4

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO EOEUeOO?E ? IENOAOeOA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EII??ANUeEA Ieueaa ?aoa?e?aia

OAeE 379.81+008

NIOe?AEUeII-EOEUeOO?I? ANIAEOE I?AAI?CAOe?? Ae?ssEUeIINO? IA?E?A A
E?A?IAO CA?OA?AEAEss

13.00.06 — oai??y, iaoiaeeea ? i?aai?caoe?y eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino?.

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa, I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, i. Ee?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iiieaanueeee Ieoaeei Ieoaeeiae/ ?aeoi?
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

ae?eniee /eai AINI, aeaaeai?e I?aeia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeaaeai??
THIANEI

Eiaca? Ai?en Noaiaiiae/, aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie;

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iiaeeiia?a Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/,

aaia?aeueiee aee?aeoi? Oe?a?inueeiai oeaio?o eoeueoo?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 16.00 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.807.02 o Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa ( 01133, i.
Ee?a-133, aoe. Ui?na, 36, aoae. 209).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa ( 01133, i.
Ee?a-133,

aoe. Ui?na, 36).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 29 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aoeaoiaa A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy: Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae,
?aaeeeaeuei? ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a nioe?aeuei?e, aeiiii?/i?e oa
aeooiai?e noa?ao aeeooy e?a?ie, coiiaeee aeiei??ii? ia?aoai?aiiy a noa??
eoeueoo?e, e cie?aia, ?aoi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? aaeoc?.

A no/ani?e ia?aaeeai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa eoeueoo?a ?icaeyaea?oueny
ye aeaea?aei, ui noeioeth? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee i?ia?an, ye /eiiee,
ui iaoiiaeth? oa caaacia/o? iiao ye?noue aeeooy, ye can?a ci?oeiaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeooo.

A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy a na?o? niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea oaiaeaioe?y
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioa?ano aei oi?ioaaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaiai i?aeoiaeo ia
eeoa aei eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio, a e ?? i?eeeaaeii? aaeoc? —
eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino?. C?inoa? ona?aeiieaiiy oiai, ui
?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy “a?eueiiai /ano”, aeica?eey ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith aeniei? aeooiaiino?, caaeiaieaiith iio?aa oa ?ioa?an?a
ethaeae a ni?eeoaaii?, oai?/iio ?icaeoeo; ui i?aaeeueia i?aai?caoe?y
aeica?eey iiaea ciaioeoe nioe?aeueia iai?oaeaiiy, iaa?oue ia?aaanoe eiai
a aacia/i?oa ?onei; ui ieoiia aaaa aeica?eey c?inoa? a nenoai?
eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae ethaeae, ?oiuei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Iioeiaeuei?e i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey iaaea?oueny aaeeea cia/aiiy
o ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ye c
oaiaeaioe??th c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo, oae ?
ca?eueoaiiy “a?eueiiai /ano” o na?aaeiuei-a?eiaiai iieie?iiy, aiane?aeie
nei?i/aiiy ?iai/iai oeaeiy, /anoeiai? caeiyoino?, aac?ia?ooy.

Aeaaeae? ana a?eueoa c?inoa? ?ioa?an aei aeiiii?/iiai aei??o
aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? c aieo iie?oe/ieo, oi?aae?inueeeo, o?iainiaeo,
ae?eiaeo no?oeoo? ? oe?iei? a?iiaaenueeino?.

Aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie aecia/a?oueny ona?aeiieaiiyi o???
aaaeeeai? ? aaaiii? ?ie? ia?e?a, yeo aiie a?ae?a?athoue a
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?e noa?? ye iaeei c iaea?eueo aeaiie?aoe/ieo
?inoeooo?a.

Iaeii/an, iia? iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae, ia?ao?ae aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aoiai?caoe?y noni?euenoaa, ei?aeoe?y iaoiaeieia?/ieo
iiaeyae?a ia ?ieue ethaeeie a ?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe?? aeiaaathoue
aianaiiy nooo?aeo ooi/iaiue o aecia/aii? iaoe, caaaeaiue, ci?noo ?
iaoiae?a ?iaioe ia?e?a eoeueoo?e ? a?aeii/eieo.

Ia?ee eoeueoo?e ? a?aeii/eieo ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith nenoaie
i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ethaeae. Aiie i?aai?/ii iia’ycai? c caaaeueieie
i?ioeanaie nioe?aeueiiai ? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.
Ia’?eoeai? iio?aae noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo noaaeyoue ia?aae
iaaeaaia?/iith iaoeith i?iaeaie iiooeo iiaeo iai?yie?a, iiaeaeae, oi?i ?
iaoiae?a aeoiaaiiy. C?inoaiiy ?ie?, cia/aiiy, iiioey?iino? ia?e?a a
no/ani?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iaoiiaeaii i?ioeanaie o?aai?caoe?? aeeooy,
?ioaeaeooae?caoe?? i?aoe?, ia?iuaiiyi ineoieia?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
ae?iaieoeoa?. ?ieue ia?e?a aeaaeae? c?inoa? a oiiaao caa?ice aeieia?/ii?
e?ece, eiee aiie noathoue iaiao?aeieie i?e?iaeieie ina?aaeeaie,
noai?ththoue ni?eyoeeaee i?e?iee?iao aeey iiaiioe?iii?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ye aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei? eoeueoo?ii-?ae?aaoe?ei?
oeaio?e.

Neooaoe?y caeeoa?oueny neeaaeiith. Oea iia’ycaii ?c caaaeueiith e?ecith
oa iaaeineiiae?noth naii? i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey a iao?e e?a?i?.

Ia?aae i?aoe?aieeaie eoeueoo?e iinoa? iaaaeueia iio?aaa iiooeo iiaeo
oi?i ? oeyo?a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e aeica?eey, cie?aia iao?aaeeoe?eieo
aeaea?ae ?? o?iainoaaiiy. Iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue a aeine?aeaeaii?
no/aniiai noaio ? iniiaieo iai?yi?a, iaoiae?a
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei?, aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino?, ?? oi?i,
iniaeeainoae ?iaioe ae?th/eo oei?a ia?e?a oa ?ae?aaoe?eieo cii,
i?aai?caoe?? ia?eiaiai aeica?eey an?o nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo
eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy. Oe?iea aena?oeaiiy oe? i?iaeaie ciaoiaeyoue a
i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo.

Oiio aeaea?oueny aei?aaaeaiei ? aeooaeueiei ii??aiyeueiee i?aeo?ae,
caa?iaiiy aei aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai?
ae?yeueiino? ca ?oaaaeai oa eiai inieneaiiy c iaoith aaeaioaoe?? aei
eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo, eoeueoo?ieo, aaia?ao?/ieo oiia ? ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo ia?eiai? aaeoc? a Oe?a?i?.

Aei /eiiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue aeooaeuei?noue ? cia/ou?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, ne?ae oaeiae a?aeianoe :

1. Iineeaiiy ?ioa?ano ye a?o/eciyieo a/aieo, oae ? i?aeoee?a aei
ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ianaeaiiy e iaiao?aei?noue
a ?ic?iaoe? oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? ci?noiaieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo i?eioeei?a ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a oa ia?eiaeo
cii.

2. Iiaeieaiiy noia?a/iinoae a eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino?,

— iia’ycaieo c iane?aeeaie ca?aeaieia?ciaaiino? a ieioe? ?iee
?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo; e aeiiaaie uiaei aeoeaiiai aeeth/aiiy ?? a
no/aniee caaaeueiiethaenueeee i?ioean ?icaeoeo aeica?ee?ai? noa?e;

— i?ae c?inoaiiyi cia/aiiy ia?e?a eoeueoo?e ? a?aeii/eieo ye aaaeeeaeo
ina?aaee?a nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ianaeaiiy ? caoaeaiiyi
niaeo?o ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyieo ia?e?a;

— i?ae ia’?eoeaiith iio?aaith a?o/eciyii? i?aeoeee a
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa aii??e/ieo i?aoeyo, ui ?ice?eaathoue
i?eioeeie oa oaoiieia?? i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ca ?oaaaeai, ? nooiaiai
?o aaeaioiaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy a ia?eia?e aaeoc? Oe?a?ie.

