AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Iaiouei?iaa Ia?eia Aiaoie??aia

OAeE — 490.2

NIOe?AEUeII-AEIIII?*IEE ?ICAEOIE I?AAeAIII-NO?AeII? OE?A?IE IAI?EE?IOe?
XVIII — A IA?O?E IIEIAEI? XIX NO.

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

I??ei Aaneeue Ieaen?eiae/

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??ia?ao??,

aeaea?aeiciaanoaa oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy

?noi??? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaeaeueei Aaiia Ee?ee?aia, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e oe?a?iiciaanoaa oa iie?oieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i?
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?aa/aiei Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa oe?a?iiciaanoaa Aeiiaoeueeiai ?inoeoooo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 n?/iy 1999 ?. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?
a/aii? ?aaee E 11.051.02 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e a Aeiiaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, 55,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24, Aie. ei?i., aoae.309).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, 55,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “25” a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe I.A.E?ai?a?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?euenoaa iinoaaeee ia?aae ?noi?e/iith
iaoeith caaaeaiiy ia’?eoeaiiai aena?oeaiiy ?? ieioeiai. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy ci?i o
e?euee?niiio, ye?niiio neeaae? oa aeeoo?aiio ??ai? ianaeaiiy, oi?iao
aeaniino?, iniiaieo aaeocyo ainiiaea?noaa, o aioo??oi?e oa ciai?oi?e
oi?a?ae?, a oaeiae a aea?aeaai?e iie?oeoe? c oeeo ieoaiue.

Oeei ieoaiiyi ?noi??ia?ao?y iniaeeai OO no. a?aeaiaeeea /eiaea i?noea,
iaeiae ia an? ?aa?iie Oe?a?ie aoee ia’?eoii oaeiai eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeiei ?c ieo ? I?aaeaiii-No?aeia Oe?a?ia ia??iaeo
e?ioey XVIII — ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no. Naia a oie /an oey oa?eoi??y
inoaoi/ii ao?aoeea naith aaoiiii?th ? noaea neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
?in?enueei? ?iia???. A oie aea /an ooo aea ?icii/aany ?oo ca
iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. C’ynoaaiiy eiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aaeoiia ? iaeiei c aaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
?noi??ia?ao??.

Aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia?aiiai ?aa?iio a cacia/aiee
/an aeicaiey? aecia/eoe eiai i?noea a caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeo i?ioeanao
e?ioey XVIII — ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no. Oei a?eueoa, ui a ?noi?e/i?e
iaooe? a?aenooi? i?aoe?, a yeeo ae eiiieaenii ?icaeyaeaeeny an? aniaeoe
ii?ooaii? oaie a iaaeao ?aa?iio oa ie?aneaiiai /ano, oi/a iayaia aaeeea
e?euee?noue i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo ie?aiei ia??iaeai, ieoaiiyi c ?noi???
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae oae? ieoaiiy, ye iane?aeee
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai iiae?eo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o neeaae?
?in??, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noeo?eieo i?a?aoe?e ? aea?aeaaii? eieii?caoe??,
ci?i o aoi?/iiio neeaae? ianaeaiiy, ?ieue i?e?iaeiiai ? iaoai?/iiai
i?e?inoo ianaeaiiy o caethaeiaii? e?ath, iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua oa i?iieneiai-oi?aiaaeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
cacia/aii? oa?eoi???, aca?iiaieea ainiiaea?nueeeo o?aaeeoe?e ??cieo
aoiin?a, ui iaoeaee ia oe?e oa?eoi??? oaeoe/ii ia aoee i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aai ?o oi?eaeeny ieiio?aeue.

Iiaaeaiii-Noiaeia Oe?a?ia — aaaeeeaee i?iieneiai-aa?a?iee ?aaiii iaoi?
aea?aeaae. Iei? ooo cina?aaeaeaia a?eueo?noue iiaei?e?inoa
ai?ie/iaeiaoaii?, iaoaeo?aieii?, iaoeiiaoaeiaii? oa oiii/ii?
i?iieneiainoi. Ia iueiai i?eiaaea? cia/iee a?aenioie iiniaieo ieiu
Oe?a?ie. Ia oeie oa?eoi?i? ?icoaoiaaii oaei aaaeeeai aeey ani??
aea?aeaae iinoa, ye Aeiiaoeuee, Eoaainuee, Ia?ioiieue, Iaei?aea,
Neia’yinuee oa ?i. Eiai no/aniee ?iaaiue ? aaciina?aaeiii ianeiaeeii
?icaeoeo a ieioeiio, cie?aia iai?eeiioe? XVIII — a ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX
no., eiee oi?ioaaany eiai aaaaoiaoi?/iee neeaae ianaeaiiy, ii/eiaa
noai?thaaoeny aaaaoii?io?eueiee ainiiaea?nueeee eiiieaen, i?ioiaey/e o
nai?io noaiiaeaiii /a?ac /eneaiii ciiie e ia?aoai?aiiy.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue aecia/aeuei? i?ioeane
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith: aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiee
iiae?e, ci?ie a e?euee?niiio, aoi?/iiio ? nioe?aeueiiio neeaae?
ianaeaiiy, ?icaeoie n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?iieneiaino?,
oi?a?ae?, oeyo?a niieo/aiiy oa i?no, a oaeiae iie?oeea c oeeo ieoaiue.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? oa?eoi??y I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie,
yea i?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? Caii??cueei? N?/? oa?eoea aei neeaaeo Acianueei?
aoaa?i??, c 1783 ?. ciaoiaeeeanue o neeaae? Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai
iai?nieoeoaa, a a ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no. — a Iiai?in?enuee?e ? /anoeiai
— Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i?yo.

O?iiieia?/ii aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieth? e?iaoeue XVIII — ia?oo iieiaeio XIX
no. Ieaeiy eiai iaaea i?eiaaea? ia /an, eiee i?ney i?aeienaiiy o 1774 ?.
Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeenueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o ? cieuaiiy Caii??cueei?
N?/? oea?nueeee o?yae noaa ia oeyo aeoeaii? eieii?caoe?? ?aa?iio,
ia?aianaiiy ia oeth oa?eoi??th a?aeiinei, ui neeaeeny a oeaio?? ?in??.
Aa?oiy iaaea — e?iaoeue 50-o ??. O?O no., oiaoi ia?aae?aoi?iaiiee
ia??iae.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia c’ynoaaoe oiiae, iniaeeaino? oa
?acoeueoaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio, yeee iacaaa?ii
ia?aoai?eany o aaaeeeaee i?iieneiaee oeaio? ?in?enueei? ?iia???, aino?ee
aocie nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ? eiioe?eo?a a cacia/aiee ia??iae, aeaoe
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a caaaeueieo
oa niaoe?aeueieo eo?nao c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ae??oeoe oae?
caaaeaiiy :

— ?icaeyiooe inoi?iia?aoi/ii oa aeaea?aeiciaa/i canaaee aeineiaeaeaiiy:
e?eoe/ii ioeiieoe aeniiaee iiia?aaeiio aeineiaeieeia, ni?inooaaoe
aeyaeaii o ieo oaiaeaioeieii iiaeoiaee aei aea/aiiy iinoaaeaieo ieoaiue,
i?iaiaeicoaaoe iioi?iaoeaiee iioaioeiae ?icieo aeaeia aeaea?ae,
aecia/eoe nooiiiue ?o aeinoiai?iinoi oa ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoi;

— aeineiaeeoe ciiie o aaeiiiino?aoeaii-oa?eoi?iaeueiiio ono?i? oa
canaeaiii I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia?iiaeo, iaoaiici caeieniaiiy oeeo ciii oa ?o ianeiaeee aeey ?aaiiio,
aecia/eoe iniiaii ia??iaee a oiaei caethaeiaiiy e?ath, ioe?ieoe ?ieue
iieioeee oea?nueeiai o?yaeo a oeueiio i?ioeani, a oaeiae oaeoi?e, ui
aieeaaee ia ciiie o eieueeiniiio, aoii/iiio oa nioeiaeueiiio neeaaei
iinaeaioeia;

— aecia/eoe iniiai? nioe?aeuei? a?oie ianaeaiiy, ci?ie a ?oiueiio
noaiiaeu?, aoaie cae??ia/aiiy naeyi ;

— i?iaiaeicoaaoe ci?ie a aeiiii?oe? ?aa?iio: aaiethoe?th nieuenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa i i?iieneiainoi, ia’?eoeaii ioeiieoe ?o aeinyaiaiiy ia
eiiaoeue 50-o ??. XIX no. i cia/aiiy, ye aeey ie?aneaii? oa?eoi?i?, oae
i aeey Oe?a?ie oa ?ini? acaaaei; c’ynoaaoe, yei naia /eiieee ni?eyee
aoiaeaeaiith e?ath aei caaaeueii?inienueeiai ?eieo, yea iinoea aii
iiniaeaa o ciaiioiie oi?aiaei oiai /ano, i?inoaaeeoe aca?iiaieea ?icieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? o?aaeeoe?e a aeaiiio iieiaoii/iiio ?aaiiii.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? iaoeia?
i?eioeeie i?ciaiiy oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy I?e aiae?c? e ioe?ioe?
?noi?e/ieo iiae?e oa yaeu aeena?oaio aeio?eioaaany i?eioeei?a ?noi?ecio
oa ia’?eoea?cio.

