee?ni? iieacieee ainiiaea?noaa. A ?ic?yae eo?eoeuenueeeo
iio?aieyee ia o?eueee caiiaei? ia?enoy, a e a?aeiyoeuee?, ye?
a?aeiiaeeenue a?ae i?aeo?eiee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.

– Uia caaacia/eoe oae caaiee «nioe?aeueiee caoeno» aea?aeaae aeeeoaoo?e
i?ieaoa??aoo a?ae iie?oe/ieo cac?oaiue i?aaenoaaiee?a eieeoi?o
aenieoaoaoi?nueeeo eean?a oa no/anieo iaiiai?a, cia/ii ?icoe?th?oueny
eaoaai??y in?a, iaiaaeaieo a a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?aaao, — «iicaaaeaioe?a».
?inoeooo «iicaaaeaioe?a» noaa neiaieii ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae 20-o
?ie?a, ii/aoeii ianiaeo iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e a N?N?.

– I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaa?oioiaaiino?
aeniiae?a ?aaeyineeo aeine?aeiee?a i?i oa, ui a 20-? ?iee aoee i?aeoi
noai?ai? an? iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ia?aoiaeo aei nooe?eueii?
eieaeoea?caoe?? naea. Aeina?ae e?einueeiai naea aeiaiaeeoue oe?eeii
?ioa: iniiaia iana naeyinoaa i?iaeiaaeoaaea aanoe nai? ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
ainiiaea?noai ? iaaaoeaii noaaeeany aei ?aea? eieaeoea?caoe??. Eeoa
a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeueea /anoeia naea neeaea e?noye ia?oeo eieaini?a.

– Nie?ath/enue o i?iaaaeaii? nai?? iie?oeee a nae? ia
a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeuee? aeaiaioe, e?einuee? i?aaie aeaaee iaaeaaaee ?i
an?eyeo iie?oe/io e aeiiii?/io i?aeo?eieo. C oe??? i?e/eie a?aeiioa
aeyaeyeanue a e?auiio iaoa??aeueiiio noaiiaeu?, i?ae iaeiiiooaei?
naeyinuee? ainiiaea?noaa, ia aoea caoe?eaaeaia a ?icoe?aii? iin?a?a ?
i?aeaeuaii? o?iaeaeiino?.

– ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae aeiaiaeeoue, ui aaciaaeia ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae o
noa?o naeyinueei? aeiiii?ee i?ecaiaeeoue aei noiieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oea
aeaeii ia i?eeeaae? E?einueei? A?N? a 20-? ?iee. I?aaiaiiy ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe i?eaaoiee naeyinueeee ?ioa?an aea?aeaaiiio
aeyaeeiny i?ioei?e?iaeiei. N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai E?eio a aeaiee
ia??iae ia i?ia?anoaaei, a aoei a?aeeeiooa iacaae.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Noaoo?

1. Ai?thiiaa A.A. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou aa?a?iie iieeoeee a E?uio
(1921-1927 aiaeu.) // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. — 1997. — ?1. —
N.8-11.

2. Ai?thiiaa A.A. Iaaenaeaiiia e aioo?enaeaiiia caieaono?ienoai a
E?uio a 20-a aiaeu XX aaea //Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey.-1997.-
?1.- N.102-106.

3. Ai?thiiaa A.A., Aeaiaioueaa I.A. Ia iaeiii ec “aaeuo iyoai” niaaoneie
enoi?ee E?uia // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. — 1997. — ?2.
N.140-143.

4. Ai?thiiaa A.A. E aii?ino ia aa?a?iie iieeoeea aeanoiuo i?aaiia E?uia
a 1920-a aiaeu // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. — 1998. — ?3. —
N.127-130.

5. Ai?thiiaa A.A. I iieeoe/aneeo iano?iaieyo e?uineiai e?anoueyinoaa a
1920-a aiaeu // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. — 1998. — ?3. —
N.324-327.