3. ??ceee ia?ao?ae a?ae iaaeaaiuei? ieu?aii? e?eoeee e eaoaai?e/iiai
iani?eeiyooy anueiai, ui ?iaeeiny a e?a?iao Caoiaeo ii i?aai?caoe??
aeica?eey ianaeaiiy, aei aaccanoa?aaeiiai caoaaethaaiiy cao?aeieo
iiaeaeae aeica?eey, ui coiiaeth? iio?aao ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee
iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy o a?o/eciyieo oiiaao ae?enii oe?iiiai
ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo.

An? oe? oaeoi?e oaeiae coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy e a i??o
aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia c o?aooaaiiyi caaaeueii? eiioeaioe??
?icaeoeo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa
ii oaeineiiaeaiith oaoiai? i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a o aaeoc?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? ? aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a – iaiaaeaea??a ?iaeono??? aeica?eey.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aea/aii? e ocaaaeueiaii?
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo aniaeo?a i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a a
e?a?iao ca?oa?aeaey, aecia/aiiy iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy e?aueo
caeiaooe?a ca?oa?aeiiai ia?eiaoae?aieoeoaa o a?o/eciyi?e ia?eia?e
aaeoc?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aecia/aii oae? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe oa nenoaiaoecoaaoe a?o/eciyi? oa ca?oa?aei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e a eiioaeno?
eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino?;

— ?ice?eoe i?noea ? ?ieue ia?e?a a nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?e noa??
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, aeyaeoe nioe?aeuei?, eoeueoo?ieia?/i?, iaaeaaia?/i?
aniaeoe ?o ae?yeueiino? oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo;

— cae?enieoe ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo nenoaie
i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ??cieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy a ia?eao NOA oa e?a?i
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie;

— aeyaeoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? oiiae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a eoeueoo?e ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?i;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe??
ia?eiaiai aeica?eey a oiiaao Oe?a?ie.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooieee: caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe,
iaoa??aee a?iiaaenueeeo e aea?aeaaieo onoaiia (NOA, e?a?i Cao?aeii?
?a?iie) a noa?? i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey a ia?eao ? ?ae?aaoe?eieo ciiao,
ioae?eaoe?? a niaoe?aeueieo atheaoaiyo oa aeo?iaeao (“Parks and
recreation”, “Amusement Business”), a?aeaiiaoa??aee, aeieoiaioe,
aeiiia?ae?, ca?oe THIANEI, o?yaeia? iinoaiiae, i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo
aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe noaiiaeyoue i?eoaiaii?
no/ani?e iaooe? i?eioeeie ethaeeiiciaanoaa, caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
oe?iiinoae, ye? a?oioothoueny ia eiiieaenieo i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo; eiioeaioe?? ? oai??? aeica?eey, aacia?a?aii? ina?oe,
ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae aei nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai aeoiaaiiy, a oaeiae
?noi?eei-eia?/iee oa ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c; a ieo aeica?eey
?icaeyaea?oueny ye nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia yaeua, ui ?ioaa?o? ooieoe??
?ae?aaoe?? oa ?icaeoeo ethaeeie (I.A.A??a?nueeee, AE.Aethiacaaeue?,
I.N.Caianioeueeee, N.I.?eiii?eiaa, A.O.Eenianueeee, A.?.O??iae?i oa
?i.); no/ani? oai??? ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? ye neeaaeiiai oaiiiaio, yeee
aenooia? ia’?eoii aieeao oa noa’?eoii ia?aoai?aiue ye naiai eieaeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua, oae ? na?aaeiaeua aeiaaeueiiai, ui neeaeiny a i?ioean?
aio?iiinioe?iaaiaca; ona?aeiieaiiy eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano ye ?aaeueiino?,
ui i?cia?oueny, ?icaeoie yei? a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei
caeiiii??iinoae, i?eoaiaiieo ye aeiaaeueiei ?noi?e/iei oeiai ?icaeoeo
caaaeueiiethaenueei? eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio, oae ? eieaeueiei i?aeoeiai
eiaeii? eiie?aoii? eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/athoue eiioeaioe?? oa ?aea?,
aenoioo? a i?aoeyo a?aeiieo a/aieo, ye? aiae?cothoue i?iaeaie aeica?eey
a oe?eiio aai ie?ai? eiai oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe. Nooo?aee aieea ia
oi?ioaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iiceoe?e aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?? ni?aaeee iaoeia?
i?aoe? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo (O.I’A?aeai, N.E?aioe, I.E.Iaeaei, *.Iaoa?nii,
oa ?i.), i?enay/ai? i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ??cieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy;
?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe?? ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia?e?a a i?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu?,
iie?oeoe? a noa?? i?aai?caoe?? ia?eiai? ae?yeueiino?, iaoiaeai ?iaioe c
??cieie nioe?aeueii-a?eiaeie eaoaai??yie; iaoeia? ioae?eaoe?? a/aieo c
e?a?i NIAe- O.A.Eenaeueiaa, TH.Ae.E?an?euei?eia, ?.A.Iia?eiaa,
A.N.I?eia, oa ?io?, ye? aeine?aeaeothoue i?iaeaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ca?oa?aeieo eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?aeo caeeaae?a ??ciiai oeio * Melvin M.K.
Oldest parks: Bakken still thriving after 412 years // Amusement
Business.-1996.- ? 9.-P.28 oa ?i.; Peterson Ch.A. Aquatic programming
for seniors //Park and recreation.- 1996.- ? 7.- P.16; O’Brien T. Club
Disney debuts soon// Amusement Business.-1996.- ?47.- P.19 oa ?i.;
Iiaeeiaa E.A. Nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneea e iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneea
i?iaeaiu i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa iiae?anoathuaai iieieaiey a NOA:
Iiiia?aoey.- NIa.: EAEE, 1992.- 214 n. oa ?i.; Eenaeaaa O.A.,
E?aneeueieeia TH.Ae. Iniiau nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie aeayoaeueiinoe.-
I.: Ecae-ai IAOE, 1995.- 135 n.

.

Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iei oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei aniaeoai i?aai?caoe??
aeica?eey a NOA i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?.A.Iia?eiai?, a yeiio
aeica?eey i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeineoue oe?ieiio
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?. Cie?aia, ?ice?eaathoueny ci?noiai?
aniaeoe nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo i?aee?oe?a o noa?? aeica?eey,
aecia/athoueny i?ia?aei? iai?yie ? i?eioeeie noeioethaaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
?ae?aaoe?eii-?icaeaath/? ooieoe?? aeica?eey.

Iaoeia? ioae?eaoe?? a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a, i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiai a?eueiiai
/ano oa iai?yi?a aaeineiiaeaiiy eiai no?oeoo?e, noa? eiai aeei?enoaiiy a
aeeoo? ethaeeie, a oaeiae niiaeeaaiith eoeueoo?e, ?icaaa, a?aeii/eieo,
?ae?aaoe?? nooi?nieo nee. (TH.E.Aoaianue?a, A.?.Aecthaa, ?.I.AEoeiaa,
A.?.Eeai?eia, ?.O.Iaaeieueiee, A.N.Iacaiie, I.I.Iiieaanueeee,
?.A.Oeaeiye, I.A.Naneoia, I.I.Oeeiaaethe oa ?i.) Iaeiae
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?io ae?yeuei?noue ia?e?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i o
a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ?ice?eoi o?aaiaioa?ii.

I?iaeaie ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa iaoeiaoeyie-ni?aa?o/ecieeaie
?ic?iaeythoueny ua iaaeinoaoiuei. sse na?ae/aoue ?aae?? nueiaiaeaiiy,
?nio? iaaiee aeao?oeeo i?ea?iaeueieo ?aeae, iiaeo eiioeaioe?e ? oai??e,
ye? iiaee a neoaoaaoe ae?iaeaiith no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee ?icaeoeo
a?o/eciyii? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino? acaaae?, ?? eiiiiiaioa —
ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e, — cie?aia. Oea cana?ae/o? iaoeiao aeooaeuei?noue ?
i?aeoe/io aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?ioean
eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? iia?oi?o nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoiaeee, no/anieo oaoiieia?e, c o?aooaaiiyi ?ae?aaoe?eieo iio?aa ??cieo
nioe?aeueieo oa a?eiaeo a?oi ianaeaiiy a oiiaao ia?eiaiai aeica?eey.
Iaoeiaa ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iaiiaeeeaa aac ciaiiy ieioeiai, aac iiaiai
inieneaiiy ? ia?ainieneaiiy a?o/eciyiiai, ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo, yeee,
ia aeaeue, aeiaai caiia/oaaany aai aena?oethaaany oia?aaeaeaii.