Aeei?enoaiiy iieniaiai, noaoenoeei-aiae?oe/iiai,
?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiiai, aaiaoe/iiai oa ?noi?eei-o?iiieia?/iiai iaoiae?a
aeicaieeei a?eueo aeeaiei i?ciaoe aeine?aeaeoaai? i?ioeane, uia aeinyaoe
iinoaaeaii? iaoe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoei? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa aoei c?iaeaii
ioeiieo aei?iaeo inoi?e/ii? iaoee o aea/aiii inoi?i? iaeiiai c
aaaeeea?oeo ?aa?ii?a, noaio aeaea?ae c ia?aii? oaie, eiiieaenii
?icaeyiooi iniiai? aniaeoe nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai ?icaeoeo
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie iai?eeiioei XVIII — a ia?oie iieiaeii XIX
no.

Anoaiiaeaia ?ieue noeoieieo iia?aoeie ? coneeue ?inienueei? aea?aeaae a
i?ioeani canaeaiiy ? ainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy e?ath. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aieiaio ?ieue a inai?ii? oa?eoi??? a?ae?a?aea oe?a?inueea ethaei?noue.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui caiea?ianueea eoeueoo?a ?aaiiio oi?ioaaeany ia aac?
oe?a?inueei? caiea?ianueei? eoeueoo?e c o?aooaaiiyi anueiai iiceoeaiiai,
iaaooiai o oe?e ni?aa? i?aaenoaaieeaie ?ioeo ia?iae?a, ye? ?acii c
oe?a?ioeyie inaithaaee oeae ?aa?ii.

Caaaeyee ?iciiai/iie aeieoiaioaoei?, yea caa?iaa?oueny o ?inienueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio inoi?e/iiio a?oiai (aeaei ?AeIA) oa Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?
Eoaainueei? iaeano? aaeaeiny iieacaoe ca?iaeaeaiiy eai’yiiaoaieueii? oa
iaoaeo?aieii? i?iieneiainoi ia cacia/ai?e oa?eoi?i?. Ni?inoiaaii, iayaia
a eioa?aoo?i, oaa?aeaeaiiy uiaei iacia/ii? ?iei Eoaainueeiai
/aaoiieeaa?iiai caaiaeo aeey aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie i ?ini? oiai /ano.
Aecia/aii aieea caaiaeo ia i?iaaaeaiiy aaieiai?icaiaeoaaeueieo ?iaio ia
oa?eoi?i? no/aniiai Aeiiaano oa ?ic?iaeo eiai ei?enieo eiiaeei.
Aeena?oaioea aeieoea aeniiaeo, ui iecuee? iieacieee ?iaioe caaiaeo aoee
ianeiaeeii ia?o ca ana caaaeueiiai ?iaiy aeiiiiiee ?in??.
I?iaiae?ciaaii caaaeueiee noai i?iieneiaino? ?aa?iio ia e?iaoeue 50-o
??. O?O no.

Aeiiiaiaiiy iayaii? a eioa?aoo?i iioi?iaoei? a?oiaieie aeaea?aeaie aeaei
ciiao i?inoaaeeoe ca neeaaeaiiyi oi?aiai? iio?ano?oeoo?e ?aaiiio,
aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? y?ia?ie oa oi?aia, ?ieue noaoeiiia?ii? oi?aiaei,
o/anoue a iie ?icieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, aieea oi?aiaei ia noai iino.
Iiaeie a?aoiaioaie i?aeneeaia e?eoeea oaa?aeaeaiiy aeayeeo inoi?eeia XIX
no. i?i aecia/io oa ae?ioaeueio aeey e?ath ?ieue ciaiioiuei? oi?aiaei i
iiicaiiiai eoiaoeoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei?. A oiaei ?? iiaeaioiaee aeyaeaia i
i?iaiaeiciaaia eioa?aoo?a c i?iaeaie, ianoaaeaii oiiaee 10 oeaio?aeueieo
i iaeanieo a?oiainoiaeu Oe?a?ie oa ?ini?, ?oeiieniee aiaeaeie
Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai? aiaeiioaee IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.Aa?iaaenueeiai, a yeeo
aeyaeaii i aaaaeaii aei iaoeiaiai iaiao cia/io eieueeinoue iiaeo
aeaea?ae. Oea aeicaiey? ni?inooaaoe ?iciiai ?iaeo oaeueneo?eaoe??, ui
iiyaeeeny ca inoaiii ?iee ia noi?iieao ia?iiaee/ieo aeaeaiue, aianoe
ooi/iaiiy aei ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c inoi?i? Oe?a?ie oa ?aaiiio, a
iiniaieee aeey o/iia oa nooaeaioia ye ic caaaeueieo, oae i niaoeiaeueieo
eo?nia. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii a eaeoe?eieo
eo?nao ? ia nai?ia?nueeeo caiyooyo c inoi?i? Oe?a?ie, inoi?iia?aoi?,
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa oa iaeaia?aoi?, aeey iiaeaioiaee niaoeeo?no c inoi?i?
?aa?iio, a oaeiae iaoeiaeo ioaeieaoeie, e?a?ciaa/eo ia?enia.

??aaiue iiioey?ecaoe?? ? ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiaii
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? i ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
caniaeaiiyo eaoaae?e inoi?i? Oe?a?ie oa eaoaae?e inoi?iia?aoi?,
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy inoi?i? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo, a oaeiae ia niieueieo caniaeaiiyo oeeo
eaoaae?, eaoaae?aeueieo naiiia?ao. Oai?aoe/ii ocaaaeueiaiiy oa oaeoe/iee
iaoa?iae, ui iinoyoueny o ?iaioi, aoee aeei?enoaii a eaeoe?yo ? ia
nai?ia?nueeeo caiyooyo ?c “Aeaea?aeiciaanoaa inoi?i? Oe?a?ie” aeey
nooaeaioia inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ia?ioiieuenueeiai aoiaiioa?iiai
iinoeoooo.

Caaaeueia eiioeaioeiy aeineiaeaeaiiy oa eiai iniiai? aeniiaee ciaeoee
aiaeia?aaeaiiy a iioaeieiaaieo noaooyo oa oacao aeiiiaiaeae ui??/ieo
iiaenoieiaeo eiioa?aioe?e i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Aeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.),
iiaeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioeiyo: Iiaeia?iaeiie eiioa?aioei? “Oe?a?ia —
A?aoeiy: aeinaiae ae?oaeiio ca’yceia oa ia?niaeoeae niia?iaioieoeoaa”
(Ia?ioiieue, 1996 ?.); Iiaeia?iaeiie eiioa?aioei? “Iiaeia?iaeii ca’ycee
ia?iaeia ?a?iie” (Caii?iaeaey, 1996 ?.).

NO?OEOO?A ? CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy aecia/eee no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??, yea neeaaea?oueny
c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a (naie i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a, aeiaeaoe?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e (275 iaca).

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii eiai
i?aaeiao, ia’?eo, o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, iaoo, caaaeaiiy, aeacaii ia
iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aea oa iaoiaeieia?y”, ui
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a, i?noeoue ioe?ieo e?oa?aoo?e c
i?iaeaie, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny ca o?iiieia?/ii-i?iaeaiiei i?eioeeiii,
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaea?ae ? iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?iaioe.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie aea? i?aenoaae aeae?eeoe o?e ia??iaee ca
/anii ?? aeaeaiiy: O?O — ii/aoie OO no., 20-o? — 80-o? ??. oa 90-o? ??.
OO no.