6. Ai?thiiaa A.A., Aeaiaioueaa I.A., *aaaiiaa A.A. Ia?ii?eyoey i?aaiia
aeanoe E?uia ii ?aaoee?iaaieth iicaiaeueiuo ioiioaiee a aea?aaia a
1920-a aiaeu // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. — 1999.- ?5.-
N.194-203.

Oace aeiiia?aeae

7. Ai?thiiaa A.A., Aeaiaioueaa I.A. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou aa?a?iie iieeoeee
a E?uio (1921-1927aa.)// I?iaeaiu iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u
ia?iaeia E?uia e Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey io aioe/iuo a?aiai e aei iaoeo
aeiae. — Neioa?iiieue,1996. — N.21-22.

Ai?thiiaa ?.I. Nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane a nae? E?einueei? ANN?
1920-o ?ie?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01. -?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — Caii??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey,1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny iane?aeee aa?a?ii? iie?oeee
a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? o e?einueeiio nae? i?ioyaii 1920-o ?ie?a.
Aena?oeththoueny caoiaee i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee uiaei ae??oaiiy
caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy oa ?aaoethaaiiy iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei ia nae?,
?icoa?oaaiiy naeyinueei? iane, i?ioenoaaeaiiy a?aeiyoeueei-aao?aoeueeeo
aeaiaio?a caiiaeiei aa?noaai, iaiaaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo iiaeeeainoae
inoaii?o. ?icaeyaeathoueny iaoe?iiaeuei? iiiaioe o caiaeuei?e iie?oeoe?
aeaaeieo i?aai?a E?einueei? A?N?, ?o aieea ia i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei?
a?aeiineie o ?anioae?oe?. Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?ai?an?? i?aai?a aeaaee
uiaei naeyinoaa, eiai iie?oe/i? iano?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: E?einueea A?N?, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane, iai,
i?aiaei? a?aeiineie, iaeiaia i?aoey, iii?ueee, eo?eoe?, na?aaeiyee,
a?aeiyee, aao?aee, «iicaaaeaioe?».

Ai?thiiaa A.A. Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu a aea?aaia E?uineie
ANN? 1920-o aiaeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?othony iineaaenoaey aa?a?iie iieeoeee
aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee a e?uineie aea?aaia, i?iaiaeeaoaeny ia
i?ioyaeaiee 1920-o aiaeia. Inaauathony ia?u i?aaiia Niaaoneie aeanoe ii
?ac?aoaieth caiaeueiiai aii?ina e ?aaoee?iaaieth iicaiaeueiuo ioiioaiee
a aea?aaia, ?anneiaieth e?anoueyineie iannu, i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieth
aaaeiyoeei-aao?aoeeeo yeaiaioia caaeeoi/iui neiyi, ia?aie/aieth
oicyenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae iineaaeieo. ?anniao?eaathony iaoeeiiaeueiua
iiiaiou a caiaeueiie iieeoeea aeanoiuo i?aaiia E?uineie ANN?, eo
aeeyiea ia iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey a ?anioaeeea. Oa?aeoa?ecothony
?ai?annee i?aaiia aeanoe a ioiioaiee e?anoueyinoaa, aai iieeoe/aneea
iano?iaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: E?uineay ANN?, nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu, iyi,
a?aiaeiua ioiioaiey, iaaiiue o?oae, iiiaueee, eoeaee, na?aaeiyee,
aaaeiyee, aao?aee, “eeoaioeu”.

Goryunova Y.A. Social — political processes in village of Crimean
Autonomy Soviet Socialist Republic in 1920-th years. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate’s degree by speciality 07.00.01. — History of
Ukraine. — Zaporozhye state university, Zaporozhye, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the important problem of the Ukrainian
history. It is a complex research of social and political processes that
occurred in the Crimean village during the 1920-th years. The author on
the basis of huge quantity of an archival material analyses all spectrum
of social, economic, national and political problems, were determined of
destiny of peasantry in Crimea.