Aeinyaiaiith iinoaaeaii? iaoe i?aeii?yaeeiaaii aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ei?eaothoue oa aca?iiaeiiiaiththoue iaeei
iaeiiai:

— eiioaio-aiae?co eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo, nioe?ieia?/ieo,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo aeaea?ae c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy;

-i?iaeaiii-oaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a, ui aeicaieeei ae?noaoe
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ci?no, i?eioeeie, iniiai? iai?yie e
aeaee ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino? ii
i?aai?caoe?? ia?eiaiai aeica?eey;

— ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co ?noi??? ca?oa?aeieo ia?e?a; aea/aiiy ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ii? niaaeueie a?aeiieo a/aieo ieioeiai ?
no/aniino? c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie;

-ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo uiaei ?ioa?an?a, iio?aa,
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e ??cieo nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy
o noa?? ia?eiaiai aeica?eey;

— eiinoaooth/iai nioe?ieoeueoo?ieia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo, aei o/ano? a
yeiio aoei caeo/aii oao?aoe?a ia?eiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ia?e?a Oe?a?ie,
aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa,
nooaeaio?a AIC eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, a?aea?aeoaa/?a ia?e?a, ui
iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo oa?oiiaaiue ianaeaiiy,
ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aaoi?o aena?oeeoe e ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe no/aniee noai
ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?, ?ioaa?aoeai? i?ioeane, ui
i?iiecothoue on? i?ioa?ee nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy e?a?ie, ioiiethth/e
noa?o ia?eiaiai aeica?eey, oaiaeaioe?? aeeiai?ee icia/aii? aaeoc?,
ooi/ieoe iaoeiaa iiiyooy ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e, ye iaa?ae’?iii? /anoeie
nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ? a?aeii/eieo ianaeaiiy;

— i?iaiicoaaiiy ? iiaeaethaaiiy aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ui aeicaiey?
aeyaeyoe oa iaa?oioiaoaaoe eiiiiiaioiee neeaae nioe?ieoeueoo?ii?
ae?yeueiino?, nenoaie ?o iaoiaee/ii-i?aai?caoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaoi?ii aia?oa:

— aeyaeaii e iaa?oioiaaii eiiiiiaioiee neeaae nioe?ieoeueoo?ii?
ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a ca?oa?aeaey, nenoaie ?? iaoiaee/ii-i?aai?caoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy; i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaee i?aeo?ae aei i?aai?caoe?? ia?eiaiai
aeica?eey ??cieo nioe?aeueii-a?eiaeo a?oi a?aea?aeoaa/?a;

— ocaaaeueiaii e?eoa??? eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a oa
oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino?;

— c’yniaaii i?noea oa ?ieue ia?e?a ye nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo onoaiia a
iioei?caoe?? aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? a noni?euenoa?;

— iaa?oioiaaii nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oaeineiiaeaiiy ia?eiai?
?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ianaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia nenoaiiiio aiae?c? oa ocaaaeueiaii?
iaoiae?a ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey a ia?eao eoeueoo?e ? a?aeii/eieo
e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie oa NOA.

Caeo/aiee aei aiae?co iaoa??ae i?noeoue eiie?aoio ? ei?enio
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ae?yeuei?noue ia?e?a eoeueoo?e oa a?aeii/eieo a
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy, ui iiaea aooe oai?/i
aeei?enoaii o a?o/eciyiiio ia?eiaoae?aieoeoa?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oiooaaii?, ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? a i?aeoeeo iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano ia aeaii?e, cai/i?e oa aenoa?iaoi?e oi?i? iaa/aiiy Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa aeenoeeie?ie “Ia?ee:
oai??y, iaoiaeeea oa i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe”; ae?iaeaii?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iie?ioaiiy i?aai?caoe??
ia?eiai? ni?aae a Oe?a?i?. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii, ocaaaeueiaii ?
i?aaenoaaeaii iia? iiaeae?, oi?ie, iaoiaee ?iaioe ia?e?a eoeueoo?e ?
a?aeii/eieo a caeaaeiino? a?ae nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? oa
i?noey ?o ae?yeueiino?.

Aiae?oeei-neioaoe/iee iaeyae cia/ii? e?eueeino? iaei a?aeiieo a Oe?a?i?
aeaea?ae, i?enay/aieo oe?e oai? ? i?aaenoaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe??,
oiiaeeeaeth? aeei?enoaiiy ?o ia eeoa c iaoeiaith, a ? c
iaoiaeieia?/iith, i?aeoe/iith iaoith. A aeine?aeaeaii?, cie?aia:

— ?ice?eoi oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai?
ae?yeueiino? oa oaoiieia?? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ??cieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy a
ca?oa?aeieo ia?eao e aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e aeica?ee?a?e i?aeoeoe? ca?oa?aeiiai
aeina?aeo a i?aai?caoe?? a?eueiiai /ano a oiiaao ia?eiaiai aeica?eey;

— ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey a ia?eao oa
aea?aaeaioieo ?i caeeaaeao NOA e e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie;

— iae?aneaii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai?
ae?yeueiino? oa ?ice?eoi oaoiieia?? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ??cieo
eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy;

— ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey a ia?eao oa
aea?aaeaioieo ?i caeeaaeao NOA e e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie e cai?iaaaeaeaii
a iaa/aeuei? eo?ne Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa a aeenoeeie?iao eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?aiai oeeeeo, cie?aia
oaeeo, ye: “Eiioeaioe?y i?ioan?eii? i???ioaoe??”,
“Eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?aa ae?yeuei?noue a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao”, “Ia?ee:
oai??y, iaoiaeeea oa i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe”.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a ooi/iaii? ? eia?/iiio iiyniaii?
iiiyooy ”ia?eiaa eoeueoo?a”, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue: ?icaeyaeaoe ia?ee
ie?aii? e?a?ie a eaoaai??yo o?aaeeoe?e, iaaeaaiue, oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
oa aca?iiiai aieeao caaaeueiina?oiai? ia?eiai? nenoaie; ocaaaeueieoe
eiie?aoii iaoe?iiaeueiee caeiaooie a oe?e nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?e noa??
c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee iaoe?iiaeueieo ? aoi?/ieo oe?iiinoae, cae/a?a
oa o?aaeeoe?e; oai?aoe/ii inieneeoe e i?aeoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iie?ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue ia?e?a a iaaeao eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai?
no?oeoo?e eiie?aoii? ni?eueiioe caaeey caaeia?eueiaiiy iio?aa,
?aae?caoe?? ?ioa?an?a oa a?aeiiaeaiiy nooi?nieo nee eiaeiiai ?iaeea?aea.

A??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iei
iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe??, oe?eani?yiiaaiei
canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno aca?iiae?th/eo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aaeaeaaoieo i?aaeiaoo, caaaeaiiyi ? iao? aeena?oaoe??; iaoeiaei aiae?cii
iaea?aeaiiai a i?ioean? ?iaioe aeine?aeieoeueeiai iaoa??aeo.