Aeey ia?oiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui i?iaeaia
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio ia aoea i?aaeiaoii
niaoeiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue. Oae? aaaeeea? ieoaiiy, ye noai
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, oa?aeoa? aeaniino?, nooi?noue oi?aae?iiy oa
?i. ?icaeyaeaeeny ia?aaaaeii o ca’yceo c aena?oeaiiyi a?ei, ae?yeueiino?
iie?oe/ieo in?a.

O ae?oaie iieiaeii XIX no., iniaeeai a i?aoeyo A.Neaeueeianueeiai,
Ae.I.Aaaaeiy11 Neaeueeianeee A.A. Iiuo noaoenoe/aneiai iienaiey
Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay.- Iaeanna, 1850-1853.- *.1-2.;O?iiieiae/aneia
iaic?aiea enoi?ee Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay. 1730-1823.- Iaeanna, 1836-1838.-
*.1-2.; Aaaaeae Ae.E. Eieiiecaoeey Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay e ia?aua oaae
aai ii iooe eoeueoo?u.- E., 1889.- 115 n.; I/a?e ec enoi?ee
eieiiecaoeee noaiiie ie?aeiu Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa.- I., 1887.- 614
n.; Aaia?aeueiay iienue Iaei?innee. Yieciae ec aeayoaeueiinoe ia?aiai
i?aaeoaey Iaei?innee, a?aoa I.A.
?oiyioeaaa-Caaeoiaeneiai.-Aeaoa?eiineaa, 1883.- 31 n. ii/eiathoue
aena?oethaaoeny ieoaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy oa nioeiaeueii?
inoi?i? e?ath. Iacaaaeath/e ia ?icaeyae cacia/aieo aniaeoia i?iaeaie
/a?ac i?ecio iiia?oi/ieo, aeai?yinueeeo i ao?aeoacieo iiaeyaeia, ana ae
oaee inoi?eeaie aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa iaiioeoe iniiaii aoaie a canaeaii?
e?ath, aecia/eoe /enaeueiinoue oa aoii/iee neeaae eiai ianaeaiiy.

Na?aae ?ia?o O?O no. cono??/athoueny ye iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, oae ?
iaoeiai-iiioey?i?, noaoo?, eaeaiaea??, ia?ene ? o.ae.

O 20-oi — 80-oi ??. XX no. inoi?iia?aoiy caaaaoeeanue oaeeie a?oioiaieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie c i?iaeaie, ye i?aoei I.I.Ae?oaeeiiii?,
A.Aieiaooeueeiai, I.I.Ao?aeiy, A.I.Eaaocaia, I.I.Aaaoiiiaa,
A.I.Oeiioi?iea oa iioeo22 Ae?oaeeieia A.E. Naaa?iia I?e/a?iiii?uea a
1775-1800 aa.- I., 1959.- 277 n.; THaeiay Oe?aeia. 1800-1825 aa.- I.,
1970.- 376 n.; Eeanniaay ai?ueaa e?anoueyi THaeiie Oe?aeiu a ia?aie
/aoaa?oe XIX aaea // Aaeaaiaeiee ii aa?a?iie enoi?ee Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu.-
Eeoeiaa — 1966.- N.572-583.; Aieiaooeueeee A.I. Caii?icueea eicaoeoai.-
E.,1957.- 462 n.; Caii?icueea Ci/ o inoaiii /ane naiai inioaaiiy.
1734-1775. — E., 1961.- 415 n.; Ao?aeie I.I. Ca?iaeaeaiiy ?iaioie/iai
eeano ia Oe?a?ii (eiiaoeue XVIII — ia?oa iieiaeia XIX no.).- E., 1958.-
180 n.; ?icaeoie oiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa i oi?aiaey ia Oe?a?ii.-E.,
1962.- 207 n.; Eaaocai A.I. Canaeaiea Iiai?inee (Aeaoa?eiineaaneay e
Oa?niineay aoaa?iee) a XVIII — ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. (1719-1858).-I.,
1976.- 306 n.; Ia?iaeiianaeaiea ?innee a XVIII — ia?aie iieiaeia XIX
a.- I.: AI NNN?, 1963.- n. ; A?oe N.E., Eaaocai A.I. Iea?aoeee
ianaeaiey a ?innee a XVIII — ia/.OO a.( /eneaiiinoue, no?oeoo?a,
aaia?aoey// Enoi?ey NNN?.- 1984.- N4.- N.41-50.; Aaaoiiia I.E. Iaeanoue
Aienea Aeiineiai e I?eaciauea a aei?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae.- ?-i-Ae., 1986.-
191 n.; Oeiioaaiei A.E. Ai?iaea Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XVIIIa. — E., 1984.- 219 n.