In research on an example of agrarian sector of Crimea ASSR the
realization in life of new economic policy is detailed covered
development of the money relations on the village, expansion of
opportunities of the rent of ground and hiring of a labor. These
measures promoted fast growth of agricultural manufacture. The agrarian
policy of the Soviet authority is analysed and the obvious
contradictions between proclaimed of Bolsheviks by principles of new
economic policy and real communistic by practice of the management of
economic, political and social processes in the village are revealed.

In the dissertation critical estimation of a theoretical and practical
heritage of Lenin is given to work on a ground question and the
conclusion about inconsistency of communistic policy in an agrarian
question is made. The author, as a result of the detailed analysis of
Lenin’s and Stalin’s practice of realization of the peasant program in
the country question in its real embodiment with reference to Soviet
village of the 1920-th years, makes a conclusion about their identity.

The research convincingly proves, that Lenin’s the agrarian policy per
20 years has appeared inefficient: the interests of peasantry were
subordinated to state interests. The most enterprising part of the
Crimean peasantry was deprived opportunities to develop the economy
which has been knocked down by the high taxes, often section of ground
and threat of deprivations of the ground areas. In too time poor layers
of the village received state support, were released from the taxes and
were not engaged at all in conducting their economy. All this was by the
reason of crisis in village economy of the Crimea at the end of the
20-th years, a consequence that has become failure of economic methods
of managing and returning to the force system, checked up during Civil
war, of management.

In the dissertation the process of a social stratification of peasantry
and, as a consequence it, kindling amplifications of struggle in the
village, that undermined the economic foundations and did not promote
the at all not further development of an agriculture are detailed
considered. The antiscientific system of definition of landowner of
economy has become the reason of irreparable consequences: under a
category of the rich landowners got the average, and sometimes the poor
peasants which have refused to support the Soviet authority. As a result
of repeated reconsideration of norms ground plots of the peasants, often
resettlements of the peasants, erroneous tax policy of imperious bodies
the Crimea peasant did not manage to feel by the owner on the ground.

In the dissertation the national aspects of the ground policy of
imperious bodies USSR and Crimean ASSR and their influence on the
international attitudes are analysed. The author judges inconsistency
and discrepancy national distributions of ground that resulted in
kindling national hostility among the inhabitants of a multinational
peninsula. This question is especially sharp has risen in connection
with resettlement in Crimea of the Jews from other regions USSR and
allotment with their ground areas with the purpose of familiarizing with
conducting an agriculture within the framework of the nation-wide
program.

In the research the special attention is given to the analysis of a
political condition Crimean village, analysis of political repression of
the 1920-th years against the Crimean peasantry. In that time was
created the institute of «deprived «, that is persons deprived
suffrages, they haven’t opportunities really to participate in political
life of the country. The measures of social protection of the Soviet
state from the persons, not supporting the Soviet authority, as a matter
of fact businesses were directed against basic weight of the average
peasant, which instead of promised earlier by Bolshevik of freedom has
received absence of the political rights.

By analyzing all complex of processes of a reorganization of Crimean
village in spirit of socialist transformations, the author comes to the
important conclusion that carried out in the village the politics of the
Soviet authority incompatible to economic needs of an individual
economy, not only did not correspond to interests of the most economic
part of peasantry, but also was directly opposite to them. It has caused
the negative relation of the majority of the country population of the
Crimea to carry out measures in ground, food, tax and social spheres.

The basic conclusion of the dissertation is reduced that the Soviet
authority has not decided main problems of the peasants and has made
serious crimes against peasantry. Bolsheviks nationalized ground, have
concentrated all completeness of political authority in the hands, by
force forced peasantry to follow them to a prime target — socialism.

Key words: Crimean ASSR, social-political processes, the New Economic
Policy, rent relations, wage labor, landowners, the rich peasants,
average peasants, poor peasants, hired agricultural workers, «deprived».

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