Ai?iaaoe?th aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniaii: oeyoii ioae?eaoe??
iaoa??ae?a, iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo oa
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo; o oi?i? aeiiia?aeae, aenooi?a,
iia?aeiieaiue ia Anaoe?a?inueeeo, caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueeeo
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (Anaoe?a?inueea
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy
ae?oae oa o/i?anueei? iieiae?” 13-14 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.); ai?iaaaeaeaii
aaoi?neee i?io?e?ciaaiee niaoeeo?n “Ia?ee: oai??y, iaoiaeeea ?
i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe” aeey nooaeaio?a Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa (aeia?aeea i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? 7
a?ae 30.06.1999 ?ieo).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 7 iaeiiin?aieo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeii?yaeeiaaia iao? oa caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue eia?eo iaoeiaiai iiooeo oa ia?aiao?e
?ic?iaee oaie. Aeena?oaoe?y ianyaii 188 n. neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
(270 iaeiaioaaiue, 60 c ieo – ?iicaiiith iiaith), 5 aeiaeaoe?a. O
a?aeiia?aeiino? c iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy a eiaeiiio
?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny iiaiee ia?ae?e ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c oaiith
aeena?oaoe??.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/a?oueny nooi?iue ?? ?ic?iaeaiino?, iaoeiaa iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ?ice?eaathoueny ?? iaoiaeieia?/i? oa
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aeia?aaeaii
iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a, a??ia?aei?noue, ai?iaaoe?th oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a o ia?eiao ni?aao ? i?aeoeeo aeui? oeiee.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/i? oiiae noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e” ?ice?eaathoueny ?noi?e/i? ianoaaeie
noaiiaeaiiy oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e ye
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai yaeua o caaaeueiiio eiioaeno? aaiethoe??
noni?euenoaa.

Aaoi?ii ?icaeyiooi e aeiaaaeaii, ui a eiioaeno? aoiai?noe/ieo
?aoi?iaoe?e noni?euenoaa aaeineiiaeth?oueny ae?yeuei?noue iniiaieo
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo ?inoeooo?a, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue ia?ee oa
aea?aaeaioi? ?i caeeaaee. Iaea?eueoiai oni?oo aeinyaee o? e?a?ie,
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia noa?a yeeo ia? o oe?e ni?aa? aenie? aaeaioeai?
iiaeeeaino?, ? iaeneiaeueii aeeth/aiith o ?ica`ycaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai, aenooia? ye naiino?eia noa?a
i?aai?caoe?? ethaenueeiai aoooy oa niaoeeo?/iee niin?a ?aaaia?aoe?? nee
ethaeeie.

A i?ia?aie ae?yeueiino? ca?oa?aeieo ia?e?a, cie?aia, — no?aoaa?th ?o
aieeao ia a?aea?aeoaa/?a, aianaii i?eioeeiia? ci?ie, iaoith yeeo ?
ei?aaoaaiiy, ?aaoethaaiiy iiaaae?ieiai? aeoeaiino? a?aea?aeoaa/?a, ui
ia? ia eeoa ?i?oe?thaaoeny i?yiei aieeaii /a?ac noa`?eo-ia`?eoi?
a?aeiineie ??ciiai ?iaeo caoiaeaie (i?ina?oieoeueeeie, ?ae?aaoe?eieie
oiui), a e /a?ac a?coaeueio i?aai?caoe?th ia?eiaiai na?aaeiaeua, eiai
??cieo oaiaoe/ieo cii. I?e oeueiio no?eaeiai i?aai?caoe?? oaei?
aeoeaiino? noa? noai?aiiy oiia aeey caaeiaieaiiy eiaeiith iniaeno?noth
nai?o iio?aa — ?ae?aaoe?eieo, icaei?ia/eo, eiioi?eaoeaieo,
?ioi?iaoe?eieo, anoaoe/ieo oiui.

Ia oe? ?noi?e/ii? aaiethoe?? ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e aaoi?ii e?eoe/ii
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? iaoeia? eiioeaioe?? i?aai?caoe?? oe??? noa?e.
Ia iniia? aiae?co i?aoeue O.Aaeaooa, A.I.Aineiaiei?eiaa, A.O.Aec?iaa oa
?i Aaeeao O. Iaoeeiiaeueiua ia?ee: o?oaeiue auai? //Eo?uea? THIANEI.-
1994.- ? 6.- N.23-25; Aineiaieieeia A.I.Aicieeiiaaiea ia?eia eoeueoo?u
e ioaeuoa a NNN?.- I., 1977.- 32 n. e ae?.; Aeceia A.O. Iiaeaee?iaaiea
i?ioeanna eioaa?aoeee nioeeaeueiiai e iaaeaaiae/aneiai iioaioeeaea a
ia?ea eoeueoo?u e ioaeuoa.- I.: IAOE, 1997.- 26 n. , i?enay/aieo
aeine?aeaeaiith ia?e?a, a?aecia/aii, ui a no/ani?e nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e
na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?, ?nio? /eiaei iaaaeueieo i?iaeai ? i?ioe??/, ui
iio?aaothoue ?ica’ycaiiy, cie?aia:

— i?ioe??//y i?ae aeiaaeueiei oa eieaeueiei: iai?ee?ioe? oeny/ie?ooy
ethaee noathoue a?eueoith i??ith a?iiaaeyiaie i?aeia?iaeiiai nioe?oio,
niiaeeaa/aie oi?aa?naeueieo eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue oa iiaiooai?aiue
oeea?e?caoe??, oiio ye iaaaeia iinoa? i?iaeaia ia ao?aoeoe ei??iiy
aeaniiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ia iaieiaoe nai?th o/anoth aeeooy iaoe?? oa
ni?eueiioe;

— i?ioe??//y i?ae oe?eei oa /anoeiaei: eoeueoo?a aeaaeae? iaaoaa? ana
a?eueo caaaeueiina?oiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ? aiaeii/an caa??aa? /anoeia?noue,
?nio? iaiao?aei?noue iai’yoaoe i?i oi?eaeuei?noue eiaeii? iniaenoino?,
i?i aieaaeyaeaiiy iae?aoe aeanio aeieth ? ?aae?ciaoaaoe iniaenoee
iioaioe?ae a?aeiia?aeii aei oe?iiinoae, i?aeo?eioaaieo o?aaeeoe?yie ?
aeaniith eoeueoo?ith;

— i?ioe??//y i?ae o?aaeeoe??th ? no/ani?noth, ?ica’ycaiiy yeiai iio?aao?
aaeaioaoe?? aei no/anieo oaii?a ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa
iio?aeieo a?ae ieo i?ioean?a, aiaeii/an caa??aath/e ?nioth/o
nioe?ieoeueoo?io niaaeueio a oi?eaeuei?e ?aeiino? ?? neeaaeiaeo;

— i?ioe??//y i?ae ?ioaineaiei ?icaeoeii nenoaie ciaiue ? iiaeeea?noth
iniaenoino? ?? ni?eeiaoe, o aeieaii? inoaiiueiai nioe?ieoeueoo?i?
?inoeoooe aenooiathoue ia eeoa ye onoaiiae aeey noai?aiiy, caa?aaeaiiy
oa aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai aeina?aeo ethaenoaa, aea e ye caeeaaee
aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy aeeoo?oai?/eo nee eiaeii? ie?aii? iniaenoino?;

— iaea?/ia i?ioe??//y aeooiaiiai ? iaoa??aeueiiai – a ia??iae
caaaeueiina?oiaiai ia?aoiaeo aei ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ia?aaeeaie, a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiioaeno? — aei ?icaoaeiae iiaeo i?eioeei?a
i?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa ia?aae eoeueoo?ith acaaae?,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oieoeueeeie onoaiiaaie, cie?aia iinoa? caaaeaiiy ieaeaoe
na?aeii?noue oa ?ioaeaeo eiaeii? iniaenoino? a aeon? oi?aa?naeueieo
oe?iiinoae ? naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, iaa/aoe iiaaaeaoe i?eioeeie ieth?ae?cio
? oiea?aioiino?, ia c?aaeaeoth/e, aiaeii/an, aeani? oe?iiino? ?
ia?aeiiaiiy.

— iio?aeiei a?ae iiia?aaei?o aenooia? i?ioe??//y i?ae no/anieie
oaoiieia?yie i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey oa iaai?iiyi ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy a?eueiiai /ano, oiaoi iecueeith “aeica?ee?aith eoeueoo?ith”
ianaeaiiy.

?nioth/? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ia?e?a eoeueoo?e ? a?aeii/eieo cana?ae/othoue
iaiao?aei?noue ?o eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy oa ?ica`ycaiiy, ine?eueee
ieoaiiy iiieoo e niiaeeaaiiy ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e a iao?e e?a?i? aein?
caeeoathoueny iaei aeine?aeaeaieie.