Ia eiiaoeue cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo aiia iaaoea ye?nii iiaiai ??aiy,
iinooiiai ca?eueiyth/enue a?ae noa?aioei?a ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a, a?eueo
ia’?eoeaii iiaeoiaey/e aei ioe?iee cia/aiiy o?yaeiai? iieioeee ?ini?
uiaei Oe?a?ie oiui.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? aaaiiee aianie o aeineiaeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? inoi?i? Iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie XVIII no. c?iaeee:
A.A.Aieei, A.I.Ii?ei, A.I.Iiaeia oa ii11 Aieei A.A. Oi?aiaey THaeiie
Oe?aeiu (1775-1825): Aaoi?ao. aeen… e-oa eno. iaoe: 07.00.02 /
Aeiai?iiao?ianeee ainoieaa?neoao.- Aei., 1991.- 16 n.; Aieei A.A.,
Aeaieeiaa I.I. Oi?ioaaiiy aoii/iiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Iiaaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
(eiiaoeue XVIII — XIX no.) // O?AE.- 1992.- N2.- N.54-65.; Aieei A.A.
Iiaaeaiia Oe?a?ia o XVIII no. Aa?a?ii aiaeiineie.- Caii?iaeaey: CAO,
1997.- 203 n.; Ii?ei A.I. Inai?iiy Iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie XVI — XVIII no.no. a
inoi?iia?aoi?.-Aeiiaoeuee, 1991.- 32 n.; Canaeaiea a XVI- XVIII aa. //
Iiaua no?aieoeu a enoi?ee Aeiiaanna.- Aeiiaoee, 1992.- Ei.1.- N. 26-44.;
Canaeaiiy Aeiiao/eie o XVI- XVIII no.no. // Eaoiienue Aeiiaanna:
E?aaaaae/.ca.- Aeiiaoee, 1992.- aui.1.- N.10-25.; O enoieia
i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aeiiaanna // Eaoiienue Aeiiaanna: E?aaaaae/.ca.-
Aeiiaoee: Aeii.iae.e?aaa-ee iocae, 1992.- aui.1.- N. 29-30;Noai
caiea?ianueei? eoeueoo?e Iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie o XVIII no. // Ieoaiiy aa?a?ii?
inoi?i? Oe?a?ie oa ?ini?: iaoa?iaee iaoeiaeo /eoaiue i?enay/aieo iai’yoi
Ae.I.Iieaee.- Aeiii?., 1995.- N.26-34.; Aienueeiai-caiea?ianueei
iinaeaiiy ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie o XVIII no.- Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeO, 1993.- 64
n.; Ai?iaea Aeiiao/eiu a eiioea XVIIIa. (ii iaoa?eaeai iienaiey Acianeie
aoaa?iee) // Eaoiienue Aeiiaanna: E?aaaaae/.ca.- Aeiiaoee, 1994.-
aui.2.- N.28-31.; Iiaeia A.E. Ioe?uoea Aeiiaanna. Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e.
Aeieoiaiou.- Eoaaine, 1991.- 115 n.. Oi/a, na?aae i?aoeue aeacaiiai
ia?iiaeo ia?aaaaeaee iaoeiai-iiioey?ii aeaeaiiy, iacia/ii ca ianyaii
?iaioe, noaooi a ia?iiaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo oa iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoei? noaiiaeyoue iaoa?iaee 10 oeaio?aeueieo oa
iaeanieo a?oiaia Oe?a?ie i ?ini?: ?in?enueeee aea?aeaaiee a?o?a aeaai?o
aeo?a (O. 16, 248, 276, 1239, 1261, 1355), ?in?enueeee aea?aeaaiee
a?enueeiai-?noi?e/iee a?o?a (O. 52, 271, 41, AOA), ?in?enueeee
aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a (O. 558, 44, 37, 17, 18, 383, 1281), A?o?a
Iaoa?ao?cueei? o?e?? ?inoeoooo ?noi??? ?AI (O.200), Oeaio?aeueiee
aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a Oe?a?ie a i. Ee?a? (O. 1959, 1750, 1746,
1820, 209, 1709, 1967, 1966, 1322), aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a Oa?e?anueei? (O.
24, 25, 3), Oa?niinueei? (O.14, 3, 207), Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? (O. 104,
106, 648, 741), Eoaainueei? (O. 1) ? Aeiiaoeueei? iaeanoae (O.
I?e?io?euei?a), a oaeiae ?oeiieniiai aiaeaeieo Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai?
aiaeiioaee IAI Oe?a?ie ?i. Aa?iaaenueeiai (O.5). E?ii oiai, aeei?enoaii
? iayai? c oaie ioae?eaoe?? aeaea?ae.22 Iiaia cia?aiiy caeiiia
?inienueei? iiia?i?.- 1-a aeae. — OO.1-44; Aiaiii-noaoenoe/aneia
iaic?aiea ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Aeaoa?eiineaaneay aoaa?iey.- Nia.: Oei.
Aeai-oa aai.ooaaa, 1850.- O.11.- *.4.- 186 n.; Aiaiii-noaoenoe/aneia
iaic?aiea ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Oa?ueeianeay aoaa?iey.- Nia.: Oei. Aeai-oa
aai.ooaaa, 1850.- O.12.- *.1.- 344 n.; Naaaeaiey nia?aiiua i?e aiaiiie
nuaiea Oa?niineie aoaa?iee a 1852a. aeey aeiiieiaiey
aiaiii-noaoenoe/aneiai iaic?aiey yoie aoaa?iee ecaeaiiiai a 1849 aiaeo
i?e ia?aii ioaeaeaiee Aeaia?oaiaia aai. ooaaa.- 310 n.; ?aaeaiaio,
i?eneaiiue ec ainoaea?noaaiiie Iaiooaeoo?-eieeaaee i niaea?aeaiee iaaoe
a Iaei?innee // Iineaeoyiei.- 1853.- ei.9-ay.; Iieiaeaiea ia oeo/oaiee
auoa iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi Aeaoa?eiineaaneie aoaa?iee.- Aeaoa?eiineaa,
1859.- 1 n.; Iaoa?eaeu aeey enoi?ee eieiiecaoeee e auoa Oa?ueeianeie e
io/anoe Eo?neie e Ai?iiaaeneie aoaa?iee.- Oa?ueeia.: Oei. E.I.N/anie,
1890.- O.2.- 433 n.; ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea a ?innee a XIX a. / Iiae ?aae.
A.I.Iaie?aoiaie.- I.: Ain. ecaeao. iiee. ee-?u, 1955.- O.1.- *.1-2.-
926, 740 n.; O?anoiiaoiy c inoi?i? O?N? / Iiae ?aae. I.N.Ao?aeiy.- E.:
?aaeyinueea oeiea, 1959.- O.1.- 747 n.; Iao e?ae XVIII — i. OO a.
Aeieoiaiou ii enoi?ee Aeiineie iaeanoe.- ?-i-Ae.: ?ino. eieaei. ecae-ai,
1963.- O.1.- 575 n.; Ca?iaeaeaiiy ?iaioie/iai eeano ia Oe?a?ii.
Na?aaeeia XVIII — 1861 ??. / Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee inoi?e/iee a?oia
O?N?.- E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1982.- 493 n.; Naeyinueeee ?oo ia Oe?a?ii.
Na?aaeeia XVIII — ia?oa /aa?oue XIX no.- E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1978.- 533
n.; Naeyinueeee ?oo ia Oe?a?ii. 1826-1849.- E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1985.-
503 n.; Enoi?ey Aeiiaoeeiai e?ay a aeieoiaioao e iaoa?eaeao. XVII-
ia/aei XX a.- Aeiiaoee.: Aeii. iae. aeaa. oi?. ia?ac-ey, 1995.- 63 n.

Na?aae aeaea?ae iayai? caeiiaeaa/? aeoe, iaoa??aee ae?eiaiaenoaa,
ai?iii-noaoenoe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? iiene. Iaea?eueoo a?oio neeaaeathoue
iaoa??aee ae?eiaiaenoaa, ye aea?aeaaiiai, oae ? i?eaaoiiai oa
oea?eiaiiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Caeiiiaeaa/i aeoe ca ?o iioiaeaeaiiyi oa iioi?iaoeaieie iiaeeeainoyie
iiaeieythoueny ia oeace, aeaeoaaii a?aiioe, iino?oeoei?, ui ca nai?i
ciinoii iaaeeaeathoueny aei oeacia.

Oeace a naith /a?ao iiaeieythoueny ia iiaiii oa naiaonueei. Inoaiii
neeaaeaee ia?aaaaeio aieueoinoue. Iiiaei aiie i?eeiaeeny eieaaiaeueii,
ia niieueieo caniaeaiiyo c Aienueeiaith eieaai?th, Eieaai?th iiicaiieo
ni?aa. Iiaiii oeace aeaeaaaeenue eeoa o ca’yceo c aecia/ieie i
ae?ioaeueieie iiaeiyie — i?e canioaaiii aaeiiiino?aoeaii-oa?eoi?iaeueieo
iaeeieoeue, i?e ae?ioaiii iniiaieo i?iaeai ainiiaea?nueeiai oa?aeoa?o,
i?e ?ai?aaiecaoei? iayaieo ooai?aiue.

Iaoaiici i?eeiyooy ?ioaiue c oiai /e iioiai ieoaiiy ciaeoia
aiaeia?aaeaiiy o oi?ii oa ciinoi oeeo aeieoiaioia. I?e/eiith aeaeaiiy
oeacia, ye i?aaeei aoee aai /e?nue iiaeaiiy, aai yeanue iiaeiy, ui
iaia’yceiai aeacoaaeiny o i?aaiaoei. Ooo aea cacia/aeinue yei
caeiiiaeaa/i aeoe aaea i?eeiaeeny c aeaiiai i?eaiaeo i eeoa iio?i
aeiineeiny ?ioaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, iiiaei iiaea?oueny iioi?iaoeiy i?i
aeeiiaiiy ia iinoeyo iiia?aaeiio ?icii?yaeaeaiue. Oeace aeathoue
aeineoue iiaio iioi?iaoeith i?i iiaei?, yeeo noinothoueny,
aiae?iciythoueny /ioeicoth aeeeaaeo i aiaeiiniith oi/iinoth oaeoia.
Oi/a, nooiiiue aeinoiai?iinoi caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoia aeineoue aenieee, aea
i aiie iio?aaothoue e?eoe/iiai noaaeaiiy aeineiaeieea, aeiiaathoue
c’ynoaaiiy oeieae, iiaiioe iiaiaeiiethaaieo oaeoia, o?aooaaiiy
oaiaeaioeieiinoi a iioa?i?aoaoei? iiaeie.

sseui caeiiiaeaa/i aeoe aeicaieythoue i?inoaaeeoe iniiaii iai?yiee
iieioeee oea?aoo, oi ?iciiai ?iaeo ia?aiene, ia?aai?ee, ?aaici? i o.ae.
aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i oiae ?aaeicaoei? oei?? iieioeee.

Ai?ii-oiiia?aoi/ii oa noaoenoe/ii iiene oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith
oi/iinoth i iathoue eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa?. Ia?aeiiee iaoa?iae aeey
oaeiai ?iaeo iienia aoa aeineoue cia/iei. Oaoiiea eiai caaioiaee
aoea o?aaeeoeieiith, oiaoi iniiaii noaoenoe/ii aeaii eoee c
eaioeaey?i? oeeaieueiiai aoaa?iaoi?a. Aei oiai ae, aeaeaii aecaiiey?e
iienia oei?? na?i? cia/ii nei?i/aii ii?iaiyii c i?eaiiaeaie, yei
ia?aaaaeii caa?iaathoueny o ?inienueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
aienueeiai-inoi?e/iiio a?oiai (aeaei ?AeAIA). Na?aae iaaeieieia aeaeaiiy
neiae aiaeiioeoe oa, ui iaeaea ne?icue a iueiio iiaeaaaeeny
na?aaeii aiaeiiinoi, cie?aia i?i caaacia/aiinoue naeyi caieath i
ooaeiaith, yei ?iaeei aiaeia?aaeaee ni?aaaei? noaiiaeua naeyi. Iien
i?iieneiaeo iiaei?e?inoa aoa aeaui iiaa?oiaei i iaiiaiei. Aiaeiiinoi
/anoi ia ioiiethaaee anio iiaioia oa iino. Aeeiyoie neeaaeaee eeoa oi
iinoa, ui i?ecia/aeeny aeey ?icoaooaaiiy aienuee, i?i ieo iioi?iaoeiy
aoea aieueo aeieeaaeiith.

Iayaii a?oiaii iaoa?iaee i oiiaee iiaeia iiaeieeoe ia iniiaii i oi, ui
eeoa /anoeiai aiaeiinyoueny aei aeineiaeaeoaaii? oaie. Ia?oi
caa?iaathoueny ia?aaaaeii o oeaio?aeueieo a?oiaao Iineae oa
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?ao, /anoeiai Ee?aa. Iioi?iaoeiy noiniaii ie?aieo ?aeiiia
Iiaaeaiii-Noiaeii? Oe?a?ie, aeayeeo aniaeoia ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo,
ye oi iaoaeo?aieia i?iieneiainoue, iinoyoueny o iaeanieo a?oiaao
i.Oa?niia, Aeiii?iiao?ianueea, Oa?eiaa, Eoaainueea, Aeiiaoeueea.

Canoiniaoth/e i?iaeaiii-oaiaoe/iee iiaeoiae aei nenoaiaoecaoei?
aeaea?ae, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?iaiaeiciaaii aeua iaoa?iaee
iinoyoue iioi?iaoeith aei ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo o ?iaioi caaaeaiue.

Oi/a c oaie aiaenooii niaoe?aeuei? aeaea?aeiciaa/i iaeyaee, aea aeayei
ieoaiiy iaoeiai? e?eoeee iaaieo aeae?a aeaea?ae iiaeia ciaeoe o
iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.?.Ae?oaeei?ii?, A.I.Eaaocaia,A.E.
Oaeaeueei oa ii.11 Oaeaeueei A.E. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea
ai?iaeia Oe?aeiu a XVI-XVIII aa. — Aeiai?., 1979.- 99 n.; Eaaocai A.I.
Canaeaiea Iiai?innee…; Enoi/ieeiaaaeaiea enoi?ee NNN? / Iiae ?aae.
E.Ae.Eiaaeue/aiei.- I., 1981.- 486 n.; Aeiaaiiie A.I., Eeoaeiaiei I.A.,
Eyo ?.Ae. Aeaea?aeiciaanoai inoi?i? O?N?.- E., 1986.- N.86.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ci?ie a aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiio ono?i? oa
ianaeaiiy e?ath” (aeeth/a? aeaa i?ae?icae?ee) aeiaaaeaii, ui a inoaii?e
/aa?o? XVIII no. iiney cieeiaiiy caa?ice c aieo Oo?a//eie i cieuaiiy
Caii?icueei? Ni/i oea?nueeee o?yae iioe?ea ia ?aa?ii
caaaeueii?in?enueeee aaei?i?no?aoeaiee iiae?e, caoaa?aeaeaiee
?iia?aoi?nueeei oeacii 1775 ?. I?e oeueiio ?noi?e/i? iniaeeaino? ?aa?iio
ia a?aeeny aei oaaae.

I?ioyaii ia?iiaeo e?ae caciaa aeae?eueea aaeiiiino?aoeaieo ?aoi?i: o
1775 ?. ia i?noe? Iiai?in?enueei? aoaa?i?? oa Caii??cueei? N?/? aoei
noai?aii Acianueeo ? Iiai?inienueeo aoaa?i??; o 1783-1784 ??. — ia ?o
aac? Eaoa?eiineaanueea iaiinieoeoai, a 1796 ?. — Iiai?inienueeo
aoaa?iith, a a 1802 ?. — Eaoa?eiineaanueeo, Oa?niinueeo oa Oaa?ienueeo
aoaa?i??. Iia?oia? ci?ie aoee iaio cia/ieie.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui oi?iaeueii ieoaiiy
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-oa?eoi?iaeueiiai iiaeieo oa eiio?ieth ca ie?aneaieie
oa?eoi?iyie ae?iooaaeeny a oeaio?i, a aeieniinoi, ia iinoao oaeoe/ii
iiaiiaeaaeieie i?aaeoaeyie noaaaee aoaa?iaoi?e. Ia ?o ?icnoae caeeoaeiny
aecia/aiiy aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo ei?aeii?a, ye? /anoi caeeoaeeny
th?eaee/ii ia ioi?ieaieie aai iaa?oue o?eueee ia iaia??. Oea i?ecaiaeeei
aei /eneaiieo iaii?icoiiiue i?e iaaeoaaiii caiaeue. Naiiaeaaeaey
aoaa?iaoi?ia ia aeacaiie oa?eoi?i? aoei iiaee?iieaii e niaoeeoieith
?aaiiio, eiai aaia?aoi/iei iieiaeaiiyi oa iniaith ia?oiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, eiycy A.Iioueiieiia.

Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy caaaeueii?in?enueeiai aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai
ono?ith ia oa?aiao I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVIII
no. noaei iiaei aoaiii o aeeoo? ?aa?iio, iaoiiaeei aaaaoi eiai
iniaeeainoae ii??aiyii c ?ioeie ?aeiiaie ?in?? oa Oe?a?ie. *a?ac
a?aeaeaeai?noue cacia/aii? oa?eoi???, ?? no?aoaa?/ia cia/aiiy, i?noeaa?
cae/a?, /anoeiai e caaaeyee iniaenoino? ia?oiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a
eiycy Iioueiie?ia ?aa?ii iaa aeayeo naiino?ei?noue o ae??oaii?
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ieoaiue. A oe?eiio, /ano? aaei?i?no?aoeai? ci?ie ia
oa?aiao e?ath i?iaiaeeeeny c iaoith caaacia/aiiy iiaiiai eiio?ieth iaae
iei.

I?ioyaii ia?iiaeo aeiei?iiieo ciii caciaee iinoa ?aaiiio. E?ii
caieueoaiiy ?o eieueeinoi, aiie iaaoee iiaiai cia/aiiy: ?c
iai?iiii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oeaio??a ia?a?inee a
ainiiaea?nueei-aaei?i?no?aoeai? ? eoeueoo?i? ina?aaeee, cie?aia oea
noino?oueny: Neia’yinueea, ?cthia, Iiaiiineianueea, Aaoiooa, Ia?ioiiey.

Iiaaeaiii-Noiaeia Oe?a?ia i?ioyaii anueiai ia?iiaeo 1775-1858 ??. aoea
iaeiei c iniiaieo ?aeiiia eieiiicaoei?, oaeaeei oaiie yei?
iaoiiaethaaeeny aaaaoueia i?e/eiaie: iiney Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeenueeiai
ie?iiai aeiaiai?o 1774 ?. c Oo?a//eiith aiaeieoee o ieioea nionoioeeai
iaaiae oaoa? ia noaiiao Oe?a?io; neanoaaiiy o 1775 ?. Caii?icueei? Ni/i
iaaeaea ciiao ?inienueeiio o?yaeia? ia?anaeyoe ia ?? oa?aie naeyi, yei
niiaeiaaeeny ciaeoe ooo aieth; aa?a?ia ia?aianaeaiiy noniaeiio
aoaa?iie oa ??no ?eieiai? no?oeoo?e iiaeooiaoioee o?yae aei
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae ?aaiiio. C 1775 ?. nthaee ?ooeee o iiaiii
ca caieyie aeai?yie, /eiiaieee oa aienueeiai.

Ae?ioeaoe aeei?enoaoe iiaeeeainoi Iiaaeaiii-Noiaeii? Oe?a?ie, o?yae
aeieeaaeaa aaaaoi coneeue aeey ?? nei??oiai canaeaiiy, iaeiae ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ia?aaaaeaea iii?ueoeueea eieii?caoe?y, iaoiiaeaia oei,
ui i?iaeeaaiiy ia iiiiueoeueeeo caieyo ia a?iceei iinaeaioeyi
cae?iia/aiiyi. Aea i?ney caai?iie a 1796 ?. ia?aoiae?a aiia noaea iaio
iiioey?iith, ui ?icoe?eei ia?niaeoeae aea?aeaaii? eieii?caoe??.

Ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio ca aeacaiee ia?iiae ca?eueoeeiny i?eaeecii o 8 ?ac.
Iaeiae aiaenioie cae?iia/aiiai ianaeaiiy caeeoaany ia I?aaei? cia/ii
iaioei ii?iaiyii c oeaio?aeueieie aoaa?iiyie ?ini?. A ?aa?ii? inioaaee
oaeiae iiaeeeaino? iio?aieoe aei iioeo noai?a (iiuai aai aea?aeaaieo
naeyi) oiui. Iaa?oue a ia?o?e iieiaei? O?O no., iacaaaeath/e ia iaio
ni?eyoeeai oiiae aeey ia?anaeaioeia, iioaineaiinoue o canaeaiii ?aaiiio
ia aeoaea ciaioeeany.

A aoii/iiio neeaae? ianaeaiiy a 1775-1858 ??. ia?aaaaeaee oe?a?ioei,
oi/a ?o ieoiia aaaa e cieceeany ia eiiaoeue ia?iiaeo. Ca ieie eoee
?iniyie, iieaeaaaie, a?aee, ai?iaie oa iioi. Caaaeii, a e?a? i?iaeeaaei
iiiaae 50 aoiinia.

?aaiii canaeyany ia?aaaaeii aeoiaeoeyie c noniaeiio
Neiaiaenueei-Oe?a?inueei?, *a?i?a?anueei?, Iieoaanueei?, /anoeiai
Eo?nueei? oa Ai?iiacueei? aoaa?i?e. Aei 80-o ??. XVIII no. ?iicaiia
eieii?caoe?y aoea iia’ycaia c aienueeiaith neoaeaith, a c oeueiai /ano
iaaoaa? caiea?ianueeiai oa?aeoa?o. I?aaaea, eieueeinoue iiicaioeia ia
ia?aaieueooaaea 1% a?ae caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? iinaeaioe?a. *a?ac oa oa
iainiaeai?noue ?o aieea ia ainiiaea?nueea aeeooy aoa ia iniaeeai
iii?oiei.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie” neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
i?ae?icae?e?a, a yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny noai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
i?iieneiaino?, oi?a?ae?, oeyo?a niieo/aiiy ? i?no.

Caeeoath/enue i?ioyaii cacia/aiiai ia?iiaeo iaeiei ic iniiaieo ?aeiiia
?ioaineaiiai canaeaiiy, e?ae oaeaeei i?iya nai? aeiiii?/ia iaee//y.
Caeaaieueoiai eiai iaoeaioei aoee caeiyoi o nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai:
o neioa?noai oa caiea?ianoai. Iinooiiai niiaaiaeiioaiiy oeeo aeaio
aaeocae ciiithaaeiny, caiea?ianoai aiaeia?aaaei ana iiiioiioo ?ieue o
ainiiaea?nueeiio eiiieaeni ?aaiiio. Ia eiiaoeue XVIII no. a iniiaieo
?enao noi?ioaaeany caiea?ianueea eoeueoo?a e?ath, eiee oeia ii/aee
i?iaeaaaoe iaaioue naeyie, aiaeieoee o ieioea aieiae aiae iaa?iaea?a oa
caeaaeiinoue aiae noeoieieo nee i?e?iaee, canoiniaoaaeenue iiai
cia?yaeaey, aieueo ia?aaeiai nenoaie niaiciii oiui.

Ii?yae c caiea?ianoaii i?iaeiaaeoaaei ?icaeaaoeny e neioa?noai.
?icaiaeeee ia?aaaaeii iaaoeue, ca ieie eoee aaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa, eii?,
naeii, eice. Aaeocue i?eiineea /eiaei i?eaooee, caaacia/oaaea iio?aae
ianaeaiiy o ?aei, iaeyci, iaeeai oiui, aea caeaaieueoiai i?aaeeueiiai
aeiaeyaeo ca ooaeiaith ia aoei, ?? oo?eioaaee i?inoi iaaa, ia ?iaeee
caiania ei?iia ca aeiyoeii aeaio-o?ueio ceiiaeo i?nyoe?a. Acaaaei,
neioa?noaii caeiaeeny caeaaieueoiai o iiiiueoeueeeo ia?oeao, a
caiea?ianoaii a iinaeaiiyo aea?aeaaieo naeyi, ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a.

E?ii aeua caaaeaieo caiyoue, na?aae ianaeaiiy ia ie?aneaiie oa?eoi?i?
iioe?thaaeinue ai?iaeieoeoai, naaeiaieoeoai, aaeaeieueieoeoai.
Cai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny oaei iiai aaeoci ye aeiia?aaea?noai oa ?icaaaeaiiy
oooiaiai oiaeii?yaea.

Uiaei i?iieneiainoi e?ath, oi ia eiai oa?aiao aoee iayaii iaeaea ani
?? aaeoci: oa?/iaa, eaaea, aoaeaaeiaoaia, iaoaeo?aieia. I?ioyaii
ia?iiaeo ani aiie i?ieoee cia/io aaiethoeith aiae ae??aieo naeyinueeeo
i?iieneia aei iiaei?e?inoa iaiooaeoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o (ao?aeueieoeoai,
?eaaeuenoai), aai iaaioue aei caaiaeia oa oaa?ee (iaoaeo?aieia
i?iieneiainoue, noeiiia). Oieueee ca ia?oo iieiaeio XIX no. eieueeinoue
caeeaaeia ia?oeo aeaio aaeocae caieueoeeany aieueoa, iiae aaeai/i.
Noeiiii oaa?eee ?aaiiio aaea o 70-o ??. XVIII no. iaee cia/io
eieueeinoue noaiia, ii?aeioaaee aeei?enoaiiy e?iiaeia c aieueiiiaeiaieie
?iaioieeaie, ai?iaaaeaeoaaee caeieueio oi?io ca?iaioii? ieaoii.

Eai’yiiaoaieueia i?iieneiainoue Aeiiaano, iiaeaaeeie yei? aoee
caeeaaeaii ua ia ii/aoeo XVIII no., c XIX no. aoea iinoaaeaia ia iioeio
aeey oiai /ano iniiao. Iinoeaaa aoaieey aoei aeia?i? yeinoi, i eeoa
/a?ac aiaenooiinoue iiaeeeainoae aeey eiai o?ainii?ooaaiiy oa iiiiiieith
Aiaei? ia ciaiioiueiio ?eieo ia caeiyei aiaeiiaiaeiiai iinoey o
aeiiiiioei. Aa?oi aiaeiioeoe, ui iaeaaeiaiiy oaoo, i?eeiie ?ic?iaee
?iaeiaeu eai’yiiai aoaieey aoee ye i?aaeei ia iecueeiio ?iaii. Aeiyoie
neeaaeaee Eene/ainueea oa Ieaenaiae?ianueea ?iaeiaeua, ia yeeo
canoiniaoaaeeny ia?aaeiai iaoiaee, i?iaiaeeeeny aeineiaee, aaeeny
aaieiai/ii ?ica?aeee. Oaae naia iiaeia neacaoe e i?i Eoaainueeee
/aaoiieeaa?iee caaiae, caniiaaiee o 1795 ?. a Neia’yiina?anueeiio iiaioi
Eaoa?eiineaanueei? aoaa?ii?. Ooo i?aoethaaee aeina?ae/ai? oaoiaoei c
ai?ie/i? oa iaoaeo?aieii? ni?aae, ?o ?iaioa noaea iaoeiaei i?aea?oioyi
?icaeoeo oeeo aaeocae o ae?oaie iieiaeii XIX no. i a aieueo iiciie
/an.

Ana aieueoa aoyaoaaeany Iiaaeaiii-Noiaeia Oe?a?ia o caaaeueii?inienueeee
?eiie. ss?ia?ee oa oi?ae e?ath aoee aiaeiii ia o?eueee ?inienueeei, aea
e ?iicaiiei eoioeyi, yei c oniioii aaee ia ieo nai? ni?aae, iaee ooo
nai?o i?aaenoaaieeia, ?iaanooaaee nai? eaiioaee, anooiaee a ?iaeeiii
ca’ycee c iinoeaaei eoiaoeoaii.