A?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe? nueiaiaeaiiy a?aeo? eiie?aoieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i
iio?aae ethaeeie a ?ae?aaoe?eiiio i?inoi??, i?i aoaeoeai?noue aieeao ia
iniaeno?noue ye ia?eiaiai na?aaeiaeua a oe?eiio, oae ? noeoii?noue eiai
eiiiiiaio?a — ooieoe?iiaeueieo, ci?noiaieo, ae?yeuei?nieo oiui.

sse ie?aiee iai?yiie aaeineiiaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?e?a a
caaaeueii-na?oiaiio oa a?o/eciyiiio eiioaeno?, a aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyaea?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ?icoe?aiiy oa o??ciiiai?oiaiiy iiaeaeae
ae?yeueiino? c oe?eeii iaaieie nioe?aeueieie eaoaai??yie ianaeaiiy —
cie?aia iieiaeaeth oa i?aee?oeaie c a?aeieo eaa?oae?a, ethaeueie
iioeeiai a?eo, c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, ina?oiueiai
??aiy ? o.ae.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?inoaaeothoueny iniiai? aoaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e a?ae ?aiiueiai na?aaeiueia?//y aei oaia??oi?o /an?a o
?icia?oo? ?nioth/eo oei?a oa i?aeoiae?a aei ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo e ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo,
?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieoeueoo?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aei o/ano? a yeiio
aoee caeo/ai? i?aaenoaaieee oaeeo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy, ye-oi: —
a?aea?aeoaa/? ia?e?a, oao?aoe? ia?eiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, aeeeaaea/? ?
nooaeaioe ??cieo oi?i iaa/aiiy AIC eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa (caaaeueia
e?euee?noue iieoaieo 385 in?a), — aeicaieeei aaoi?ia? aecia/eoe ia?eiao
eoeueoo?o ye iaa?ae’?iio /anoeio nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ?
a?aeii/eieo ianaeaiiy, o?nii iia’ycaio c caaaeueieie i?ioeanaie
eoeueoo?e ? nioe?aeueiei aeeooyi noni?euenoaa, oa aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe eiai
a?ae iiiyooy ”eoeueoo?a ia?eo”, yea iaiaei?iii aeeth/a? a naaa
oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?niiai ia?aco ia?eo a ?aeiino? eiai
ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo, aeieia?/ieo ?
?ae?aaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a. sse nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieia?/ia eaoaai??y,
”ia?eiaa eoeueoo?a” oi?io?oueny ia iniia? aca?iica’yceo “i?e?iaeieo” ?
eoeueoo?ieo, na?aaeiaeuieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?eiaiai
i?inoi?o.

Oaeei /eiii, ia?ee a oe?eiio ? aaaeeeaei nioe?aeueiei ? eoeueoo?iei
oaeoi?ii aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa, ia?eiaa eoeueoo?a — cia/ouei
?iaeeeaoi?ii niiniao aeeooy a eiai ye?niiio ??ai?.

Ia oe?ieiio oaeoieia?/iiio ? aiae?oe/iiio iaoa??ae? ?icaeyaea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea no/anieo oei?a ia?e?a.

Oeie ia?e?a ?ic??ciythoueny ca ni?yiiaai?noth ci?noo oa nai???aei?noth
iaoiae?a ae?yeueiino?. Caeaaeii a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy,
?noi?e/ieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e, i?e?iaeieo ? oa?eoi??aeueieo
oiia neeaeeny ??ciiaeaee ia?e?a a ?o ”/enoiio” aai ”ci?oaiiio” aeaeyae?.
*a?ac oea a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? iaeei ? oie naia ia?e a ??cieo
aeaea?aeao ?iiae? iaaoaa? ??ciiai aecia/aiiy c oi/ee ci?o oeiieia??.
Ocaaaeueiaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aeicaiey? ie?aneeoe oae? iniiai? oeie
ia?e?a:

— iaoe?iiaeuei? ia?ee, iniiaiei i?ecia/aiiyi eio?eo caeeoa?oueny caoeno
oei?e ? oaoie, aea iaeii/an c aeoea?caoe??th oo?ecio aeieeei aaeeea
?icia?ooy ?ae?aaoeaieo, eoeueoo?ieo, ina?oi?o aeae?a ae?yeueiino?;

— eaiaeoaooi?, i?e?iaei?, ye? iathoue iaeaeaai?oo ?noi??th, i?ioa
caeeoathoueny e nueiaiaei? iiioey?ieie iaeaea a on?o e?a?iao na?oo;

— aeaaia?ee — oeaio?e aeica?eey c ?icoe?aieie ooieoe?yie ? iia?oi?ie
oaoiieia?yie, ui caaacia/othoue ??ci? iiaeeeaino? aeey a?aeii/eieo,
icaei?iaeaiiy oa ?icaaa;

— iaeyaeia? ia?ee (“E?a?ie a i?i?aoth??”), ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? ?
eoeueoo?ii-aoiia?ao?/i? ioca? i?ae a?aee?eoei iaaii, ui iaaeathoue
iiaeeeaino? noai?eoe oyaeaiiy i?i anth e?a?io aai ?? /anoeo;

— ia?ee ao?aeoe?ii?a, aea no/ania eiioeaioe?y cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e ni?yiiaaia ia aeooiaia oa o?ce/ia caaaa/aiiy, ci?oeiaiiy,
icaei?iaeaiiy ethaeeie, ni?ey? ?ici?ciaiith e ?icaeoeo iniaeno?nieo
oai?/eo, ooaeiaei?o e ?ioeo iaaea?oaaiue;

— n?euenuee? ia?ee, ui ni?eythoue ceeooth eoeueoo?iiai, nioe?aeueiiai ?
a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy oeyoii ia?aianaiiy eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino? “ia
ciai?”;

— oaiaoe/i?, a ae?yeueiino? yeeo iaaoaathoue aeyaeaiiy oae? no/ani?
oaiaeaioe??, ye ni?eyiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio ?icaeoeia? caniaaie
?ioaa?aoe?? ianiai? (caaaeueiiaeinooiii?) oa aeniei? (ae?oa?ii?)
eoeueoo?e.

O aeniiaeao aei ia?oiai ?icae?eo a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ye a no/ani?e
oai??? eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, oae ? aaciina?aaeiuei a
?? i?aeoeoe? oe?eani?yiiaaii aeiea?oueny noa?aioeiia oyaeaiiy uiaei
ia?e?a ye ina?aaee?a ianeaiiai aeica?eey ? ?icaaa. Iaaoaa?
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?y ianooio oo?enoe/ii? ?iaeono??? ia an?
oeie ia?e?a. Iie?ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a ni?yiiao?oueny
ia aeoea?caoe?th aeooiaieo eiioaeo?a oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oii?,
oe?eani?yiiaaii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe c aeei?enoaiiyi iia?oi?o no/anieo
oaoiieia?e

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Iniaeeaino?
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? nenoaie a ia?eia?e eoeueoo?? ca?oa?aeaey”
?ice?eaathoueny i?eioeeie, ooieoe?? ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a ye
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo nenoai. ?icaeyaea?oueny ?ioaa?aoeaia iiaeaeue
ia?eiaiai aeica?eey / ia ??ai? eiiieaeniiai ia?eo aeenia?anueeiai oeio ?
ia ??ai? aaeocae: ia?eiai?, oo?enoe/ii?, ?icaaaeaeueii? ?iaeono??? /.

Aecia/aii nooue iiiyooy “ia?e ye nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia nenoaia” ?
?icaeyiooi ?? eiiiiiaioe, a naia: i?eioeeie ia?eiai? ae?yeueiino?,
iai?yie ooieoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino?, caaacia/aiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo a i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a. C oi/ee ci?o nioe?aeueii?
“ia?e” yaey? niaith neieie noni?euenoaa, ae?th/o e iai/io iiaeaeue oiai
noni?euenoaa, a yeiio a?i ooai?aiee, c iaioth/eie a iueiio
aca?iia?aeiioaiiyie ethaeae oa ?oi?i noaaeaiiyi aei i?e?iaee. C oi/ee
ci?o nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? “ia?e” – oea ianaiia?aae ?ae?aaoeaia,
?aaa?e?oaoe?eia oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy onoaiiaa, yea cae?enith? nai?
i?ecia/aiiy a oiiaao aenieiooaeiaeiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua,
aeei?enoiaoth/e nai???aei?, ineoioa?aiaaoe/i? oa aeeaeaeoe/i? caniae c
o?aooaaiiyi eiie?aoieo iniaeeainoae eiioeiaaioo a?aea?aeoaa/?a.

Nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaia ae?yeuei?noue ia?e?a aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy
oe?ii?nii? i???ioaoe?? iniaenoino?, ia noai a?iiaaenueei? aeoeaiino?
ethaeae, oa?aeoa? ?o a?aeiinei a nioe?oi?.

Ia?eiaa nenoaia caniiaaia ia i?eioeeiao aoiai?cio, aeii?iaioieo
ethaenueeeo oe?iiinoyo, iaoeiaino?, nenoaiiiai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo, e?aaoeaiino?.

Aei iniiaieo no/anieo ooieoe?e ia?e?a iaeaaeaoue:

— ?ae?aaoeaii-icaei?ia/a, ui ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeoai?aiiy o?ce/ieo oa
ineo?/ieo nee ethaeeie, i?aeo?eieo oa ci?oeiaiiy ?? caei?ia’y,
iioei?caoe?th naiiii/oooy ??cieie caniaaie a?aeiia?aeii? i?aai?caoe??
ia?eiaiai i?inoi?o;

— eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueea, ni?yiiaaia ia i?aai?caoe?th o ia?eao
??cieo aeae?a eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino? a?aea?aeoaa/?a, i?eeo/aiiy ?o aei
aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, cie?aia ienoaoeueeeo, c aeei?enoaiiyi oaeeo oi?i
? iaoiae?a, ye i?acaioaoe??, aenoaaee, eaeoe??, aeiiia?ae?,
eiinoeueoaoe??, a?aea?aeoaaiiy /eoaeaiue, e?ii, a?aeainaeii?a;

— ?icaaaeaeueia, ui ia?aaeaa/a? i?aai?caoe?th ?icaaa aeey a?aea?aeoaa/?a
c o?aooaaiiyi ??cieo a?eiaeo eaoaai??e; ?? ?aae?caoe?? neoaeaoue
/eneaii? caeeaaee oa i?eno?i? ia oa?eoi??? ia?eo (ao?aeoe?iie, a?aeuei?
aaoiiaoe, ?anoi?aie, aa?e — a?euey?aei? oiui);

— eiioi?eaoeaia, a ci?no yei? iieeaaeaii aaeineiiaeaiiy ai?iue ?
iaae/ie ni?eeoaaiiy, ui ? iaiao?aeiei eiiiiiaioii nioe?ae?caoe??
iniaenoino?; oey ooieoe?y cae?enith?oueny oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy ??cieo
caoiae?a, iieeeeaieo noeioethaaoe noai?aiiy iaeni?eyoeea?oeo oiia aeey
ni?eeoaaiiy ethaeae, ui iathoue ??ci? oiiaeiaaiiy e ?ioa?ane;

— aeieia?/ia, ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e
ianaeaiiy; ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii neioaoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo o oi?ioaaii?
aeieia?/ieo, aoe/ieo oa anoaoe/ieo oe?iiinoae ? iio?aao? a?ae
ia?eioii?yaeiee?a aeiao?aeeeaino? oa ii/oooy niaeo i?e icaeiaeaii?
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ciaiiy caeii?a naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa
c iaoith caaeiaieaiiy ? ?icaeoeo anoaoe/ieo iio?aa ethaeeie, ??
aeooiaiiai caaaa/aiiy.

C ?i?oe?aoeae aeaeaoieo a?o?oaeoi??a oa oao?aoe?a c o?aai?noe/ii?
i?iaiinoeee aoiaeyoue a i?aeoeeo ua oae? ooieoe??, ye
nai?oa?ii-icaei?ia/a ? i?noioi?ioth/a.

Inoaii?i /anii a i?aeoeoe? ca?oa?aeieo ia?e?a niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae
iineeaiiy oaaae aei nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo ooieoe?e. O?eaa? iiooe iiaeo
iaoiae?a, oi?i ? iai?yi?a ?iaioe c ae?oueie, i?aee?oeaie, iieiaeaeth,
?iaae?aeaie, ethaeueie iioeeiai a?eo, ?ii?a?aioaie; a aeena?oaoe??
aeaoaeueii ?ice?eaathoueny canaaee, aeina?ae i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaeo,
nioe?aeueii- oa aeaiia?ao?/ii- aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo,
iniaeno?nii-i???ioiaaieo i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? ia?eiai?
ae?yeueiino? na?aae ??cieo nioe?aeueii-a?eiaeo a?oi ianaeaiiy.

A ?iaio? aeyaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii eiiiiiaioiee neeaae nioe?ieoeueoo?ii?
ae?yeueiino? no/anieo ia?e?a ca?oa?aeaey, nenoaie ?? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai,
iaoiaee/iiai, oi?aae?inueeiai, iaoa??aeueiiai, oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy,
?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee eaae??a aeey ia?e?a, cie?aia a
NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?aioe??, ssiii??.

O i?aenoieo aei ae?oaiai ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui na?oiaee
aeina?ae ia?eiai? ae?yeueiino? na?ae/eoue i?i oaiaeaioe?th iineeaiiy
iiooeo aeoeaieo oi?i a?aeii/eieo, iiaeeaeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ia?eiai?
?iaioe c a?aooaaiiyi caieo?a ? ?ioa?an?a ??cieo a?oi a?aea?aeoaa/?a.

O aeniiaeao aeeeaaeaii iniiai? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i? i?aenoiee
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo aniaeo?a i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a
a e?a?iao ca?oa?aeaey.

Nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee ? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e aeicaieeee iaa?oiooaaoe
iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aeina?ae ?iaioe ca?oa?aeieo ia?e?a ia? ia o?eueee
?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueia cia/aiiy, a?i aaaeeeaee ? c oi/ee ci?o iiaeeeaino?
oa aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy anueiai oe?iiiai, iaaooiai a na?o?. A
aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny ei?eni?noue aeey ia?niaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo
ia?eiai? aaeoc? a Oe?a?i?; ocaaaeueiaiiy, aea/aiiy aeina?aeo
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, aaeaioaoe?y eiai aei eiie?aoieo a?o/eciyieo oiia,
cie?aia oiai, ui ni?eyoeia aaeineiiaeaiith aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a aaeoc?
eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai?, eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Aaaeeeaei oai?aoe/iei i?aenoieii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy
ci?noiaii? ? no?oeoo?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e; aecia/aiiy
i?noey ? ?ie? ia?e?a a nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e noa??; aeyaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo aniaeo?a ?o ae?yeueiino? ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo;
iaa?oiooaaiiy oeiieia?? ia?e?a ye i??i?eoaoieo iie?ooieoe?iiaeueieo
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ?inoeoooe?e; aeieeaaeiee aiae?c ci?noo, i?eioeei?a,
ooieoe?e, iai?yie?a, oaoiieia?e, iiaeaeae eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei?,
aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? ??cieo oei?a ia?e?a oa ?ae?aaoe?eieo cii.

A aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ??cieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy a
ia?eao e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? NOA, aeyaeaii ? iaa?oioiaaii
nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i?, eoeueoo?i? oa iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a c i???ioaoe??th ia caaeiaieaiiy
aeica?ee?aeo iio?aa ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy.