I?ioyaii ia?iiaeo a ?aaiiii neeaeany iinoieia oi?aiaa ia?aaea. Ooo
niiainioaaee ia?iiaee/ii y?ia?ee, oi?ae aai aaca?e, noaoeiiia?ia
oi?aiaey, aeiyeueiinoue oi?aiaoeia-?iciin/eeia a iaaaeeeeo naeao,
/oiaoeueea oi?aiaey. Iiaaeaiii ii?oe: Ia?ioiieue, Aa?aeyinuee, Iaeana
aiaeia?aaaee ae?ioaeueia cia/aiiy o ciaiioiie oi?aiaei ?ini?. *a?ac ieo
aeaiceee aieueoa 70% oeiaa, cia/iee aiaenioie eueiio oa iioeo i?iaeoeoia
nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

A ia?oie iieiaeii XIX no. aiaeaoaathoueny aeayei ciiie i o noaii
eoiaoeoaa. Iaeaieueo i?eaooeiai iai?yie oi?aiaei iinooiiai
ia?aaeaaaeeny aeai?yinoao. Aeoeaii aeeth/aeeny aei oi?aiai? ni?aae e
iiuainoai oa naeyie. Iineeth?oueny i?eoie eoiaoeoaa c oe?a?inueeeo
aoaa?iie. O 1832 ?. a Eaoa?eiineaanueeie aoaa?ii? 79,3% eoioeia aoee
oe?a?ioeyie i 17,2% — ?iniyiaie. C iioiai aieo, na?aae e?oiiiai
eoiaoeoaa iaaiaee, ca iayaieie aeaieie, niinoa?iaaany aiaeoie. Oea
aoei iia’ycaii c iieioeeith o?yaeo, yeee aaiaeea iiai iai?yii
iiaeaoee. E?ii oiai, ainiiaea?nueeee ?icaeoie e?ath iio?aaoaaa
iaaaeeeiai, aea iia?aoeaiiai eaiioaeo aeey caeoiee iinoeaaiai e
ia?a?iciiaeieo aeiaiciiai oiaa?ia. Oeth ooieoeith c oniioii aeeiioaaei
eoiaoeoai 3-i? aieueaei? oa iiuainoai. Aeey e?oiiiai eoiaoeoaa aoei
ieae/a aiaeiinoi iioneaoeny aei ae?iaieo iia?aoeie, ui iineethaaei
aiaeoiae e?oiiiai oi?aiaaeueiiai eaiioaeo c noa?e oi?aiaei Iiaaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie. Uii?aaaea, i na?aae iiuai ia aoei ?aeiinoi. Na?aae ieo aoee
oaei, ui ia iinooiaeeny eoioeyi, i oaei, ui ia iiaee caanoe eiioei c
eiioeyie, “iath/e iica?ii noie eaiioaeo, aai oi?aoth/e ia caiice/aii
a?ioi”. Aei oiai ae, aiie oaeiae iaeeaaeaeeny /enaeueieie iiaeaoeaie oa
ieoaie, yei aoee aiieiaeio ciaioaii eeoa o 1825 ?. iiney ianiaeo
i?ioanoia oi?aoth/iai iiuainoaa.

Aa?oi caa?iooe oaaao ia ?ieue oeyoia niieo/aiiy, aaeeeeo oeyoia,
o?aaeeoeieieo oi?aiaeo oeyoia ?aaiiio, a oaeiae ia caniae
o?ainii?ooaaiiy oiaa?ia. C iaoith iieiioaiiy oi?aaeiiiy o?ainii?oii ony
?iniy aoea iiaeieaia ia 12 ie?oaia ia /iei c Aieiaiei oi?aaeiiiyi
oeyoia niieo/aiiy. Cie?aia, Eiaiaa?aaeia Oe?a?ia i iiaaeaiii aoaa?ii?
iaeaaeaee aei 9-ai ie?oao. Eiaeiee ie?oa iiaeieyany ia aiaeaeieaiiy, a
inoaiii — ia aeenoaioei?. Ca noaoooii oeyoia niieo/aiiy, ani aei?iae
iiaeieyeeny ia 5 eeania:1) aei?iae aieiaieo niieo/aiue; 2) aei?iae
aaeeeeo niieo/aiue; 3) aei?iae aoaa?inueeeo iiooiaeo niieo/aiue; 4)
aei?iae iiaioiaeo iiooiaeo niieo/aiue; 5) aei?iae nieuenueei i iieueiai.
O?aaa aiaeiioeoe, ui iinoeaai aei?iae aoee o aeoaea iiaaiiio noaii, a
ia?oi o?e eeane aei?ia aoee iaeaea aiaenooii o ?aaiiii. Ioaea,
caeeoaeeny oieueee iiaioiai iiooiai aei?iae. Oa o e?a? inioaaee e iioi.
Ooo i?ioiaeeea iaeia c aieie “Aeiinueeiai neioii?iaiiiiai o?aeoo”, yeee
ii/eiaany o noaieoei Eacainueeie Aeiiaoeueeiai ie?oao caiei Aienueea
Aeiinueeiai. Oey aieea eoea aiae ?ai?eeoeueeiai ea?aioeio ia noaieoeth
Aenaeaenueeo, a caiaeoe ia Aaoioo i aeaei /a?ac Oa?eia aei Iineae oa
Iaoa?ao?ao. O oeae /an c?inoa? eieueeinoue /oiaoeueeeo oeyoia,
?icoe?ththoueny iaaei ?aeiio aeiyeueiinoi /oiaeia e acaaaei /oiaoeueeee
i?iienae. sseui ?aiioa /oiaoeoai aoei oi?aiaei i?ioa?eii, oi oaia? aiii
noa? oi?aiai-aicieoeueeei. Aaea a inoaiii ?iee XVIII no. /oiaee
aeei?enoiaoaaee, e?ii ia?iaieiaeo aicia (“iaaeae”), /ioe?e oa
oinoe-aieiai. Iiciioa, o ia?oie /aa?oi XIX no. caa?aaeeny eeoa ia?oi
(“ia?iaeoei”). Uiaei ?i/iiai o?ainii?ooaaiiy, oi a inoaiiie /aa?oi XVIII
no. aiii cianii aoei aiaenooi? o ?aaiiii.

C 20-o ??. XIX no. a oeaio?i oaaae aeieiaeo eie ie?aneaii? oa?eoi?i?
aoei ieoaiiy i?i iieiioaiiy oeyoia niieo/aiiy. C nooiiooieo oeyoia
niieo/aiiy aieiaiei aaaaeaany oeyo c Iineae /a?ac Eo?nuee ia Oa?eia, aea
aii iiaeieyany ia 3 aieee: 1) ia E?aiai/oe, ?eecaaaoa?aae i Aicianainuee
aei Iaeane; 2) /a?ac Eaoa?eiineaa i Ieaenaiae?ianuee aei E?eio; 3) /a?ac
Aaoioo ia Oaaai?ia ? ?inoia. O 1836 ?. aoei i?iaieioaii noaeiieaaiith
?ieith Niaa?nueeee Aeiiaoeue.

O Aeniiaeao c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy ? i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai

aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? aeieeaathoue c
iueiai.

A inoaii?e /aa?o? XVIII no. aeoea?coaaeinue canaeaiiy ? inai?iiy
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie. E?ae noaa caeo/aoeny aei
caaaeueii?in?enueeiai ono?ith, ia iueiai aoei iioe?aii aaei?i?no?aoeaia
oi?aae?iiy ?in?enueei? ?iia???. I?e oeeo oa?eoi??aeueieo ia?aoai?aiiyo
ia a?aeany aei oaaae niaoeeo?ea ?aa?iio, eaiaeeny o?aaeeoe?? e?ath.

I?ioyaii anueiai ia??iaeo cacia/aia oa?eoi??y caeeoaeany ia’?eoii
cia/iiai ia?anaeainueeiai ?ooo. Aei oiai ae, ooo io?eioaaee aaeee?
caiaeuei? aieiae?iiy iii?ueee, a?enueeia?, /eiiaieee, ye? oaeiae
iaiaaaeeny canaeeoe nai? caie?, o?yae inaeya aea?aeaaieo naeyi oa
?iicaioe?a.

Ianaeaiiy Iiaaeaiii-Noiaeii? Oe?a?ie caieueoeeiny ca aanue ia?iiae
i?eaeecii o 8 ?acia.

A aoii/iiio na?aaeiaeui e?ath i?ioyaii 1775-1858 ??. ia?aaaaeaee
oe?a?ioei. Ca ieie eoee ?iniyie, iieaeaaaie, a?aee, ai?iaie oa iioi.
Caaaeii, iiiaae 50 aoiinia. Eieueeinoue iiicaioeia i?ioyaii anueiai
ia??iaeo ia ia?aaieueooaaea 1%. Ioaea ? aieea ?o aoa iacia/iei.

Ia eiiaoeue XVIII no. a iniiaieo ?enao noi?ioaaeany caiea?ianueea
eoeueoo?a e?ath. Na?aae caiyoue ianaeaiiy iinooiiai ia?oa i?noea caeia?
caiea?ianoai: c?inoathoue iin?ai? ieiu?, i?aeaeuothoueny a?iaea?,
aeei?enoiaothoueny a?eueo aeineiiae? cia?yaeaey i?aoe? e nenoaie
n?aici?i.

Uiaei neioa?noaa, oi aaeocue, iacaaaeath/e ia a?aenooi?noue i?aaeeueiiai
aeiaeyaeo ca ooaeiaith, i?ioyaii cacia/aiiai /ano caeeoa?oueny
i?eaooeiaith. O iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oeao noai?ththoueny caaiaee ii
?icaaaeaiith i?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae ooaeiae, o?yae i?eeia? caoiaee aeey
i?aeo?eiaiiy aaeoc?. Ia?aaaaeii a ?aa?ii? ?icaiaeeee iaaoeue, aaeeeo
?iaaoo ooaeiao oa eiiae.

Ia oa?aiao e?ath aoee iayaii iaeaea ani aaeoci i?iieneiaino?: oa?/iaa,
eaaea, aoaeaaeiaoaia, iaoaeo?aieia. I?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo
ani aiie i?ieoee cia/io aaiethoeith aiae ae??aieo naeyinueeeo i?iieneia
aei iiaei?e?inoa iaiooaeoo?iiai oeio, aai iaaioue aei caaiaeia oa
oaa?ee, I?aaeaiii-No?aeia Oe?a?ia caeiyea iii?oia i?noea o i?iieneiaiio
eiiieaen? e?a?ie. A?aenooi?noue oaeeo aei?noieeo e??iinieo ii?yaee?a ye
o ?ioeo ?aeiiao ?in?? c?iaeea iiaeeeaith ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ooo a?eueo
ia?aaeiaeo iaoiae?a aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa, eiia?oe?eieo canaae
ae?iaieoeoaa. I?aei?e?inoaa ?aa?iio yaeyee niaith ia oie /an ia?aaaaeii
caeeaaee iiaiai, eai?oae?noe/iiai oeio, ui e caaacia/eei ?i oaeee
oaeaeeee ?icaeoie, iacaaaeath/e ia caaaeueii?iia?nueeee iecueeee ??aaiue
aeiiii?ee.

Oi?a?aey I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? XVIII — a ia?o?e
iieiaei? O?O no. aoea neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno
?aa?iio ? ?icaeaaeany ca oeie ae naiei oaiaeaioe?yie, ui e ?io? aaeoc?.
Ca a?aeiinii iaaaeeeee ia??iae aiia ii/aea a?ae?a?aaaoe aaaeeeao ?ieue o
aeiiii?oe? e?ath.

I?ioyaii anueiai ia??iaeo a ?aa?ii? ia aoei aeia?eo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy,
ui aaeueioaaei ?icaeoie oi?a?ae?. ??/eiaee o?ainii?o ia iaaoa iaeaaeiiai
iioe?aiiy, aaeeny aeeneon?? uiaei aoae?aieoeoaa cae?cieoeue.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E AAOI?A

1. Ci?ie a oa?eoi??aeueii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio iiae?e? Aeiia//eie c
e?ioey XVI aei na?aaeeie XIX no. // Iiaua no?aieoeu a enoi?ee Aeiiaanna.
Noaouee.- Aeiiaoee, 1997.- Ei.5.- N.4-10 (ni?aaaoi? A.I.I??ei) (0,5
ae?.a?e.)

2. Aeaea?aea aei ?noi??? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie e?ioey XVIII — ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O no. a
Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? // I?aaeaiia Oe?a?ia XVIII —
XIX noie?ooy. Caienee iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi??? ?noi??? I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie CAeO.- Caii??aeaey, 1996.- Aei. 2.- N.172-176 (0,5 ae?. a?e.).

3. ?icaeoie n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Aeiiaano iai?ee?ioe? XVIII — a
ia?o?e iieiaei? O?O no. (1775-1858) // A?niee Aeiiaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.Na??y “A” aoiai?oa?i? iaoee.- ? 2.- Aeiiaoeuee, 1998.- N.
7-12 (0,4ae?. a?e.)

4. Oi?ioaaiiy i?iieneiaino? Aeiiaano iai?ee?ioe? XVIII — a ia?o?e
iieiaei? O?O no. // Iiaua no?aieoeu a enoi?ee Aeiiaanna.- Aeiiaoee,
1998.- Ei. 6.- N. 38-45 (0,4 ae?. a?e.)

5. I?iiuoeaiiinoue e ?aai/ea Aeiiaanna a eiioea OVIII — ia?aie iieiaeia
O1O a. a ioaeeeaoeeyo aeieoiaioia // Iaoa??aee aoc?anueei? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ca i?aenoieaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe: ?noi?e/i? iaoee, iie?oieia?y.-
Aeiiaoeuee, 1997.- Ei. 1.- N.62-65 (0,4 ae?. a?e.)

6. Aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo ? na?ai-oi?aaonueeeo ca’yce?a o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? XVIII no.// I?aeia?iaei? ca’yce?a ia?iae?a ?a?iie. Oace
aeiiia?aeae i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??.- Caii??aeaey, 1996.-
N.96 (ni?aaaoi? — A.I.I??ei) (0,3 ae?. a?e.)

7. Aeeyiea a?aeia ia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia e eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea
THai-Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu a 1775-1850 aa. Nia?aiaiiay enoi?eia?aoey
i?iaeaiu // Oe?a?ia-A?aoe?y: aeina?ae ae?oaei?o ca’yce?a oa ia?niaeoeae
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. Oace i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.-
Ia??oiieue, 1996.- N.60-61 (ni?aaaoi? A.I.I??ei) (0,3 ae?.a?e.)

AIIOAOe??

Iaiouei?iaa I.A. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie I?aaeaiii-No?aeii?
Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? XVIII — a ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.- Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aeiiaoeuee,1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? XVIII- a ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no.
O aeine?aeaeaii? aia?oa eiiieaenii ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy iioe?aiiy
caaaeueii?in?enueeiai aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith ia
?aa?ii oa eiai iane?aeee, iniiai? ia??iaee o canaeaii? ?aa?iio,
oi?ioaaiiy e?euee?niiai, aoi?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy,
ci?ie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, i?iieneiaino?, oi?a?ae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiee ono??e, aoi?/iee ?
nioe?aeueiee neeaae ianaeaiiy, neioa?noai, caiea?ianoai, y?ia?ee, oi?ae,
oeyoe niieo/aiiy, oi?aiaa ?io?ano?oeoo?a, i?noa.

Iaioa?iaa I.A. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea THai-Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu
a eiioea XVIII — a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu.- Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiiaoee, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
THai-Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu a eiioea XVIII — a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. A
enneaaeiaaiee aia?aua eiiieaenii ?anniio?aiu aii?inu ?ani?ino?aiaiey
iaua?inneeneiai aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa?eoi?eaeueiiai aeaeaiey ia ?aaeii e
aai iineaaenoaee, iniiaiua ia?eiaeu a canaeaiee ?aaeiia, oi?ie?iaaiea
eieee/anoaaiiiai, yoie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey,
eciaiaiey a naeueneii oicyenoaa, i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia ono?ienoai,
yoie/aneee e nioeeaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey, neioiaiaenoai, caieaaeaeea,
y?ii?ee, oi?ae, iooe niiauaiey, oi?aiaay eio?ano?oeoo?a, ai?iaea.

Panfourova M. A. Social and economic development of South-East Ukraine
at the end of the XVIII th and in the first half of the XIX th century.-
Manyscript.

Thesis for receiving the candidat’s degree in historical sciences,
speciality 07.00.01 — History of Ukraine, Donetsk State University,
Donetsk, 1998.

Thesis is devoted to the problem of social and economic development of
South-East Ukraine at the end of the XVIII th and in the first half of
the XIX th centuries. In the given scientific investigation the
questions of diffusion of All-Russian administrative and territorial
division of the region and its after-effects, the main periods of
settlement of the region, forming of quantitative, ethnic and social
staff of population, alterations in agriculture, industry and trade are
considered complexly for the first time.

Key-words: administrative and territorial structure, ethnic and social
staff of population, cattle, agriculture, fairs, haggles, means of
communication, trade structure, towns.

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