Aaaaoianiaeoiee aiae?c iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo, i?aeoe/ieo
aeaea?ae c i?iaeai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? aeyaeoe ?nioth/?
noia?a/iino? a no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e ia?eia?e aeica?ee?a?e ae?yeueiino?
oa iiaeeea?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oiai iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo, ui
iaeiie/aiee a o?aaeeoe?yo ? i?aeoeoe? ca?oa?aeii? ia?eiai? ae?yeueiino?,
i?eaeaoiiai aeey o?ainoi?ioaaiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?nioth/eie
nioe?aeueieie, aeiiii?/ieie, aoi?/ieie, eoeueoo?ieie, aeieia?/ieie
oiiaaie iaoi? e?a?ie. Aeyaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii eiiiiiaioiee neeaae
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino? e?aueo ca?oa?aeieo ia?e?a, nenoaie ?o
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai, iaoiaee/iiai, i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeiai,
iaoa??aeueiiai, oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy; i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaiai,
nioe?aeueii oa aeaiia?ao?/ii aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai,
iniaeno?nii-i???ioiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? ia?eiai?
ae?yeueiino? na?aae ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii no?ee? caeiiii??iino?:

— ia?ee, a oe?eiio ia?eiaa eoeueoo?a — aaaeeeaee aeooiaiee, nioe?aeueiee
? eoeueoo?iee oaeoi? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa, cia/ouee
?iaeeeaoi? niiniao aeeooy, a yeiio caaeiaieueiythoueny ??ciiiai?oi?
iio?aae a?aea?aeoaa/?a;

— ia?e yaey? niaith oaeee oei nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo caeeaae?a,
iieeeeaieo i?aai?ciaoaaoe aeei?enoaiiy a?eueiiai /ano, yeee iine?aeiaii
?icoe?th? nai? ianooaae, caaaeyee /iio iaci?iii c?inoa? ?ioa?an
ianaeaiiy aei eiai ae?yeueiino?, ui ia? cia/iee nioe?ieoeueoo?iee aoaeo.
A aaeoc? eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino?, i?aai?caoe?? eoeueoo?iiai
a?aeii/eieo ? ?icaaa ia?ee iin?aeathoue o no/aniiio na?o? iaeia c
i?ia?aeieo i?noeue ? ? e?aea?aie a i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey ia
eiia?oe?eieo canaaeao;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?ee eoeueoo?e ? a?aeii/eieo, ye ? ?io? ?o oeie,
ii?aeiothoue a nia? ??ci? oi?ie eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei?, anoaoe/ii?,
ooaeiaeiuei?, aeieia?/ii?, i?ciaaaeueii? oa ?icaaaeaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
a ia?eiaee i?ino?? noa? iiaooi?i caniaii aeoiaaiiy ? iaa/aiiy,
i?iaoaeaeaiiy ?ioa?ano, aeoea?caoe?? o?ce/ieo ? aeooiaieo nee ethaeeie;

— iineeth?oueny o na?o? oaiaeaioe?y iiooeo aeoeaieo oi?i aeica?eey, a
oaeiae aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ia?eiai? ?iaioe c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioa?an?a ?
caieo?a ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy;

— caiice/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo noa? oe?iiei eeoa ca oiia
?icoiiiai, ?aae?noe/iiai, caaaeaiiai i?aeoiaeo, ai aeina?ae
eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? eiaeii? e?a?ie caeaaeeoue a?ae ??
aeiiii?/iiai noaio, iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?, nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee,
iniaeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueiiai na?oini?eeiaiiy, cae/a?a ? o?aaeeoe?e oa
aaaaoueio ?ioeo oaeoi??a.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo a aeine?aeaeaii? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, aiae?co
i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaaii iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee;
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ii??aiyeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe??
aeica?eey a ia?eao ca?oa?aeaey. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
noiniaii i?aai?caoe?? ia?eiaiai aeica?eey a oiiaao iaoi? e?a?ie ia aac?
iiceoeaieo aeaiaio?a a ca?oa?aei?e oai??? ? i?aeoeoe?.

Ie??i i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c iio?aaith iiooeo ??cieo aeaea?ae
o?iainoaaiiy ia?e?a, eaeaoueny oaeiae i?i iaiao?aei?noue cae?eniaiiy
eiie?aoieo caoiae?a ii ?icoe?aiith ani?oeiaioo oa i?aeaeuaiith yeino?
i?iiiiiaaieo ia?eaie iineoa, ye? a a?aeiia?aeaee ia eeoa no/aniiio
??aith aeooiaieo iio?aa a?aea?aeoaa/?a, a e ni?eyee iiceoeaiiio ?o
oi?ioaaiith. ?ica’ycaiith cacia/aieo i?iaeai iiaea iineoaeeoe aiae?c,
aea/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai, i?aeoe/iiai, iaoiaee/iiai
aeina?aeo, ?aoe?iiaeueia caiice/aiiy oe?iiiai, ui iaeiie/aii a ia?eia?e
ae?yeueiino? ca?oa?aeaey.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
iie?ioaiiy a?o/eciyii? ia?eiai? ae?yeueiino?. Iniiai? c ieo:

— aaeineiiaeeoe no?oeoo?o eii?aeeiaoe?? e oi?aae?iiy ia?eaie ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? i?noeaaiio ??aiyo aeaaeieo no?oeoo? oa a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e;

-iioei?coaaoe iaoiaeeeo ocaaaeueiaiiy ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia?aaeiaiai
aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? ??ciiai oeio ia?e?a, a oaeiae aea/aiiy no/anieo
oaiaeaioe?e ia?eiaoae?aieoeoaa;

-aecia/eoe iai?yie aeiaaino?ieiai? iie?oeee noai?aiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
ia?e?a c o?aooaaiiyi i?noeaaeo, ?aa?iiaeueieo, eoeueoo?ieo,
iaoe?iiaeueieo, i?e?iaeieo oa ?ioeo iniaeeainoae;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?eioeeiiai iiao eiioeaioe?th — iiaeaeue a?o/eciyiiai ia?eo
? eiai i?ia?ai, aeoiaey/e c no/anieo aeiia ?o ooieoe?iiaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oa nioe?aeueii? nooiino?;

-aecia/eoe i?eioeeie o?iainoaaiiy ia?eiaeo onoaiia, ia iniia? ii?aeiaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai ? i?eaaoieo aeaea?ae, eii?aeeiaoe?? coneeue aea?aeaaieo,
eiia?oe?eieo, a?iiaaenueeeo no?oeoo? aeey ni?eueiiai ?ica’ycaiiy
caaaeueieo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ia?eiaoae?aieoeoaa;

-?ic?iaeoe oeiia? oaoiieia?? neeaaeaiiy a?cian-ieaio a ae?yeueiino?
ia?eo; cai?iaaaeeoe i?eioeeie aeei?enoaiiy a?cian-ieaio ye iaoiaeo
i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? ia?eo ii caeo/aiith ?iaanoi??a, aeaaiae?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e, niiini?nueeeo eioo?a;

-cai?iaaaeeoe niaoe?aeueia iaoeiai-iiioey?ia ae?oeiaaia aeaeaiiy aeey
aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai oai???, i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo ia?eiai? ae?yeueiino?;

-iiaeaaaeoe ?icaaaeaeueio ooieoe?th ia?e?a ca ?aooiie
niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee a?aeiia?aeieo eaae??a ?ic?iaiee?a ?
?aae?caoi??a ianiaeo ?a?iaeo i?ia?ai, eiieo?n?a, ciaaaiue, a?eoi?ei.

Nenoaia o?iainoaaiiy iio?aao? aeiei??iieo ci?i. Iia? aea?aeaai?
i?ia?aie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue iiaii? /e
/anoeiai? i?eaaoecaoe?? ia?eiaeo ia’?eo?a, a ia iniia? oeueiai —
iiaeieaiiy ?ic?eao i?ae iiieoii, oe?ii?nieie i???ioaoe?yie,
aiiaeiaaiiyie, ?ioa?anaie iniaenoino? ? i?iiiceoe?yie; ci?noii ia?eiai?
?iaioe, ?? oaoiieia?yie, ye? a?aenoathoue a?ae ia?aaoaeia/eo i?ioean?a
a noni?euenoa?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii a
oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Eii??anueea I.?. Nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y ?iaae?ae?a //
Iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea. — 1999.- ? 3 (19).- N. 78-81.

2. Eii??anueea I.?. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe i?aai?caoe??
aeica?eey iieiae? a ia?eia?e nenoai? ca?oa?aeaey // Nioe?ae?caoe?y
iniaenoino?: I?aeeaoaae?aeueiee ca. iaoe. noaoae ca caa. ?aae.
A.E.Eainueei?.- Aei.3.- E.: IIO, 1999. — N. 42-51.

3. Eii??anueea I.?. Nioe?aeueia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo a
ia?eia?e nenoai? ca?oa?aeaey // Iaoea ? no/ani?noue: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. –
*.3.- E., 1999. – N. 107-115.

4. Eii??anueea I.?. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe aeica?ee?ai?
ae?yeueiino? ca?oa?aeieo ia?e?a // Oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie
aeoiaaiiy ae?oae oa o/i?anueei? iieiae?: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. — *. 2. —
E.: Iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea, 1999. – N. 316 – 322.

5. Eii??anueea I.?. Ia?eiaa eoeueoo?a ye nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia
nenoaia a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao ca?oa?aeaey // Ca??iee
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a. — E.: ?ioi?i. oeaio? c ieoaiue
eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoaa i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e Ia?eaiaionuee?e a?ae?ioaoe?,
1998. — 48 n.

6. Eii??anueea I.?. Noai iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai aeica?eey
ia?eiai? ae?yeueiino? (ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae) // No/ani? i?iaeaie
aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino?.- Aei 1.- E.: EAeOE?I., 1997. — N. 166 — 171.

7. Eii??anueea I.?. Iiaee oei oaiaoe/iiai ia?eo // Ca??iee
nooaeaionueeeo iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a. — Aei. 9. — E., 1997. — N.
31-33.

Aiioaoe?y

Eii??anueea Ieueaa ?aoa?e?aia. Nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? aniaeoe
i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? ia?e?a a e?a?iao ca?oa?aeaey. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ?c niaoe?aeueiino? 13.00.06 — oai??y, iaoiaeeea ? i?aai?caoe?y
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?. Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, i. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aecia/aiith ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia
noaiiaeaiiy ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e ye nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? nenoaie, ??
no/aniee noai, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo; aeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy iiiyooy
“ia?eiai? eoeueoo?e” e ioa?aeoa?eciaaii oeiieia?th ca?oa?aeieo ia?e?a ye
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo onoaiia, ?o i?noea ? ?ieue a
nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e noa?? noni?euenoaa. Aeyaeaii nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?
aniaeoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?eiai? ae?yeueiino?; aecia/aii
iniaeeaino? ? caeiiii??iino? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ia?aeiieeai aeiaaaeaii
i??i?eoaoio cia/ou?noue ia?e?a na?aae ?ioeo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo
?inoeoooe?e, ?o eiiieaeniee ono??e ? aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei?noue;
a?oioiaii ?icaeyiooi i?eioeeie, ooieoe??, iai?yiee ? oaoiieia??, iiaeae?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei?, aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? ??cieo oei?a
ia?e?a oa ?ae?aaoe?eieo cii ca?oa?aeaey.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?eiaa eoeueoo?a, nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia nenoaia,
iiaeaeue, eoeueoo?ii-aeica?e?aa ae?yeuei?noue, ca?oa?aei? e?a?ie.

Eiieaaneay Ieueaa ?aoaeeiaia. Nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua aniaeou
i?aaiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe ia?eia a no?aiao ca?oaaaeuey. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.06 — oai?ey, iaoiaeeea e
i?aaiecaoeey eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eeaaneee
iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao eoeueoo?u e eneonnoa, a. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ii?aaeaeaieth enoi?eei-oai?aoe/aneeo
i?aaeiinueie noaiiaeaiey ia?eiaie eoeueoo?u eae nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie
nenoaiu, aa nia?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea, oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey; aeaii
iainiiaaiea iiiyoey “ia?eiaie eoeueoo?u” e ioa?aeoa?eciaaii oeiieiaeth
ca?oaaaeiuo ia?eia eae iieeooieoeeiiaeueiuo nioeeieoeueoo?iuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, eo ianoi e ?ieue a nioeeieoeueoo?iie noa?a iauanoaa.
Auyaeaiu nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua aniaeou iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
ia?eiaie aeayoaeueiinoe; ii?aaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe e caeiiiia?iinoe aa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacaii i?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea ia?eia
n?aaee ae?oaeo nioeeieoeueoo?iuo einoeoooeee, eo eiiieaeniia
ono?ienoai, iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiinoue; ?anniio?aiu i?eioeeiu, ooieoeee,
iai?aaeaiey e oaoiieiaee, iiaeaee eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiie,
aeinoaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aciuo oeiia ia?eia e ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo cii a
ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?eiaay eoeueoo?a, nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iay nenoaia,
iiaeaeue, eoeueoo?ii-aeinoaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue, ca?oaaaeiua no?aiu.

Kopievska Olga R. Social and cultural aspects of organization parks
activities in foreign countries. The manuscript.

The dissertation on competing a scientific degree of the candidate of
pedagogical sciences by a speciality 13.00.06 — Theory, Methods and
Organization of Cultural and Educational activity. Kyiv National
University of Culture and Arts, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to determination of the historical and
theoretical preconditions for formation the park culture as social and
cultural system, its modern state, tendencies of development; the
substantiation of the concept “park culture ” is given as an indivisible
part of leisure and recreation system, which is strongly interrelated to
general processes in cultural and social life of the society, as social
and cultural category the park culture is formed and developed on the
basis of interconnections between “natural” and cultural, environmental
and functional characteristics of the park sphere. Hereby is determined
that parks form the important factor of society vital activity, and park
culture becomes the meaningful indicator of life style in its quality.
The typology of parks as multi-functional social and cultural
establishments is determined, and their place and role within the
social and cultural sphere of a society are defined. Among them the
author distinguishes:

— national parks, which principal task is flora and fauna protection,

— landscape parks which have the longest history of origin, though are
still among the most popular recreational places around the world;

— aqua-parks – leisure centers with widened spectrum of functions and
new recreational technologies;

— sightseeing parks, “Countries in miniature”, historical, cultural, and
ethnographic museums in open air, which provide possibilities to get the
impression about the whole country or its parts;

— attractions parks where the new technologies aim on moral and physical
enrichment of a person, strengthening him, developing individual
creative, artistic and other gifts;

— village parks which assist in uniting cultural, social and civil life
by means of moving the cultural activity “out-of-doors” ;

— thematic parks. where such megatrends as: intellectual development by
means of integration between mass and elite culture – find its
reflection.

The social and cultural aspects of increasing the efficiency of park
activity are revealed; the peculiarities and laws of its functioning are
determined, the priority value of parks among the other social and
cultural institutions, their integrated structure, and
multifunctionality are convincingly proved; the principles, functions,
among which are: recreational; rehabilitational; cultural; educational;
leisure; communicative, and ecological; directions and technologies,
models of cultural, educational, and leisure activity of different
types of parks and recreational zones are considered.

In the summary of the research the number of proof regularities is
established:

· The parks, park culture as a whole — important spiritual, social and
cultural factor of society vital activity, significant indicator of
lifestyle, in which diverse needs of the visitors are satisfied;

· The park represents such type of social and cultural establishment,
aimed to organize use of spare time, which sequentially expands its
borders, due to what the popular interest to its activity constantly
grows. Within the sphere of culture and leisure activity parks occupy in
the modern world one of the leading places and are the leaders in a
commercial sector of leisure;

· It is established, that parks of culture and leisure, as well as other
their types, unite the various forms of cultural, educational, art,
ecological, cognitive, and entertaining activity, and the park space
becomes a high-power method of education and training, awakening of
interests, activation of physical and spiritual forces of the person;

· In the world the tendency of searching the active forms of leisure,
and also differentiation of park work with allowance for of interests
and needs of different groups of the population increases;

· The drawing foreign experience becomes valuable only under conditions
of realistic, verified approach to it, as the experience of culture and
leisure activity of each country depends on its economic conditions,
political stability, social policy, features national mentality, customs
and traditions and many other factors.

Key words: park culture, social and cultural system, model, culture and
leisure activity, foreign countries.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 26.10.1999?. Oi?iao 60 O 84 1 16. Iai?? ae?.
aia?ao. Ae?oe ionaoiee. Iae?e. aeae: a?e. 0.8. Oiiai.ae?.a?e. 1.0. Cai.
73 oe?aae 100.

Ae?oea?iy Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa. 01133, Ee?a, 133, aoe. Ui?na, 36.

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